WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant brain areas

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró, M; Ilha, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Xavier, L L; Achaval, M; Nunes, D S; Elisabetsky, E

    2010-10-01

    The goal of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) used to treat Alzheimer's patients is an improvement in cholinergic transmission. While currently available AChEIs have limited success, a huge impediment to the development of newer ones is access to the relevant brain areas. Promnesic, anti-amnesic and AChEI properties were identified in a standardized ethanol extract from Ptychopetalum olacoides (POEE), a medicinal plant favored by the elderly in Amazon communities. The purpose of this study was to provide conclusive evidence that orally given POEE induces AChE inhibition in brain areas relevant to cognition. Histochemistry experiments confirmed that the anticholinesterase compound(s) present in POEE are orally bioavailable, inducing meaningful AChE inhibition in the hippocampus CA1 (∼33%) and CA3 (∼20%), and striatum (∼17%). Ellman's colorimetric analysis revealed that G1 and G4 AChE isoforms activities were markedly inhibited (66 and 72%, respectively) in hippocampus and frontal cortex (50 and 63%, respectively), while G4 appeared to be selectively inhibited (72%) in the striatum. Western blotting showed that POEE did not induce significant changes in the AChE immunocontent suggesting that its synthesis is not extensively modified. This study provides definitive proof of meaningful anticholinesterase activity compatible with the observed promnesic and anti-amnesic effects of POEE in mice, reaffirming the potential of this extract for treating neurodegenerative conditions where a hypofunctioning cholinergic neurotransmission is prominent. Adequate assessment of the safety and efficacy of this extract and/or its isolated active compound(s) are warranted. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-identification with another person's face: the time relevant role of multimodal brain areas in the enfacement illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalari, Ilaria; Porciello, Giuseppina; Sperduti, Marco; Minio-Paluello, Ilaria

    2015-04-01

    The illusory subjective experience of looking at one's own face while in fact looking at another person's face can surprisingly be induced by simple synchronized visuotactile stimulation of the two faces. A recent study (Apps MA, Tajadura-Jiménez A, Sereno M, Blanke O, Tsakiris M. Cereb Cortex. First published August 20, 2013; doi:10.1093/cercor/bht199) investigated for the first time the role of visual unimodal and temporoparietal multimodal brain areas in the enfacement illusion and suggested a model in which multisensory mechanisms are crucial to construct and update self-face representation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077

  4. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  5. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Brodmann area 12: an historical puzzle relevant to FTLD.

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    Kawamura, M; Miller, M W; Ichikawa, H; Ishihara, K; Sugimoto, A

    2011-05-03

    Brodmann brain maps, assembled in 1909, are still in use, but understanding of their animal-human homology is uncertain. Furthermore, in 1909, Brodmann did not identify human area 12 (BA12), a location now important to understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We re-examined Brodmann's areas, both animal and human, in his 1909 monograph and other literature, both historical and contemporary, and projected BA12 onto the medial surface of a fixed human brain to show its location. We found Brodmann did identify human BA12 in later maps (1910 and 1914), but that his brain areas, contrary to his own aims as a comparative anatomist, are now used as physiologic loci in human brain. Because of its current link with frontotemporal dementia, BA12's transition from animal (1909) to human (1910 and 1914) is not only an historical puzzle. It impacts how Brodmann's areas, based on comparative animal-human cytoarchitecture, are widely used in current research as functional loci in human brain.

  7. Brain-Based Education: Its Pedagogical Implications and Research Relevance

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    Laxman, Kumar; Chin, Yap Kueh

    2010-01-01

    The brain, being the organ of learning, must be understood if classrooms are to be places of meaningful learning. Understanding the brain has the potential to alter the foundation of education, transform traditional classrooms to interactive learning environments and promote better instructional approaches amongst teachers. Brain-based education…

  8. Brain volumetry and self-regulation of brain activity relevant for neurofeedback.

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    Ninaus, M; Kober, S E; Witte, M; Koschutnig, K; Neuper, C; Wood, G

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback is a technique to learn to control brain signals by means of real time feedback. In the present study, the individual ability to learn two EEG neurofeedback protocols - sensorimotor rhythm and gamma rhythm - was related to structural properties of the brain. The volumes in the anterior insula bilaterally, left thalamus, right frontal operculum, right putamen, right middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus predicted the outcomes of sensorimotor rhythm training. Gray matter volumes in the supplementary motor area and left middle frontal gyrus predicted the outcomes of gamma rhythm training. These findings combined with further evidence from the literature are compatible with the existence of a more general self-control network, which through self-referential and self-control processes regulates neurofeedback learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Relevance of Brain Volume Measures in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Stefano, Nicola; Airas, Laura; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease with an inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathology. Axonal loss and neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course and may lead to irreversible neurological impairment. Changes in brain volume, observed from the earliest stage of MS...... therefore have important clinical implications affecting treatment decisions, with several clinical trials now demonstrating an effect of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) on reducing brain volume loss. In clinical practice, it may therefore be important to consider the potential impact of a therapy...

  10. Impact of glucocorticoids on brain function: Relevance for mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to stressful situations activates two hormonal systems that help the organism to adapt. On the one hand stress hormones achieve adaptation by affecting peripheral organs, on the other hand by altering brain function such that appropriate behavioral strategies are selected for optimal

  11. Relevance of brain lesion location to cognition in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rossi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between cognition and brain white matter (WM lesion distribution and frequency in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR MS. METHODS: MRI-based T2 lesion probability map (LPM was used to assess the relevance of brain lesion location for cognitive impairment in a group of 142 consecutive patients with RRMS. Significance of voxelwise analyses was p<0.05, cluster-corrected for multiple comparisons. The Rao Brief Repeatable Battery was administered at the time of brain MRI to categorize the MS population into cognitively preserved (CP and cognitively impaired (CI. RESULTS: Out of 142 RRMS, 106 were classified as CP and 36 as CI. Although the CI group had greater WM lesion volume than the CP group (p = 0.001, T2 lesions tended to be less widespread across the WM. The peak of lesion frequency was almost twice higher in CI (61% in the forceps major than in CP patients (37% in the posterior corona radiata. The voxelwise analysis confirmed that lesion frequency was higher in CI than in CP patients with significant bilateral clusters in the forceps major and in the splenium of the corpus callosum (p<0.05, corrected. Low scores of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test correlated with higher lesion frequency in these WM regions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall these results suggest that in MS patients, areas relevant for cognition lie mostly in the commissural fiber tracts. This supports the notion of a functional (multiple disconnection between grey matter structures, secondary to damage located in specific WM areas, as one of the most important mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment in MS.

  12. Expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in differentgrades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore and analyze expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in different grades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues. Methods: 52 cases of patients with brain glioma treated in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014, and 50 cases of normal brain-tissue patients with intracranial hypertension were selected, and proceeding test to the surgical resection of brain tissue of the above patients to determine its MGMT and XRCC1 protein content, sequentially to record the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 of both groups. Grading of tumors to brain glioma after operation was carried out, and the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in brain tissues of different patients was analyzed and compared;finally the contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1and MGMT. Results:Positive rate of MGMT expression in normal brain tissue was 2%,while positive rate of MGMT expression in brain glioma was 46.2%,which was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues (χ2=26.85, P0.05), which had no statistical significance. There were 12 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was positive and XRCC1 protein expression was positive; there were 18 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was negative and XRCC1 protein expression was negative. Contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1 and MGMT, which indicated that the expression of XRCCI and MGMT in brain glioma had no correlation (r=0.9%, P=0.353), relevancy of both was r=0.9%. Conclusions: Positive rate of the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 in brain glioma was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues, but the distribution of different grades of brain glioma had no obvious difference, and MGMT and XRCC1 expression had no obvious correlation, which needed further research.

  13. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain volume reduction after whole-brain radiotherapy: quantification and prognostic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Distel, Luitpold; Knippen, Stefan; Gryc, Thomas; Schmidt, Manuel Alexander; Fietkau, Rainer; Putz, Florian

    2018-01-22

    Recent studies have questioned the value of adding whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis treatment. Neurotoxicity, including radiation-induced brain volume reduction, could be one reason why not all patients benefit from the addition of WBRT. In this study, we quantified brain volume reduction after WBRT and assessed its prognostic significance. Brain volumes of 91 patients with cerebral metastases were measured during a 150-day period after commencing WBRT and were compared with their pretreatment volumes. The average daily relative change in brain volume of each patient, referred to as the "brain volume reduction rate," was calculated. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic significance of the brain volume reduction rate, as well as of 3 treatment-related and 9 pretreatment factors. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the brain volume reduction rate across recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the brain volume reduction rate was a significant predictor of overall survival after WBRT (P < 0.001), as well as the number of brain metastases (P = 0.002) and age (P = 0.008). Patients with a relatively favorable prognosis (RPA classes 1 and 2) experienced significantly less brain volume decrease after WBRT than patients with a poor prognosis (RPA class 3) (P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between delivered radiation dose and brain volume reduction rate (P = 0.147). In this retrospective study, a smaller decrease in brain volume after WBRT was an independent predictor of longer overall survival. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

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    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  16. Kernel-Based Relevance Analysis with Enhanced Interpretability for Detection of Brain Activity Patterns

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    Andres M. Alvarez-Meza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Enhanced Kernel-based Relevance Analysis (EKRA that aims to support the automatic identification of brain activity patterns using electroencephalographic recordings. EKRA is a data-driven strategy that incorporates two kernel functions to take advantage of the available joint information, associating neural responses to a given stimulus condition. Regarding this, a Centered Kernel Alignment functional is adjusted to learning the linear projection that best discriminates the input feature set, optimizing the required free parameters automatically. Our approach is carried out in two scenarios: (i feature selection by computing a relevance vector from extracted neural features to facilitating the physiological interpretation of a given brain activity task, and (ii enhanced feature selection to perform an additional transformation of relevant features aiming to improve the overall identification accuracy. Accordingly, we provide an alternative feature relevance analysis strategy that allows improving the system performance while favoring the data interpretability. For the validation purpose, EKRA is tested in two well-known tasks of brain activity: motor imagery discrimination and epileptic seizure detection. The obtained results show that the EKRA approach estimates a relevant representation space extracted from the provided supervised information, emphasizing the salient input features. As a result, our proposal outperforms the state-of-the-art methods regarding brain activity discrimination accuracy with the benefit of enhanced physiological interpretation about the task at hand.

  17. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

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    Gaston Tong Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

  18. A network of genes, genetic disorders, and brain areas.

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    Satoru Hayasaka

    Full Text Available The network-based approach has been used to describe the relationship among genes and various phenotypes, producing a network describing complex biological relationships. Such networks can be constructed by aggregating previously reported associations in the literature from various databases. In this work, we applied the network-based approach to investigate how different brain areas are associated to genetic disorders and genes. In particular, a tripartite network with genes, genetic diseases, and brain areas was constructed based on the associations among them reported in the literature through text mining. In the resulting network, a disproportionately large number of gene-disease and disease-brain associations were attributed to a small subset of genes, diseases, and brain areas. Furthermore, a small number of brain areas were found to be associated with a large number of the same genes and diseases. These core brain regions encompassed the areas identified by the previous genome-wide association studies, and suggest potential areas of focus in the future imaging genetics research. The approach outlined in this work demonstrates the utility of the network-based approach in studying genetic effects on the brain.

  19. Inducing task-relevant responses to speech in the sleeping brain.

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    Kouider, Sid; Andrillon, Thomas; Barbosa, Leonardo S; Goupil, Louise; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2014-09-22

    Falling asleep leads to a loss of sensory awareness and to the inability to interact with the environment [1]. While this was traditionally thought as a consequence of the brain shutting down to external inputs, it is now acknowledged that incoming stimuli can still be processed, at least to some extent, during sleep [2]. For instance, sleeping participants can create novel sensory associations between tones and odors [3] or reactivate existing semantic associations, as evidenced by event-related potentials [4-7]. Yet, the extent to which the brain continues to process external stimuli remains largely unknown. In particular, it remains unclear whether sensory information can be processed in a flexible and task-dependent manner by the sleeping brain, all the way up to the preparation of relevant actions. Here, using semantic categorization and lexical decision tasks, we studied task-relevant responses triggered by spoken stimuli in the sleeping brain. Awake participants classified words as either animals or objects (experiment 1) or as either words or pseudowords (experiment 2) by pressing a button with their right or left hand, while transitioning toward sleep. The lateralized readiness potential (LRP), an electrophysiological index of response preparation, revealed that task-specific preparatory responses are preserved during sleep. These findings demonstrate that despite the absence of awareness and behavioral responsiveness, sleepers can still extract task-relevant information from external stimuli and covertly prepare for appropriate motor responses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation

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    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.

  1. Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2017-12-11

    The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.

  2. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Sorokowska; Agnieszka Sorokowska; Katherina Schoen; Cornelia Hummel; Pengfei Han; Jonathan Warr; Thomas Hummel

    2017-01-01

    Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving careful...

  3. Alterations of whole-brain cortical area and thickness in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Li, Chuanming; Wang, Jian; Gui, Li; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Chen; Du, Hanjian

    2011-01-01

    Gray matter volume and density of several brain regions, determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies have indicated that changes in cortical area size is relevant to thinking and behavior, but alterations of cortical area and thickness in the brains of individuals with AD or its likely precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), have not been reported. In this study, 25 MCI subjects, 30 AD subjects, and 30 age-matched normal controls were recruited for brain MRI scans and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessments. Based on the model using FreeSurfer software, two brain lobes were divided into various regions according to the Desikan-Killiany atlas and the cortical area and thickness of every region was compared and analyzed. We found a significant increase in cortical area of several regions in the frontal and temporal cortices, which correlated negatively with MMSE scores, and a significant decrease in cortical area of several regions in the parietal cortex and the cingulate gyrus in AD subjects. Increased cortical area was also seen in some regions of the frontal and temporal cortices in MCI subjects, whereas the cortical thickness of the same regions was decreased. Our observations suggest characteristic differences of the cortical area and thickness in MCI, AD, and normal control subjects, and these changes may help diagnose both MCI and AD.

  4. Uni- and Multisensory Brain Areas are Synchronised across Spectators When Watching Unedited Dance Recordings

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    Corinne Jola

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The superior temporal sulcus (STS and gyrus (STG are commonly identified to be functionally relevant for multisensory integration of audiovisual (AV stimuli. However, most neuroimaging studies on AV integration used stimuli of short duration in explicit evaluative tasks. Importantly though, many of our AV experiences are of a long duration and ambiguous. It is unclear if the enhanced activity in audio, visual, and AV brain areas would also be synchronised over time across subjects when they are exposed to such multisensory stimuli. We used intersubject correlation to investigate which brain areas are synchronised across novices for uni- and multisensory versions of a 6-min 26-s recording of an unfamiliar, unedited Indian dance recording (Bharatanatyam. In Bharatanatyam, music and dance are choreographed together in a highly intermodal-dependent manner. Activity in the middle and posterior STG was significantly correlated between subjects and showed also significant enhancement for AV integration when the functional magnetic resonance signals were contrasted against each other using a general linear model conjunction analysis. These results extend previous studies by showing an intermediate step of synchronisation for novices: while there was a consensus across subjects' brain activity in areas relevant for unisensory processing and AV integration of related audio and visual stimuli, we found no evidence for synchronisation of higher level cognitive processes, suggesting these were idiosyncratic.

  5. Food-Related Odors Activate Dopaminergic Brain Areas

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    Agnieszka Sorokowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-associated cues of different sensory categories have often been shown to be a potent elicitor of cerebral activity in brain reward circuits. Smells influence and modify the hedonic qualities of eating experience, and in contrast to smells not associated with food, perception of food-associated odors may activate dopaminergic brain areas. In this study, we aimed to verify previous findings related to the rewarding value of food-associated odors by means of an fMRI design involving carefully preselected odors of edible and non-edible substances. We compared activations generated by three food and three non-food odorants matching in terms of intensity, pleasantness and trigeminal qualities. We observed that for our mixed sample of 30 hungry and satiated participants, food odors generated significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (right and left, insula (right, and putamen (right than non-food odors. Among hungry subjects, regardless of the odor type, we found significant activation in the ventral tegmental area in response to olfactory stimulation. As our stimuli were matched in terms of various perceptual qualities, this result suggests that edibility of an odor source indeed generates specific activation in dopaminergic brain areas.

  6. Expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in the liver are differently correlated to different parts of the brain.

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    Wang, Lishi; Huang, Yue; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Hong; Cao, Yanhong; Bennett, Beth; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression profiles of alcoholism-relevant genes in different parts of the brain are correlated differently with those in the liver. Four experiments were conducted. First, we used gene expression profiles from five parts of the brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and cerebellum) and from liver in a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains to examine the expression association of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Second, we conducted the same association analysis between brain structures and the lung. Third, using five randomly selected, nonalcoholism-relevant genes, we conducted the association analysis between brain and liver. Finally, we compared the expression of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes in hippocampus and cerebellum between an alcohol preference strain and a wild-type control. We observed a difference in correlation patterns in expression levels of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes between different parts of the brain with those of liver. We then examined the association of gene expression between alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh1, Adh2, Adh5, and Adh7) and different parts of the brain. The results were similar to those of the 10 genes. Then, we found that the association of those genes between brain structures and lung was different from that of liver. Next, we found that the association patterns of five alcoholism-nonrelevant genes were different from those of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Finally, we found that the expression level of 10 alcohol-relevant genes is influenced more in hippocampus than in cerebellum in the alcohol preference strain. Our results show that the expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in liver is differently associated with the expression of genes in different parts of the brain. Because different structural changes in different parts of the brain in alcoholism have been reported, it is important to investigate whether those structural differences in

  7. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

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    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  8. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  9. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Disrupted modular organization of primary sensory brain areas in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bordier

    Full Text Available Abnormal brain resting-state functional connectivity has been consistently observed in patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ using functional MRI and other neuroimaging techniques. Graph theoretical methods provide a framework to investigate these defective functional interactions and their effects on the organization of brain connectivity networks. A few studies have shown altered distribution of connectivity within and between functional modules in SCZ patients, an indication of imbalanced functional segregation ad integration. However, no major alterations of modular organization have been reported in patients, and unambiguous identification of the neural substrates affected remains elusive. Recently, it has been demonstrated that current modularity analysis methods suffer from a fundamental and severe resolution limit, as they fail to detect features that are smaller than a scale determined by the size of the entire connectivity network. This resolution limit is likely to have hampered the ability to resolve differences between patients and controls in previous studies. Here, we apply Surprise, a novel resolution limit-free approach, to study the modular organization of resting state functional connectivity networks in a large cohort of SCZ patients and in matched healthy controls. Leveraging these important methodological advances we find new evidence of substantial fragmentation and reorganization involving primary sensory, auditory and visual areas in SCZ patients. Conversely, frontal and prefrontal areas, typically associated with higher cognitive functions, appear to be largely unaffected, with changes selectively involving language and speech processing areas. Our findings support the hypothesis that cognitive dysfunction in SCZ may involve deficits occurring already at early stages of sensory processing. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Surprise, Asymptotical surprise, Functional connectivity, Community detection, Modularity, Graph theory

  11. Reality = Relevance? Insights from Spontaneous Modulations of the Brain's Default Network when Telling Apart Reality from Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2009-01-01

    Background Although human beings regularly experience fictional worlds through activities such as reading novels and watching movies, little is known about what mechanisms underlie our implicit knowledge of the distinction between reality and fiction. The first neuroimaging study to address this issue revealed that the mere exposure to contexts involving real entities compared to fictional characters led to engagement of regions in the anterior medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices (amPFC, PCC). As these core regions of the brain's default network are involved during self-referential processing and autobiographical memory retrieval, it was hypothesized that real entities may be conceptually coded as being more personally relevant to us than fictional characters. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly test the hypothesis that entity-associated personal relevance is the critical factor underlying the differential engagement of these brain regions by comparing the brain's response when processing contexts involving family or friends (high relevance), famous people (medium relevance), or fictional characters (low relevance). In line with predictions, a gradient pattern of activation was observed such that higher entity-associated personal relevance was associated with stronger activation in the amPFC and the PCC. Conclusions/Significance The results of the study have several important implications. Firstly, they provide informed grounds for characterizing the dynamics of reality-fiction distinction. Secondly, they provide further insights into the functions of the amPFC and the PCC. Thirdly, in view of the current debate related to the functional relevance and specificity of brain's default network, they reveal a novel approach by which the functions of this network can be further explored. PMID:19277108

  12. Reality = relevance? Insights from spontaneous modulations of the brain's default network when telling apart reality from fiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abraham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human beings regularly experience fictional worlds through activities such as reading novels and watching movies, little is known about what mechanisms underlie our implicit knowledge of the distinction between reality and fiction. The first neuroimaging study to address this issue revealed that the mere exposure to contexts involving real entities compared to fictional characters led to engagement of regions in the anterior medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices (amPFC, PCC. As these core regions of the brain's default network are involved during self-referential processing and autobiographical memory retrieval, it was hypothesized that real entities may be conceptually coded as being more personally relevant to us than fictional characters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we directly test the hypothesis that entity-associated personal relevance is the critical factor underlying the differential engagement of these brain regions by comparing the brain's response when processing contexts involving family or friends (high relevance, famous people (medium relevance, or fictional characters (low relevance. In line with predictions, a gradient pattern of activation was observed such that higher entity-associated personal relevance was associated with stronger activation in the amPFC and the PCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the study have several important implications. Firstly, they provide informed grounds for characterizing the dynamics of reality-fiction distinction. Secondly, they provide further insights into the functions of the amPFC and the PCC. Thirdly, in view of the current debate related to the functional relevance and specificity of brain's default network, they reveal a novel approach by which the functions of this network can be further explored.

  13. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synopsis of recent moisture flux analyses relevant to the unsaturated zone at Area G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, E.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes selected recent analyses relevant to the assessment of the site performance for disposal facilities at Los Alamos (Area G) regarding unsaturated zone transport of moisture in liquid and vapor phases and the surface water balance. Much of the analyses methods have been reported previously but in several separate and detailed reports. These do not always reflect the overview possible with hindsight. The present report is an attempt to integrate the author's previous results into a cohesive whole. Due to project time constraints, this report is incomplete in some area. This report first reviews the basis for the Darcy flux analyses and its inherent uncertainties, as detailed in previous reports. Results from the previous works are then reviewed and discussed and in some cases, elaborated in an attempt for clarification. New results of the Darcy Flux Analyses are presented and discussed for Area G mesa top locations, nearby canyon locations and a second mesa top location (TA46 west of Area G). Select evapotranspiration and precipitation data from TA6 are presented and discussed. The conclusions section draws a picture of the hydrology which unifies the study results reported here and in previous reports for the undisturbed and disturbed site locations

  15. Comparison of Two Old Phytochemicals versus Two Newly Researched Plant-Derived Compounds: Potential for Brain and Other Relevant Ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hundreds of formulae of Chinese herbal prescriptions and recently extracted active components from the herbs, some of which had demonstrated their functions on nervous system. For the last decade or more, Gingko biloba and Polygala tenuifolia were widely studied for their beneficial effects against damage to the brain. Two compounds extracted from Apium graveolens and Rhizoma coptidis, butylphthalide and berberine, respectively, received much attention recently as potential neuroprotective agents. In this review, the two traditionally used herbs and the two relatively new compounds will be discussed with regard to their potential advantages in alleviating brain and other relevant ailments.

  16. Sustained Spatial Attention to Vibrotactile Stimulation in the Flutter Range: Relevant Brain Regions and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dominique; Pleger, Burkhard; Thiel, Sabrina; Villringer, Arno; Müller, Matthias M.

    2013-01-01

    The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter) concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI), mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant) hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition). In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range of flutter

  17. How to interpret an unenhanced CT Brain scan. Part 1: Basic principles of Computed Tomography and relevant neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Osborne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to: Cover the basics of Computed Tomography (CT Brain imaging. Review relevant CT neuroanatomy. A CT image is produced by firing x-rays at a moving object which is then detected by an array of rotating detectors (Figure 1. The detected x-rays are then converted into a computerised signal which is used to produce a series of cross sectional images.

  18. Pathological Area Detection in MR Images of Brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, P.; Kropatsch, W.G.; Bartušek, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2013), s. 17-21 ISSN 1213-1539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Brain * Brain tumor detection * MR * Symmetry analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Circulating and brain BDNF levels in stroke rats. Relevance to clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Béjot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels are measured in the brain in animal models of stroke, neurotrophin levels in stroke patients are measured in plasma or serum samples. The present study was designed to investigate the meaning of circulating BDNF levels in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral ischemic stroke was induced in rats by the injection of various numbers of microspheres into the carotid circulation in order to mimic the different degrees of stroke severity observed in stroke patients. Blood was serially collected from the jugular vein before and after (4 h, 24 h and 8 d embolization and the whole brains were collected at 4, 24 h and 8 d post-embolization. Rats were then selected from their degree of embolization, so that the distribution of stroke severity in the rats at the different time points was large but similar. Using ELISA tests, BDNF levels were measured in plasma, serum and brain of selected rats. Whereas plasma and serum BDNF levels were not changed by stroke, stroke induced an increase in brain BDNF levels at 4 h and 24 h post-embolization, which was not correlated with stroke severity. Individual plasma BDNF levels did not correlate with brain levels at any time point after stroke but a positive correlation (r = 0.67 was observed between individual plasma BDNF levels and stroke severity at 4 h post-embolization. CONCLUSION: Circulating BDNF levels do not mirror brain BDNF levels after stroke, and severe stroke is associated with high plasma BDNF in the very acute stage.

  20. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  1. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  2. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing

  3. Robust tactile sensory responses in finger area of primate motor cortex relevant to prosthetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Karen E.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Bullard, Autumn J.; Thompson, David E.; Bentley, J. Nicole; Stacey, William C.; Patil, Parag G.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in the primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1. Approach. We recorded multi- and single units and thresholded neural activity from macaque M1 while gently brushing individual finger pads at 2 Hz. We also recorded broadband neural activity from electrocorticogram (ECoG) grids placed on human motor cortex, while applying the same tactile stimulus. Main results. Units displaying significant differences in firing rates between individual fingers (p  sensory information was present in M1 to correctly decode stimulus position from multiunit activity above chance levels in all monkeys, and also from ECoG gamma power in two human subjects. Significance. These results provide some explanation for difficulties experienced by motor decoders in clinical trials of cortically controlled prosthetic hands, as well as the general problem of disentangling motor and sensory signals in primate motor cortex during dextrous tasks. Additionally, examination of unit tuning during tactile and proprioceptive inputs indicates cells are often tuned differently in different contexts, reinforcing the need for continued refinement of BMI training and decoding approaches to closed-loop BMI systems for dexterous grasping.

  4. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  5. Cavitation Induced Structural and Neural Damage in Live Brain Tissue Slices: Relevance to TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-29

    objective of this project is to determine the conditions conducive for cavitation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and corresponding tissue injury in 2-D brain...the radius of an isolated spherical bubble in an infinite, incompressible liquid is given by Where, R is the instantaneous bubble radius, which can...by the pressure transducer placed in the test chamber, and PR is the pressure in the liquid at the boundary of the bubble. The measurable bubble

  6. Dog Experts' Brains Distinguish Socially Relevant Body Postures Similarly in Dogs and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Miiamaaria; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnove; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facin...

  7. Connectomic Insights into Topologically Centralized Network Edges and Relevant Motifs in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui eXia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available White matter (WM tracts serve as important material substrates for information transfer across brain regions. However, the topological roles of WM tracts in global brain communications and their underlying microstructural basis remain poorly understood. Here, we employed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theoretical approaches to identify the pivotal WM connections in human whole-brain networks and further investigated their wiring substrates (including WM microstructural organization and physical consumption and topological contributions to the brain’s network backbone. We found that the pivotal WM connections with highly topological-edge centrality were primarily distributed in several long-range cortico-cortical connections (including the corpus callosum, cingulum and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and some projection tracts linking subcortical regions. These pivotal WM connections exhibited high levels of microstructural organization indicated by diffusion measures (the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity and the axial diffusivity and greater physical consumption indicated by streamline lengths, and contributed significantly to the brain’s hubs and the rich-club structure. Network motif analysis further revealed their heavy participations in the organization of communication blocks, especially in routes involving inter-hemispheric heterotopic and extremely remote intra-hemispheric systems. Computational simulation models indicated the sharp decrease of global network integrity when attacking these highly centralized edges. Together, our results demonstrated high building-cost consumption and substantial communication capacity contributions for pivotal WM connections, which deepens our understanding of the topological mechanisms that govern the organization of human connectomes.

  8. Perspectives on creating clinically relevant blast models for mild traumatic brain injury and post traumatic stress disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eBrenner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel are returning from Iraq and Afghanistan and reporting non-specific physical (somatic, behavioral, psychological, and cognitive symptoms. Many of these symptoms are frequently associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and/or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Despite significant attention and advances in assessment and intervention for these two conditions, challenges persist. To address this, clinically relevant blast models are essential in the full characterization of this type of injury, as well as in the testing and identification of potential treatment strategies. In this publication, existing diagnostic challenges and current treatment practices for mTBI and/or PTSD will be summarized, along with suggestions regarding how what has been learned from existing models of PTSD and traditional mechanism (e.g., non-blast TBI can be used to facilitate the development of clinically relevant blast models.

  9. Transport and metabolism at blood-brain interfaces and in neural cells: relevance to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eGazzin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin, the end-product of heme catabolism, circulates in non pathological plasma mostly as a protein-bound species. When bilirubin concentration builds up, the free fraction of the molecule increases. Unbound bilirubin then diffuses across blood-brain interfaces into the brain, where it accumulates and exerts neurotoxic effects. In this classical view of bilirubin neurotoxicity, blood-brain interfaces act merely as structural barriers impeding the penetration of the pigment-bound carrier protein, and neural cells are considered as passive targets of its toxicity. Yet, the role of blood-brain interfaces in the occurrence of bilirubin encephalopathy appears more complex than being simple barriers to the diffusion of bilirubin, and neural cells such as astrocytes and neurons can play an active role in controlling the balance between the neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. This article reviews the emerging in vivo and in vitro data showing that transport and metabolic detoxification mechanisms at the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers may modulate bilirubin flux across both cellular interfaces, and that these protective functions can be affected in chronic hyperbilirubinemia. Then the in vivo and in vitro arguments in favor of the physiological antioxidant function of intracerebral bilirubin are presented, as well as with the potential role of transporters such as ABCC-1 and metabolizing enzymes such as cytochromes P-450 in setting the cerebral cell- and structure-specific toxicity of bilirubin following hyperbilirubinemia. The relevance of these data to the pathophysiology of bilirubin-induced neurological diseases is discussed.

  10. Brain areas and pathways in the regulation of glucose metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Serlie, Mireille J.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose is the most important source of fuel for the brain and its concentration must be kept within strict boundaries to ensure the organism's optimal fitness. To maintain glucose homeostasis, an optimal balance between glucose uptake and glucose output is required. Besides managing acute changes

  11. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon; Seo, Hyung Suk

    2009-01-01

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2 , 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  12. Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Relevance to the Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wise-Faberowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic neurotoxicity has been a hot topic in anesthesia for the past decade. It is of special interest to pediatric anesthesiologists. A subgroup of children potentially at greater risk for anesthetic neurotoxicity, based on a prolonged anesthetic exposure early in development, are those children receiving anesthesia for surgical repair of congenital heart disease. These children have a known risk of neurologic deficit after cardiopulmonary bypass for surgical repair of congenital heart disease. Yet, the type of anesthesia used has not been considered as a potential etiology for their neurologic deficits. These children not only receive prolonged anesthetic exposure during surgical repair, but also receive repeated anesthetic exposures during a critical period of brain development. Their propensity to abnormal brain development, as a result of congenital heart disease, may modify their risk of anesthetic neurotoxicity. This review article provides an overview of anesthetic neurotoxicity from the perspective of a pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist and provides insight into basic science and clinical investigations as it relates to this unique group of children who have been studied over several decades for their risk of neurologic injury.

  13. Developmental trajectories of brain maturation and behavior: Relevance to major mental illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedona Lockhart

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the ‘critical period’. During adolescence, the brain is uniquely susceptible to stress. Stress mediators may lead to disturbances to biological processes that can cause permanent alterations in the adult stage, even as severe as the onset of mental illness when paired with genetic risk and environmental factors. Understanding the molecular factors governing the critical period and how stress can disturb the maturation processes will allow for better treatment and prevention of late adolescent/young adult onset psychiatric disorders. Keywords: Adolescence, Critical period, Developmental trajectory, Brain maturation, Adult behavior

  14. Stress and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Visceral Pain: Relevance to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D; Johnson, Anthony C; O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Dinan, Timothy G; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs of the body, which affects a significant proportion of the population and is a common feature of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). While IBS is multifactorial, with no single etiology to completely explain the disorder, many patients also experience comorbid behavioral disorders, such as anxiety or depression; thus, IBS is described as a disorder of the gut-brain axis. Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of visceral pain disorders. Chronic stress can modify central pain circuitry, as well as change motility and permeability throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. More recently, the role of the gut microbiota in the bidirectional communication along the gut-brain axis, and subsequent changes in behavior, has emerged. Thus, stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviors. This review will highlight the evidence by which stress and the gut microbiota interact in the regulation of visceral nociception. We will focus on the influence of stress on the microbiota and the mechanisms by which microbiota can affect the stress response and behavioral outcomes with an emphasis on visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Brain Distribution and Modulation of Neuronal Excitability by Indicaxanthin From Opuntia Ficus Indica Administered at Nutritionally-Relevant Amounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Gambino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have recently investigated the role of nutraceuticals in complex pathophysiological processes such as oxidative damages, inflammatory conditions and excitotoxicity. In this regard, the effects of nutraceuticals on basic functions of neuronal cells, such as excitability, are still poorly investigated. For this reason, the possible modulation of neuronal excitability by phytochemicals (PhC could represent an interesting field of research given that excitotoxicity phenomena are involved in neurodegenerative alterations leading, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was focused on indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica, a bioactive betalain pigment, with a proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, previously found to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB and to modulate the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons. On this basis, we aimed at detecting the specific brain areas where indicaxanthin localizes after oral administration at dietary-achievable amounts and highlighting eventual local effects on the excitability of single neuronal units. HPLC analysis of brain tissue 1 h after ingestion of 2 μmol/kg indicaxanthin indicated that the phytochemical accumulates in cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum, but not in the striato-pallidal complex. Then, electrophysiological recordings, applying the microiontophoretic technique, were carried out with different amounts of indicaxanthin (0.34, 0.17, 0.085 ng/neuron to assess whether indicaxanthin influenced the neuronal firing rate. The data showed that the bioelectric activity of neurons belonging to different brain areas was modulated after local injection of indicaxanthin, mainly with dose-related responses. A predominating inhibitory effect was observed, suggesting a possible novel beneficial effect of indicaxanthin in reducing cell excitability. These findings can constitute a new rationale for exploring biological mechanisms through

  16. Brain Distribution and Modulation of Neuronal Excitability by Indicaxanthin From Opuntia Ficus Indica Administered at Nutritionally-Relevant Amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giuditta; Allegra, Mario; Sardo, Pierangelo; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria A.; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Carletti, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have recently investigated the role of nutraceuticals in complex pathophysiological processes such as oxidative damages, inflammatory conditions and excitotoxicity. In this regard, the effects of nutraceuticals on basic functions of neuronal cells, such as excitability, are still poorly investigated. For this reason, the possible modulation of neuronal excitability by phytochemicals (PhC) could represent an interesting field of research given that excitotoxicity phenomena are involved in neurodegenerative alterations leading, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was focused on indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica, a bioactive betalain pigment, with a proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, previously found to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to modulate the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons. On this basis, we aimed at detecting the specific brain areas where indicaxanthin localizes after oral administration at dietary-achievable amounts and highlighting eventual local effects on the excitability of single neuronal units. HPLC analysis of brain tissue 1 h after ingestion of 2 μmol/kg indicaxanthin indicated that the phytochemical accumulates in cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum, but not in the striato-pallidal complex. Then, electrophysiological recordings, applying the microiontophoretic technique, were carried out with different amounts of indicaxanthin (0.34, 0.17, 0.085 ng/neuron) to assess whether indicaxanthin influenced the neuronal firing rate. The data showed that the bioelectric activity of neurons belonging to different brain areas was modulated after local injection of indicaxanthin, mainly with dose-related responses. A predominating inhibitory effect was observed, suggesting a possible novel beneficial effect of indicaxanthin in reducing cell excitability. These findings can constitute a new rationale for exploring biological mechanisms through which PhC could

  17. Brain size and white matter content of cerebrospinal tracts determine the upper cervical cord area: evidence from structural brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Christina; Arsic, Milan; Boucard, Christine C.; Biberacher, Viola; Nunnemann, Sabine; Muehlau, Mark [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schmidt, Paul [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Muenchen, Department of Statistics, Munich (Germany); Roettinger, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Muenchner Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Munich (Germany); Etgen, Thorleif [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Traunstein, Department of Neurology, Traunstein (Germany); Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of the upper cervical cord area (UCCA) from brain MRI may be an effective way to quantify spinal cord involvement in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. However, knowledge on the determinants of UCCA in healthy controls (HCs) is limited. In two cohorts of 133 and 285 HCs, we studied the influence of different demographic, body-related, and brain-related parameters on UCCA by simple and partial correlation analyses as well as by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) across both cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). First, we confirmed the known but moderate effect of age on UCCA in the older cohort. Second, we studied the correlation of UCCA with sex, body height, and total intracranial volume (TIV). TIV was the only variable that correlated significantly with UCCA after correction for the other variables. Third, we studied the correlation of UCCA with brain-related parameters. Brain volume correlated stronger with UCCA than TIV. Both volumes of the brain tissue compartments GM and WM correlated with UCCA significantly. WM volume explained variance of UCCA after correction for GM volume, whilst the opposite was not observed. Correspondingly, VBM did not yield any brain region, whose GM content correlated significantly with UCCA, whilst cerebral WM content of cerebrospinal tracts strongly correlated with UCCA. This latter effect increased along a craniocaudal gradient. UCCA is mainly determined by brain volume as well as by WM content of cerebrospinal tracts. (orig.)

  18. HZE particle effects in the mammalian brain: relevance to manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, L.M.; D'Amelio, F.E.; Benton, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The brain of rodents has been studied following high LET neon particle irradiation with doses ranging from 10 to 1000 rad. The changes observed by light microscopy after 1000 rad irradiation, for example, include acute necrosis of interstitial cells within 36 h of exposure, necrotic neurons, hyperchromatic neuroglia, and axonal degeneration beginning at 3 months postexposure. These changes are compared with those reported following exposure to other radiation modalities. Neuronal necrosis following high LET argon particle irradiation was comparable to that with neon. Low doses (25 rad and below) of iron nuclei resulted in no visible necrotic nerve cells. Acute neuroglial cell loss or damage is discussed as to its possible role in chronic neuronal necrosis and in loss of axonal integrity

  19. Brain processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Triñanes, Yolanda; Zurrón, Montserrat; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence for preferential perceptual processing of written emotional information, the effects of attentional manipulations and the time course of affective processing require further clarification. In this study, we attempted to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates cerebral functioning (event-related potentials, ERPs) and behavior (reaction times, RTs) when the content is task-irrelevant (emotional Stroop Task, EST) or task-relevant (emotional categorization task, ECT), in a sample of healthy middle-aged women. In the EST, the RTs were longer for emotional words than for neutral words, and in the ECT, they were longer for neutral and negative words than for positive words. A principal components analysis of the ERPs identified various temporospatial factors that were differentially modified by emotional content. P2 was the first emotion-sensitive component, with enhanced factor scores for negative nouns across tasks. The N2 and late positive complex had enhanced factor scores for emotional relative to neutral information only in the ECT. The results reinforce the idea that written emotional information has a preferential processing route, both when it is task-irrelevant (producing behavioral interference) and when it is task-relevant (facilitating the categorization). After early automatic processing of the emotional content, late ERPs become more emotionally modulated as the level of attention to the valence increases.

  20. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  1. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  2. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  3. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  4. Developmental trajectories of brain maturation and behavior: Relevance to major mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Sedona; Sawa, Akira; Niwa, Minae

    2018-05-01

    Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'. During adolescence, the brain is uniquely susceptible to stress. Stress mediators may lead to disturbances to biological processes that can cause permanent alterations in the adult stage, even as severe as the onset of mental illness when paired with genetic risk and environmental factors. Understanding the molecular factors governing the critical period and how stress can disturb the maturation processes will allow for better treatment and prevention of late adolescent/young adult onset psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevance of Alternative Routes of Kynurenic Acid Production in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ramos-Chávez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The catabolism of tryptophan has gained great importance in recent years due to the fact that the metabolites produced during this process, with neuroactive and redox properties, are involved in physiological and pathological events. One of these metabolites is kynurenic acid (KYNA, which is considered as a neuromodulator since it can interact with NMDA, nicotinic, and GPR35 receptors among others, modulating the release of neurotransmitters as glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine. Kynureninate production is attributed to kynurenine aminotransferases. However, in some physiological and pathological conditions, its high production cannot be explained just with kynurenine aminotransferases. This review focuses on the alternative mechanism whereby KYNA can be produced, either from D-amino acids or by means of other enzymes as D-amino acid oxidase or by the participation of free radicals. It is important to mention that an increase in KYNA levels in processes as brain development, aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders, which share common factors as oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response activation, and participation of gut microbiota that can also be related with the alternative routes of KYNA production, has been observed.

  7. Clinical relevance of n-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Holl, K.; Dal Bianco, P.; Goldenberg, G.; Wimberger, D.; Auff, E.; Brucke, T.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT studies of the brain were performed by means of N-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphertamine and a double head rotating scintillation camera. Energy spectra showed an increase of scattered radiation proportional to the geometrical resolution of the used Tc-collimators. This is due to the higher lead content and thin septa (septum-penetration of high energy photons of /sup 123/I, scattering in the crystal) of HRES or UHRES collimators. A LEAP collimator (14 mm FWHM resolution in the reconstructed image) is the most suitable one (sufficient resolution - relatively low scatter-fraction) for /sup 123/I labeled tracers. With a multiple window technique scatter correction was performed. The width and position of the scatter windows were estimated in phantom studies. Further steps of data processing (prereconstructional filtering, analytical attenuation compensation), leading to an improvement of the final set of cross sections, are described. Clinical cases (Alzheimers, Huntingtons, Parkinson disease, Moya Moya, stroke and partial complex seizures) and stimulation (acoustic memory tasks, visual stimulations) studies in normal volunteers are presented, and results are compared with PET-data known from recent literature

  8. Potential clinical relevance of the 'little brain' on the mammalian heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A

    2008-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the heart possesses a nervous system intrinsic to it that represents the final relay station for the co-ordination of regional cardiac indices. This 'little brain' on the heart is comprised of spatially distributed sensory (afferent), interconnecting (local circuit) and motor (adrenergic and cholinergic efferent) neurones that communicate with others in intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia, all under the tonic influence of central neuronal command and circulating catecholamines. Neurones residing from the level of the heart to the insular cortex form temporally dependent reflexes that control overlapping, spatially determined cardiac indices. The emergent properties that most of its components display depend primarily on sensory transduction of the cardiovascular milieu. It is further hypothesized that the stochastic nature of such neuronal interactions represents a stabilizing feature that matches cardiac output to normal corporal blood flow demands. Thus, with regard to cardiac disease states, one must consider not only cardiac myocyte dysfunction but also the fact that components within this neuroaxis may interact abnormally to alter myocyte function. This review emphasizes the stochastic behaviour displayed by most peripheral cardiac neurones, which appears to be a consequence of their predominant cardiac chemosensory inputs, as well as their complex functional interconnectivity. Despite our limited understanding of the whole, current data indicate that the emergent properties displayed by most neurones comprising the cardiac neuroaxis will have to be taken into consideration when contemplating the targeting of its individual components if predictable, long-term therapeutic benefits are to accrue.

  9. Brain-relevant antibodies in first-episode psychosis: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Beck, Katherine; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Coutinho, Ester; Jacobson, Leslie; Lang, Bethan; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Di Forti, Marta; Nicholson, Tim; Vincent, Angela; Murray, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. We conducted a case-control study to examine NMDAR and VGKC-complex antibody levels and rates of antibody positivity in 96 patients presenting with FEP and 98 controls matched for age and sex. Leucine-rich glioma inactiviated-1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein (CASPR) antibodies were also measured. Notably, patients with suspicion of organic disease were excluded. VGKC-complex antibodies were found in both cases (n = 3) and controls (n = 2). NMDAR antibody positivity was seen in one case and one control. Either LGI1-Abs or CASPR2-Abs were found in three cases and three controls. Neuronal antibody staining, consistent with the above results or indicating potential novel antigens, was overall positive in four patients but also in six controls. Overall, antibody positivity was at low levels only and not higher in cases than in controls. This case-control study of the prevalence of antibodies in FEP does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that FEP is associated with an immune-mediated process in a subgroup of patients. Nevertheless, as other bio-clinical factors may influence the effect of such antibodies in a given individual, and patients with organic neurological disease may be misdiagnosed as FEP, the field requires more research to put these findings in context.

  10. Topological Alterations and Symptom-Relevant Modules in the Whole-Brain Structural Network in Semantic Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junhua; Chen, Keliang; Zhang, Weibin; Li, Ming; Chen, Yan; Yang, Qing; Lv, Yingru; Guo, Qihao; Han, Zaizhu

    2017-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a selective decline in semantic processing. Although the neuropsychological pattern of this disease has been identified, its topological global alterations and symptom-relevant modules in the whole-brain anatomical network have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the topological alteration of anatomical network in SD and reveal the modules associated with semantic deficits in this disease. We first constructed the whole-brain white-matter networks of 20 healthy controls and 19 patients with SD. Then, the network metrics of graph theory were compared between these two groups. Finally, we separated the network of SD patients into different modules and correlated the structural integrity of each module with the severity of the semantic deficits across patients. The network of the SD patients presented a significantly reduced global efficiency, indicating that the long-distance connections were damaged. The network was divided into the following four distinctive modules: the left temporal/occipital/parietal, frontal, right temporal/occipital, and frontal/parietal modules. The first two modules were associated with the semantic deficits of SD. These findings illustrate the skeleton of the neuroanatomical network of SD patients and highlight the key role of the left temporal/occipital/parietal module and the left frontal module in semantic processing.

  11. Molecules of various pharmacologically-relevant sizes can cross the ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Wang, Shougang; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Morrison, Barclay; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2010-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) is hereby shown to noninvasively and selectively deliver compounds at pharmacologically relevant molecular weights through the opened blood-brain barrier (BBB). A complete examination on the size of the FUS-induced BBB opening, the spatial distribution of the delivered agents and its dependence on the agent's molecular weight were imaged and quantified using fluorescence microscopy. BBB opening in mice (n=13) was achieved in vivo after systemic administration of microbubbles and subsequent application of pulsed FUS (frequency: 1.525MHz, peak-rarefactional pressure in situ: 570 kPa) to the left murine hippocampus through the intact skin and skull. BBB-impermeant, fluorescent-tagged dextrans at three distinct molecular weights spanning over several orders of magnitude were systemically administered and acted as model therapeutic compounds. First, dextrans of 3 and 70 kDa were delivered trans-BBB while 2000 kDa dextran was not. Second, compared with 70 kDa dextran, a higher concentration of 3 kDa dextran was delivered through the opened BBB. Third, the 3 and 70 kDa dextrans were both diffusely distributed throughout the targeted brain region. However, high concentrations of 70 kDa dextran appeared more punctated throughout the targeted region. In conclusion, FUS combined with microbubbles opened the BBB sufficiently to allow passage of compounds of at least 70 kDa, but not greater than 2000 kDa into the brain parenchyma. This noninvasive and localized BBB opening technique could, thus, provide a unique means for the delivery of compounds of several magnitudes of kDa that include agents with shown therapeutic promise in vitro but whose in vivo translation has been hampered by their associated BBB impermeability. (E-mail: ek2191@columbia.edu).

  12. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.; Klanker, M.; van Oorschot, N.; Post, R.; Hamelink, R.; Feenstra, M. G. P.; Denys, D.

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of

  13. A delineating procedure to retrieve relevant publication data in research areas : the case of nanocellulose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanez, D.H.; Noyons, E.C.M.; Lopes, de Faria L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Advances concerning publication-level classification system have been demonstrated striking results by dealing properly with emergent, complex and interdisciplinary research areas, such as nanotechnology and nanocellulose. However, less attention has been paid to propose a delineating method to

  14. Floristic survey of the Brazilian Ages Memorial: a Cerrado sensu stricto area with an educational relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Thaís; Silva, Juliana; Ianhez, Marcelo; Proença, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado Biome is currently classified as one of the most diverse savannas in the world. The anthropic destruction of this biome led the Cerrado to be recognized as one of the world's hot spots for bioconservation. Cerrado sensu stricto phytophysiognomy represents 70% of the original Cerrado Biome surface and floristic surveys are basic and important studies for conservation initiatives in these areas. Our survey area is a Cerrado sensu stricto of 6 ha attached to the Memorial das Idades d...

  15. A study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryuta; Okada, Kodai; Hiratsuka, Hideo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tsuyumu, Matsutaira.

    1980-01-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF. (author)

  16. Study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, R; Okada, K; Hiratsuka, H; Inaba, Y [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsuyumu, M

    1980-04-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF.

  17. One century of brain mapping using Brodmann areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotzer, Michael

    2009-08-01

    100 years after their publication, Brodmann's maps of the cerebral cortex are universally used to locate neuropsychological functions. On the occasion of this jubilee the life and work of Korbinian Brodmann are reported. The core functions of each single Brodmann area are described and Brodmann's views on neuropsychological processes are depicted.

  18. Naturalizing aesthetics: brain areas for aesthetic appraisal across sensory modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Gao, Xiaoqing; Tisdelle, Loren; Eickhoff, Simon B; Liotti, Mario

    2011-09-01

    We present here the most comprehensive analysis to date of neuroaesthetic processing by reporting the results of voxel-based meta-analyses of 93 neuroimaging studies of positive-valence aesthetic appraisal across four sensory modalities. The results demonstrate that the most concordant area of activation across all four modalities is the right anterior insula, an area typically associated with visceral perception, especially of negative valence (disgust, pain, etc.). We argue that aesthetic processing is, at its core, the appraisal of the valence of perceived objects. This appraisal is in no way limited to artworks but is instead applicable to all types of perceived objects. Therefore, one way to naturalize aesthetics is to argue that such a system evolved first for the appraisal of objects of survival advantage, such as food sources, and was later co-opted in humans for the experience of artworks for the satisfaction of social needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Brodmann Areas 17, 18, and 19 in the Human Brain: An Overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Juro

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 17, 18, and 19 in the human brain are visual cortices of the occipital lobe. Each area has its own retinotopic representations, particulary area 19, which has many small retinotopic areas representing half or all of the contralateral visual field, several functional areas, and nine cytoarchitectonic areas. Several fasciculi are known as occipital fiber connections, but their precise endpoints are not clear. Lesions in the visual cortices cause several visual disorders including visual field defect, visual hallucinations, metamorphopsia, and different kinds of visual agnosia.

  20. Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção–Albuquerque, M. J. T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010′ re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. Identifying areas of high–value for biodiversity conservation is an important issue to meet this target. We investigated the geographic pattern of terrestrial vertebrate diversity status in Europe by assessing the species richness, rarity, vulnerability (according to IUCN criteria, and a combined index of the three former for the amphibians, reptiles, bird and mammals of this region. We also correlated the value of all indices with climate and human influence variables. Overall, clear geographic gradients of species diversity were found. The combined biodiversity index indicated that high–value biodiversity areas were mostly located in the Mediterranean basin and the highest vulnerability was found in the Iberian peninsula for most taxa. Across all indexes, the proportion of variance explained by climate and human influence factors was moderate to low. The results obtained in this study have the potential to provide valuable support for nature conservation policies in Europe and, consequently, might contribute to mitigate biodiversity decline in this region.

  1. Cystic echinococcosis in Spain: current situation and relevance for other endemic areas in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A Rojo-Vazquez

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians.

  2. Cystic Echinococcosis in Spain: Current Situation and Relevance for Other Endemic Areas in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Vazquez, Francisco A.; Pardo-Lledias, Javier; Francos-Von Hunefeld, Marcelo; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Alamo-Sanz, Rufino; Hernandez-Gonzalez, Ana; Brunetti, Enrico; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) remains an important health problem in many regions of the world, both where no control measures have been implemented, and where control programs have been incompletely successful with ensuing re-emergence of the disease. In Spain, official data on CE show an increase in the proportion of intermediate hosts with CE during the last few years, and autochthonous pediatric patients have been reported, a sign of active local transmission of disease. A similar picture emerges from data reported to the European Food Safety Authority by other European countries. Nevertheless, several crucial aspects related to CE that would help better understand and control the disease have not been tackled appropriately, in particular the emergence of infection in specific geographical areas. In this respect, while some data are missing, other data are conflicting because they come from different databases. We review the current situation of CE in Spain compared with areas in which similar problems in the CE field exist, and offer recommendations on how to overcome those limitations. Specifically, we believe that the introduction of national registries for CE with online data entry, following the example set by the European Registry for Alveolar Echinococcosis, would help streamline data collection on CE by eliminating the need for evaluating and integrating data from multiple regions, by avoiding duplication of data from patients who access several different health facilities over time, and by providing much needed clinical and epidemiological data that are currently accessible only to clinicians. PMID:21283615

  3. Wide area data replication in an ITER-relevant data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.; Bracco, G.; Guadagni, R.; Migliori, S.; Steffe, M.; Eccher, S.; Maslennikov, A.; Mililotti, M.; Molowny, M.; Palumbo, G.; Carboni, M.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of tokamak experiments will require a new way of approaching data sharing issues among fusion organizations. In the fusion community, many researchers at different worldwide sites will analyse data produced by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), wherever it will be built. In this context, an efficient availability of the data in the sites where the computational resources are located becomes a major architectural issue for the deployment of ITER computational infrastructure. The approach described in this paper goes beyond the usual site-centric model mainly devoted to granting access exclusively to experimental data stored at the device sites. To this aim, we propose a new data replication architecture relying on a wide area network, based on a Master/Slave model and on synchronization techniques producing mirrored data sites. In this architecture, data replication will affect large databases (TB) as well as large UNIX-like file systems, using open source-based software components, namely MySQL, as database management system, and RSYNC and BBFTP for data transfer. A test-bed has been set up to evaluate the performance of the software components underlying the proposed architecture. The test-bed hardware layout deploys a cluster of four Dual-Xeon Supermicro each with a raid array of 1 TB. High performance network line (1 Gbit over 400 km) provides the infrastructure to test the components on a wide area network. The results obtained will be thoroughly discussed

  4. Detergent resistant membrane-associated IDE in brain tissue and cultured cells: Relevance to Aβ and insulin degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño Eduardo M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is implicated in the regulation of amyloid β (Aβ steady-state levels in the brain, and its deficient expression and/or activity may be a risk factor in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although IDE sub-cellular localization has been well studied, the compartments relevant to Aβ degradation remain to be determined. Results Our results of live immunofluorescence, immuno gold electron-microscopy and gradient fractionation concurred to the demonstration that endogenous IDE from brain tissues and cell cultures is, in addition to its other localizations, a detergent-resistant membrane (DRM-associated metallopeptidase. Our pulse chase experiments were in accordance with the existence of two pools of IDE: the cytosolic one with a longer half-life and the membrane-IDE with a faster turn-over. DRMs-associated IDE co-localized with Aβ and its distribution (DRMs vs. non-DRMs and activity was sensitive to manipulation of lipid composition in vitro and in vivo. When IDE was mis-located from DRMs by treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, endogenous Aβ accumulated in the extracellular space and exogenous Aβ proteolysis was impaired. We detected a reduced amount of IDE in DRMs of membranes isolated from mice brain with endogenous reduced levels of cholesterol (Chol due to targeted deletion of one seladin-1 allele. We confirmed that a moderate shift of IDE from DRMs induced a substantial decrement on IDE-mediated insulin and Aβ degradation in vitro. Conclusion Our results support the notion that optimal substrate degradation by IDE may require its association with organized-DRMs. Alternatively, DRMs but not other plasma membrane regions, may act as platforms where Aβ accumulates, due to its hydrophobic properties, reaching local concentration close to its Km for IDE facilitating its clearance. Structural integrity of DRMs may also be required to tightly retain insulin receptor and IDE for

  5. Diffusion tensor tractography of language functional areas and fiber pathways in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuejin; Dai Jianping; Chen Hongyan; Gao Peiyi; Ai Lin; Tian Shengyong; Pang Ruilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the fiber pathways of Broca area to the other functional brain areas with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking were performed using 3.0 T MRI in 20 healthy person. The fiber bundles and tracts were analyzed in Broca area and contralateral normal area. Results: The left-side fiber bundles were 428 and the right-side were 416 in B45 area, there were no statistically significant differences between both sides (t=0.216, P>0.05). The left-side fiber bundles were 432 and the right-side were 344 in B44 area,there were statistically significant (t=2.314, P 0.05). Differences of the arcuate fascicule between both sides were not statistically significant (t=-0.465, P>0.05), the mean FA on the left was higher than the right (t=1.912, P<0.05). DTI and fiber tracking exhibited that the fiber bundles from Broca area were distributed superoanteriorly to the lateral foreside of the frontal lobe, lateroinferiorly to the occipital lobe through external capsule, and went down through globus pallidus and internal capsule. Conclusion: The fiber tracts bewteen Broca area and other brain areas were the fundamental structures for performing language function of the human brain. (authors)

  6. Determination of hyperactive areas of Cortex Cerebri with using brain SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepien, A.; Pawlus, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the ability to apply of SPECT technique to determination of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. Analysis included 50 patients (mean aged 44 - 58). Brain SPECT scanning was performed after 1 hour after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq of ethylcisteinate dimmer labeled 99m Technetium (99mTc-ECD) with the use one-head gamma camera with a low-energy, ultra-high resolution collimator. Qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed using specialised software. In 20 cases normal biodistribution of the radiotracer was observed (hyperactive areas in cerebellum and occiput). In patients with psychiatric and neurological disturbances hyperactive areas were visualized in 25 cases in temporal lobes, in 4 cases in parietal lobes and in 1 patient in frontal area and basal ganglia. It is concluded that a number of factors limit the wide-scale use of SPECT, including the sophistication of imaging equipment (single-head cameras are inferior to the newer multihead units) and the experience of the physicians interpreting the scans and utilizing the data. In many diseases physicians do not know which areas of the patient's brain according disorders. Brain SPECT study can be a very useful tool to evaluation of hyperactive areas of cortex cerebri. This technique visualization of cortex cerebri completes standard analysis of disorders of brain activity

  7. The relevance of humus forms for land degradation in Mediterranean mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J. M.; Jongejans, J.

    1998-06-01

    properties of these horizons, relevant for degradation, is considerable and not clearly related to humus form development. Accordingly, the abovementioned trends in humus form development cannot be used to predict the susceptibility to land degradation.

  8. Brain indices of nicotine's effects on attentional bias to smoking and emotional pictures and to task-relevant targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G; Sugai, Chihiro; Zuo, Yantao; Rabinovich, Norka E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett

    2007-03-01

    Aversive and smoking-related stimuli are related to smoking urges and relapse and can be potent distractors of selective attention. It has been suggested that the beneficial effect of nicotine replacement therapy may be mediated partly by the ability of nicotine to reduce distraction by such stimuli and thereby to facilitate attention to task-relevant stimuli. The present study tested the hypothesis that nicotine reduces distraction by aversive and smoking-related stimuli as indexed by the parietal P3b brain response to a task-relevant target digit. We assessed the effect of nicotine on distraction by emotionally negative, positive, neutral, and smoking-related pictures immediately preceding target digits during a rapid visual information processing task in 16 smokers in a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. The study included two experimental sessions. After overnight smoking deprivation (12+ hr), active nicotine patches were applied to participants during one of the sessions and placebo patches were applied during the other session. Nicotine enhanced P3b responses associated with target digits immediately subsequent to negative emotional pictures bilaterally and subsequent to smoking-related pictures only in the right hemisphere. No effects of nicotine were observed for P3bs subsequent to positive and neutral distractor pictures. Another measure of attention, contingent negative variation amplitude in anticipation of the target digits also was increased by nicotine, especially in the left hemisphere and at posterior sites. Together, these findings suggest that nicotine reduces the distraction by emotionally negative and smoking-related stimuli and promotes attention to task-related stimuli by modulating somewhat lateralized and task-specific neural networks.

  9. [Study on corresponding areas the liver and lung channels in brain with fMRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Ming; Xie, Peng; Lü, Fa-Jin; Mou, Jun; Li, Yong-Mei; Zhao, Jian-Nong; Chen, Wei-Juan; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhao, Li-Bo; Liu, Qing-Jun; Shen, Lin; Zhai, Hong; Yang, De-Yu

    2007-10-01

    To explore distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels in the brain so as to provide imaging basis for construction of channel theory in the brain. Sixty healthy student volunteers were randomly divided into a Liver Channel group (I) and a Lung Channel group (II), and the each group was further divided into five subgroups with 6 volunteers in each subgroup, based on five-shu-point principles which, were Dadun (LR 1, I 1), Xingjian (LR 2, I 2), Taichong (LR 3, I 3), Zhongfeng (LR 4, I 4), Ququan (LR 8, I 5), Shaoshang (LU 11, II 1), Yuji (LU 10, II 2), Taiyuan (LU 9, II 3), Jingqu (LU 8, II 4), and Chize (LU 5, II 5), respectively. In order to observe the brain activating patterns during acupuncture at the different acupoints, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique was adopted. All image data were then analyzed with SPM 2 software. The statistical parameter gram was composed of the pixel P areas, and the commonly activated area of five-shu-point of each channel was considered as the brain distribution of the Liver and Lung Channels. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Liver Channel were homolateral Brodmann area (BA) 34, BA 47, red nucleus, contralateral BA 19, BA 30, BA 39, the superior parietal lobule, cerebellum decline, and bilateral BA 3 and culmen. The common areas activated by the five-shu-points of the Lung Channels included homolateral BA 2, BA 18, BA 35, and contralateral BA 9 and substania nigra. There are relatively specific corresponding brain areas for the Liver and Lung Channels, indicating that there is possible relatively specific connection between channels and the brain.

  10. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxu Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top–down and bottom–up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  11. The CLAIR model: Extension of Brodmann areas based on brain oscillations and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Erol; Düzgün, Aysel

    2016-05-01

    Since the beginning of the last century, the localization of brain function has been represented by Brodmann areas, maps of the anatomic organization of the brain. They are used to broadly represent cortical structures with their given sensory-cognitive functions. In recent decades, the analysis of brain oscillations has become important in the correlation of brain functions. Moreover, spectral connectivity can provide further information on the dynamic connectivity between various structures. In addition, brain responses are dynamic in nature and structural localization is almost impossible, according to Luria (1966). Therefore, brain functions are very difficult to localize; hence, a combined analysis of oscillation and event-related coherences is required. In this study, a model termed as "CLAIR" is described to enrich and possibly replace the concept of the Brodmann areas. A CLAIR model with optimum function may take several years to develop, but this study sets out to lay its foundation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Zhang, Zuting; Lv, Zeping; Jing, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top-down and bottom-up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  13. Ethnopharmacological relevance of traditional medicinal flora from semi-tribal areas in khyber pakhtunkhwa, punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.; Shah, A.; Bahadur, A.

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are locally used for the cure of many diseases. The present study aimed to document the medicinal knowledge as well as medicinal flora of indigenous plants of native communities and represents the first ever ethnomedicinal study from Darra Tang, LakkiMarwat and Kundal, Mianwali. The ethnomedicinal information was conducted via crucial informant conversation, group meetings with herbalists, semi-structure interviews and local people having awareness about the remedial exploit of plants. Current research work describes a brief overview of ethnomedicinal scheme in the study area, by highlighting the vital indigenous constituent of medicinal plants. The rest of the study is dedicated to an investigation and documentation based on the 94 reordered medicinal species belonging to 40 families. The leading family Poaceae was signified by the highest number of medicinal plant species (11). Indigenous people most frequently used leaves of the plants. The greatest amount of species was used to treat gastrointestinal, inflammational, renal, urological and dermatological ailments whereas for diabetes the ratio was the lowest. Dominated medicinal plants with most use values were Rhazyastrictahaving (UVi=0.98) and Phoenix dactylifera(UVi=0.96). There was a significant correlation between the age of informant and used plant known (y= 0.1307*+26.756, r = 0.012) and known plants (y= 0.4043*+16.995, r = 0.082) number by informant.The present study exposes that this vast treasure of medicinal plant played a key role in the health maintenance of local communities from Darra Tang, LakkiMarwat and Kundal, Mianwali. (author)

  14. Loud Noise Exposure Produces DNA, Neurotransmitter and Morphological Damage within Specific Brain Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Frenzilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay. In parallel studies, brain monoamine levels and morphology of nigrostriatal pathways, hippocampus and cerebellum were analyzed at different time intervals (24 h and 7 days after noise exposure. Loud noise produced a sudden increase in DNA damage in all the brain areas under investigation. Monoamine levels detected at 7 days following exposure were differently affected depending on the specific brain area. Namely, striatal but not hippocampal dopamine (DA significantly decreased, whereas hippocampal and cerebellar noradrenaline (NA was significantly reduced. This is in line with pathological findings within striatum and hippocampus consisting of a decrease in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH combined with increased Bax and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Loud noise exposure lasting 12 h causes immediate DNA, and long-lasting neurotransmitter and immune-histochemical alterations within specific brain areas of the rat. These alterations may suggest an anatomical and functional link to explain the neurobiology of diseases which prevail in human subjects exposed to environmental noise.

  15. Area-specific migration and recruitment of new neurons in the adult songbird brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellema, Michiel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Gahr, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    sensitive to plastic changes, such as nucleus higher vocal center (HVC) and area X, recruited similar numbers of new neurons as their surrounding brain tissues, employing no specific directional mechanisms. The distribution pattern in and around HVC could best be described by a random displacement model......Neuron recruitment has been implicated in morphological and functional plasticity in the adult brain. Whereas mammals restrict neuron recruitment specifically to two regions of known plasticity, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, newborn neurons are found throughout the forebrain of adult...... songbirds. In order to study the area-specificity of the widespread proliferation and recruitment in the songbird brain, six adult male canaries received repetitive intraperitoneal injections of the mitotic marker BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine) and were sacrificed after 24 hours to study proliferation...

  16. Optimal staining methods for delineation of cortical areas and neuron counts in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B; Zilles, K; Rajkowska, G

    1999-04-01

    For cytoarchitectonic delineation of cortical areas in human brain, the Gallyas staining for somata with its sharp contrast between cell bodies and neuropil is preferable to the classical Nissl staining, the more so when an image analysis system is used. This Gallyas staining, however, does not appear to be appropriate for counting neuron numbers in pertinent brain areas, due to the lack of distinct cytological features between small neurons and glial cells. For cell counting Nissl is preferable. In an optimal design for cell counting at least both the Gallyas and the Nissl staining must be applied, the former staining for cytoarchitectural delineaton of cortical areas and the latter for counting the number of neurons in the pertinent cortical areas. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Inter-species activity correlations reveal functional correspondences between monkey and human brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. In cases where functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assess similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by means of temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we reveal regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This novel framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models. PMID:22306809

  18. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Dreier, Jens Peter; Fabricius, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence....... The consequences of these intrinsic mechanisms are intimately linked to the composition of the brain extracellular microenvironment and to the level of brain perfusion and in consequence brain energy supply. This paper summarizes the evidence provided by novel invasive techniques, which implicates CSD...... treatment strategies, which may be used to prevent or attenuate secondary neuronal damage in acutely injured human brain cortex caused by depolarization waves....

  19. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, A.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the question of whether inter-and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while Ss (aged 18-41 yrs) were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to nonspatial

  20. Nonspatial intermodal selective attention is mediated by sensory brain areas: Evidence from event-related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, D.; Kok, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The present study focuses on the question of whether inter- and intramodal forms of attention are reflected in activation of the same or different brain areas. ERPs were recorded while subjects were presented a random sequence of visual and auditory stimuli. They were instructed to attend to

  1. Short- and long-term modulation of synaptic inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagen, Z.M.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Keath, R.; McGehee, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine signaling in brain reward areas is a key element in the development of drug abuse and dependence. Recent anatomical and electrophysiological research has begun to elucidate both complexity and specificity In synaptic connections between ventral tegmental neurons and their inputs.

  2. The Safe Area in the Parieto-Occipital Lobe in the Human Brain: Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kim, Seong Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2015-06-01

    A recent study reported on the relatively safe area in the frontal lobe for performance of neurological interventions; however, no study on the posterior safe area has been reported. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we attempted to identify the safe area in the parieto-occipital lobe in healthy subjects. A total of 47 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Eleven neural tracts were reconstructed in and around the parieto-occipital area of the brain using diffusion tensor tractography. The safe area, which is free from any trajectory of 10 neural tracts, was measured anteriorly and medially from the line of the most posterior and lateral margin of the brain at 5 axial levels (from the cerebral cortex to the corona radiata). The anterior boundaries of the safe area in the upper cerebral cortex, lower cerebral cortex, centrum semiovale, upper corona radiata, and lower corona radiata levels were located at 31.0, 32.6, 32.7, 35.1, and 35.2 mm anteriorly from the line of the most posterior margin of the brain, respectively, and the medial boundaries were located at an average of 34.7, 38.1, 39.2, 36.1, and 33.6 mm medially from the line of the most lateral margin of the brain, respectively. According to our findings, the safe area was located in the posterolateral portion of the parieto-occipital lobe in the shape of a triangle. However, we found no safe area in the deep white matter around the lateral ventricle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A split microdrive for simultaneous multi-electrode recordings from two brain areas in awake small animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.S.; Bakker, M.; Buster, W.; Lankelma, J.; van der Blom, R.; Westdorp, R.; Joosten, R.N.J.M.A.; Mc.Naughton, B.L.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Complex cognitive operations such as memory formation and decision-making are thought to be mediated not by single, isolated brain structures but by multiple, connected brain areas. To facilitate studies on the neural communication between connected brain structures, we developed a multi-electrode

  4. Low-grade astrocytoma: surgical outcomes in eloquent versus non-eloquent brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Macedo Bianco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 81 patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA comparing the efficacy of aggressive versus less aggressive surgery in eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas was conducted. Extent of surgical resection was analyzed to assess overall survival (OS and progression- free survival (PFS. Degree of tumor resection was classified as gross total resection (GTR, subtotal resection (STR or biopsy. GTR, STR and biopsy in patients with tumors in non-eloquent areas were performed in 31, 48 and 21% subjects, whereas in patients with tumors in eloquent areas resections were 22.5, 35 and 42.5%. Overall survival was 4.7 and 1.9 years in patients with tumors in non-eloquent brain areas submitted to GTR/STR and biopsy (p=0.013, whereas overall survival among patients with tumors in eloquent area was 4.5 and 2.1 years (p=0.33. Improved outcome for adult patients with LGA is predicted by more aggressive surgery in both eloquent and non-eloquent brain areas.

  5. Eloquent area in the gamma knife treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazuo; Mori, Yoshimasa; Ohsuga, Koji; Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kondo, Toshiki [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    It has been long since cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) could be cured by gamma radiosurgery. In this study, it has been found that the complete obliteration of AVM by radiosurgery is depended on the factors such as the size of the nidus, the marginal dose, the location and the age of patients. It is also true that higher the marginal dose, higher the obliteration rate and also higher the risk of radiation injury. Therefore the marginal dose has to be limited by the radiosensitivity (tolerance) of surrounding brain, which means the obliteration rate is largely depended on the location of AVM. The definition of the eloquent area of AVM by microsurgery is based upon the anatomical and functional importance of the brain. However, the eloquency in radiosurgery is different in that it depends upon radiosensitivity of the surrounding brain around AVM. From this definition, the most eloquent area by radiosurgery is brain around the optic pathway, followed by cochlear nerve, other cranial nerves, brain stem and basal ganglia-thalamus. (author)

  6. Not single brain areas but a network is involved in language: Applications in presurgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Razieh; Batouli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Behzad, Ebrahim; Ebrahimpoor, Mitra; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced. The obtained templates showed that the language function should be considered as the product of the collaboration of a network of brain regions, instead of considering only few brain areas to be involved in that. This study has important clinical applications, and extends our knowledge on the neuroanatomy of the language function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Brain: Physiological Mechanisms and Relevance to Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layé, Sophie; Nadjar, Agnès; Joffre, Corinne; Bazinet, Richard P

    2018-01-01

    Classically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were largely thought to be relatively inert structural components of brain, largely important for the formation of cellular membranes. Over the past 10 years, a host of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, and docosahexaenoic acid, the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, known to regulate peripheral immune function, have been detected in the brain and shown to regulate microglia activation. Recent advances have focused on how PUFA regulate the molecular signaling of microglia, especially in the context of neuroinflammation and behavior. Several active drugs regulate brain lipid signaling and provide proof of concept for targeting the brain. Because brain lipid metabolism relies on a complex integration of diet, peripheral metabolism, including the liver and blood, which supply the brain with PUFAs that can be altered by genetics, sex, and aging, there are many pathways that can be disrupted, leading to altered brain lipid homeostasis. Brain lipid signaling pathways are altered in neurologic disorders and may be viable targets for the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, we discuss in particular how n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites regulate microglia phenotype and function to exert their anti-inflammatory and proresolving activities in the brain. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Automatic extraction analysis of the anatomical functional area for normal brain 18F-FDG PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanhua; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Lu Zhongwei; Li Peiyong; Zhu Chengmo; Zhang Jiange; Pan Jiapu

    2003-01-01

    Using self-designed automatic extraction software of brain functional area, the grey scale distribution of 18 F-FDG imaging and the relationship between the 18 F-FDG accumulation of brain anatomic function area and the 18 F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose, the age, etc., were studied. According to the Talairach coordinate system, after rotation, drift and plastic deformation, the 18 F-FDG PET imaging was registered into the Talairach coordinate atlas, and then the average gray value scale ratios between individual brain anatomic functional area and whole brain area was calculated. Further more the statistics of the relationship between the 18 F-FDG accumulation of every brain anatomic function area and the 18 F-FDG injected dose, the level of glucose and the age were tested by using multiple stepwise regression model. After images' registration, smoothing and extraction, main cerebral cortex of the 18 F-FDG PET brain imaging can be successfully localized and extracted, such as frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, cerebellum, brain ventricle, thalamus and hippocampus. The average ratios to the inner reference of every brain anatomic functional area were 1.01 ± 0.15. By multiple stepwise regression with the exception of thalamus and hippocampus, the grey scale of all the brain functional area was negatively correlated to the ages, but with no correlation to blood sugar and dose in all areas. To the 18 F-FDG PET imaging, the brain functional area extraction program could automatically delineate most of the cerebral cortical area, and also successfully reflect the brain blood and metabolic study, but extraction of the more detailed area needs further investigation

  9. Brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation after acute amphetamine administration: its relationship to brain c-fos induction is strongly dependent on the particular brain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllant, David; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests a critical role of chromatin remodelling in the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs. We reasoned that Immunohistochemical detection of certain histone modifications may be a more specific tool than induction of immediate early genes (i.e. c-fos) to detect brain areas and neurons that are critical for the action of addictive drugs. Thus, in the present work we studied in adult male rats the effects of a high dose of amphetamine on brain pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation in serine 10 (pH3S(10)) and c-fos expression. We firstly observed that amphetamine-induced an increase in the number of pH3S(10) positive neurons in a restricted number of brain areas, with maximum levels at 30 min after the drug administration that declined at 90 min in most areas. In a second experiment we studied colocalization of pH3S(10) immunoreactivity (pH3S(10)-IR) and c-fos expression. Amphetamine increased c-fos expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens (Acb), major Island of Calleja (ICjM), central amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis lateral dorsal (BSTld) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Whereas no evidence for increase in pH3S(10) positive neurons was found in the mPFC and the PVN, in the striatum and the Acb basically all pH3S(10) positive neurons showed colocalization with c-fos. In ICjM, CeA and BSTld a notable degree of colocalization was found, but an important number of neurons expressing c-fos were negative for pH3S(10). The present results give support to the hypothesis that amphetamine-induced pH3S(10)-IR showed a more restricted pattern than brain c-fos induction, being this difference strongly dependent on the particular brain area studied. It is likely that those nuclei and neurons showing pH3S(10)-IR are more specifically associated to important effects of the drug, including neural plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post

  10. On the calculation of brain area shifts due to cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labudde, D.; Hartmann, S.; Synowitz, M.

    2002-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the localization of an intracerebral mass is a basic requirement for the planning of neurosurgical operations. Stereotactic atlases offer the possibility to adapt pre-operative imaging data onto normal anatomical conditions in the CNS. These atlases, however, reflect the standard variants of the CNS and do not allow to draw conclusions on local and secondary changes of the anatomy caused by the presence of pathological processes. The physical model proposed in this paper provides an estimate of the displacement of brain areas by an intracerebral mass. The modeling of brain parenchyma deformation is based on the mechanics of deformed media. The implementation of the model is successful in the group of primary brain tumors and meningiomas, and uses empirically-obtained data of a prospectively-selected patient population. The aim of the proposed model is, as further step, the integration and adaptation in apposite software solutions for the stereotactic orientation in the CNS. (orig.) [de

  11. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  12. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Kim, Kwang Ki; Yoon, Yup Yoon [Dongguk University Medical Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung Suk [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p < 0.01). The CC area and brain volume in AD patients (498.7 +- 72 mm{sup 2}, 715.4 +- 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 +- 108, 844.1 +- 85) and the HCs (563.2 +- 75, 818.9 +- 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  13. Slice cultures of the imprinting-relevant forebrain area MNH of the domestic chick: quantitative characterization of neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, H; Braun, K

    1995-05-26

    The persistence of morphological features of neurons in slice cultures of the imprinting-relevant forebrain area MNH (mediorostral neostriatum and hyperstriatum ventrale) of the domestic chick was analysed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in vitro. After having been explanted and kept in culture the neurons in vitro have larger soma areas, longer and more extensively branched dendritic trees and lower spine frequencies compared to the neurons in vivo. During the analyzed culturing period, the parameters soma area, total and mean dendritic length, number of dendrites, number of dendritic nodes per dendrite and per neuron as well as the spine densities in different dendritic segments showed no significant differences between early and late periods. Highly correlated in every age group were the total dendritic length and the number of dendritic nodes per neuron, indicating regular ramification during dendritic growth. Since these morphological parameters remain stable during the first 4 weeks in vitro, this culture system may provide a suitable model to investigate experimentally induced morphological changes.

  14. microRNA and mRNA profiles in ventral tegmental area relevant to stress-induced depression and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Song, Zhenhua; Si, Yawei; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2018-06-01

    Chronic stress with lack of reward presumably may impair brain reward circuit, leading to major depressive disorder (MDD). Most individuals experiencing chronic stress do not suffer from MDD, i.e., resilience, implying the presence of endogenous anti-depression in the brain. Molecular mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression versus resilience were investigated. Mice were treated by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for four weeks. Their mood state was assessed by behavioral tasks, such as sucrose preference, Y-maze and forced swimming testes. To reveal comprehensive molecular profiles of major depression versus resilience, mRNA and microRNA profiles were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) harvested from control, CUMS-susceptible and CUMS-resilience mice. In data analyses of control versus CUMS-susceptible mice as well as control versus CUMS-resilience mice, 1.5 fold ratio in reads per kilo-base per million reads was set as the threshold to judge the involvement of mRNAs and microRNAs in the CUMS, depression or resilience. The downregulation of synaptic vesicle cycle, neurotrophin, GABAergic synapse and morphine addiction as well as the upregulation of transmitter release, calcium signal and cAMP-dependent response element binding are associated to CUMS-susceptibility. The downregulation of tyrosine metabolism and protein process in endoplasmic reticulum as well as the upregulation of amino acid biosynthesis, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and dopaminergic synapse are associated to CUMS-resilience. Therefore, the impairment of neurons and GABA/dopaminergic synapses in the VTA is associated with major depression. The upregulation of these entities is associated with resilience. Consistent results obtained from analyzing mRNAs and microRNAs as well as using different approaches strengthen our finding and conclusion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Motor areas of the frontal cortex in patients with motor eloquent brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of its huge clinical potential, the importance of premotor areas for motor function itself and plastic reshaping due to tumors or ischemic brain lesions has received increased attention. Thus, in this study the authors used navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate whether tumorous brain lesions induce a change in motor cortex localization in the human brain. METHODS Between 2010 and 2013, nTMS motor mapping was performed in a prospective cohort of 100 patients with brain tumors in or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Spatial data analysis was performed by normalization of the individual motor maps and creation of overlays according to tumor location. Analysis of motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies was performed regarding mean overall latencies and potentially polysynaptic latencies, defined as latencies longer than 1 SD above the mean value. Hemispheric dominance, lesion location, and motor-function deficits were also considered. RESULTS Graphical analysis showed that motor areas were not restricted to the precentral gyrus. Instead, they spread widely in the anterior-posterior direction. An analysis of MEP latency showed that mean MEP latencies were shortest in the precentral gyrus and longest in the superior and middle frontal gyri. The percentage of latencies longer than 1 SD differed widely across gyri. The dominant hemisphere showed a greater number of longer latencies than the nondominant hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Moreover, tumor location-dependent changes in distribution of polysynaptic latencies were observed (p = 0.0002). Motor-function deficit did not show any statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of primary and polysynaptic motor areas changes in patients with brain tumors and highly depends on tumor location. Thus, these data should be considered for resection planning.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of aluminium ions neurotoxicity in brain cells of fish from various pelagic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic effects of aluminum chloride in higher than usual environment concentration (10 mg/L were studied in brains of fishes from various pelagic areas, especially in sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819, roach (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758, crucian carp (Carasius carasius Linnaeus, 1758, goby (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas, 1811. The intensity of oxidative stress and the content of both cytoskeleton protein GFAP and cytosol Ca-binding protein S100β were determined. The differences in oxidative stress data were observed in the liver and brain of fish during 45 days of treatment with aluminum chloride. The data indicated that in the modeling of aluminum intoxication in mature adult fishes the level of oxidative stress was noticeably higher in the brain than in the liver. This index was lower by1.5–2.0 times on average in the liver cells than in the brain. The obtained data evidently demonstrate high sensitivity to aluminum ions in neural tissue cells of fish from various pelagic areas. Chronic intoxication with aluminum ions induced intense astrogliosis in the fish brain. Astrogliosis was determined as result of overexpression of both cytoskeleton and cytosole markers of astrocytes – GFAP and protein S100β (on 75–112% and 67–105% accordingly. Moreover, it was shown that the neurotixic effect of aluminum ions is closely related to metabolism of astroglial intermediate filaments. The results of western blotting showed a considerable increase in the content of the lysis protein products of GFAP with a range of molecular weight from 40–49 kDa. A similar metabolic disturbance was determined for the upregulation protein S100β expression and particularly in the increase in the content of polypeptide fragments of this protein with molecular weight 24–37 kDa. Thus, the obtained results allow one to presume that aluminum ions activate in the fish brain intracellular proteases which have a capacity to destroy the proteins of

  17. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Furtado da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA, 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI, and 10 non-autistics (GCN had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  18. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vernon Furtado da; Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Nunes, Rodolfo Alkmim Moreira; Pimentel, Carlos Elias; Martins, Gabriela Paes; Oliveira, Patrícia da Cruz Araruna; Silva, Patrícia Bagno; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E

    2016-08-01

    This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA), 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI), and 10 non-autistics (GCN) had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  19. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-10-25

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus and red nucleus. True needling also deactivated Brodmann areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, 24, 31, 40 and 46.

  20. Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves M.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30 and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40 were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia.

  1. Altered intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity in brain areas of high-grade glioma recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; van Niftrik, Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Burkhardt, Jan Karl; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Valavanis, Antonios; Weller, Michael; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Current MRI sequences are limited in identifying brain areas at risk for high grade glioma recurrence. We employed intraoperative 3-Tesla functional MRI to assess cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) after high-grade glioma resection and analyzed regional CVR responses in areas of tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up imaging. Five subjects with high-grade glioma that underwent an intraoperative Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI CVR examination and had a clinical follow-up of at least 18months were selected from a prospective database. For this study, location of tumor recurrence was spatially matched to the intraoperative imaging to assess CVR response in that particular area. CVR is defined as the percent BOLD signal change during repeated cycles of apnea. Of the 5 subjects (mean age 44, 2 females), 4 were diagnosed with a WHO grade III and 1 subject with a WHO grade IV glioma. Three subjects exhibited a tumor recurrence on clinical follow-up MRI (mean: 15months). BOLD CVR measured in the spatially matched area of tumor recurrence was on average 94% increased (range-32% to 183%) as compared to contralateral hemisphere CVR response, 1.50±0.81 versus 1.03±0.46 respectively (p=0.31). For this first analysis in a small cohort, we found altered intraoperative CVR in brain areas exhibiting high grade glioma recurrence on clinical follow-up imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Surgical treatment of eloquent brain area tumors using neurophysiological mapping of the speech and motor areas and conduction tracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, A A; Korotchenko, E N; Ivanova, D S; Pedyash, N V; Teplykh, B A

    To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological mapping in removing eloquent brain area tumors (EBATs). Sixty five EBAT patients underwent surgical treatment using intraoperative neurophysiological mapping at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center in the period from 2014 to 2015. On primary neurological examination, 46 (71%) patients were detected with motor deficits of varying severity. Speech disorders were diagnosed in 17 (26%) patients. Sixteen patients with concomitant or isolated lesions of the speech centers underwent awake surgery using the asleep-awake-asleep protocol. Standard neurophysiological monitoring included transcranial stimulation as well as motor and, if necessary, speech mapping. The motor and speech areas were mapped with allowance for the preoperative planning data (obtained with a navigation station) synchronized with functional MRI. In this case, a broader representation of the motor and speech centers was revealed in 12 (19%) patients. During speech mapping, no speech disorders were detected in 7 patients; in 9 patients, stimulation of the cerebral cortex in the intended surgical area induced motor (3 patients), sensory (4), and amnesic (2) aphasia. In the total group, we identified 11 patients in whom the tumor was located near the internal capsule. Upon mapping of the conduction tracts in the internal capsule area, the stimulus strength during tumor resection was gradually decreased from 10 mA to 5 mA. Tumor resection was stopped when responses retained at a stimulus strength of 5 mA, which, when compared to the navigation data, corresponded to a distance of about 5 mm to the internal capsule. Completeness of tumor resection was evaluated (contrast-enhanced MRI) in all patients on the first postoperative day. According to the control MRI data, the tumor was resected totally in 60% of patients, subtotally in 24% of patients, and partially in 16% of patients. In the early postoperative period, the development or

  3. On the ecological relevance of landscape mapping and its application in the spatial planning of very large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Oliver T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin

    2018-06-01

    In recent years very large marine protected areas (VLMPAs) have become the dominant form of spatial protection in the marine environment. Whilst seen as a holistic and geopolitically achievable approach to conservation, there is currently a mismatch between the size of VLMPAs, and the data available to underpin their establishment and inform on their management. Habitat mapping has increasingly been adopted as a means of addressing paucity in biological data, through use of environmental proxies to estimate species and community distribution. Small-scale studies have demonstrated environmental-biological links in marine systems. Such links, however, are rarely demonstrated across larger spatial scales in the benthic environment. As such, the utility of habitat mapping as an effective approach to the ecosystem-based management of VLMPAs remains, thus far, largely undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the ecological relevance of broadscale landscape mapping. Specifically we test the relationship between broad-scale marine landscapes and the structure of their benthic faunal communities. We focussed our work at the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, site of one of the largest MPAs in the world. We demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between environmentally derived landscape mapping clusters, and the composition of presence-only species data from the region. To demonstrate this relationship required specific re-sampling of historical species occurrence data to balance biological rarity, biological cosmopolitism, range-restricted sampling and fine-scale heterogeneity between sampling stations. The relationship reveals a distinct biological signature in the faunal composition of individual landscapes, attributing ecological relevance to South Georgia's environmentally derived marine landscape map. We argue therefore, that landscape mapping represents an effective framework for ensuring representative protection of habitats in management

  4. Defining Face Perception Areas in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Factorial fMRI Face Localizer Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Dricot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    A number of human brain areas showing a larger response to faces than to objects from different categories, or to scrambled faces, have been identified in neuroimaging studies. Depending on the statistical criteria used, the set of areas can be overextended or minimized, both at the local (size of areas) and global (number of areas) levels. Here…

  5. Musical structure is processed in "language" areas of the brain: a possible role for Brodmann Area 47 in temporal coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2003-12-01

    The neuroanatomical correlates of musical structure were investigated using functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) and a unique stimulus manipulation involving scrambled music. The experiment compared brain responses while participants listened to classical music and scrambled versions of that same music. Specifically, the scrambled versions disrupted musical structure while holding low-level musical attributes constant, including the psychoacoustic features of the music such as pitch, loudness, and timbre. Comparing music to its scrambled counterpart, we found focal activation in the pars orbitalis region (Brodmann Area 47) of the left inferior frontal cortex, a region that has been previously closely associated with the processing of linguistic structure in spoken and signed language, and its right hemisphere homologue. We speculate that this particular region of inferior frontal cortex may be more generally responsible for processing fine-structured stimuli that evolve over time, not merely those that are linguistic.

  6. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Mueller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16 and 28 adults (25–35 completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition. Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back. By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

  7. Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Cromheeke, Sofie; Siugzdaite, Roma; Nicolas Boehler, C

    2017-08-01

    In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12-16) and 28 adults (25-35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain functional network changes following Prelimbic area inactivation in a spatial memory extinction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic functional brain connectivity for face perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive

  10. Enriched environment decreases microglia and brain macrophages inflammatory phenotypes through adiponectin-dependent mechanisms: Relevance to depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabry, Joëlle; Nicolas, Sarah; Cazareth, Julie; Murris, Emilie; Guyon, Alice; Glaichenhaus, Nicolas; Heurteaux, Catherine; Petit-Paitel, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of neuroinflammation by glial cells plays a major role in the pathophysiology of major depression. While astrocyte involvement has been well described, the role of microglia is still elusive. Recently, we have shown that Adiponectin (ApN) plays a crucial role in the anxiolytic/antidepressant neurogenesis-independent effects of enriched environment (EE) in mice; however its mechanisms of action within the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that in a murine model of depression induced by chronic corticosterone administration, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus display increased levels of inflammatory cytokines mRNA, which is reversed by EE housing. By combining flow cytometry, cell sorting and q-PCR, we show that microglia from depressive-like mice adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by higher expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IκB-α mRNAs. EE housing blocks pro-inflammatory cytokine gene induction and promotes arginase 1 mRNA expression in brain-sorted microglia, indicating that EE favors an anti-inflammatory activation state. We show that microglia and brain-macrophages from corticosterone-treated mice adopt differential expression profiles for CCR2, MHC class II and IL-4recα surface markers depending on whether the mice are kept in standard environment or EE. Interestingly, the effects of EE were abolished when cells are isolated from ApN knock-out mouse brains. When injected intra-cerebroventricularly, ApN, whose level is specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid of depressive mice raised in EE, rescues microglia phenotype, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by microglia and blocks depressive-like behavior in corticosterone-treated mice. Our data suggest that EE-induced ApN increase within the brain regulates microglia and brain macrophages phenotype and activation state, thus reducing neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes of brain and cerebrospinal fluid area with development in childhood on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Chizuru; Hiraiwa, Mikio; Abe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Ryochi; Ohmi, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    There have been reported about changes of the brain CT (Computed Tomography) findings with development in childhood. These reports have been applied with one dimensional measurement, and we previously reported that one dimensional measurement was insufficient for objective judgement of CT findings, compared with our two dimensional measurement. Brain CT were performed in sixty-six children (thirty-four males and thirty-two females, aged from ten-day-old to twelve-year-old). Two dimensional measurement were played on the slice through foramen of Monro. We measured intracranial area (IC), brain area (BA), ventricular area (VA), and bifrontal fluid collection area (BFC). IC and BA were increased with development, but VA had no obvious change. Increase of IC and BA were disclosed significantly in infancy and toddling period. BFC was decreased with development on the average, and invisible in many cases over three-year-old. Thus, in the cases under three-year-old there lay massive variation of BFC in size. About the relationship between large BFC and central coordination difficulty in infancy, we reported in the last number of this journal. Variation of BFC in the cases under three-year-old might be due to selection of our subjects, those including eighteen infants with central coordination difficulty. Index of BA (BA x 100/IC), VA (VA x 100/IC), and BFC (BFC x 100/IC) were well matched to changes of BA, VA, and BFC with development. This is the first report for application of two dimensional measurement in CT findings of children with development. (author)

  12. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Shui, Qing; Zhong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  13. Quantification of Transporter and Receptor Proteins in Dog Brain Capillaries and Choroid Plexus: Relevance for the Distribution in Brain and CSF of Selected BCRP and P-gp Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clemens; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Fuchs, Holger; Ishiguro, Naoki; Suzuki, Shinobu; Cui, Yunhai; Klinder, Klaus; Watanabe, Michitoshi; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sauer, Achim

    2017-10-02

    Transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) play a pivotal role as gatekeepers for efflux or uptake of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The protein expression of a number of them has already been determined in the brains of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP). The dog is an important animal model for drug discovery and development, especially for safety evaluations. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relevance of the transporter protein expression for drug distribution in the dog brain and CSF. We used QTAP to examine the protein expression of 17 selected transporters and receptors at the dog BBB and BCSFB. For the first time, we directly linked the expression of two efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), to regional brain and CSF distribution using specific substrates. Two cocktails, each containing one P-gp substrate (quinidine or apafant) and one BCRP substrate (dantrolene or daidzein) were infused intravenously prior to collection of the brain. Transporter expression varied only slightly between the capillaries of different brain regions and did not result in region-specific distribution of the investigated substrates. There were, however, distinct differences between brain capillaries and choroid plexus. Largest differences were observed for BCRP and P-gp: both were highly expressed in brain capillaries, but no BCRP and only low amounts of P-gp were detected in the choroid plexus. K p,uu,brain and K p,uu,CSF of both P-gp substrates were indicative of drug efflux. Also, K p,uu,brain for the BCRP substrates was low. In contrast, K p,uu,CSF for both BCRP substrates was close to unity, resulting in K p,uu,CSF /K p,uu,brain ratios of 7 and 8, respectively. We conclude that the drug transporter expression profiles differ between the BBB and BCSFB in dogs, that there are species differences

  14. SPECT assessment of brain activation induced by caffeine: no effect on areas involved in dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Namer, Izzie J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is not considered addictive, and in animals it does not trigger metabolic increases or dopamine release in brain areas involved in reinforcement and reward. Our objective was to measure caffeine effects on cerebral perfusion in humans using single photon emission computed tomography with a specific focus on areas of reinforcement and reward. Two groups of nonsmoking subjects were studied, one with a low (8 subjects) and one with a high (6 subjects) daily coffee consumption. The subjects ingested 3 mg/kg caffeine or placebo in a raspberry-tasting drink, and scans were performed 45 min after ingestion. A control group of 12 healthy volunteers receiving no drink was also studied. Caffeine consumption led to a generalized, statistically nonsignificant perfusion decrease of 6% to 8%, comparable in low and high consumers. Compared with controls, low consumers displayed neuronal activation bilaterally in inferior frontal gyrus-anterior insular cortex and uncus, left internal parietal cortex, right lingual gyrus, and cerebellum. In high consumers, brain activation occurred bilaterally only in hypothalamus. Thus, on a background of widespread low-amplitude perfusion decrease, caffeine activates a few regions mainly involved in the control of vigilance, anxiety, and cardiovascular regulation, but does not affect areas involved in reinforcing and reward.

  15. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  16. Role of Transporters in Central Nervous System Drug Delivery and Blood-Brain Barrier Protection: Relevance to Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Brzica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The only approved pharmacologic treatment for ischemic stroke is thrombolysis via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA. A short therapeutic window and serious adverse events (ie, hemorrhage, excitotoxicity greatly limit r-tPA therapy, which indicates an essential need to develop novel stroke treatment paradigms. Transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB provide a significant opportunity to advance stroke therapy via central nervous system delivery of drugs that have neuroprotective properties. Examples of such transporters include organic anion–transporting polypeptides (Oatps and organic cation transporters (Octs. In addition, multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps are transporter targets in brain microvascular endothelial cells that can be exploited to preserve BBB integrity in the setting of stroke. Here, we review current knowledge on stroke pharmacotherapy and demonstrate how endogenous BBB transporters can be targeted for improvement of ischemic stroke treatment.

  17. 'Spreading depression of Leão' and its emerging relevance to acute brain injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Martin; Strong, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    experiencing the visual (or sensorimotor) aura of migraine. In this review, we trace from their first description in rabbits through to their detection and study in migraine and the injured human brain, and from our personal perspectives, the evolution of understanding of the importance of spread of mass......A new research field in translational neuroscience has opened as a result of the recognition since 2002 that "spreading depression of Leão" can be detected in many patients with acute brain injury, whether vascular and spontaneous, or traumatic in origin, as well as in those many individuals...... depolarisations in cerebral grey matter. Detection of spontaneous depolarisations occurring and spreading in the periphery or penumbra of experimental focal cortical ischemic lesions and of their adverse effects on the cerebral cortical microcirculation and on the tissue glucose and oxygen pools has led...

  18. White matter integrity in brain networks relevant to anxiety and depression: evidence from the human connectome project dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Nele A J; Mueller, Sven C

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are associated with altered communication within global brain networks and between these networks and the amygdala. Functional connectivity studies demonstrate an effect of anxiety and depression on four critical brain networks involved in top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal network; FPN), salience detection and error monitoring (cingulo-opercular network; CON), bottom-up stimulus-driven attention (ventral attention network; VAN), and default mode (default mode network; DMN). However, structural evidence on the white matter (WM) connections within these networks and between these networks and the amygdala is lacking. The current study in a large healthy sample (n = 483) observed that higher trait anxiety-depression predicted lower WM integrity in the connections between amygdala and specific regions of the FPN, CON, VAN, and DMN. We discuss the possible consequences of these anatomical alterations for cognitive-affective functioning and underscore the need for further theory-driven research on individual differences in anxiety and depression on brain structure.

  19. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends while subjects performed a three-stimulus oddball task. The results showed larger P2 amplitudes for one’s own name than for close-other’s name in the low self-esteem group, whereas this P2 effect were not observed in the high self-esteem group. In addition, one’s own name elicited equivalent N250 amplitudes and larger P3 amplitudes compared with close-other’s name in both high and low self-esteem groups. However, no interaction effects were observed between self-esteem and self-relevant processing in the N250 and P3 components. Thus, we found that the modulation effects of self-esteem on self-relevant processing occurred at the early P2 stage, but not at the later N250 and P3 stages. These findings reflect that individuals with low self-esteem demonstrate automatic attention towards their own names.

  20. CRMP5 regulates generation and survival of newborn neurons in olfactory and hippocampal neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Veyrac

    Full Text Available The Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPS are highly expressed in the developing brain, and in adult brain areas that retain neurogenesis, ie: the olfactory bulb (OB and the dentate gyrus (DG. During brain development, CRMPs are essentially involved in signaling of axon guidance and neurite outgrowth, but their functions in the adult brain remain largely unknown. CRMP5 has been initially identified as the target of auto-antibodies involved in paraneoplasic neurological diseases and further implicated in a neurite outgrowth inhibition mediated by tubulin binding. Interestingly, CRMP5 is also highly expressed in adult brain neurogenic areas where its functions have not yet been elucidated. Here we observed in both neurogenic areas of the adult mouse brain that CRMP5 was present in proliferating and post-mitotic neuroblasts, while they migrate and differentiate into mature neurons. In CRMP5(-/- mice, the lack of CRMP5 resulted in a significant increase of proliferation and neurogenesis, but also in an excess of apoptotic death of granule cells in the OB and DG. These findings provide the first evidence that CRMP5 is involved in the generation and survival of newly generated neurons in areas of the adult brain with a high level of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  1. Brain perfusion SPECT with Brodmann areas analysis in differentiating frontotemporal dementia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known validity of clinical diagnostic criteria, significant overlap of clinical symptoms between Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subtypes exists in several cases, resulting in great uncertainty of the diagnostic boundaries. We evaluated the perfusion between FTD subtypes using brain perfusion (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT with Brodmann areas (BA) mapping. NeuroGam software was applied on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BA and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 91 consecutive FTD patients: 21 with behavioural variants (bvFTD), 39 with language variants (lvFTD) [12 with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), 27 with semantic dementia (SD)], and 31 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)/corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Stepwise logistic regression analyses showed that the BA 28L and 32R could independently differentiate bvFTD from lvFTD, while the BA 8R and 25R could discriminate bvFTD from SD and PNFA, respectively. Additionally, BA 7R and 32R were found to discriminate bvFTD from CBD/PSP. The only BA that could differentiate SD from PNFA was 6L. BA 6R and 20L were found to independently differentiate CBD/PSP from lvFTD. Moreover, BA 20L and 22R could discriminate CBD/PSP from PNFA, while BA 6R, 20L and 45R were found to independently discriminate CBD/PSP from SD. Brain perfusion SPECT with BA mapping can be a useful additional tool in differentiating FTD variants by improving the definition of brain areas that are specifically implicated, resulting in a more accurate differential diagnosis in atypical or uncertain forms of FTD.

  2. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  3. Neuropsychiatric disease relevance of circulating anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies depends on blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Schneider, A; Papiol, S; Tantra, M; Begemann, M; Sirén, A-L; Pardo, L A; Sperling, S; Mohd Jofrry, S; Gurvich, A; Jensen, N; Ostmeier, K; Lühder, F; Probst, C; Martens, H; Gillis, M; Saher, G; Assogna, F; Spalletta, G; Stöcker, W; Schulz, T F; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2014-10-01

    In 2007, a multifaceted syndrome, associated with anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies (NMDAR-AB) of immunoglobulin-G isotype, has been described, which variably consists of psychosis, epilepsy, cognitive decline and extrapyramidal symptoms. Prevalence and significance of NMDAR-AB in complex neuropsychiatric disease versus health, however, have remained unclear. We tested sera of 2817 subjects (1325 healthy, 1081 schizophrenic, 263 Parkinson and 148 affective-disorder subjects) for presence of NMDAR-AB, conducted a genome-wide genetic association study, comparing AB carriers versus non-carriers, and assessed their influenza AB status. For mechanistic insight and documentation of AB functionality, in vivo experiments involving mice with deficient blood-brain barrier (ApoE(-/-)) and in vitro endocytosis assays in primary cortical neurons were performed. In 10.5% of subjects, NMDAR-AB (NR1 subunit) of any immunoglobulin isotype were detected, with no difference in seroprevalence, titer or in vitro functionality between patients and healthy controls. Administration of extracted human serum to mice influenced basal and MK-801-induced activity in the open field only in ApoE(-/-) mice injected with NMDAR-AB-positive serum but not in respective controls. Seropositive schizophrenic patients with a history of neurotrauma or birth complications, indicating an at least temporarily compromised blood-brain barrier, had more neurological abnormalities than seronegative patients with comparable history. A common genetic variant (rs524991, P=6.15E-08) as well as past influenza A (P=0.024) or B (P=0.006) infection were identified as predisposing factors for NMDAR-AB seropositivity. The >10% overall seroprevalence of NMDAR-AB of both healthy individuals and patients is unexpectedly high. Clinical significance, however, apparently depends on association with past or present perturbations of blood-brain barrier function.

  4. Sources of EEG activity most relevant to performance of brain-computer interface based on motor imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A.; Húsek, Dušan; Bobrov, P.; Korshakov, A.V.; Chernikova, L.; Konovalov, R.; Mokienko, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2012), s. 21-37 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : brain-computer interface * independent component analysis * pattern classification * motor imagery * inverse problem * fMRI * EEG Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.362, year: 2012

  5. Interactions of AChE with Aβ Aggregates in Alzheimer’s Brain: Therapeutic Relevance of IDN 5706

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Carvajal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7 plays a crucial role in the rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, in the central and peripheral nervous system and might also participate in non-cholinergic mechanism related to neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities, amyloid-β peptide (Aβ accumulation and synaptic alterations. We have previously shown that AChE is able to accelerate the Aβ peptide assembly into Alzheimer-type aggregates increasing its neurotoxicity. Furthermore, AChE activity is altered in brain and blood of Alzheimer’s patients. The enzyme associated to amyloid plaques changes its enzymatic and pharmacological properties, as well as, increases its resistant to low pH, inhibitors and excess of substrate. Here, we reviewed the effects of IDN 5706, a hyperforin derivative that has potential preventive effects on the development of AD. Our results show that treatment with IDN5706 for 10 weeks increases brain AChE activity in seven month-old double transgenic mice (APPswe - PS1 and decreases the content of AChE associated with different types of amyloid plaques in this Alzheimer’s model. We concluded that early treatment with IDN 5706 decreases AChE-Aβ interaction and this effect might be of therapeutic interest in the treatment of AD.

  6. Area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system in the brain: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Zsolt; Juhász, Gábor; Palkovits, Miklós; Dobolyi, Arpád; Kékesi, Katalin A

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosides, such as uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine, may participate in the regulation of sleep, cognition, memory and nociception, the suppression of seizures, and have also been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of some neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Under pathological conditions, levels of nucleosides change extremely in the brain, indicating their participation in the pathophysiology of disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. These findings have resulted in an increasing attention to the roles of nucleosides in the central nervous system. The specific effects of nucleosides depend on the expression of their receptors and transporters in neuronal and glial cells, as well as their extracellular concentrations in the brain. A complex interlinked metabolic network and transporters of nucleosides may balance nucleoside levels in the brain tissue under normal conditions and enable the fine modulation of neuronal and glial processes via nucleoside receptor signaling mechanisms. Brain levels of nucleosides were found to vary when measured in a variety of different brain regions. In addition, nucleoside levels also depend on age and gender. Furthermore, distributions of nucleoside transporters and receptors as well as nucleoside metabolic enzyme activities demonstrate the area, age and gender dependence of the nucleoside system, suggesting different roles of nucleosides in functionally different brain areas. The aim of this review article is to summarize our present knowledge of the area-, age- and gender-dependent distribution of nucleoside levels, nucleoside metabolic enzyme activity, nucleoside receptors and nucleoside transporters in the brain.

  7. Dorsal and ventral working memory-related brain areas support distinct processes in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginelli, Angela A; Baumgartner, Florian; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the use of implicitly learned spatial contexts for improved visual search may depend on visual working memory resources. Working memory may be involved in contextual cueing in different ways: (1) for keeping implicitly learned working memory contents available during search or (2) for the capture of attention by contexts retrieved from memory. We mapped brain areas that were modulated by working memory capacity. Within these areas, activation was modulated by contextual cueing along the descending segment of the intraparietal sulcus, an area that has previously been related to maintenance of explicit memories. Increased activation for learned displays, but not modulated by the size of contextual cueing, was observed in the temporo-parietal junction area, previously associated with the capture of attention by explicitly retrieved memory items, and in the ventral visual cortex. This pattern of activation extends previous research on dorsal versus ventral stream functions in memory guidance of attention to the realm of attentional guidance by implicit memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensory competition in the face processing areas of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Nagy

    Full Text Available The concurrent presentation of multiple stimuli in the visual field may trigger mutually suppressive interactions throughout the ventral visual stream. While several studies have been performed on sensory competition effects among non-face stimuli relatively little is known about the interactions in the human brain for multiple face stimuli. In the present study we analyzed the neuronal basis of sensory competition in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study using multiple face stimuli. We varied the ratio of faces and phase-noise images within a composite display with a constant number of peripheral stimuli, thereby manipulating the competitive interactions between faces. For contralaterally presented stimuli we observed strong competition effects in the fusiform face area (FFA bilaterally and in the right lateral occipital area (LOC, but not in the occipital face area (OFA, suggesting their different roles in sensory competition. When we increased the spatial distance among pairs of faces the magnitude of suppressive interactions was reduced in the FFA. Surprisingly, the magnitude of competition depended on the visual hemifield of the stimuli: ipsilateral stimulation reduced the competition effects somewhat in the right LOC while it increased them in the left LOC. This suggests a left hemifield dominance of sensory competition. Our results support the sensory competition theory in the processing of multiple faces and suggests that sensory competition occurs in several cortical areas in both cerebral hemispheres.

  9. The relationship between reproductive state and "sexually" dimorphic brain areas in sexually reproducing and parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J; Crews, D

    1991-07-22

    The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus are sexually dimorphic in the reproductively active whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus. The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area, which is involved in the control of male-typical copulatory behaviors, is larger in males, whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus, which is involved in the control of female-typical receptivity, is larger in females. In the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard C. uniparens, which is a direct descendant of C. inornatus and exhibits both male-like and female-like pseudosexual behaviors, both brain areas are comparable in size to those of female C. inornatus. This study was conducted to determine whether these brain areas change in size in either species or sex during a time of year when these animals are reproductively inactive, or after removal of the gonads. In male C. inornatus both brain areas changed during reproductive inactivity (either seasonally or surgically induced) and became equivalent to the size characteristic of reproductively active female C. inornatus. When corrected for brain size, the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area was significantly smaller in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. Conversely, the ventromedial hypothalamus was significantly larger in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. The two brain areas were not significantly different among the groups of female C. inornatus or parthenogenetic C. uniparens. These results suggest that 1) the brain of whiptail lizards may differentiate seasonally and 2) the female state may be a neutral one to which the male brain reverts during reproductive inactivity.

  10. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Cyto- and receptor architecture of area 32 in human and macaque brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl; Schleicher, Axel; Vogt, Brent A

    2013-10-01

    Human area 32 plays crucial roles in emotion and memory consolidation. It has subgenual (s32), pregenual (p32), dorsal, and midcingulate components. We seek to determine whether macaque area 32 has subgenual and pregenual subdivisions and the extent to which they are comparable to those in humans by means of NeuN immunohistochemistry and multireceptor analysis of laminar profiles. The macaque has areas s32 and p32. In s32, layer IIIa/b neurons are larger than those of layer IIIc. This relationship is reversed in p32. Layer Va is thicker and Vb thinner in s32. Area p32 contains higher kainate, benzodiazepine (BZ), and serotonin (5-HT)1A but lower N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α2 receptor densities. Most differences were found in layers I, II, and VI. Together, these differences support the dual nature of macaque area 32. Comparative analysis of human and macaque s32 and p32 supports equivalences in cyto- and receptor architecture. Although there are differences in mean areal receptor densities, there are considerable similarities at the layer level. Laminar receptor distribution patterns in each area are comparable in the two species in layers III-Va for kainate, NMDA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B , BZ, and 5-HT1A receptors. Multivariate statistical analysis of laminar receptor densities revealed that human s32 is more similar to macaque s32 and p32 than to human p32. Thus, macaque 32 is more complex than hitherto known. Our data suggest a homologous neural architecture in anterior cingulate s32 and p32 in human and macaque brains. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Parkin Isoforms Expression in Different Rat Brain Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Maugeri, Grazia; Reitano, Rita; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2016-10-01

    PARK2 gene's mutations are related to the familial form of juvenile Parkinsonism, also known as the autosomic recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. This gene encodes for parkin, a 465-amino acid protein. To date, a large number of parkin isoforms, generated by an alternative splicing mechanism, have been described. Currently, Gene Bank lists 27 rat PARK2 transcripts, which matches to 20 exclusive parkin alternative splice variants. Despite the existence of these isoforms, most of the studies carried out so far, have been focused only on the originally cloned parkin. In this work we have analyzed the expression profile of parkin isoforms in some rat brain areas including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum. To discriminate among these isoforms, we detected their localization through the use of two antibodies that are able to identify different domains of the parkin canonical sequence. Our analysis has revealed that at least fourteen parkin isoforms are expressed in rat brain with a various distribution in the regions analyzed. Our study might help to elucidate the pathophysiological role of these proteins in the central nervous system.

  13. Identifying diagnostically-relevant resting state brain functional connectivity in the ventral posterior complex via genetic data mining in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Philip R; Curtis, Kaylah N; Patriquin, Michelle A; Wolf, Varina; Viswanath, Humsini; Shaw, Chad; Sakai, Yasunari; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing and copy number variation analyses continue to provide novel insight to the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing speed at which massive genetic data are produced causes serious lags in analysis and interpretation of the data. Thus, there is a need to develop systematic genetic data mining processes that facilitate efficient analysis of large datasets. We report a new genetic data mining system, ProcessGeneLists and integrated a list of ASD-related genes with currently available resources in gene expression and functional connectivity of the human brain. Our data-mining program successfully identified three primary regions of interest (ROIs) in the mouse brain: inferior colliculus, ventral posterior complex of the thalamus (VPC), and parafascicular nucleus (PFn). To understand its pathogenic relevance in ASD, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the homologous ROIs in human brain with other brain regions that were previously implicated in the neuro-psychiatric features of ASD. Among them, the RSFC of the VPC with the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was significantly more anticorrelated, whereas the RSFC of the PN with the globus pallidus was significantly increased in children with ASD compared with healthy children. Moreover, greater values of RSFC between VPC and MFG were correlated with severity index and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. No significant RSFC differences were detected in adults with ASD. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of our data-mining program through identifying the aberrant connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuits in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 553-562. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Zecca, Massimiliano; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Takanishi, Atsuo; Frith, Chris D; Micera, Silvestro; Dario, Paolo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2010-07-21

    The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents. Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust) and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted. Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance. Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions. Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  16. Semantic brain areas are involved in gesture comprehension: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Gabaro, Veronica; Orlandi, Andrea; Zani, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    While the mechanism of sign language comprehension in deaf people has been widely investigated, little is known about the neural underpinnings of spontaneous gesture comprehension in healthy speakers. Bioelectrical responses to 800 pictures of actors showing common Italian gestures (e.g., emblems, deictic or iconic gestures) were recorded in 14 persons. Stimuli were selected from a wider corpus of 1122 gestures. Half of the pictures were preceded by an incongruent description. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites while participants decided whether the stimulus was congruent. Congruent pictures elicited a posterior P300 followed by late positivity, while incongruent gestures elicited an anterior N400 response. N400 generators were investigated with swLORETA reconstruction. Processing of congruent gestures activated face- and body-related visual areas (e.g., BA19, BA37, BA22), the left angular gyrus, mirror fronto/parietal areas. The incongruent-congruent contrast particularly stimulated linguistic and semantic brain areas, such as the left medial and the superior temporal lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ventral medullary neurones excited from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S M; Smith, P R

    1984-07-01

    In cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the ventral medulla was explored in and around the strip previously identified as the location of the efferent pathway from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas to the spinal cord, in a search for neurones excited by electrical stimulation of the defence areas. Such units were found mostly in the caudal part of this strip, at a depth of not more than 500 microns from the surface. Nearly all were located in the ventral part of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) at the level of the rostral pole of the inferior olive. There was evidence of temporal and spatial facilitation, indicating a convergent excitatory input from the defence areas onto neurones in PGL. This is consistent with earlier evidence of a synaptic relay in the efferent pathway at this site. When the pathway is blocked at this site, arterial blood pressure falls profoundly, so activity in these neurones may be essential for the normal level of sympathetic nerve activity.

  18. Healthy full-term infants' brain responses to emotionally and linguistically relevant sounds using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Videman, Mari; Karlsson, Linnea; Keskinen, Maria; Scheinin, Noora M; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna

    2018-03-23

    We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in studying auditory processing of healthy newborns. The aim was to examine the automatic change-detection and processing of semantic and emotional information in speech in newborns. Brain responses of 202 healthy newborns were recorded with a multi-feature paradigm including a Finnish bi-syllabic pseudo-word/ta-ta/as a standard stimulus, six linguistically relevant deviant stimuli and three emotionally relevant stimuli (happy, sad, angry). Clear responses to emotional sounds were found already at the early latency window 100-200 ms, whereas responses to linguistically relevant minor changes and emotional stimuli at the later latency window 300-500 ms did not reach significance. Moreover, significant interaction between gender and emotional stimuli was found in the early latency window. Further studies on using multi-feature paradigms with linguistic and emotional stimuli in newborns are needed, especially those containing of follow-ups, enabling the assessment of the predictive value of early variations between subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our q...

  20. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Biogenic amines in brain areas of rats and response to varying dose levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, F.M.; Elmossalamy, N.; Othman, S.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdelraheem, K.

    1994-01-01

    The levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were examined in the brain areas:cortex,: cerebellum, striatum and pons in rats exposed to whole body gamma-irradiation at the dose levels 6.5 and 10 Gy. The data obtained indicated that: 6.5 Gy induced in all brain areas, a slight increase in 5-HT concomitant with significant decrease in NE, DA levels, besides a significant increase in 5-HTAA in cerebellum and pons. After the dose 10 Gy the maximum excitation of 5-HT level was in striatum whereas declines in NE, DA were recorded in all brain areas. 5-HIAA displayed significant increase in cerebellum and pons and maximum decline in the cortex. 4 tab

  2. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggas, Abeer M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

  3. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  4. Early auditory processing in area V5/MT+ of the congenitally blind brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kate E; Shakespeare, Timothy J; O'Donoghue, M Clare; Alexander, Iona; Ragge, Nicola; Cowey, Alan; Bridge, Holly

    2013-11-13

    Previous imaging studies of congenital blindness have studied individuals with heterogeneous causes of blindness, which may influence the nature and extent of cross-modal plasticity. Here, we scanned a homogeneous group of blind people with bilateral congenital anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop, and, as a result, the visual pathway is not stimulated by either light or retinal waves. This model of congenital blindness presents an opportunity to investigate the effects of very early visual deafferentation on the functional organization of the brain. In anophthalmic animals, the occipital cortex receives direct subcortical auditory input. We hypothesized that this pattern of subcortical reorganization ought to result in a topographic mapping of auditory frequency information in the occipital cortex of anophthalmic people. Using functional MRI, we examined auditory-evoked activity to pure tones of high, medium, and low frequencies. Activity in the superior temporal cortex was significantly reduced in anophthalmic compared with sighted participants. In the occipital cortex, a region corresponding to the cytoarchitectural area V5/MT+ was activated in the anophthalmic participants but not in sighted controls. Whereas previous studies in the blind indicate that this cortical area is activated to auditory motion, our data show it is also active for trains of pure tone stimuli and in some anophthalmic participants shows a topographic mapping (tonotopy). Therefore, this region appears to be performing early sensory processing, possibly served by direct subcortical input from the pulvinar to V5/MT+.

  5. Brain responses to language-relevant musical features in adolescent cochlear implant users before and after an intensive music training program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Hansen, Mads

    Brain responses to language-relevant musical features in adolescent cochlear implant users before and after an intensive music training program Petersen B.1,2, Weed E.1,3, Hansen M.1,4, Sørensen S.D.3 , Sandmann P.5 , Vuust P.1,2 1Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University......, rhythm and intensity). Difference waves for the rhythm deviant were analyzed in the time window between 300 and 320 ms. Separate mixed-model ANOVAs were performed for left and right fronto-central electrodes. Paired t-tests were used to analyze the behavioral data. Here we present preliminary analyses...... of ERP responses to the rhythm deviant stimuli and results from a behavioral rhythm discrimination test. For both left and right electrode sites we found a main effect of group, driven by higher mean amplitude in the NH group. There was no main effect of training. Left hemisphere sites showed...

  6. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounelakis, M G; Zervakis, M E; Giakos, G C; Postma, G J; Buydens, L M C; Kotsiakis, X

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  7. Diverse antidepressants increase CDP-diacylglycerol production and phosphatidylinositide resynthesis in depression-relevant regions of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undieh Ashiwel S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depression is a serious mood disorder affecting millions of adults and children worldwide. While the etiopathology of depression remains obscure, antidepressant medications increase synaptic levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions associated with the disease. Monoamine transmitters activate multiple signaling cascades some of which have been investigated as potential mediators of depression or antidepressant drug action. However, the diacylglycerol arm of phosphoinositide signaling cascades has not been systematically investigated, even though downstream targets of this cascade have been implicated in depression. With the ultimate goal of uncovering the primary postsynaptic actions that may initiate cellular antidepressive signaling, we have examined the antidepressant-induced production of CDP-diacylglycerol which is both a product of diacylglycerol phosphorylation and a precursor for the synthesis of physiologically critical glycerophospholipids such as the phosphatidylinositides. For this, drug effects on [3H]cytidine-labeled CDP-diacylglycerol and [3H]inositol-labeled phosphatidylinositides were measured in response to the tricyclics desipramine and imipramine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and paroxetine, the atypical antidepressants maprotiline and nomifensine, and several monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Results Multiple compounds from each antidepressant category significantly stimulated [3H]CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation in cerebrocortical, hippocampal, and striatal tissues, and also enhanced the resynthesis of inositol phospholipids. Conversely, various antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and non-antidepressant psychotropic agents failed to significantly induce CDP-diacylglycerol or phosphoinositide synthesis. Drug-induced CDP-diacylglycerol accumulation was independent of lithium and only partially dependent on phosphoinositide hydrolysis, thus indicating that antidepressants

  8. Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: evidence from MRI in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and emergence of ventricular abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD: We used an established mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA by the viral mimic PolyI:C administered in early (day 9 or late (day 17 gestation. Automated voxel-based morphometry mapped cerebrospinal fluid across the whole brain of adult offspring and the results were validated by manual region-of-interest tracing of the lateral ventricles. Parallel behavioral testing determined the existence of schizophrenia-related sensorimotor gating abnormalities. RESULTS: PolyI:C-induced immune activation, in early but not late gestation, caused marked enlargement of lateral ventricles in adulthood, without affecting total white and grey matter volumes. This early exposure disrupted sensorimotor gating, in the form of prepulse inhibition. Identical immune challenge in late gestation resulted in significant expansion of 4(th ventricle volume but did not disrupt sensorimotor gating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first experimental evidence that prenatal immune activation is an environmental risk factor for adult ventricular enlargement relevant to schizophrenia. The data indicate immune-associated environmental insults targeting early foetal development may have more extensive neurodevelopmental impact than identical insults in late prenatal life.

  9. [Measurement of the blood flow in various areas of the rat brain by means of microspheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroo, J; Gerber, G B

    1976-01-01

    A method is described to measure regional blood flow in different structures of the rat brain. Microspheres (15 micron) are injected, the brain is sectioned, stained for myeline, radioautographs are prepared and the microspheres in the different structures are counted. The values obtained for different brain structures are counted. The values obtained for different brain regions (cortex, corpus callosum, thalamus hipocampus, hypothalamic region, colliculi, cerebellum, pons, medulla) compare well with those published by others on larger animals. In rats fed 1% of lead from birth, higher blood flow is found in the cortex and a lower one in the interior part of the brain compared to controls.

  10. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Charles; Fortier, Emmanuel; Bouchard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VTA neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarization mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VTA neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VTA neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VTA AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for 2 h after bilateral VTA microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5 μl/side) and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid). NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VTA sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected, respectively, into the anterior and posterior VTA. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VTA neurons, to

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Brain Perfusion SPECT with Brodmann Areas Mapping in Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, Varvara; Papatriantafyllou, John; Sifakis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Chara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fezoulidis, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Hadjigeorgiou, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on clinical criteria alone may be problematic, while current and future treatments should be administered earlier in order to be more effective. Thus, various disease biomarkers could be used for early detection of AD. We evaluated brain perfusion with 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Brodmann areas (BAs) mapping in mild AD using an automated software (NeuroGam) for the semi-quantitative evaluation of perfusion in BAs and the comparison with the software's normal database. We studied 34 consecutive patients with mild AD: 9 men, 25 women, mean age 70.9 ± 8.1 years, mean Mini-Mental State Examination 22.6 ± 2.5. BAs 25L, 25R, 38L, 38R, 28L, 28R, 36L, and 36R had the lower mean perfusion values, while BAs 31L, 31R, 19R, 18L, 18R, 17L, and 17R had the higher mean values. Compared with healthy subjects of the same age, perfusion values in BAs 25L, 25R, 28R, 28L, 36L, and 36R had the greatest deviations from the healthy sample, while the lowest deviations were found in BAs 32L, 32R, 19R, 24L, 17L, 17R, 18L, and 18R. A percentage of ≥94% of patients had perfusion values more than -2SDs below the mean of healthy subjects in BAs 38R, 38L, 36L, 36R, 23L, 23R, 22L, 44L, 28L, 28R, 25L, and 25R. The corresponding proportion was less than 38% for BAs 11L, 19R, 32L, 32R, 18L, 18R, 24L, and 17R. In conclusion, brain SPECT studies with automated perfusion mapping could be useful as an ancillary tool in daily practice, revealing perfusion impairments in early AD.

  12. Brain response to a humanoid robot in areas implicated in the perception of human emotional gestures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chaminade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The humanoid robot WE4-RII was designed to express human emotions in order to improve human-robot interaction. We can read the emotions depicted in its gestures, yet might utilize different neural processes than those used for reading the emotions in human agents.Here, fMRI was used to assess how brain areas activated by the perception of human basic emotions (facial expression of Anger, Joy, Disgust and silent speech respond to a humanoid robot impersonating the same emotions, while participants were instructed to attend either to the emotion or to the motion depicted.Increased responses to robot compared to human stimuli in the occipital and posterior temporal cortices suggest additional visual processing when perceiving a mechanical anthropomorphic agent. In contrast, activity in cortical areas endowed with mirror properties, like left Broca's area for the perception of speech, and in the processing of emotions like the left anterior insula for the perception of disgust and the orbitofrontal cortex for the perception of anger, is reduced for robot stimuli, suggesting lesser resonance with the mechanical agent. Finally, instructions to explicitly attend to the emotion significantly increased response to robot, but not human facial expressions in the anterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a neural marker of motor resonance.Motor resonance towards a humanoid robot, but not a human, display of facial emotion is increased when attention is directed towards judging emotions.Artificial agents can be used to assess how factors like anthropomorphism affect neural response to the perception of human actions.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Old Faithful area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and its relevance to natural resources and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Foley, Duncan; Fournier, Robert O.; Heasler, Henry P.; Hinckley, Bern; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of leading experts (The Old Faithful Science Review Panel) was convened by Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to review and summarize the geological and hydrological understanding that can inform National Park Service management of the Upper Geyser Basin area. We give an overview of present geological and hydrological knowledge of the Old Faithful hydrothermal (hot water) system and related thermal areas in the Upper Geyser Basin. We prioritize avenues for improving our understanding of key knowledge gaps that limit informed decision-making regarding human use in this fragile natural landscape. Lastly, we offer guidelines to minimize impacts to the hydrothermal system that could be used to aid decisions by park management.

  14. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  15. Diagnostic work up for language testing in patients undergoing awake craniotomy for brain lesions in language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Titi, Luca; Lalli, Diana; Delfini, Roberto; Santoro, Antonio; Rosa, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Awake craniotomy is the technique of choice in patients with brain tumours adjacent to primary and accessory language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas). Language testing should be aimed to detect preoperative deficits, to promptly identify the occurrence of new intraoperative impairments and to establish the course of postoperative language status. Aim of this case series is to describe our experience with a dedicated language testing work up to evaluate patients with or at risk for language disturbances undergoing awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection. Pre- and intra operative testing was accomplished with 8 tests. Intraoperative evaluation was accomplished when patients were fully cooperative (Ramsey awake craniotomy for brain tumour resection with preoperative language disturbances or at risk for postoperative language deficits. This approach allows a systematic evaluation and recording of language function status and can be accomplished even when a neuropsychologist or speech therapist are not involved in the operation crew.

  16. Linguistic processing in visual and modality-nonspecific brain areas: PET recordings during selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor A; Alho, Kimmo; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V; Pakhomov, Sergey V; Roudas, Marina S; Rutkovskaya, Julia M; Tervaniemi, Mari; Van Zuijen, Titia L; Näätänen, Risto

    2004-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of selective processing of linguistic material during concurrent presentation of multiple stimulus streams ("cocktail-party effect"). Fifteen healthy right-handed adult males were to attend to one of three simultaneously presented messages: one presented visually, one to the left ear, and one to the right ear. During the control condition, subjects attended to visually presented consonant letter strings and ignored auditory messages. This paper reports the modality-nonspecific language processing and visual word-form processing, whereas the auditory attention effects have been reported elsewhere [Cogn. Brain Res. 17 (2003) 201]. The left-hemisphere areas activated by both the selective processing of text and speech were as follows: the inferior prefrontal (Brodmann's area, BA 45, 47), anterior temporal (BA 38), posterior insular (BA 13), inferior (BA 20) and middle temporal (BA 21), occipital (BA 18/30) cortices, the caudate nucleus, and the amygdala. In addition, bilateral activations were observed in the medial occipito-temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Decreases of activation during both text and speech processing were found in the parietal (BA 7, 40), frontal (BA 6, 8, 44) and occipito-temporal (BA 37) regions of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the present data suggest that the left occipito-temporal cortex (BA 18, 20, 37, 21) can be subdivided into three functionally distinct regions in the posterior-anterior direction on the basis of their activation during attentive processing of sublexical orthography, visual word form, and supramodal higher-level aspects of language.

  17. Neuropsychological significance of areas of high signal intensity on brain MRIs of children with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B D; Slopis, J M; Schomer, D; Jackson, E F; Levy, B M

    1996-06-01

    Of children with neurofibromatosis (NF), 40% have a cognitive or learning impairment. Approximately 60% also have anomalous areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted brain MRIs. The association of these hyperintensities and neuropsychological status is not fully understood. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and a standard clinical MRI to determine the impact of hyperintensity presence, number, and location on cognitive status in 84 children (8 to 16 years) with NF type 1. These children underwent standard clinical MRI using a GE 1.5-tesla scanner (except one child who was examined with a 1.0-tesla scanner). We conducted three types of analyses: Hyperintensity presence or absence.-Scores of children with (55%) and without hyperintensities (45%) were compared using t tests. No statistically significant differences between groups in intellectual functioning or any neuropsychological variable were found. Number of hyperintensities-The number of hyperintensity locations per child ranged from one to five (mean = 2.22). Pearson correlations revealed no significant association between the number of hyperintensities and neuropsychological performance. Location of hyperintensities-In four of the five locations studied, no statistically significant differences were found between scores of children with a hyperintensity in an area and those with one elsewhere. However, mean scores for IQ, Memory, Motor, Distractibility, and Attention domains for children with hyperintensities in the thalamus were significantly lower than scores for those with hyperintensities elsewhere. These results suggest that the simple presence or absence of hyperintensities, or their total number, is not as important as their anatomic location for detecting their relationship with neuropsychological status. Taking location into account, hyperintensities in the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, brainstem, or cerebellum seem to have no impact on neuropsychological functioning

  18. Three-dimensional representation of the climates and temperatures which are relevant to thermal comfort in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendritzky, G.

    1991-01-01

    The complex outdoor conditions of heat exchange of the human being are determined by the topographic factor, and in a microscale by the specific behaviour of various kinds of land use. For urban planning purposes a one-dimensional boundary layer model provides, with sufficient accuracy, those meteorological elements as a function of land use type which are required for the human heat budget. The model distinguishes between 'settled', 'cultivated (green)', and 'paved' areas. In the first two types, a definable vertical extension is taken into consideration. In a first approach, the meteorological conditions of the following five land use types have been simulated: Built-up area dense and loose, forest, unsealed (arable) land, and asphalt. The influence of orography on radiance, temperature, and wind field is taken into account by empirical approaches. The resulting meteorological fields are analysed by the Klima-Michel-model, which describes the heat budget model of a human being, thus providing physiological significant information. First applications of the procedure (still in 50 m resolution, the aim is 25 m) are presented, and the problem of linking different data levels are discussed. The final objective is a standardized tool to compute so-called climate applicability maps with respect to e.g. residential, recreational and industrial areas. (orig.) [de

  19. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  20. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  1. Specificities of Awake Craniotomy and Brain Mapping in Children for Resection of Supratentorial Tumors in the Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, Matthieu; Terminassian, Aram; Lehousse, Thierry; Aubin, Ghislaine; Malka, Jean; N'Guyen, Sylvie; Mercier, Philippe; Menei, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    In the pediatric population, awake craniotomy began to be used for the resection of brain tumor located close to eloquent areas. Some specificities must be taken into account to adapt this method to children. The aim of this clinical study is to not only confirm the feasibility of awake craniotomy and language brain mapping in the pediatric population but also identify the specificities and necessary adaptations of the procedure. Six children aged 11 to 16 were operated on while awake under local anesthesia with language brain mapping for supratentorial brain lesions (tumor and cavernoma). The preoperative planning comprised functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychologic and psychologic assessment. The specific preoperative preparation is clearly explained including hypnosis conditioning and psychiatric evaluation. The success of the procedure was based on the ability to perform the language brain mapping and the tumor removal without putting the patient to sleep. We investigated the pediatric specificities, psychological experience, and neuropsychologic follow-up. The children experienced little anxiety, probably in large part due to the use of hypnosis. We succeeded in doing the cortical-subcortical mapping and removing the tumor without putting the patient to sleep in all cases. The psychological experience was good, and the neuropsychologic follow-up showed a favorable evolution. Preoperative preparation and hypnosis in children seemed important for performing awake craniotomy and contributing language brain mapping with the best possible psychological experience. The pediatrics specificities are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated Multi-Contrast Brain Pathological Area Extraction from 2D MR Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Pavel; Bartušek, Karel; Kropatsch, W.G.; Smékal, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2015), s. 58-69 ISSN 1665-6423 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/1104 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Brain Pathology * Brain Tumor * MRI * Multi-contrast MRI * Symmetry Analysis Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2013

  3. Drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a rural area of Bangladesh and its relevance to the national treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, A; Aung, K J; Chowdhury, S; Saha, S; Pankaj, A; Ashraf, A; Rigouts, L; Fissette, K; Portaels, F

    1999-02-01

    Greater Mymensingh District, a rural area of Bangladesh, at the start of the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). To determine the prevalence of initial and acquired drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to assess the appropriateness of the NTP's standard regimens. Sampling of pre-treatment sputum from all newly registered smear-positive cases in five centres covering the area. Culture and susceptibility testing in a supra-national reference laboratory. Initial resistance to isoniazid (H) was 5.4%, and to rifampicin (R) 0.5%. Acquired H and R resistance were 25.9% and 7.4%, respectively. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in one new case only and in 5.6% of previously treated patients. Changing the present NTP indication for retreatment regimen to one month of previous H intake would increase coverage of H-resistant cases from 52% to 89%, adding 6% to drug costs. The prevalence of drug resistance is surprisingly low in Bangladesh, but could rise with improving economic conditions. The NTP regimens for smear-positive cases are appropriate, all the more so since the human immunodeficiency virus is virtually absent. Indications for the retreatment regimen should be extended to include all patients treated for at least one month with any drug. The NTP regimen for smear-negative cases runs the risk of leading to MDR under present field conditions.

  4. Metabolic rate in different rat brain areas during seizures induced by a specific delta opiate receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffmans, J; De Kloet, R; Dzoljic, M R

    1984-06-04

    The glucose utilization during specific delta opiate agonist-induced epileptiform phenomena, determined by the [14C]2-deoxyglucose technique (2-DG), was examined in various rat brain areas at different time intervals. The peak in EEG spiking response and the most intensive 2-DG uptake occurred 5 min after intraventricular (i.v.t.) administration of the delta opiate receptor agonist. The most pronounced 2-DG uptake at this time interval can be observed in the subiculum, including the CA1 hippocampal area, frontal cortex and central amygdala. A general decrease of glucose consumption, compared to control values, is observed after 10 min, in all regions, with exception of the subiculum. Since functional activity and 2-DG uptake are correlated, we suggest that the subiculum and/or CA1 area, are probably the brain regions most involved in the enkephalin-induced epileptic phenomena.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of met-enkephalin in microdissected areas of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, F.M.A.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects were studied of various sample preparation procedures on rat brain met-enkephalin content, measured by radioimmunoassay. Whole brain met-enkephalin content of rats killed by decapitation followed by immediate tissue freezing was similar to that of rats killed by microwave irradiation and to those of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital or halothane before killing, whether previously perfused with paraformaldehyde or not. In contrast, a decrease (up to 80%) in met-enkephalin concentrations was observed when brain samples were frozen and thawed to mimic the procedure utilized in the ''punch'' technique for analysis of discrete brain nuclei. This decrease was totally prevented by paraformaldehyde perfusion of the brain prior to sacrifice. Brain perfusion did not alter the amount of immunoassayable met-enkephalin extracted from tissue or its profile after Sephadex chromatography. Paraformaldehyde perfusion results in better morphological tissue preservation and facilitates the ''punch'' dissecting technique. Paraformaldehyde perfusion may be the procedure of choice for the measurement of neuropeptides in specific brain nuclei dissected by the ''punch'' technique

  6. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philipp T.; Sturz, Laszlo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Setani, Keyvan S.; Buell, Udalrich; Spetzger, Uwe; Meyer, Georg F.; Sabri, Osama

    2003-01-01

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  7. Calibration of commercial microwave link derived- rainfall and its relevance to flash flood occurrence in the Dead Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Adam; Alpert, Pinhas; Raich, Roi; Laronne, Jonathan; Merz, Ralf; Geyer, Stefan; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods are a common phenomenon in arid and semi-arid areas such as the Dead Sea. These floods are generated due to a combination of short lasting, yet intense rainfall and typical low infiltration rates. The rare flow events in ephemeral rivers have significant importance in the replenishment of groundwater via transmission losses and in sustaining the vivid ecology of drylands. In some cases, flash floods cause severe damage to infrastructure as well as to private property, constituting a threat to human life. The temporal variation of rainfall intensity is the main driver generating the majority of flash floods in the Judean Desert, hence its monitoring is crucial in this area as in other remote arid areas worldwide. Cellular communication towers are profusely located. Commercial Microwave Links (CML) attenuation data obtained by cellular companies can be used for environmental monitoring. Rain is one of the most effective meteorological phenomena to attenuate a CML signal which, unlike radar backscatter, relates to near-surface conditions and is, therefore, suitable for surface hydrology. A 16 km CML crosses the Wadi Ze'elim drainage basin (~250 square kilometers), at the outlet of which the discharge is calculated using the Manning formula. The hydrometric data include accurate longitudinal and cross sectional measurements, water level and importantly mean water surface velocity when present during a flash flood. The latter is first-ever obtained in desert flash floods by portable, radar-based surface velocimetry. Acquisition of water velocity data is essential to avoid assuming a constant roughness coefficient, thereby more accurately calculating water discharge. Calibrating the CML-rain intensity, derived from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)'s power law, is necessary to correlate the surface hydrologic response to the link. Our calibration approach is as follows: all the Israel Meteorological Service C-band radar cells over the CML

  8. Vertical displacement of the brain and the target area during open stereotaxic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, K.; Kraekenes, J.

    2001-01-01

    During stereotaxic thalamotomies, we observed that the brain surface was sinking. The study was carried out to investigate to what extent the target area also was displaced and how this would affect the accuracy of the stereotaxic procedure. In 12 thalamotomies, with the patients operated on in the sitting position, we found that the cortical surface sank 0-9 (mean 5) mm during the operation. The vertical co-ordinate of the thalamic target was consequently adjusted per-operatively, and the electrodes were advanced on additional distance of 1-5.5 (mean 3.5) mm in an attempt to compensate for the assumed sinking of the target. This per-operative adjustment was based on the surgeon's experience and the results of macro-stimulation studies. The exact location of the thalamotomy lesion, and thereby the accuracy of the adjustment, was evaluated on 3 months postoperative CT scans. These showed that the intended target was hit with a sufficient degree of accuracy in all the patients, although the vertical co-ordinate had been slightly over-adjusted, as the center of the lesion on the average was located 1 mm below the intended location. Thus, if the vertical position had not been adjusted, the lesion would on the average have been located 2.5 mm too high compared with the intended target. Patients undergoing thalamotomy and other stereotaxic procedures, where a high degree of accuracy is needed, should be operated on in the sitting position. At the thalamic level, the vertical displacement of the target should be adjusted for by additional advancement of the stereotaxic probe. On average, this compensatory adjustment should be about half the per-operative sinking of the cortical surface. (author)

  9. Hand posture classification using electrocorticography signals in the gamma band over human sensorimotor brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Blabe, Christine H.; Foster, Brett L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Parvizi, Josef; Henderson, Jaimie M.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface systems translate recorded neural signals into command signals for assistive technology. In individuals with upper limb amputation or cervical spinal cord injury, the restoration of a useful hand grasp could significantly improve daily function. We sought to determine if electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals contain sufficient information to select among multiple hand postures for a prosthetic hand, orthotic, or functional electrical stimulation system.Approach. We recorded ECoG signals from subdural macro- and microelectrodes implanted in motor areas of three participants who were undergoing inpatient monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of intractable epilepsy. Participants performed five distinct isometric hand postures, as well as four distinct finger movements. Several control experiments were attempted in order to remove sensory information from the classification results. Online experiments were performed with two participants. Main results. Classification rates were 68%, 84% and 81% for correct identification of 5 isometric hand postures offline. Using 3 potential controls for removing sensory signals, error rates were approximately doubled on average (2.1×). A similar increase in errors (2.6×) was noted when the participant was asked to make simultaneous wrist movements along with the hand postures. In online experiments, fist versus rest was successfully classified on 97% of trials; the classification output drove a prosthetic hand. Online classification performance for a larger number of hand postures remained above chance, but substantially below offline performance. In addition, the long integration windows used would preclude the use of decoded signals for control of a BCI system. Significance. These results suggest that ECoG is a plausible source of command signals for prosthetic grasp selection. Overall, avenues remain for improvement through better electrode designs and placement, better participant training

  10. Cortical thinning in cognitively normal elderly cohort of 60 to 89 year old from AIBL database and vulnerable brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongmin S.; Avinash, Gopal; Yan, Litao; McMillan, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cortical thinning has been studied by many researchers using quantitative MR images for the past three decades and vastly differing results have been reported. Although results have shown age-related cortical thickening in elderly cohort statistically in some brain regions under certain conditions, cortical thinning in elderly cohort requires further systematic investigation. This paper leverages our previously reported brain surface intensity model (BSIM)1 based technique to measure cortical thickness to study cortical changes due to normal aging. We measured cortical thickness of cognitively normal persons from 60 to 89 years old using Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study (AIBL) data. MRI brains of 56 healthy people including 29 women and 27 men were selected. We measured average cortical thickness of each individual in eight brain regions: parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, visual, sensory motor, medial frontal and medial parietal. Unlike the previous published studies, our results showed consistent age-related thinning of cerebral cortex in all brain regions. The parietal, medial frontal and medial parietal showed fastest thinning rates of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.10 mm/decade respectively while the visual region showed the slowest thinning rate of 0.05 mm/decade. In sensorimotor and parietal areas, women showed higher thinning (0.09 and 0.16 mm/decade) than men while in all other regions men showed higher thinning than women. We also created high resolution cortical thinning rate maps of the cohort and compared them to typical patterns of PET metabolic reduction of moderate AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The results seemed to indicate vulnerable areas of cortical deterioration that may lead to brain dementia. These results validate our cortical thickness measurement technique by demonstrating the consistency of the cortical thinning and prediction of cortical deterioration trend with AIBL database.

  11. Quantitative pharmacological analysis of 2-125I-iodomelatonin binding sites in discrete areas of the chicken brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuciak, J.A.; Krause, D.N.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have localized and characterized 2-125I-iodomelatonin binding sites in the chicken brain using in vitro quantitative autoradiography. Binding sites were widely distributed throughout the chicken brain, predominantly in regions associated with the visual system. The specific binding of 2-125I-iodomelatonin to discrete chicken brain areas was found to be saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. The specific binding of 2-125I-iodomelatonin (75 pm) was quantitated for 40 identifiable brain regions. Eight brain regions were chosen for binding characterization and pharmacological analysis: optic tectum, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, nucleus rotundus, ventral supraoptic decussation, ventrolateral geniculate nucleus, neostriatum, and ectostriatum. These regions showed no rostral-caudal gradient in 2-125I-iodomelatonin specific binding, and saturation analysis revealed a single class of high-affinity sites with KD values in the range of 33-48 pM and receptor site density (Bmax) ranging from 31 to 58 fmol/mg protein. Competition experiments carried out with various indoles revealed a similar order of pharmacological affinities in these areas: melatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than methoxyluzindole greater than N-acetylserotonin greater than luzindole much greater than 5-HT greater than 5-methoxytryptamine. The affinity constants determined by quantitative autoradiography for these compounds to compete for 2-125I-iodomelatonin binding in the optic tectum correlated well with the affinities in chicken brain membranes at 25 degrees C (r = 0.966; slope = 0.845; n = 7) and 0 degree C (r = 0.946; slope = 0.379; n = 7), chicken retinal membranes (r = 0.973; slope = 0.759; n = 7), and the potency or affinity of these compounds to affect the calcium-dependent release of 3H-dopamine from the rabbit retina (r = 0.902; slope = 0.506; n = 6)

  12. Hypometabolism in Posterior and Temporal Areas of the Brain is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tard, Céline; Demailly, Franck; Delval, Arnaud; Semah, Franck; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy; Moreau, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Brain metabolic profiles of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and cognitive impairment or dementia are now available. It would be useful if data on brain metabolism were also predictive of the risk of a pejorative cognitive evolution - especially in the multidisciplinary management of advanced PD patients. The primary objective was to determine whether a specific brain metabolic pattern is associated with cognitive decline in PD. Sixteen advanced PD patients were screened for the absence of cognitive impairment (according to the Mattis dementia rating scale, MDRS) and underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain imaging in the "off drug" state. The MDRS was scored again about two years later, categorizing patients as having significant cognitive decline (decliners) or not (stables). The two groups were then compared in terms of their brain metabolism at inclusion. There were six decliners and ten stables. Significant hypometabolism in the two precunei (Brodmann area (BA) 31), the left middle temporal gyrus (BA21) and the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) was found in the decliner group compared withthe stables. In advanced PD, a particular metabolic pattern may be associated with the onset of significant cognitive decline.

  13. Brain areas associated with numbers and calculations in children: Meta-analyses of fMRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Arsalidou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks. We present data on children 14 years and younger, who solved these tasks. Results show activity in parietal (e.g., inferior parietal lobule and precuneus and frontal (e.g., superior and medial frontal gyri cortices, core areas related to mental-arithmetic, as well as brain regions such as the insula and claustrum, which are not typically discussed as part of mathematical problem solving models. We propose a topographical atlas of mathematical processes in children, discuss findings within a developmental constructivist theoretical model, and suggest practical methodological considerations for future studies. Keywords: Mathematical cognition, Meta-analyses, fMRI, Children, Development, Insula

  14. Common brain areas engaged in false belief reasoning and visual perspective taking: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eSchurz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to identify brain areas which are commonly engaged in social and visuo-spatial perspective taking. Specifically, we compared brain activation found for visual-perspective taking to activation for false belief reasoning, a task which requires awareness of perspective to understand someone’s mistaken belief about the world which contrasts with reality. In support of a previous account by Perner & Leekam (2008, a meta-analytic conjunction analysis found activation for false belief reasoning and visual perspective taking in the left but not the right dorsal temporo-parietal junction. This fits with the idea that the left dorsal TPJ is responsible for representing different perspectives in a domain-general fashion. Moreover, the conjunction found activation in the precuneus and the left middle occipital gyrus close to the putative Extrastriate Body Area. The precuneus is linked to mental-imagery processes, which may aid in the construction of a different perspective. The Extrastriate Body Area may be engaged due to imagined body-transformations when another’s viewpoint is adopted.

  15. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  16. Brain areas involved in acupuncture needling sensation of de qi: a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Rong; Li, Gan-Long; Zhang, Gui-Feng; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Na

    2012-12-01

    De qi is a sensory response elicited by acupuncture stimulation. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), de qi is essential for clinical efficacy. However, the understanding of the neurobiological basis of de qi is still limited. To investigate the relationship between brain activation and de qi by taking a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan while applying acupuncture at TE5. A total of 24 volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups, and received verum or sham acupuncture at true acupuncture point TE5 or a nearby sham point according to grouping. All subjects then received a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT scan. All six subjects in the verum acupuncture at true acupuncture point group experienced de qi sensation; in contrast, all six subjects in the sham acupuncture at the sham point group responded with nothing other than non-sensation. Compared to the scan results from subjects who experienced non-sensation, SPECT scans from subjects with de qi sensation demonstrated significant activated points mainly located in brodmann areas 6, 8, 19, 21, 28, 33, 35, 37, 47, the parahippocampal gyrus, lentiform nucleus, claustrum and red nucleus; deactivated points were seen in brodmann areas 9 and 25. Verum acupuncture at true acupuncture points is more likely to elicit de qi sensation. De qi sensations mainly resulted in brain area activations, but not deactivations. These brain areas are related to the curative effect of Te5. The acupuncture needle sensations of de qi and sharp pain are associated with different patterns of activations and deactivations in the brain.

  17. Validating computationally predicted TMS stimulation areas using direct electrical stimulation in patients with brain tumors near precentral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Alexander; Zafar, Noman; Bockermann, Volker; Rohde, Veit; Paulus, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The spatial extent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is of paramount interest for all studies employing this method. It is generally assumed that the induced electric field is the crucial parameter to determine which cortical regions are excited. While it is difficult to directly measure the electric field, one usually relies on computational models to estimate the electric field distribution. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is a local brain stimulation method generally considered the gold standard to map structure-function relationships in the brain. Its application is typically limited to patients undergoing brain surgery. In this study we compare the computationally predicted stimulation area in TMS with the DES area in six patients with tumors near precentral regions. We combine a motor evoked potential (MEP) mapping experiment for both TMS and DES with realistic individual finite element method (FEM) simulations of the electric field distribution during TMS and DES. On average, stimulation areas in TMS and DES show an overlap of up to 80%, thus validating our computational physiology approach to estimate TMS excitation volumes. Our results can help in understanding the spatial spread of TMS effects and in optimizing stimulation protocols to more specifically target certain cortical regions based on computational modeling.

  18. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife

  19. Higher-order Brain Areas Associated with Real-time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somato-motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  20. Changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area immediately after radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumor. Analysis using 3D-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Masaaki [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Sixteen patients with single metastatic brain tumor underwent SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) before and after radiosurgery. Influence of treatment was evaluated using three-dimensional SPECT images, threshold-voxel graphs and changes in the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. A three-detector type scanner, the PRISM3000, was also used. SPECT scanning was performed for 30 minutes after intravenous administration of {sup 123}I-IMP with sequential scans every 1 minutes. The data obtained 16-30 minutes after administration were processed using a low-pass ramp filter, and three-dimensional SPECT images were constructed from these data using the Application Visualization System (AVS). Furthermore, a threshold-voxel graph was plotted and the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated. SPECT was performed before radiosurgery, and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after, and these data were compared. Three-dimensional SPECT presented the area of peritumoral hypoperfusion as a deficit image and changes were evaluated visually. Threshold-voxel graphs were evaluated as follows: changes in voxels with a threshold of 40-50% indicated a hypoperfusion area, and changes in voxels with a threshold of 70-95% indicated a hyperperfusion area in the tumor side hemisphere. The volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area was calculated using the voxel difference between the tumor side and normal hemispheres. Our results showed that the peritumoral hypoperfusion area gradually decreased after an initial first-day increase following radiosurgery. Visual three-dimensional SPECT allowed us to monitor both the volume of the peritumoral hypoperfusion area of metastatic brain tumors after radiosurgery by means of a threshold-voxel graph and changes in the peritumoral hypoperfusion area. (author)

  1. Sources of nitrous oxide and other climate relevant gases on surface area in a dairy free stall barn with solid floor and outside slurry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithausen, Alexander J.; Trimborn, Manfred; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    Livestock production systems in agriculture are one of the major emitters of greenhouse gases. So far, the focus of research in the dairy farm sector was primarily on ruminal methane (CH4) emissions. Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) usually arise from solid manure or in deep litter free stall barns. Release of N2O occurs as a result of interactions between organic material, nitrogen and moisture. Data of N2O emissions from modern dairy barns and liquid manure management systems are rare. Thus, the goal of this research was to determine the main sources of trace gas emissions at the dairy farm level, including N2O. Areas such as the scraped surface area where dry and wet conditions alternate are interesting. Possible sources of trace gases within and outside the barn were localised by measuring trace gas concentration rates from different dairy farm areas (e.g., areas covered with urine and excrement or slurry storage system) via the closed chamber technique. The results indicate typical emission ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and N2O in the various areas to generate comparable equivalent values. Calculated on the basis of nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, total emissions of N2O were much lower from barns than typically measured in fields. However, there were also areas within the barn with individual events and unexpected release factors of N2O concentrations such as urine patches, polluted areas and cubicles. Emission factors of N2O ranged from 1.1 to 5.0 mg m-2 d-1, respectively, for cleaned areas and urine patches. By considering the release factors of these areas and their proportion of the entire barn, total emission rates of 371 CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1, 36 CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1, and 1.7 kg CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1 for CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively, were measured for the whole barn surface area. The CH4 emissions from surface area were stronger climate relevant comparing to N2O emissions, but compared to CH4 emissions from slurry storage or ruminal fermentation (not

  2. Ensuring safety of people in case of severe floods: feasibility and relevance of vertical evacuation strategies in high population density areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannier Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When a major flooding event is expected the authorities in charge of the crisis management often consider bringing people to safety by making them leaving temporarily the threatened area before the onset of the flood. This strategy is called “horizontal evacuation”. It has to be distinguished from “vertical evacuation”, which means that people reach a shelter above the wtaer level within the flood area. Vertical evacuation is often the spontaneousbehaviourof people who are surprised by the flood and are trying to reach a tree, a floor upstairs, a roof of a building etc. in order to get away from the rising water. But vertical evacuation could also be consideredas an alternative strategy to horizontal evacuation when moving outside the flood area is neither a faisible nor a relevant option, for example in high-population density areas. In order to be a credible alternative to horizontal evacuation, vertical evacuation has to be carefully planned. This paper aims to explain why horizontal evacuation is not always a suitable option in case of major flood and to explore under what conditions vertical evacuation can be a relevantalternative solution to horizontal evacuation. It also adresses some general recommendations about how to prepare a vertical evacuation strategy..

  3. Optimal use of EEG recordings to target active brain areas with transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Koessler, Laurent; Norcia, Anthony M; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2017-08-15

    To demonstrate causal relationships between brain and behavior, investigators would like to guide brain stimulation using measurements of neural activity. Particularly promising in this context are electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), as they are linked by a reciprocity principle which, despite being known for decades, has not led to a formalism for relating EEG recordings to optimal stimulation parameters. Here we derive a closed-form expression for the TES configuration that optimally stimulates (i.e., targets) the sources of recorded EEG, without making assumptions about source location or distribution. We also derive a duality between TES targeting and EEG source localization, and demonstrate that in cases where source localization fails, so does the proposed targeting. Numerical simulations with multiple head models confirm these theoretical predictions and quantify the achieved stimulation in terms of focality and intensity. We show that constraining the stimulation currents automatically selects optimal montages that involve only a few (4-7) electrodes, with only incremental loss in performance when targeting focal activations. The proposed technique allows brain scientists and clinicians to rationally target the sources of observed EEG and thus overcomes a major obstacle to the realization of individualized or closed-loop brain stimulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  5. GLP-1 Receptor Activation Modulates Appetite- and Reward-Related Brain Areas in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloemendaal, L.; IJzerman, R.G.; ten Kulve, J.S.; Barkhof, F.; Konrad, R.J.; Drent, M.L.; Veltman, D.J.; Diamant, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gut-derived hormones, such as GLP-1, have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to decreases in food intake and body weight. We

  6. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-08-10

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction) also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent) response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal cortex is likely to play an important role, may induce V4 activation and the percept of

  7. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  8. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  9. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelis eKaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  10. Diminished Dentate Gyrus Filtering of Cortical Input Leads to Enhanced Area Ca3 Excitability after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Samuel, Sandy; Metheny, Hannah E; Cohen, Akiva S

    2018-04-06

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3. In this study, we assessed hippocampal function, specifically the interaction between the dentate gyrus and CA3, using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo brain slices 1 week following mild lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). Behaviorally, LFPI mice were found to be impaired in an object-place recognition task, indicating that spatial information processing in the hippocampus is disrupted. Extracellular recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated that perforant path activation leads to the aberrant spread of excitation from the dentate gyrus into area CA3 along the mossy fiber pathway. These results suggest that after mTBI, the dentate gyrus has a diminished capacity to regulate cortical input into the hippocampus, leading to increased CA3 network excitability. The loss of the dentate filtering efficacy reveals a potential mechanism by which hippocampal-dependent spatial information processing is disrupted, and may contribute to memory dysfunction after mTBI.

  11. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport characteristics of guanidino compounds at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: relevance to neural disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachikawa Masanori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Guanidino compounds (GCs, such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and convulsions. This review focuses on how physiologically important and/or neurotoxic GCs are distributed in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Transporters for GCs at the blood-brain barrier (BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCSFB have emerged as substantial contributors to GCs distribution in the brain. Creatine transporter (CRT/solute carrier (SLC 6A8 expressed at the BBB regulates creatine concentration in the brain, and represents a major pathway for supply of creatine from the circulating blood to the brain. CRT may be a key factor facilitating blood-to-brain guanidinoacetate transport in patients deficient in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, resulting in cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate. CRT, taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6 and organic cation transporter (OCT3/SLC22A3 expressed at the BCSFB are involved in guanidinoacetic acid or creatinine efflux transport from CSF. Interestingly, BBB efflux transport of GCs, including guanidinoacetate and creatinine, is negligible, though the BBB has a variety of efflux transport systems for synthetic precursors of GCs, such as amino acids and neurotransmitters. Instead, the BCSFB functions as a major cerebral clearance system for GCs. In conclusion, transport of GCs at the BBB and BCSFB appears to be the key determinant of the cerebral levels of GCs, and changes in the transport characteristics may cause the abnormal distribution of GCs in the brain seen

  13. Environmentally relevant pyrethroid mixtures: A study on the correlation of blood and brain concentrations of a mixture of pyrethroid insecticides to motor activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael F; Ross, David G; Starr, James M; Scollon, Edward J; Wolansky, Marcelo J; Crofton, Kevin M; DeVito, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Human exposure to multiple pyrethroid insecticides may occur because of their broad use on crops and for residential pest control. To address the potential health risk from co-exposure to pyrethroids, it is important to understand their disposition and toxicity in target organs such as the brain, and surrogates such as the blood when administered as a mixture. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between blood and brain concentrations of pyrethroids and neurobehavioral effects in the rat following an acute oral administration of the pyrethroids as a mixture. Male Long-Evans rats were administered a mixture of β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and cis- and trans-permethrin in corn oil at seven dose levels. The pyrethroid with the highest percentage in the dosing solution was trans-permethrin (31% of total mixture dose) while deltamethrin and esfenvalerate had the lowest percentage (3%). Motor activity of the rats was then monitored for 1h. At 3.5h post-dosing, the animals were euthanized and blood and brain were collected. These tissues were extracted and analyzed for parent pyrethroid using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were the predominate pyrethroids detected in blood and brain, respectively, at all dosage levels. The relationship of total pyrethroid concentration between blood and brain was linear (r=0.93). The pyrethroids with the lowest fraction in blood were trans-permethrin and β-cyfluthrin and in brain were deltamethrin and esfenvalerate. The relationship between motor activity of the treated rats and summed pyrethroid blood and brain concentration was described using a sigmoidal Emax model with the Effective Concentration50 being more sensitive for brain than blood. The data suggests summed pyrethroid rat blood concentration could be used as a surrogate for brain concentration as an aid to study the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids administered as a mixture under the conditions

  14. Response of lactate metabolism in brain glucosensing areas of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to changes in glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-01

    There is no evidence in fish brain demonstrating the existence of changes in lactate metabolism in response to alterations in glucose levels. We induced in rainbow trout through intraperitoneal (IP) treatments, hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic changes to assess the response of parameters involved in lactate metabolism in glucosensing areas like hypothalamus and hindbrain. To distinguish those effects from those induced by peripheral changes in the levels of metabolites or hormones, we also carried out intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatments with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a non-metabolizable glucose analogue thus inducing local glucopenia) or glucose. Finally, we also incubated hypothalamus and hindbrain in vitro in the presence of increased glucose concentrations. The changes in glucose availability were in general correlated to changes in the amount of lactate in both areas. However, when we assessed in these areas the response of parameters related to lactate metabolism, the results obtained were contradictory. The increase in glucose levels did not produce in general the expected changes in those pathways with only a minor increase in their capacity of lactate production. The decrease in glucose levels was, however, more clearly related to a decreased capacity of the pathways involved in the production and use of lactate, and this was especially evident after ICV treatment with 2-DG in both areas. In conclusion, the present results while addressing the existence of changes in lactate metabolism after inducing changes in glucose levels in brain glucosensing areas only partially support the possible existence of an astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout relating glucose availability to lactate production and use.

  15. Local Anesthesia at ST36 to Reveal Responding Brain Areas to deqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-min Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Development of non-deqi control is still a challenge. This study aims to set up a potential approach to non-deqi control by using lidocaine anesthesia at ST36. Methods. Forty healthy volunteers were recruited and they received two fMRI scans. One was accompanied with manual acupuncture at ST36 (DQ group, and another was associated with both local anesthesia and manual acupuncture at the same acupoint (LA group. Results. Comparing to DQ group, more than 90 percent deqi sensations were reduced by local anesthesia in LA group. The mainly activated regions in DQ group were bilateral IFG, S1, primary motor cortex, IPL, thalamus, insula, claustrum, cingulate gyrus, putamen, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum. Surprisingly only cerebellum showed significant activation in LA group. Compared to the two groups, bilateral S1, insula, ipsilateral IFG, IPL, claustrum, and contralateral ACC were remarkably activated. Conclusions. Local anesthesia at ST36 is able to block most of the deqi feelings and inhibit brain responses to deqi, which would be developed into a potential approach for non-deqi control. Bilateral S1, insula, ipsilateral IFG, IPL, claustrum, and contralateral ACC might be the key brain regions responding to deqi.

  16. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  17. Imaging of brain function based on the analysis of functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. Methods: A total of 45 ...

  18. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  19. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple Kernel Relevance Vector Machines: Case of a Low Hill Area in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.

  20. Different distributions of the 5-HT reuptake complex and the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in Brodmann areas and brain hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, Pilar; Arranz, Belén; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Oros, Miguel; San, Luis; Vallejo, Julio; Navarro, Miguel Angel

    2002-08-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake complex and the 5-HT(2A) receptors through Brodmann areas from two control subjects, together with the possible existence of laterality between both brain hemispheres. A left laterality was observed in the postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) binding sites, with significantly higher B(max) values in the left frontal and cingulate cortex. In frontal cortex, [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine binding showed the highest B(max) values in areas 25, 10 and 11. In cingulate cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) values were noted in Brodmann area 33 followed by area 24, while postsynaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors were mainly distributed through Brodmann areas 23 and 29. In temporal cortex, the highest [3H]imipramine and [3H]paroxetine B(max) was noted in Brodmann areas 28 and 34, followed by areas 35 and 38. All Brodmann areas from parietal cortex (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 39, 40 and 43) showed similar presynaptic and postsynaptic binding values. In occipital cortex no differences were observed with regard to the brain hemisphere or to the Brodmann area (17, 18 and 19). These results suggest the need to carefully define the brain hemisphere and the Brodmann areas studied, as well to avoid comparisons between studies including different Brodmann areas or brain hemispheres.

  1. [Intensity of pentose phosphate metabolism of carbohydrates in various brain areas in normal and starved animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, B F

    2002-01-01

    The activities of key enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), were studied in cytoplasmatic fractions of brain cortical (limbic, orbital, sensorimotor cortex) and subcortical (myelencefalon, mesencefalon, hypothalamus) structures of rats subjected to starvation for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days. Short-term starvation (1-3 days) caused activation of 6-GPD and 6-PGD both in cortical and subcortical structures. Long-term starvation for 5-7 days caused a decrease of activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in all studied structures. It is suggested that enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway in nervous tissues are functionally and metabolically related to glutathione system and during starvation they indirectly participate in the regulation lipid peroxidation processes.

  2. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  3. Functional connectivity between somatosensory and motor brain areas predicts individual differences in motor learning by observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills; however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess preobservation gray matter volume and preobservation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively. On the following day, subjects observed a video of a tutor adapting her reaches to a novel force field. After observation, subjects performed reaches in a force field as a behavioral assessment of gains in motor learning resulting from observation. We found that individual differences in resting-state FC, but not gray matter volume, predicted postobservation gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state FC between left primary somatosensory cortex and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex and left superior parietal lobule was positively correlated with behavioral measures of postobservation motor learning. Sensory-motor resting-state FC can thus predict the extent to which observation will promote subsequent motor learning. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that individual differences in preobservation brain function can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Preobservation resting-state functional connectivity within a sensory-motor network may be used as a biomarker for the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. This kind of information may be useful if observation is to be used as a way to boost neuroplasticity and sensory-motor recovery for patients undergoing rehabilitation for diseases that impair movement such as stroke. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eDucrot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral midbrain (VM glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VM neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarisation mediated by a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VM neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VM neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VM AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for two hours after bilateral VM microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(fquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5ul/side and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5ul/side of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid. NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VM sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected respectively into the anterior and posterior VM. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VM neurons, to modulate

  5. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Dall'Olio, Enrico; Modenese, Alberto; De Maria, Michele; Campi, Luca; Cavallini, Gian Maria

    2017-06-06

    The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED) of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰) was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰), and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  6. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabriziomaria Gobba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰ was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰, and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  7. Effect of whole body neutron irradiation on certain enzyme activities in different brain areas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.A.; Ashour, A.M.; El-Bassiouni, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Male swiss albino mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation by fast neutrons of 14 MeV average energy. Two single doses of 0.08 sievert and 0.16 sievert were used, corresponding to fluences of 1.27 X 10 8 and 2.54 X 10 8 n/cm 2 respectively. Two enzymes were assessed in different layers of the cerebrum and cerebellum of mouse brain. Changes in the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were taken to measure alterations in lysosomal and mitochondrial functions respectively. The degrees of lysosomal affection in different layers of the cerebrum were not uniform, while changes in A activity were very prominent in certain layers (e.g. external pyramidal layer, polymorphous cells layer and white matter), they were practically absent in others (e.g. internal pyramidal layer). Stronger effect was noted in the tissue layers of the cerebellum. The activity of SDH decreased as result of fast neutron irradiation. The response was more apparent for this enzyme than for ACP. This indicates more liability for a decrease in energy metabolism with consequent effect on behavioural and physiological functions under central nervous system control. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Effects of deep brain stimulation of the peduncolopontine area on working memory tasks in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Mazzone, Paolo; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Peppe, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at investigating the effect of low-frequency electrical stimulation (25 Hz) of the peduncolopontine (PPN) area on working memory (WM) functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Five PD patients who underwent simultaneous PPN area- and subthalamic nucleus-deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation participated in the study. PD patients were evaluated in the morning at least 12 h after antiparkinsonian therapy withdrawal in two conditions: i) after continuous PPN area stimulation (Off Therapy/On PPN: "On" condition); ii) at least 120 min after PPN area had been switched "Off" (Off Ther/Off PPN: "Off" condition). The experimental WM task consisted of an n-back paradigm with verbal and visual-object stimuli. PD patients showed a consistent response time decrease on both the verbal and the visual-object tasks passing from the "Off" to the "On" condition (p processing of information in the content of WM, possibly through the modulation of the attentional resources.

  9. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  10. Brain Basics: Know Your Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however, the brain is beginning to relinquish its secrets. Scientists have learned more about the brain in ... through the activity of these lobes. At the top of each temporal lobe is an area responsible ...

  11. PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuwu; Mi Jing; Wetsel, William C.; Davidson, Colin; Xiong Xieying; Chen Qiang; Ellinwood, Everett H.; Lee, Tong H.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85α/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D 1 /D 2 agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT 3 antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85α/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h after pergolide. The present

  12. Activation changes in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain areas evoked by alterations of the earth magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keary, Nina; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influenced radical-pair processes within retinal photopigments. Each hypothesis is related to a well-known sensory organ and claims parallel processing of magnetic field information with somatosensory, vestibular and visual input, respectively. Changes in activation within nuclei of the respective sensory systems have been shown previously. Most of these previous experiments employed intensity enhanced magnetic stimuli or lesions. We here exposed unrestrained zebra finches to either a stationary or a rotating magnetic field of the local intensity and inclination. C-Fos was used as an activity marker to examine whether the two treatments led to differences in fourteen brain areas including nuclei of the somatosensory, vestibular and visual system. An ANOVA revealed an overall effect of treatment, indicating that the magnetic field change was perceived by the birds. While the differences were too small to be significant in most areas, a significant enhancement of activation by the rotating stimulus was found in a hippocampal subdivision. Part of the hyperpallium showed a strong, nearly significant, increase. Our results are compatible with previous studies demonstrating an involvement of at least three different sensory systems in earth magnetic field perception and suggest that these systems, probably less elaborated, may also be found in nonmigrating birds.

  13. Development traumatic brain injury computer user interface for disaster area in Indonesia supported by emergency broadband access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Ohta, Toshizumi; Arifin, Muh Zafrullah; Kitamura, Yohei; Yoshida, Kazunari; Merdika, Daduk; Qiantori, Andri; Iskandar

    2012-12-01

    Disasters bring consequences of negative impacts on the environment and human life. One of the common cause of critical condition is traumatic brain injury (TBI), namely, epidural (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH), due to downfall hard things during earthquake. We proposed and analyzed the user response, namely neurosurgeon, general doctor/surgeon and nurse when they interacted with TBI computer interface. The communication systems was supported by TBI web based applications using emergency broadband access network with tethered balloon and simulated in the field trial to evaluate the coverage area. The interface consisted of demography data and multi tabs for anamnesis, treatment, follow up and teleconference interfaces. The interface allows neurosurgeon, surgeon/general doctors and nurses to entry the EDH and SDH patient's data during referring them on the emergency simulation and evaluated based on time needs and their understanding. The average time needed was obtained after simulated by Lenovo T500 notebook using mouse; 8-10 min for neurosurgeons, 12-15 min for surgeons/general doctors and 15-19 min for nurses. By using Think Pad X201 Tablet, the time needed for entry data was 5-7 min for neurosurgeon, 7-10 min for surgeons/general doctors and 12-16 min for nurses. We observed that the time difference was depending on the computer type and user literacy qualification as well as their understanding on traumatic brain injury, particularly for the nurses. In conclusion, there are five data classification for simply TBI GUI, namely, 1) demography, 2) specific anamnesis for EDH and SDH, 3) treatment action and medicine of TBI, 4) follow up data display and 5) teleneurosurgery for streaming video consultation. The type of computer, particularly tablet PC was more convenient and faster for entry data, compare to that computer mouse touched pad. Emergency broadband access network using tethered balloon is possible to be employed to cover the communications systems in

  14. A survey on trace organic chemicals in a German water protection area and the proposal of relevant indicators for anthropogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Wolfram; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2017-06-01

    A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites. Cyclamate occurred with the highest median concentration of 44 μg l -1 in untreated wastewater and acesulfame occurred with a concentration of 20 μg l -1 in treated wastewater. In runoff water from roads, the most relevant compounds were tolyltriazole with 2.3 μg l -1 and the desphenyl-chloridazon with 1.2 μg l -1 . In the stream waters, the highest median concentrations were found for melamine and acesulfame both at 0.61 μg l -1 . High elimination during conventional wastewater treatment was observed for 5 out of 49 compounds. These are acetyl-sulfamethoxazole, aciclovir, cyclamate, ibuprofen and saccharin. Based on the survey results, we propose a set of nine compounds to be used as indicators for wastewater, untreated wastewater and runoff water from roads for an efficient surveillance. The indicators are intended to detect anthropogenic influences in surface, ground and drinking water.

  15. Recovery of neurological function despite immediate sleep disruption following diffuse brain injury in the mouse: clinical relevance to medically untreated concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Rachel K; Harrison, Jordan L; O'Hara, Bruce F; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Neurotrauma research laboratory. Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury.

  16. Comparison of ADC map with trace map in the normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Jeong, Eun Kee; Oh, Young Taick; Kim, Dong Ik

    1999-01-01

    To compare ADC mapping with trace mapping in normal and infarct areas of the brains of stroke patients. Eighteen patients diagnosed on the basis of clinical and brain MRI examinations as suffering from brain infarction were included in this study (hyperacute-1, acute-4, subacute-12, chronic-1). Diffusion weighted images of three orthogonal directions of a patient's brain were obtained by means of a single shot EPI pulse sequence, using a diffusion gradient with four serial b-factors. Three ADC maps were then reconstructed by post-image processing and were summed pixel by pixel to yield a trace map. ROIs were selected in the normal areas of white matter, gray matter and CSF of one hemisphere, and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and right/left ratios of ADC and trace values were calculated. Using these values, we then compared the ADC map with the trace map, and compared the degree of anisotropic diffusion between white matter, gray matter and CSF. Except for three, whose infarct lesions were small and lay over white and gray matter, patients were divided into two groups. Those with infarct in the white matter (n=10) were assigned to one group, and those with infarct in the gray matter (n=5) to the other. ROIs were selected in the infarct area and other ROIs of the same size were selected at the same site of the contralateral hemisphere. ADC and trace values were measured and infarct/contralateral ratios were calculated. We then compared ADC ratio with trace ratio in white matter and gray matter infarct. In normal white matter, the Dxx ratio was 0.980±0.098, the Dyy ratio 1.019±0.086, the Dzz ratio 0.999±0.111, and the trace ratio 0.995±0.031. In normal gray matter, the Dxx ratio was 1.001±0.058, the Dyy ratio 0.996±0.063, Dzz ratio 1.005±0.070, and the trace ratio 1.001±0.028. In CSF, the Dxx ratio was 1.002±0.064, the Dyy ratio 1.023±0.055, the Dzz ratio 0.999

  17. In psychopathic patients emotion attribution modulates activity in outcome-related brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Monika; Sodian, Beate; Döhnel, Katrin; Schwerdtner, Johannes; Meinhardt, Jörg; Hajak, Göran

    2010-05-30

    The understanding that other people's emotional states depend on the fulfilment of their intention is fundamentally important for responding adequately to others. Psychopathic patients show severe deficits in responding adequately to other people's emotion. The present study explored whether these impairments are associated with deficits in the ability to infer others' emotional states. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identical cartoon stories, depicting a subject whose intention was fulfilled or not fulfilled, were presented to 14 psychopathic patients and 14 non-psychopathic patients. The participants should indicate the protagonist's emotional state. Additionally, a non-mentalizing control condition was presented. The two groups showed no behavioural differences. But in non-psychopathic patients emotion attribution was associated with increased activity of the mirror neuron system, the bilateral supramarginal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus. In contrast psychopathic patients showed increased activation of regions associated with outcome monitoring and attention, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal areas. The results emphasize that although psychopathic patients show no deficits in reasoning about other people's emotion if an explicit evaluation is demanded, they use divergent neural processing strategies that are related to more rational, outcome-oriented processes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on cognition disorder and morphologic change of neurons in hippocampus area following traumatic brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪军; 崔建忠; 周云涛; 高俊玲

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between cognition disorder and morphologic change of hippocampal neurons after traumatic brain injury (TBI).   Methods: Wistar rat models with severe TBI were made by Marmarous method. The histopathological change of the neurons in the hippocampus area were studied with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated X-dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. The cognitive function was evaluated with the Morris water maze test.   Results: The comprehensive neuronal degeneration and necrosis could be observed in CA2-3 regions of hippocampus at 3 days after injury. Apoptotic positive neurons in CA2-4 regions of hippocampus and dentate gyrus increased in the injured group at 24 hours following TBI. They peaked at 7 days and then declined. Significant impairment of spatial learning and memory was observed after injury in the rats.   Conclusions: The rats have obvious disorders in spatial learning and memory after severe TBI. Meanwhile, delayed neuronal necrosis and apoptosis can be observed in the neurons in the hippocampus area. It suggests that delayed hippocampal cell death may contribute to the functional deficit.

  19. Addressing the selective role of distinct prefrontal areas in response suppression: A study with brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbula, Sandra; Pacella, Valentina; De Pellegrin, Serena; Rossetto, Marta; Denaro, Luca; D'Avella, Domenico; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Vallesi, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The diverging evidence for functional localization of response inhibition within the prefrontal cortex might be justified by the still unclear involvement of other intrinsically related cognitive processes like response selection and sustained attention. In this study, the main aim was to understand whether inhibitory impairments, previously found in patients with both left and right frontal lesions, could be better accounted for by assessing these potentially related cognitive processes. We tested 37 brain tumor patients with left prefrontal, right prefrontal and non-prefrontal lesions and a healthy control group on Go/No-Go and Foreperiod tasks. In both types of tasks inhibitory impairments are likely to cause false alarms, although additionally the former task requires response selection and the latter target detection abilities. Irrespective of the task context, patients with right prefrontal damage showed frequent Go and target omissions, probably due to sustained attention lapses. Left prefrontal patients, on the other hand, showed both Go and target omissions and high false alarm rates to No-Go and warning stimuli, suggesting a decisional rather than an inhibitory impairment. An exploratory whole-brain voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis confirmed the association of left ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal lesions with target discrimination failure, and right ventrolateral and medial prefrontal lesions with target detection failure. Results from this study show how left and right prefrontal areas, which previous research has linked to response inhibition, underlie broader cognitive control processes, particularly involved in response selection and target detection. Based on these findings, we suggest that successful inhibitory control relies on more than one functionally distinct process which, if assessed appropriately, might help us to better understand inhibitory impairments across different pathologies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  20. The Brain Activity in Brodmann Area 17: A Potential Bio-Marker to Predict Patient Responses to Antiepileptic Drugs.

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    Yida Hu

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to predict newly diagnosed patient responses to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging tools to explore changes in spontaneous brain activity. We recruited 21 newly diagnosed epileptic patients, 8 drug-resistant (DR patients, 11 well-healed (WH patients, and 13 healthy controls. After a 12-month follow-up, 11 newly diagnosed epileptic patients who showed a poor response to AEDs were placed into the seizures uncontrolled (SUC group, while 10 patients were enrolled in the seizure-controlled (SC group. By calculating the amplitude of fractional low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF of blood oxygen level-dependent signals to measure brain activity during rest, we found that the SUC patients showed increased activity in the bilateral occipital lobe, particularly in the cuneus and lingual gyrus compared with the SC group and healthy controls. Interestingly, DR patients also showed increased activity in the identical cuneus and lingual gyrus regions, which comprise Brodmann's area 17 (BA17, compared with the SUC patients; however, these abnormalities were not observed in SC and WH patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves indicated that the fALFF value of BA17 could differentiate SUC patients from SC patients and healthy controls with sufficient sensitivity and specificity prior to the administration of medication. Functional connectivity analysis was subsequently performed to evaluate the difference in connectivity between BA17 and other brain regions in the SUC, SC and control groups. Regions nearby the cuneus and lingual gyrus were found positive connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity changes with BA17 in the SUC patients, while remarkably negative connectivity increased changes or positive connectivity decreased changes were found in the SC patients. Additionally, default mode network (DMN regions showed negative connectivity increased changes or

  1. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping the areas sensitive to long-term endotoxin tolerance in the rat brain: a c-fos mRNA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2005-06-01

    We have recently found that a single endotoxin administration to rats reduced the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to another endotoxin administration 4 weeks later, which may be an example of the well-known phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance. However, the time elapsed between the two doses of endotoxin was long enough to consider the above results as an example of late tolerance, whose mechanisms are poorly characterized. To know if the brain plays a role in this phenomenon and to characterize the putative areas involved, we compared the c-fos mRNA response after a final dose of endotoxin in animals given vehicle or endotoxin 4 weeks before. Endotoxin caused a widespread induction of c-fos mRNA in the brain, similar to that previously reported by other laboratories. Whereas most of the brain areas were not sensitive to the previous experience with endotoxin, a few showed a reduced response in endotoxin-pretreated rats: the parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the central amygdala, the lateral division of the bed nucleus and the locus coeruleus. We hypothesize that late tolerance to endotoxin may involve plastic changes in the brain, likely to be located in the central amygdala. The reduced activation of the central amygdala in rats previously treated with endotoxin may, in turn, reduce the activation of other brain areas, including the hypothalamic paraventicular nucleus.

  3. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  4. Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Hericium Erinaceus in rat brain: relevance to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, A; Siracusa, R; Di Paola, R; Scuto, M; Ontario, M L; Bua, Ornella; Di Mauro, Paola; Toscano, M A; Petralia, C C T; Maiolino, L; Serra, A; Cuzzocrea, S; Calabrese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in complementary medicine, especially dietary supplements and foods functional in delaying the onset of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Mushrooms have long been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years, being now increasingly recognized as antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and hepatoprotective agent also capable to stimulate host immune responses. Here we provide evidence of neuroprotective action of Hericium Herinaceus when administered orally to rat. Expression of Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) was measured in different brain regions after oral administration of a biomass Hericium preparation, given for 3 month. LXA4 up-regulation was associated with an increased content of redox sensitive proteins involved in cellular stress response, such as Hsp72, Heme oxygenase -1 and Thioredoxin. In the brain of rats receiving Hericium, maximum induction of LXA4 was observed in cortex, and hippocampus followed by substantia Nigra, striatum and cerebellum. Increasing evidence supports the notion that oxidative stress-driven neuroinflammation is a fundamental cause in neurodegenerative diseases. As prominent intracellular redox system involved in neuroprotection, the vitagene system is emerging as a neurohormetic potential target for novel cytoprotective interventions. Vitagenes encode for cytoprotective heat shock proteins 70, heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin and Lipoxin A4. Emerging interest is now focussing on molecules capable of activating the vitagene system as novel therapeutic target to minimize deleterious consequences associated with free radical-induced cell damage, such as in neurodegeneration. LXA4 is an emerging endogenous eicosanoid able to promote resolution of inflammation, acting as an endogenous "braking signal" in the inflammatory process. In addition, Hsp system is emerging as key pathway for modulation to prevent neuronal dysfunction, caused by protein misfolding. Conceivably, activation of

  5. Novel Middle-Type Kenyon Cells in the Honeybee Brain Revealed by Area-Preferential Gene Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Kumi; Ikeda, Tsubomi; Nagai, Mirai; Hori, Sayaka; Umatani, Chie; Tadano, Hiroto; Ugajin, Atsushi; Nakaoka, Takayoshi; Paul, Rajib Kumar; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Shirai, Kenichi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    The mushroom bodies (a higher center) of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) brain were considered to comprise three types of intrinsic neurons, including large- and small-type Kenyon cells that have distinct gene expression profiles. Although previous neural activity mapping using the immediate early gene kakusei suggested that small-type Kenyon cells are mainly active in forager brains, the precise Kenyon cell types that are active in the forager brain remain to be elucidated. We searched for n...

  6. Sexual dimorphism of Broca's region: More gray matter in female brains in Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Jancke, Lutz; Luders, Eileen

    2017-01-02

    Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects. In addition to testing for sex differences with respect to left- and right-hemispheric measures of BA 44/45, we also assessed possible sex differences in BA 44/45 asymmetry. Our analyses revealed significantly larger gray matter volumes in females compared with males for BA 44 and BA 45 bilaterally. However, there was a lack of significant sex differences in BA 44/45 asymmetry. These results corroborate reports of a language-related female superiority, particularly with respect to verbal fluency and verbal memory tasks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evolving Concepts in Posterior Subthalamic Area Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Tremor: Surgical Neuroanatomy and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Smith, Heather; Kumar, Vignessh; Prusik, Julia; Phookan, Sujoy; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2016-01-01

    Although thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective therapy for refractory tremor in Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, reports investigating the efficacy of posterior subthalamic area (PSA) DBS for severe, debilitating tremors continue to emerge. However, questions regarding the optimal anatomical target, surgical approach, programming paradigms and effectiveness compared to other targets remain. In this report, we aimed to review the current literature to assess different stereotactic techniques, anatomical considerations, adverse effects and stimulation settings in PSA DBS. A comprehensive literature review was performed searching for articles discussing tremors and PSA stimulation. We performed a quantitative analysis comparing different DBS tremor targets. Tremor improvement is consistently documented in most reports with an average reduction in tremor of 79% depending on the specific tremor syndrome. Tremor benefit in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) tremor was significantly higher than for other stimulation targets. Transient paresthesias, imbalance, dizziness and dysarthria are the most common side effects with PSA DBS. PSA DBS is an effective and safe treatment for tremor control and should be considered in patients with refractory tremors with associated cerebellar or dystonic features, proximal tremors and MS tremor. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Accuracy and reproducibility of simple cross-sectional linear and area measurements of brain structures and their comparison with volume measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalley, H.C.; Wardlaw, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Volumetric measurement of brain structure on brain images is regarded as a gold standard, yet is very time consuming. We wondered whether simple linear and area measurements might be as accurate and reproducible. Two observers independently measured the cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum, lentiform and caudate nuclei, thalamus, amygdalas, hippocampi, lateral and third ventricles, and the width of the sylvian and frontal interhemispheric fissures and brain stem on brain MRI of 55 patients using a program written in-house; one observer also measured the volumes of the basal ganglia, amygdalo-hippocampal complex and ventricular system using Analyze, and performed qualitative assessment of four regions (lateral and third ventricles, cortex, and medial temporal lobe) using the Lieberman score. All measures were performed blinded to all other information. Test objects of known size were also imaged with MRI and measured by the two observers using the in-house program. The true sizes of the test objects were measured using engineering calipers by two observers blind to the MRI results. Differences between the two observers using the same measurement method, and one observer using different methods, were calculated. The simple linear and cross-sectional area measurements were rapid (20 min versus 5 h for volumetric); were highly accurate for test-object measurement versus true size; had excellent intraobserver reliability; and, for most brain structures, the simple measures correlated highly significantly with volumetric measures. The simple measures were in general highly reproducible, the difference (as a percentage of the area or width of a region) between the two raters being around 10 %, range 0.1 %- 14.1 %, (similar to inter-rater variability in previous studies of volume measurements). The simple linear and area measures are reproducible and correlate well with the measured volumes, and there is a considerable time saving with the former. In circumstances

  9. Distribution of the insecticide 14 C-fen valerate and its effect on protein and amino acid content in different brain areas of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Intragastric administration of fenvalerate (45 mg/kg) to male rats induced symptoms associated with gamma-cyano pyrethroids (type II syndrome). Fenvalerate crossed blood brain barrier and reached different brain areas. The highest concentration of fenvalerate was found in striatum (18.7+2.5 Mou/g) followed by pons + medulla oblongata (10.4+ 0.91Moug/g) after 24 h of the insecticide administration. A decrease in the protein content in different brain areas was recorded at 24 h. However, it was observed that there was a tendency for the protein level to recover at 48 h although it was still lower than corresponding controlgroup. Excitatory neurotransmitter amino acids, glutamic and aspartic, in the pons + medulla oblongata showed a prominent decrease (-9.9 and 7.0%, respectively). Inhibitory neurotransmitter amino acids, glycine and alanine, showed a slight decrease. On the other hand, the amino acids in the striatum revealed fluctuating changes. Amino acids acting as a precursor of neurotransmitter were also affected in the selected brain areas. The data obtained revealed that fenvalerate caused subtle disruption in the integrity of the CNS and there is a possibility that such disruption might result in physiological and behavioural alteration which may affect the organism ability to interact with environment

  10. Assessment of the brain areas perfused by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy using single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Hiroki; Iwadate, Yasuo; Saegusa, Takashi; Sueyoshi, Kanji [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeki; Sato, Akira; Watanabe, Yoshiro

    1994-12-01

    The brain areas perfused by superselective intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). A superselective catheter was introduced into the anterior, middle, or posterior cerebral artery of patients with malignant glioma for i.a. chemotherapy. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was subsequently injected via the same catheter used for chemotherapy, and a higher dose of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was injected intravenously to obtain adequate background brain images. Comparison of the SPECT images with magnetic resonance images could confirm complete perfusion of the tumor tissue. In two patients with malignant glioma, regions of interest were selected in the peritumoral brain area and a reference brain area, and the radioactivity was measured. The concentration of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO was about 50 times higher in tissue perfused by superselective injection into anterior or middle cerebral artery compared to intravenous injection. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT is readily available in many institutions and the information provided is useful for planning more effective and safe i.a. chemotherapy. (author).

  11. The Role of the Val66Met Polymorphism of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Coping Strategies Relevant to Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Caldwell

    Full Text Available Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signalling have been implicated in the evolution of depression, which likely arises, in part, as a result of diminished synaptic plasticity. Predictably, given stressor involvement in depression, BDNF is affected by recent stressors as well as stressors such as neglect experienced in early life. The effects of early life maltreatment in altering BDNF signalling may be particularly apparent among those individuals with specific BDNF polymorphisms. We examined whether polymorphisms of the Val66Met genotype might be influential in moderating how early-life events play out with respect to later coping styles, cognitive flexibility and depressive features. Among male and female undergraduate students (N = 124, childhood neglect was highly related to subsequent depressive symptoms. This outcome was moderated by the BDNF polymorphism in the sense that depressive symptoms appeared higher in Met carriers who reported low levels of neglect than in those with the Val/Val allele. However, under conditions of high neglect depressive symptoms only increased in the Val/Val individuals. In effect, the Met polymorphism was associated with depressive features, but did not interact with early life neglect in predicting later depressive features. It was further observed that among the Val/Val individuals, the relationship between neglect and depression was mediated by emotion-focused styles and diminished perceived control, whereas this mediation was not apparent in Met carriers. In contrast to the more typical view regarding this polymorphism, the data are consistent with the perspective that in the presence of synaptic plasticity presumably associated with the Val/Val genotype, neglect allows for the emergence of specific appraisal and coping styles, which are tied to depression. In the case of the reduced degree of neuroplasticity expected in the Met carriers, early life adverse experiences are not tied

  12. Inconsistent approaches of the G-BA regarding acceptance of primary study endpoints as being relevant to patients - an analysis of three disease areas: oncological, metabolic, and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Staab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evaluations of oncological medicines in the German early benefit assessment (EBA procedure have demonstrated inconsistent acceptance of endpoints by regulatory authorities and the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA. Accepted standard endpoints for regulatory purposes are frequently not considered as patient-relevant in the German EBA system. In this study the acceptance of clinically acknowledged primary endpoints (PEPs from regulatory trials in EBAs conducted by the G-BA was evaluated across three therapeutic areas. Methods Medicines for oncological, metabolic and infectious diseases with EBAs finalised before 25 January 2016 were evaluated. Respective manufacturer’s dossiers, regulatory assessments, G-BA appraisals and oral hearing minutes were reviewed, and PEPs were examined to determine whether they were considered relevant to patients by the G-BA. Furthermore, the acceptance of symptomatic vs asymptomatic PEPs was also analysed. Results A total of 65 EBAs were evaluated. Mortality PEPs were widely accepted as patient-relevant but were only used in a minority of EBAs and exclusively in oncological diseases. Morbidity PEPs constituted around 72 % of assessed PEPs, but were excluded from the EBA in over half of the corresponding assessments as they were not considered patient-relevant. Symptomatic endpoints were largely deemed patient-relevant, whereas acceptance of asymptomatic endpoints varied between therapeutic areas. Conclusions This evaluation identified inconsistencies in patient relevance of morbidity-related PEPs as well as in acceptance of asymptomatic endpoints by the G-BA in all three disease areas examined. Better harmonisation between the regulatory authorities and the G-BA is still required after 5 years of AMNOG health technology assessment in Germany.

  13. Targeting Glia with N-Acetylcysteine Modulates Brain Glutamate and Behaviors Relevant to Neurodevelopmental Disorders in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durieux, Alice M. S.; Fernandes, Cathy; Murphy, Declan; Labouesse, Marie Anais; Giovanoli, Sandra; Meyer, Urs; Li, Qi; So, Po-Wah; McAlonan, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between excitatory (E) glutamate and inhibitory (I) GABA transmission may underlie neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. This may be direct, through alterations in synaptic genes, but there is increasing evidence for the importance of indirect modulation of E/I balance through glial mechanisms. Here, we used C57BL/6J mice to test the hypothesis that striatal glutamate levels can be shifted by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which acts at the cystine-glutamate antiporter of glial cells. Striatal glutamate was quantified in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The effect of NAC on behaviors relevant to ASD was examined in a separate cohort. NAC induced a time-dependent decrease in striatal glutamate, which recapitulated findings of lower striatal glutamate reported in ASD. NAC-treated animals were significantly less active and more anxious in the open field test; and NAC-treated females had significantly impaired prepulse inhibition of startle response. This at least partly mimics greater anxiety and impaired sensorimotor gating reported in neurodevelopmental disorders. Thus glial mechanisms regulate glutamate acutely and have functional consequences even in adulthood. Glial cells may be a potential drug target for the development of new therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders across the life-span. PMID:26696857

  14. Targeting glia with N-Acetylcysteine modulates brain glutamate and behaviours relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Marie Sybille Durieux

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance between excitatory (E glutamate and inhibitory (I GABA transmission may underlie neurodevelopmental conditions such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and schizophrenia. This may be direct, through alterations in synaptic genes, but there is increasing evidence for the importance of indirect modulation of E/I balance through glial mechanisms. Here we used C57BL/6J mice to test the hypothesis that striatal glutamate levels can be shifted by N-acetylcysteine (NAC, which acts at the cystine-glutamate antiporter of glial cells. Striatal glutamate was quantified in-vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The effect of NAC on behaviours relevant to ASD was examined in a separate cohort. NAC induced a time-dependent decrease in striatal glutamate, which recapitulated findings of lower striatal glutamate reported in ASD. NAC-treated animals were significantly less active and more anxious in the open field test; and NAC-treated females had significantly impaired prepulse inhibition of startle response. This at least partly mimics greater anxiety and impaired sensorimotor gating reported in neurodevelopmental disorders. Thus glial mechanisms regulate glutamate acutely and have functional consequences even in adulthood. Glial cells may be a potential drug target for the development of new therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders across the life-span.

  15. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (Greece); Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C [Neurology Dpt, General Hospital ' G. Gennimatas' , Athens (Greece); Sifakis, N; Zerva, C [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, ' Alexandra' University Hospital, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vanvalot@yahoo.gr

    2009-05-15

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76{+-}6.51 years, education 11.81{+-}4.25 years, MMSE 16.69{+-}9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25{+-}10.48 years, education 10{+-}4.6 years, MMSE 12.5{+-}3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  16. The cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain: an application of event-related fMRI study of the voluntary motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Enzhong; Tian Jie; Dai Ruwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain using event-related fMRI technique developed in recent years. Methods: Forty-four subjects were selected in this experiment and scanned by GE Signa Horizon 1.5 Tesla superconductive MR system. A CUE-GO paradigm was used in this experiment. The data were analyzed in SUN and SGI workstation. Results: The activation areas were found in contralateral primary motor area (Ml), bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMA), pre-motor areas (PMA), basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices. The time-signal curve of Ml was a typical single-peak curve, but the curves in PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were double-peak curves. SMA had 2 parts, one was Pre-SMA, and another was SMA Proper. The curve was double-peak type in Pre-SMA and single-peak type in SMA Proper. There was difference between the time-signal intensity curves in above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: (1) Ml is mainly associated with motor execution, while others with both motor preparation and execution. There are differences in the function at the variant areas in the brain. (2) The fact that bilateral SMA, PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were activated, is different from what the classical theories told. (3) Event-related fMRI technique has higher temporary and spatial resolutions. (4) There is cooperation among different cortical areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

  17. Brain surface anatomy in adults with autism: the relationship between surface area, cortical thickness, and autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ginestet, Cedric; Feng, Yue; Johnston, Patrick; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Suckling, John; Palaniyappan, Lena; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brammer, Michael; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of brain anatomy in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have mostly been based on measures of cortical volume (CV). However, CV is a product of 2 distinct parameters, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), that in turn have distinct genetic and developmental origins. To investigate regional differences in CV, SA, and CT as well as their relationship in a large and well-characterized sample of men with ASD and matched controls. Multicenter case-control design using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Medical Research Council UK Autism Imaging Multicentre Study. A total of 168 men, 84 diagnosed as having ASD and 84 controls who did not differ significantly in mean (SD) age (26 [7] years vs 28 [6] years, respectively) or full-scale IQ (110 [14] vs 114 [12], respectively). Between-group differences in CV, SA, and CT investigated using a spatially unbiased vertex-based approach; the degree of spatial overlap between the differences in CT and SA; and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV. Individuals with ASD differed from controls in all 3 parameters. These mainly consisted of significantly increased CT within frontal lobe regions and reduced SA in the orbitofrontal cortex and posterior cingulum. These differences in CT and SA were paralleled by commensurate differences in CV. The spatially distributed patterns for CT and SA were largely nonoverlapping and shared only about 3% of all significantly different locations on the cerebral surface. Individuals with ASD have significant differences in CV, but these may be underpinned by (separable) variations in its 2 components, CT and SA. This is of importance because both measures result from distinct developmental pathways that are likely modulated by different neurobiological mechanisms. This finding may provide novel targets for future studies into the etiology of the condition and a new way to fractionate the disorder.

  18. Differential behavioral profile induced by the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate within brain areas that project to the nucleus accumbens septi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano López, Luis H; Caif, Fernando; Fraile, Miriam; Tinnirello, Belén; de Gargiulo, Adriana I Landa; Lafuente, José V; Baiardi, Gustavo C; Gargiulo, Pascual A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the agonism on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors was studied within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) and ventral hipocampus (VH) in the plus-maze test in male rats bilaterally cannulated. These structures send glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS), in which interaction and integration between these afferent pathways has been described. In a previous study of our group, blockade of glutamatergic transmission within NAS induced an anxiolytic like effect. Three rat groups received either saline or dipotassium chlorazepate (1 or 2 μg/1 μl solution) 15 min before testing. Time spent in the open arms (TSOA), time per entry (TPE), extreme arrivals (EA), open and closed arms entries (OAE, CAE) and relationship between open- and closed-arms quotient (OCAQ) were recorded. In the AMY injected group TSOA, OAE and EA were increased by the higher doses of dipotassium chlorazepate (p < 0.01). In the mPFC, TPE was decreased by both doses (p < 0.05). Injection within ventral hippocampus (VH) decreased TSOA, OAE and OCAQ with lower doses (p < 0.05). When the three studied saline groups were compared, TSOA, OAE, EA and OCAQ were enhanced in the VH group when compared to mPFC and AMY (p < 0.001). Insertion of inner canula (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01) and saline injection showed an increasing significant difference (p < 0.001 in all cases) with the action of guide cannula alone within VH in TSOA, OAE and EA. We conclude that the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate has a differential effect depending of the brain area, leading to facilitatory and inhibitory effects on anxiety processing.

  19. A review on substances and processes relevant for optical remote sensing of extremely turbid marine areas, with a focus on the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, A.; Wernand, M.R.; Peters, S.W.M.; de Boer, J.

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of optical remote sensing data of estuaries and tidal flat areas is hampered by optical complexity and often extreme turbidity. Extremely high concentrations of suspended matter, chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter, local differences, seasonal and tidal variations and

  20. Planning protected areas network that are relevant today and under future climate change is possible: the case of Atlantic Forest endemic birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Vale

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background A key strategy in biodiversity conservation is the establishment of protected areas. In the future, however, the redistribution of species in response to ongoing climate change is likely to affect species’ representativeness in those areas. Here we quantify the effectiveness of planning protected areas network to represent 151 birds endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot, under current and future climate change conditions for 2050. Methods We combined environmental niche modeling and systematic conservation planning using both a county and a regional level planning strategy. We recognized the conflict between biodiversity conservation and economic development, including socio-economic targets (as opposed to biological only and using planning units that are meaningful for policy-makers. Results We estimated an average contraction of 29,500 km2 in environmentally suitable areas for birds, representing 52% of currently suitable areas. Still, the most cost-effective solution represented almost all target species, requiring only ca. 10% of the Atlantic Forest counties to achieve that representativeness, independent of strategy. More than 50% of these counties were selected both in the current and future planned networks, representing >83% of the species. Discussion Our results indicate that: (i planning protected areas network currently can be useful to represent species under climate change; (ii the overlapped planning units in the best solution for both current and future conditions can be considered as “no regret” areas; (iii priority counties are spread throughout the biome, providing specific guidance wherever the possibility of creating protected area arises; and (iv decisions can occur at different administrative spheres (Federal, State or County as we found quite similar numerical solutions using either county or regional level strategies.

  1. Cochlear Implantation (CI for prelingual deafness: the relevance of studies of brain organization and the role of first language acquisition in considering outcome success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eCampbell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation (CI for profound congenital hearing impairment, while often successful in restoring hearing to the deaf child, does not always result in effective speech processing. Exposure to non-auditory signals during the pre-implantation period is widely held to be responsible for such failures. Here, we question the inference that such exposure irreparably distorts the function of auditory cortex, negatively impacting the efficacy of cochlear implantation. Animal studies suggest that in congenital early deafness there is a disconnection between (disordered activation in primary auditory cortex (A1 and activation in secondary auditory cortex (A2. In humans, one factor contributing to this functional decoupling is assumed to be abnormal activation of A1 by visual projections – including exposure to sign language. In this paper we show that that this abnormal activation of A1 does not routinely occur, while A2 functions effectively supramodally and multimodally to deliver spoken language irrespective of hearing status. What, then, is responsible for poor outcomes for some individuals with CI and for apparent abnormalities in cortical organization in these people? Since infancy is a critical period for the acquisition of language, deaf children born to hearing parents are at risk of developing inefficient neural structures to support skilled language processing. A sign language, acquired by a deaf child as a first language in a signing environment, is cortically organized like a heard spoken language in terms of specialization of the dominant perisylvian system. However, very few deaf children are exposed to sign language in early infancy. Moreover, no studies to date have examined sign language proficiency in relation to cortical organization in individuals with CI. Given the paucity of such relevant findings, we suggest that the best guarantee of good language outcome after CI is the establishment of a secure first language pre

  2. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Corrie, Lu W; Rogers, Jessica A; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-06-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15-500 ng/side) or Arc (15-150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005-5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Synaesthetic Colour in the Brain: Beyond Colour Areas. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Synaesthetes and Matched Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e. g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory

  4. Holistic face categorization in higher-level cortical visual areas of the normal and prosopagnosic brain: towards a non-hierarchical view of face perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossion

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How a visual stimulus is initially categorized as a face in a network of human brain areas remains largely unclear. Hierarchical neuro-computational models of face perception assume that the visual stimulus is first decomposed in local parts in lower order visual areas. These parts would then be combined into a global representation in higher order face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Here we tested this view in fMRI with visual stimuli that are categorized as faces based on their global configuration rather than their local parts (2-tones Mooney figures and Arcimboldo’s facelike paintings. Compared to the same inverted visual stimuli that are not categorized as faces, these stimuli activated the right middle fusiform gyrus (Fusiform face area, FFA and superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, with no significant activation in the posteriorly located inferior occipital gyrus (i.e., no occipital face area, OFA. This observation is strengthened by behavioral and neural evidence for normal face categorization of these stimuli in a brain-damaged prosopagnosic patient (PS whose intact right middle fusiform gyrus and superior temporal sulcus are devoid of any potential face-sensitive inputs from the lesioned right inferior occipital cortex. Together, these observations indicate that face-preferential activation may emerge in higher order visual areas of the right hemisphere without any face-preferential inputs from lower order visual areas, supporting a non-hierarchical view of face perception in the visual cortex.

  5. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji [Department of Pathology and Applied Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Kanamura, Narisato [Department of Dental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji, E-mail: sfushiki@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [The International Clinical Research Center, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  6. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  7. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kobal

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM, which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  8. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  9. Using Lidar Data to Analyse Sinkhole Characteristics Relevant for Understory Vegetation under Forest Cover—Case Study of a High Karst Area in the Dinaric Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts. PMID:25793871

  10. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-02-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed activation in right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 7 and 19), the right temporal lobe (Brodmann area 39), the right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 23) and bilateral occipital lobes (Brodmann area 18). Furthermore, inhibition of bilateral frontal lobes (Brodmann area 4, 6, and 45), right parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 1 and 5) and left temporal lobe (Brodmann area 21) were observed in the true point group. Activation in the precuneus of right parietal lobe (Brodmann area 7) and inhibition of the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) was observed in the sham group. Compared with sham acupuncture, acupuncture at Waiguan in stroke patients inhibited Brodmann area 5 on the healthy side. Results indicated that the altered specificity of sensation-associated cortex (Brodmann area 5) is possibly associated with a central mechanism of acupuncture at Waiguan for stroke patients.

  11. [Potential of cooperative learning in project development : Relevance of cooperative participation procedure for the further development of generation-appropriate accomodation in structurally weak rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Gerd; Frankenberg, Olga; Sommer, Ralf-Rüdiger; Jost, Annemarie

    2017-04-01

    A joint initiative of existing senior care organizations, the municipality of Meyenburg and the state of Brandenburg was further developed by affiliation of an institute of the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (ABV) in cooperation with members of the architecture and social work departments in 2014. A cooperative process between different players was central to create an appropriate structure of services for this region. Cooperative projects are necessary to establish new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas. Cooperative learning methods are needed to develop new forms of generation-appropriate living and care concepts in rural areas, which take the diversity of elderly people, the rural context, intergenerational residential arrangements and affordable accommodation that meets the requirements of the social security system into account. Furthermore, the project had to reflect the recent developments of the German care insurance. The article describes the participatory methods, the coordination process and the resulting concept.

  12. The effects of musical training on structural brain development: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Krista L; Lerch, Jason; Norton, Andrea; Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Evans, Alan C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-07-01

    Long-term instrumental music training is an intense, multisensory and motor experience that offers an ideal opportunity to study structural brain plasticity in the developing brain in correlation with behavioral changes induced by training. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate structural brain changes after only 15 months of musical training in early childhood, which were correlated with improvements in musically relevant motor and auditory skills. These findings shed light on brain plasticity, and suggest that structural brain differences in adult experts (whether musicians or experts in other areas) are likely due to training-induced brain plasticity.

  13. In vivo fate of a behaviorally potent ACTH 4-9 analog; evidence for its specific uptake in the brain septal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoef, J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of ACTH-like neuropeptides on conditioned avoidance behavior and their tentative central sites of action are reviewed. The in vivo fate of the [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog after various routes of peripheral administration in mice and rats are described, in particular, the uptake of intact peptide in the brain is emphasized, since ACTH-like neuropeptides elicit their behavioral activities by directly affecting the central nervous system. Subsequently, the metabolic profiles of the ACTH 4-9 analog in plasma and brain tissue are reported. The distribution of the [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog throughout the rat brain is studied after intraventricular injection to allow detection in small brain areas and nuclei and to limit (peripheral) proteolysis. Finally, the effects of increased and decreased circulating levels of both ACTH-like peptides and structurally non-related but behaviorally active neuropeptides on the central distribution profile of intraventricularly injected [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog are reviewed

  14. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: Beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual

  15. Relevant areas of functioning in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The patients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunping; Yu, Jiadan; Zhang, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Lai, Huabin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Hao; Wang, Pu

    2016-10-12

    To investigate relevant aspects of functioning and disability, and environmental factors in people with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis according to patients' self-reports based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Multicentre, empirical, cross-sectional study. Four departments of orthopaedics in 4 hospitals, and 5 departments of rehabilitation medicine in 5 hospitals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 975 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 5 hospitals according to the patients' self-reporting. In addition, patients were divided into 3 groups according to clinical outcome. Participant information included demographic and disease-related characteristics. Three adolescent idiopathic scoliosis groups were then compared with respect to the problems identified. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Categories identified by qualitative analysis were subsequently mapped to the ICF-CY using established linking rules. In order to enrich these findings, we also translated the Scoliosis Research Society 22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22 PQ) into the language of the ICF-CY, based on ICF linking rules. A total of 1278 themes that linked to 54 ICF-CY cate-gories from 18 chapters were identified. Twenty-two (41%) categories were identified as Body Functions, 7 (13%) as Body Structures, 15 (27%) as Activities and Participation, and 10 (19%) as Environmental Factors. Of the 54 categories, 45 (83%) were second-level, 5 (9%) were third-level, and 4 (7%) were fourth-level. Differences between the SRS-22 PQ results and our findings were observed for several ICF-CY categories. Patients with AIS reported activity limitations and participation restrictions combined with impaired body structures and functions. Environmental factors may act as a barrier to, or facilitator of, patient functioning in daily life. The ICF-CY provides a valuable framework for representing the complexity and

  16. Sense and antisense transcripts of the developmentally regulated murine hsp70.2 gene are expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping areas in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the spatial pattern of expression of a member of the hsp70 gene family, hsp70.2, in the mouse central nervous system. Surprisingly, RNA blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of an 'antisense' hsp70.2 transcript in several areas of adult mouse brain. Two different transcripts recognized by sense and antisense riboprobes for the hsp70.2 gene were expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping neuronal populations. RNA blot analysis revealed low levels of the 2.7 kb transcript of hsp70.2 in several areas of the brain, with highest signal in the hippocampus. Abundant expression of a slightly larger (approximately 2.8 kb) 'antisense' transcript was detected in several brain regions, notably in the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic tectum, thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In situ hybridization revealed that the sense and antisense transcripts were both predominantly neuronal and localized to the same cell types in the granular layer of the cerebellum, trapezoid nucleus of the superior olivary complex, locus coeruleus and hippocampus. The hsp70.2 antisense transcripts were particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, superior and inferior colliculi, central gray, brainstem, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our findings have revealed a distinct cellular and spatial localization of both sense and antisense transcripts, demonstrating a new level of complexity in the function of the heat shock genes.

  17. A checklist of beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) on pig carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China: A preliminary study and its forensic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhou; Wan, Li-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Rui; Xu, Lyu-Zi

    2016-07-01

    Examining the succession pattern of carrion insects on vertebrate carcasses is widely accepted as an effective method to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of decayed bodies. Investigation of the community of sarcosaprophagous insects, especially flies and beetles, is the foundation of the succession pattern study. This study aimed to investigate the sarcosaprophagous beetles succession on animal carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China and to establish a basic catalog for forensic application. The present study was conducted in 2013 in a mountain in Chongqing municipality with modified Schoenly traps. Carcasses of miniature pig were used to simulate human bodies. For most carcasses, five decomposition stages were observed. A total of 2108 adult coleopterans belonging to at least 61 species and 18 families were collected in the study, and most of the specimens occurred at the advanced decay stage. Omosita colon (Linnaeus, 1758), Necrodes nigricornis (Harold, 1875), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius, 1775) and Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz, 1857) were the dominant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P; Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C; Sifakis, N; Zerva, C

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  19. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, V.; Papatriantafyllou, J.; Sifakis, N.; Karageorgiou, C.; Tsougos, I.; Tzavara, C.; Zerva, C.; Georgoulias, P.

    2009-05-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  20. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M.; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music “ to do to us what it does.” While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research. PMID:26347603

  1. Quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on ventromedial hypothalamic and preoptic-area proteins in female rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on protein synthesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) and the preoptic area (POA) was accomplished using in vitro 35S-methionine and 35S-cystein labeling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and computerized densitometry. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was implanted with estradiol (E) capsules for 6 hr and injected with progesterone (P; 0.1 ml, 5 mg/ml propylene glycol) at 20 hr. Group 3 was sham-implanted for 6 hr and injected with 0.01 ml P at 20 hr. Group 4 was sham-planted for 6 hr and injected with vehicle alone at 20 hr. All animals were sacrificed at 24 hr. A number of proteins in both VMN and POA were found to be increased or decreased in labeling by E plus P, E alone, and P alone. Two important synergistic effects of the hormones were found. First, the effects of E on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by P, and conversely, the effects of P on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by E. Second, E priming increased the number of proteins affected in labeling by P in both brain regions. Comparison of the effects of E and P on proteins in the VMN and POA indicated that the populations of proteins affected in labeling were markedly different. These results begin to clarify the mechanism in which E and P affect neuronal functioning in two regions involved in the control of reproduction and lend support to the hypothesis that gonadal steroids accomplished their action on brain tissue via a mechanism that is partly unique to the brain region

  2. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects...

  3. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gsell Alena S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study. Results The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%. Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1. Conclusions Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that

  4. Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsell, Alena S; Knobel, Darryn L; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Vounatsou, Penelope; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2012-12-05

    Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study. The estimated size of the domestic dog population in Iringa was six times larger than official town records assumed, however, the proportion of feral dogs was estimated to account for less than 1% of the whole population. An average of 13% of all households owned dogs which equalled a dog:human ratio of 1:14, or 0.31 dogs per household or 334 dogs km-2. Dog female:male ratio was 1:1.4. The average age of the population was 2.2 years, 52% of all individuals were less than one year old. But mortality within the first year was high (72%). Females became fertile at the age of 10 months and reportedly remained fertile up to the age of 11 years. The average number of litters whelped per fertile female per year was 0.6 with an average of 5.5 pups born per litter. The population growth was estimated at 10% y-1. Such high birth and death rates result in a rapid replacement of anti-rabies immunised individuals with susceptible ones. This loss in herd immunity needs to be taken into account in the design of rabies control programmes. The very small proportion of truly feral dogs in the population implies that vaccination campaigns aimed at the owned dog population are

  5. A Free-Choice High-Fat High-Sugar Diet Alters Day-Night Per2 Gene Expression in Reward-Related Brain Areas in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea Susana; Unmehopa, Unga A; Eggels, Leslie; Koekkoek, Laura; Kalsbeek, Andries; Mendoza, Jorge; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2018-01-01

    Under normal light-dark conditions, nocturnal rodents consume most of their food during the dark period. Diets high in fat and sugar, however, may affect the day-night feeding rhythm resulting in a higher light phase intake. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that nutrients affect clock-gene expression. We therefore hypothesized that overconsuming fat and sugar alters clock-gene expression in brain structures important for feeding behavior. We determined the effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet on clock-gene expression in rat brain areas related to feeding and reward and compared them with chow-fed rats. Consuming a fcHFHS diet for 6 weeks disrupted day-night differences in Per2 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and lateral hypothalamus but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, habenula, and ventral tegmental area. Furthermore, short-term sugar drinking, but not fat feeding, upregulates Per2 mRNA expression in the NAc. The disruptions in day-night differences in NAc Per2 gene expression were not accompanied by altered day-night differences in the mRNA expression of peptides related to food intake. We conclude that the fcHFHS diet and acute sugar drinking affect Per2 gene expression in areas involved in food reward; however, this is not sufficient to alter the day-night pattern of food intake.

  6. Awake craniotomy for brain lesions within and near the primary motor area: A retrospective analysis of factors associated with worsened paresis in 102 consecutive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Yamada, Ryoji; Hana, Taijun; Saito, Akira; Hiromitsu, Kentaro; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Syoko; Yagi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Background: We analyzed factors associated with worsened paresis in a large series of patients with brain lesions located within or near the primary motor area (M1) to establish protocols for safe, awake craniotomy of eloquent lesions. Methods: We studied patients with brain lesions involving M1, the premotor area (PMA) and the primary sensory area (S1), who underwent awake craniotomy (n = 102). In addition to evaluating paresis before, during, and one month after surgery, the following parameters were analyzed: Intraoperative complications; success or failure of awake surgery; tumor type (A or B), tumor location, tumor histology, tumor size, and completeness of resection. Results: Worsened paresis at one month of follow-up was significantly associated with failure of awake surgery, intraoperative complications and worsened paresis immediately after surgery, which in turn was significantly associated with intraoperative worsening of paresis. Intraoperative worsening of paresis was significantly related to preoperative paresis, type A tumor (motor tract running in close proximity to and compressed by the tumor), tumor location within or including M1 and partial removal (PR) of the tumor. Conclusions: Successful awake surgery and prevention of deterioration of paresis immediately after surgery without intraoperative complications may help prevent worsening of paresis at one month. Factors associated with intraoperative worsening of paresis were preoperative motor deficit, type A and tumor location in M1, possibly leading to PR of the tumor. PMID:24381792

  7. Characterization of a cerebral palsy-like model in rats: Analysis of gait pattern and of brain and spinal cord motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Souza; de Almeida, Wellington; Popik, Bruno; Sbardelotto, Bruno Marques; Torrejais, Márcia Miranda; de Souza, Marcelo Alves; Centenaro, Lígia Aline

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days. At 29days of age, the CPG exhibited coordination between limbs, weight-supported dorsal steps or weight-supported plantar steps with paw rotation. At 45days of age, CPG exhibited plantar stepping with the paw rotated in the balance phase. An increase in the number of glial cells in the primary somatosensory cortex and dorsal striatum were observed in the CPG, but the corpus callosum thickness and cross-sectional area of lateral ventricle were similar between studied groups. No changes were found in the number of motoneurons, glial cells and soma area of the motoneurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord. The combination of insults in the pre, peri and postnatal periods produced changes in hindlimbs gait pattern of animals similar to those observed in diplegic patients, but motor impairments were attenuated over time. Besides, the greater number of glial cells observed seems to be related to the formation of a glial scar in important sensorimotor brain areas. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural reactivity to visual food stimuli is reduced in some areas of the brain during evening hours compared to morning hours: an fMRI study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Travis D; Kirwan, C Brock; Davidson, Lance E; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-03-01

    The extent that neural responsiveness to visual food stimuli is influenced by time of day is not well examined. Using a crossover design, 15 healthy women were scanned using fMRI while presented with low- and high-energy pictures of food, once in the morning (6:30-8:30 am) and once in the evening (5:00-7:00 pm). Diets were identical on both days of the fMRI scans and were verified using weighed food records. Visual analog scales were used to record subjective perception of hunger and preoccupation with food prior to each fMRI scan. Six areas of the brain showed lower activation in the evening to both high- and low-energy foods, including structures in reward pathways (P foods compared to low-energy foods (P food stimuli tended to produce greater fMRI responses than low-energy food stimuli in specific areas of the brain, regardless of time of day. However, evening scans showed a lower response to both low- and high-energy food pictures in some areas of the brain. Subjectively, participants reported no difference in hunger by time of day (F = 1.84, P = 0.19), but reported they could eat more (F = 4.83, P = 0.04) and were more preoccupied with thoughts of food (F = 5.51, P = 0.03) in the evening compared to the morning. These data underscore the role that time of day may have on neural responses to food stimuli. These results may also have clinical implications for fMRI measurement in order to prevent a time of day bias.

  9. 28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    28 June 2012 - Members of the European Brain Council led by President Mary Baker visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Group Leader L. Bottura and CMS experimental area with Run Coordinator M. Chamizo-Llatas.

  10. Physics of the Brain: Interaction of the Optical-Fiber-Guided Multi-Ultraviolet-Photon Beams with the Epilepsy Topion, (the Seizure Onset Area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    A novel method for the possible prevention of epileptic seizures is proposed, based on the multi-ultraviolet-photon beam interaction with the epilepsy topion, (nonlinear coupling of an ultra high frequency mode to the brain beta phonons). It is hypothesized that epilepsy is a chaotic-dynamics phenomenon: small electrical changes in the epilepsy-topion lead, (within the 10s of milliseconds), to the onset of chaos, (seizure--excessive electrical discharge), and subsequent cascading into adjacent areas. The ultraviolet photons may control the imbalance of sodium and potassium ions and, consequently, may prove to be efficient in the prevention of epileptic seizures. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University.

  11. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  12. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the language and motor white matter pathways of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Peck, Kyung K; Young, Robert J; Brennan, Nicole; Holodny, Andrei I

    2014-12-01

    Accurate localization of anatomically and functionally separate SMA tracts is important to improve planning prior to neurosurgery. Using fMRI and probabilistic DTI techniques, we assessed the connectivity between the frontal language area (Broca's area) and the rostral pre-SMA (language SMA) and caudal SMA proper (motor SMA). Twenty brain tumor patients completed motor and language fMRI paradigms and DTI. Peaks of functional activity in the language SMA, motor SMA and Broca's area were used to define seed regions for probabilistic tractography. fMRI and probabilistic tractography identified separate and unique pathways connecting the SMA to Broca's area - the language SMA pathway and the motor SMA pathway. For all subjects, the language SMA pathway had a larger number of voxels (PProbabilistic tractography can identify unique white matter tracts that connect language SMA and motor SMA to Broca's area. The language SMA is more significantly connected to Broca's area than is the motor subdivision of the SMA proper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Categorization for Faces and Tools—Two Classes of Objects Shaped by Different Experience—Differs in Processing Timing, Brain Areas Involved, and Repetition Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2018-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that integrate the separate features of sensory input into a meaningful percept depend upon the prior experience of interaction with the object and differ between categories of objects. Recent studies using representational similarity analysis (RSA) have characterized either the spatial patterns of brain activity for different categories of objects or described how category structure in neuronal representations emerges in time, but never simultaneously. Here we applied a novel, region-based, multivariate pattern classification approach in combination with RSA to magnetoencephalography data to extract activity associated with qualitatively distinct processing stages of visual perception. We asked participants to name what they see whilst viewing bitonal visual stimuli of two categories predominantly shaped by either value-dependent or sensorimotor experience, namely faces and tools, and meaningless images. We aimed to disambiguate the spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity between the meaningful categories and determine which differences in their processing were attributable to either perceptual categorization per se, or later-stage mentalizing-related processes. We have extracted three stages of cortical activity corresponding to low-level processing, category-specific feature binding, and supra-categorical processing. All face-specific spatiotemporal patterns were associated with bilateral activation of ventral occipito-temporal areas during the feature binding stage at 140–170 ms. The tool-specific activity was found both within the categorization stage and in a later period not thought to be associated with binding processes. The tool-specific binding-related activity was detected within a 210–220 ms window and was located to the intraparietal sulcus of the left hemisphere. Brain activity common for both meaningful categories started at 250 ms and included widely distributed assemblies within parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions

  14. Categorization for Faces and Tools-Two Classes of Objects Shaped by Different Experience-Differs in Processing Timing, Brain Areas Involved, and Repetition Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that integrate the separate features of sensory input into a meaningful percept depend upon the prior experience of interaction with the object and differ between categories of objects. Recent studies using representational similarity analysis (RSA) have characterized either the spatial patterns of brain activity for different categories of objects or described how category structure in neuronal representations emerges in time, but never simultaneously. Here we applied a novel, region-based, multivariate pattern classification approach in combination with RSA to magnetoencephalography data to extract activity associated with qualitatively distinct processing stages of visual perception. We asked participants to name what they see whilst viewing bitonal visual stimuli of two categories predominantly shaped by either value-dependent or sensorimotor experience, namely faces and tools, and meaningless images. We aimed to disambiguate the spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity between the meaningful categories and determine which differences in their processing were attributable to either perceptual categorization per se , or later-stage mentalizing-related processes. We have extracted three stages of cortical activity corresponding to low-level processing, category-specific feature binding, and supra-categorical processing. All face-specific spatiotemporal patterns were associated with bilateral activation of ventral occipito-temporal areas during the feature binding stage at 140-170 ms. The tool-specific activity was found both within the categorization stage and in a later period not thought to be associated with binding processes. The tool-specific binding-related activity was detected within a 210-220 ms window and was located to the intraparietal sulcus of the left hemisphere. Brain activity common for both meaningful categories started at 250 ms and included widely distributed assemblies within parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions

  15. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  16. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  17. Subliminal and supraliminal processing of facial expression of emotions: brain oscillation in the left/right frontal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-03-26

    The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation) or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation) processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects looked at six facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral) under two different conditions: supraliminal (200 ms) vs. subliminal (30 ms) stimulation (140 target-mask pairs for each condition). The results showed that conscious/unconscious processing and the significance of the stimulus can modulate the alpha power. Moreover, it was found that there was an increased right frontal activity for negative emotions vs. an increased left response for positive emotion. The significance of facial expressions was adduced to elucidate cortical different responses to emotional types.

  18. Exercise and plasticize the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mala, Hana; Wilms, Inge

    Neuroscientific studies continue to shed light on brain’s plasticity and its innate mechanisms to recover. The recovery process includes re-wiring of the existing circuitry, establishment of new connections, and recruitment of peri-lesional and homologous areas in the opposite hemisphere....... The plasticity of the brain can be stimulated and enhanced through training, which serves as a fundamental element of neurorehabilitative strategies. For instance, intensive cognitive and physical training promote the activation of processes that may help the brain to adapt to new conditions and needs. However...... neurorehabilitation is to understand and define how to stimulate the injured brain to elicit the desired adaptation. Research focuses on uncovering specific elements relevant for training planning and execution in order to create an environment that stimulates and maximizes the exploitation of the brain’s plastic...

  19. fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus as an indicator of hemispheric dominance for language in brain tumor patients: a comparison with Broca's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian W; Brennan, Nicole M Petrovich; Izzo, Giana; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei I

    2016-05-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) can assess language lateralization in brain tumor patients; however, this can be limited if the primary language area-Broca's area (BA)-is affected by the tumor. We hypothesized that the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) can be used as a clinical indicator of hemispheric dominance for language during presurgical workup. Fifty-two right-handed subjects with solitary left-hemispheric primary brain tumors were retrospectively studied. Subjects performed a verbal fluency task during fMRI. The MFG was compared to BA for fMRI voxel activation, language laterality index (LI), and the effect of tumor grade on the LI. Language fMRI (verbal fluency) activated more voxels in MFG than in BA (MFG = 315, BA = 216, p hemispheric MFG and BA were positively correlated (r = 0.69, p hemispheric dominance for language using a measure of verbal fluency and may be an adjunct measure in the clinical determination of language laterality for presurgical planning.

  20. Relationship between extent of brain hypoperfused area and functional outcome in patients with a small subcortical infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Ashida, Keiichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Iiji, Osamu; Itoi, Yoshihito; Furukawa, Toshiyuki

    1992-01-01

    We performed 123 I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 43 patients who had a small infarction ( 2 =29.3; p 123 I-IMP SPECT in patients with a small infarction may discriminate lacunar infarction from embolic or hemodynamic infarction, which was caused by vascular lesions of major cerebral arteries, in subcortical area. Our study suggests that functional outcome is better in lacunar infarction than embolic or hemodynamic infarction in subcortical area. (author)

  1. Ghrelin agonists impact on Fos protein expression in brain areas related to food intake regulation in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnik, Z; Bundziková, J; Holubová, M; Pýchová, M; Fehrentz, J A; Martinez, J; Zelezná, B; Maletínská, L; Kiss, A

    2011-11-01

    Many peripheral substances, including ghrelin, induce neuronal activation in the brain. In the present study, we compared the effect of subcutaneously administered ghrelin and its three stable agonists: Dpr(3)ghr ([Dpr(N-octanoyl)(3)] ghrelin) (Dpr - diaminopropionic acid), YA GHRP-6 (H-Tyr-Ala-His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH(2)), and JMV1843 (H-Aib-DTrp-D-gTrp-CHO) on the Fos expression in food intake-responsive brain areas such as the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and area postrema (AP) in male C57BL/6 mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that acute subcutaneous dose of each substance (5mg/kg b.w.), which induced a significant food intake increase, elevated Fos protein expression in all brain areas studied. Likewise ghrelin, each agonist tested induced distinct Fos expression overall the PVN. In the ARC, ghrelin and its agonists specifically activated similarly distributed neurons. Fos occurrence extended from the anterior (aARC) to middle (mARC) ARC region. In the latter part of the ARC, the Fos profiles were localized bilaterally, especially in the ventromedial portions of the nucleus. In the NTS, all substances tested also significantly increased the number of Fos profiles in neurons, which also revealed specific location, i.e., in the NTS dorsomedial subnucleus (dmNTS) and the area subpostrema (AsP). In addition, cells located nearby the NTS, in the AP, also revealed a significant increase in number of Fos-activated cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that ghrelin agonists, regardless of their different chemical nature, have a significant and similar activating impact on specific groups of neurons that can be a part of the circuits involved in the food intake regulation. Therefore there is a real potency for ghrelin agonists to treat cachexia and food intake disorders. Thus, likewise JMV1843, the other ghrelin agonists represent substances that might be involved in

  2. IMAGING OF BRAIN FUNCTION BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY - IMAGING ANALYSIS OF BRAIN FUNCTION BY FMRI AFTER ACUPUNCTURE AT LR3 IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yuying; Lan, Yujun; Qu, Xiaodong; Lin, Kelin; Zhang, Jiping; Qu, Shanshan; Wang, Yanjie; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. Methods: A total of 45 healthy subjects were randomly divided into the Taichong (LR3) group, sham acupuncture group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting state fMRI before acupuncture, a...

  3. Subliminal and Supraliminal Processing of Facial Expression of Emotions: Brain Oscillation in the Left/Right Frontal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The unconscious effects of an emotional stimulus have been highlighted by a vast amount of research, whereover it remains questionable whether it is possible to assign a specific function to cortical brain oscillations in the unconscious perception of facial expressions of emotions. Alpha band variation was monitored within the right- and left-cortical side when subjects consciously (supraliminal stimulation or unconsciously (subliminal stimulation processed facial patterns. Twenty subjects looked at six facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral under two different conditions: supraliminal (200 ms vs. subliminal (30 ms stimulation (140 target-mask pairs for each condition. The results showed that conscious/unconscious processing and the significance of the stimulus can modulate the alpha power. Moreover, it was found that there was an increased right frontal activity for negative emotions vs. an increased left response for positive emotion. The significance of facial expressions was adduced to elucidate cortical different responses to emotional types.

  4. Where one hand meets the other: limb-specific and action-dependent movement plans decoded from preparatory signals in single human frontoparietal brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, D Adam; Flanagan, J Randall; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-30

    Planning object-directed hand actions requires successful integration of the movement goal with the acting limb. Exactly where and how this sensorimotor integration occurs in the brain has been studied extensively with neurophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates, yet to date, because of limitations of non-invasive methodologies, the ability to examine the same types of planning-related signals in humans has been challenging. Here we show, using a multivoxel pattern analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data, that the preparatory activity patterns in several frontoparietal brain regions can be used to predict both the limb used and hand action performed in an upcoming movement. Participants performed an event-related delayed movement task whereby they planned and executed grasp or reach actions with either their left or right hand toward a single target object. We found that, although the majority of frontoparietal areas represented hand actions (grasping vs reaching) for the contralateral limb, several areas additionally coded hand actions for the ipsilateral limb. Notable among these were subregions within the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), ventral premotor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, presupplementary motor area, and motor cortex, a region more traditionally implicated in contralateral movement generation. Additional analyses suggest that hand actions are represented independently of the intended limb in PPC and PMd. In addition to providing a unique mapping of limb-specific and action-dependent intention-related signals across the human cortical motor system, these findings uncover a much stronger representation of the ipsilateral limb than expected from previous fMRI findings.

  5. Electroencephalographic (eeg coherence between visual and motor areas of the left and the right brain hemisphere while performing visuomotor task with the right and the left hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unilateral limb movements are based on the activation of contralateral primary motor cortex and the bilateral activation of premotor cortices. Performance of a visuomotor task requires a visuomotor integration between motor and visual cortical areas. The functional integration (»binding« of different brain areas, is probably mediated by the synchronous neuronal oscillatory activity, which can be determined by electroencephalographic (EEG coherence analysis. We introduced a new method of coherence analysis and compared coherence and power spectra in the left and right hemisphere for the right vs. left hand visuomotor task, hypothesizing that the increase in coherence and decrease in power spectra while performing the task would be greater in the contralateral hemisphere.Methods: We analyzed 6 healthy subjects and recorded their electroencephalogram during visuomotor task with the right or the left hand. For data analysis, a special Matlab computer programme was designed. The results were statistically analysed by a two-way analysis of variance, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc t-tests with Bonferroni correction.Results: We demonstrated a significant increase in coherence (p < 0.05 for the visuomotor task compared to control tasks in alpha (8–13 Hz in beta 1 (13–20 Hz frequency bands between visual and motor electrodes. There were no significant differences in coherence nor power spectra depending on the hand used. The changes of coherence and power spectra between both hemispheres were symmetrical.Conclusions: In previous studies, a specific increase of coherence and decrease of power spectra for the visuomotor task was found, but we found no conclusive asymmetries when performing the task with right vs. left hand. This could be explained in a way that increases in coherence and decreases of power spectra reflect symmetrical activation and cooperation between more complex visual and motor brain areas.

  6. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  8. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug.

  9. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  10. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  11. A study on the activation of supplementary motor area in functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Park, Hark Hoon; Oh, Hee Sul; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Jin Young

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the activated zone of the supplementary motor area through motor and sensory stimulation of both hands by fMRI. Twenty-four healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 20 to 30 years, served as subjects. They were divided into four groups and performed one of the four activation tasks : complex movement, fine movement, touch sensation, heat sensation. Complex movement consisted of a finger task in which subjects flexed and extended all fingers repeatedly in union, without the fingers touching each other(group I). Fine movement involved a thumb task in which subjects flexed and extended the thumb repeatedly without touching the other fingers(group II). Touch sensation consisted of a palm task in which another person repeatedly drew a circle on the subject's palm (group III), and heat sensation involved of a palm task in which subject's palm was touched by another person with a 40 deg C water-bag (group IV). F-MRI was conducted on a commercial 1.5-T scanner equipped with echo-planar imaging. After overlapping images were obtained using a Z-s-core, and the mean/curve in the MR devices was evaluated, the activated zone of the supplementary motor area was also evalvated. Thirty-two of 48 images(20 of the 24 men) revealed activated zones in the supplementary motor area. In group I, activation was observed in five subjects, in three of whom it was bilateral (contralateral activation). In group II, activation was observed in five subjects, in one of whom it was bilateral. In group III, activation occurred in five subjects(bilateral in four, and contralateral in three), and In group IV, activation was also observed in five;in three of these it was bilateral. Using fMRI, and in association with motor and sensory tasks, the supplementary motor area was activated in 66.7% of healthy volunteers (32/48)

  12. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbangla, Nounagnon F; Audiffren, Michel; Albinet, Cédric T

    2017-09-01

    The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field. The aim of the present review paper, after briefly presenting the NIRS technique, is to review and to summarize the recent results of neuroimaging studies using this technique in the field of cognitive aging. The reviewed literature shows that, despite low spatial resolution and cerebral depth penetration, this technique provides consistent findings on the reduced hemodynamic activity as a function of chronological age, mainly in the prefrontal cortex. Important moderators of brain hemodynamics, such as cognitive load, subjects' characteristics and experimental conditions, for which the NIRS technique is sensitive, are discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of functional NIRS in the field of cognitive aging are presented and finally, novel perspectives of research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain 'talks over' boring quotes: top-down activation of voice-selective areas while listening to monotonous direct speech quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2012-04-15

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said, "I'm hungry") is perceived as more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said that she was hungry). This vividness distinction has previously been found to underlie silent reading of quotations: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that direct speech elicited higher brain activity in the temporal voice areas (TVA) of the auditory cortex than indirect speech, consistent with an "inner voice" experience in reading direct speech. Here we show that listening to monotonously spoken direct versus indirect speech quotations also engenders differential TVA activity. This suggests that individuals engage in top-down simulations or imagery of enriched supra-segmental acoustic representations while listening to monotonous direct speech. The findings shed new light on the acoustic nature of the "inner voice" in understanding direct speech. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain tumors in eloquent areas: A European multicenter survey of intraoperative mapping techniques, intraoperative seizures occurrence, and antiepileptic drug prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.

  15. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  16. Identifying non-toxic doses of manganese for manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas activated by operant behavior in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálosi, Rita; Szalay, Csaba; Aradi, Mihály; Perlaki, Gábor; Pál, József; Steier, Roy; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers unique advantages such as studying brain activation in freely moving rats, but its usefulness has not been previously evaluated during operant behavior training. Manganese in a form of MnCl 2 , at a dose of 20mg/kg, was intraperitoneally infused. The administration was repeated and separated by 24h to reach the dose of 40mg/kg or 60mg/kg, respectively. Hepatotoxicity of the MnCl 2 was evaluated by determining serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and protein levels. Neurological examination was also carried out. The animals were tested in visual cue discriminated operant task. Imaging was performed using a 3T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were determined before and after MnCl 2 administrations. Manganese-enhanced images of each animal were subtracted from their baseline images to calculate decrease in the T1 value (ΔT1) voxel by voxel. The subtracted T1 maps of trained animals performing visual cue discriminated operant task, and those of naive rats were compared. The dose of 60mg/kg MnCl 2 showed hepatotoxic effect, but even these animals did not exhibit neurological symptoms. The dose of 20 and 40mg/kg MnCl 2 increased the number of omissions and did not affect the accuracy of performing the visual cue discriminated operant task. Using the accumulated dose of 40mg/kg, voxels with a significant enhanced ΔT1 value were detected in the following brain areas of the visual cue discriminated operant behavior performed animals compared to those in the controls: the visual, somatosensory, motor and premotor cortices, the insula, cingulate, ectorhinal, entorhinal, perirhinal and piriform cortices, hippocampus, amygdala with amygdalohippocampal areas, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core, substantia nigra, and retrorubral field. In conclusion, the MEMRI proved to be a reliable method to accomplish brain activity mapping in correlation with the operant behavior

  17. Enhanced brain responses to C-fiber input in the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broeke, Emanuel N; Mouraux, André

    2014-11-01

    High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the human skin induces an increase in both mechanical and heat pain sensitivity in the surrounding unconditioned skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HFS on the intensity of perception and brain responses elicited by the selective activation of C fibers. HFS was applied to the ventral forearm of 15 healthy volunteers. Temperature-controlled CO2 laser stimulation was used to activate selectively low-threshold C-fiber afferents without concomitantly activating Aδ-fiber afferents. These stimuli were detected with reaction times compatible with the conduction velocity of C fibers. The intensity of perception and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by thermal stimuli delivered to the surrounding unconditioned skin were recorded before (T0) and after HFS (T1: 20 min after HFS; T2: 45 min after HFS). The contralateral forearm served as a control. Mechanical hyperalgesia following HFS was confirmed by measuring the change in the intensity of perception elicited by mechanical punctate stimuli. HFS resulted in increased intensity of perception to mechanical punctate stimulation and selective C-fiber thermal stimulation at both time points. In contrast, the N2 wave of the ERP elicited by C-fiber stimulation (679 ± 88 ms; means ± SD) was enhanced at T1 but not at T2. The P2 wave (808 ± 105 ms) was unaffected by HFS. Our results suggest that HFS enhances the sensitivity to thermal C-fiber input in the area of secondary hyperalgesia. However, there was no significant enhancement of the magnitude of the C-fiber ERPs at T2, suggesting that quickly adapting C fibers do not contribute to this enhancement. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  19. c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal, basal ganglia and limbic areas of the rat brain after central and peripheral administration of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N. Segovia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that the metabolite of ethanol (EtOH, acetaldehyde, is biologically active. Acetaldehyde can be formed from EtOH peripherally mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase, and also centrally by catalase. EtOH and acetaldehyde show differences in their behavioral effects depending upon the route of administration. In terms of their effects on motor activity and motivated behaviors, when administered peripherally acetaldehyde tends to be more potent than EtOH but shows very similar potency administered centrally. Since dopamine (DA rich areas have an important role in regulating both motor activity and motivation, the present studies were undertaken to compare the effects of central (intraventricular, ICV and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP administration of EtOH and acetaldehyde on a cellular marker of brain activity, c-Fos immunoreactivity, in DA innervated areas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an IP injection of vehicle, EtOH (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg or acetaldehyde (0.1 or 0.5 g/kg or an ICV injection of vehicle, EtOH or acetaldehyde (2.8 or 14.0 µmoles. IP administration of EtOH minimally induced c-Fos in some regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, mainly at the low dose (0.5 g/kg, while IP acetaldehyde induced c-Fos in virtually all the structures studied at both doses. Acetaldehyde administered centrally increased c-Fos in all areas studied, a pattern that was very similar to EtOH. Thus, IP administered acetaldehyde was more efficacious than EtOH at inducing c-Fos expression. However, the general pattern of c-Fos induction promoted by ICV EtOH and acetaldehyde was similar. These results are consistent with the pattern observed in behavioral studies in which both substances produced the same magnitude of effect when injected centrally, and produced differences in potency after peripheral administration.

  20. Hypoxia/reoxygenation stress signals an increase in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the blood-brain barrier: relevance to CNS drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon J; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Slosky, Lauren M; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-li; Ronaldson, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation stress (H/R) is a component of several diseases. One approach that may enable neural tissue rescue after H/R is central nervous system (CNS) delivery of drugs with brain protective effects such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Our present in vivo data show that atorvastatin, a commonly prescribed statin, attenuates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in the brain after H/R, suggesting neuroprotective efficacy. However, atorvastatin use as a CNS therapeutic is limited by poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Therefore, we examined regulation and functional expression of the known statin transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) at the BBB under H/R conditions. In rat brain microvessels, H/R (6% O2, 60 minutes followed by 21% O2, 10 minutes) increased Oatp1a4 expression. Brain uptake of taurocholate (i.e., Oap1a4 probe substrate) and atorvastatin were reduced by Oatp inhibitors (i.e., estrone-3-sulfate and fexofenadine), suggesting involvement of Oatp1a4 in brain drug delivery. Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) signaling with the selective inhibitor SB431542 increased Oatp1a4 functional expression, suggesting a role for TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in Oatp1a4 regulation. Taken together, our novel data show that targeting an endogenous BBB drug uptake transporter (i.e., Oatp1a4) may be a viable approach for optimizing CNS drug delivery for treatment of diseases with an H/R component.

  1. Brain imaging and schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, J.L.; Dao-Castellana, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain structures and brain function have been investigated by the new brain imaging techniques for more than ten years. In Psychiatry, these techniques could afford a new understanding of mental diseases. In schizophrenic patients, CAT scanner and RMI pointed out statistically significant ventricular enlargments which are presently considered as evidence for abnormalities in brain maturation. Functional imaging techniques reported metabolic dysfunctions in the cortical associative areas which are probably linked to the cognitive features of schizophrenics [fr

  2. A dual-route perspective on brain activation in response to visual words: evidence for a length by lexicality interaction in the visual word form area (VWFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Sturm, Denise; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Based on our previous work, we expected the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the left ventral visual pathway to be engaged by both whole-word recognition and by serial sublexical coding of letter strings. To examine this double function, a phonological lexical decision task (i.e., "Does xxx sound like an existing word?") presented short and long letter strings of words, pseudohomophones, and pseudowords (e.g., Taxi, Taksi and Tazi). Main findings were that the length effect for words was limited to occipital regions and absent in the VWFA. In contrast, a marked length effect for pseudowords was found throughout the ventral visual pathway including the VWFA, as well as in regions presumably engaged by visual attention and silent-articulatory processes. The length by lexicality interaction on brain activation corresponds to well-established behavioral findings of a length by lexicality interaction on naming latencies and speaks for the engagement of the VWFA by both lexical and sublexical processes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ hybridization on the change of m1 receptor mRNA in different brain areas of aged rats and the effect of Yin tonic Zhimu studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yaer; Xia Zongqin; Yi Ningyu

    1996-01-01

    The change of gene expression of m1 receptors in different brain areas of aged rats and the effects of water extract of the Yin tonic Zhimu and its active principle ZMS was studied. In situ hybridization using 35 S-labelled m1 and m2 probes and analysis of the autoradiographs using a computerized image-analyzer was selected. The grain density of m1 mRNA in striatum was significantly lowered in old rats as compared with young rats (decreased by 12.26 +- 3.60, P<0.01). Long-term oral administration of ZMS, the active principle of Yin tonic Zhimu but not the water extraction of Zhimu, elevated the m1 mRNA in striatum of aged rats (increased by 15.71 +- 3.27, P<0.01). Neither significant change of the grain density of m1 mRNA in old rats nor significant effect of Zhimu or ZMS was observed in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The m1 mRNA level in striatum is decreased in aged rats and ZMS is able to elevate it

  4. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Modulation of the mirror system by social relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Marchant, Jennifer L; Frith, Chris D

    2006-09-01

    When we observe the actions of others, certain areas of the brain are activated in a similar manner as to when we perform the same actions ourselves. This 'mirror system' includes areas in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Experimental studies suggest that action observation automatically elicits activity in the observer, which precisely mirrors the activity observed. In this case we would expect this activity to be independent of observer's viewpoint. Here we use whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical activity of human subjects whilst they watched a series of videos of an actor making a movement recorded from different viewpoints. We show that one cortical response to action observation (oscillatory activity in the 7-12 Hz frequency range) is modulated by the relationship between the observer and the actor. We suggest that this modulation reflects a mechanism that filters information into the 'mirror system', allowing only socially relevant information to pass.

  6. A clearer view of the insect brain – combining bleaching with standard whole-mount immunocytochemistry allows confocal imaging of pigment-covered brain areas for 3D reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Stöckl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study of insect neuroanatomy, three-dimensional reconstructions of neurons and neuropils have become a standard technique. As images have to be obtained from whole-mount brain preparations, pigmentation on the brain surface poses a serious challenge to imaging. In insects, this is a major problematic in the first visual neuropil of the optic lobe, the lamina, which is obstructed by the pigment of the retina as well as by the pigmented fenestration layer. This has prevented inclusion of this major processing center of the insect visual system into most neuroanatomical brain atlases and hinders imaging of neurons within the lamina by confocal microscopy. It has recently been shown that hydrogen peroxide bleaching is compatible with immunohistochemical labeling in insect brains, and we therefore developed a simple technique for removal of pigments on the surface of insect brains by chemical bleaching. We show that our technique enables imaging of the pigment-obstructed regions of insect brains when combined with standard protocols for both anti-synapsin-labeled as well as neurobiotin-injected samples. This method can be combined with different fixation procedures, as well as different fluorophore excitation wavelengths without negative effects on staining quality. It can therefore serve as an effective addition to most standard histology protocols used in insect neuroanatomy.

  7. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  8. FROM BRAIN DRAIN TO BRAIN NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BONCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific networking is the most accessible way a country can turn the brain drain into brain gain. Diaspora’s members offer valuable information, advice or financial support from the destination country, without being necessary to return. This article aims to investigate Romania’s potential of turning brain drain into brain networking, using evidence from the medical sector. The main factors influencing the collaboration with the country of origin are investigated. The conclusions suggest that Romania could benefit from the diaspora option, through an active implication at institutional level and the implementation of a strategy in this area.

  9. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  10. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  11. Stress-induced activation of the immediate early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) is restricted to telencephalic areas in the rat brain: relationship to c-fos mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ons, Sheila; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2004-06-01

    Arc is an effector immediate early gene whose expression is induced in situations of increased neuronal activity. However, there is no report on the influence of stress on Arc expression. Here, we compared the induction of both c-fos and Arc mRNAs in the brain of rats exposed to one of three different stressful situations: novel environment, forced swimming and immobilization. An absent or weak c-fos mRNA signal was observed in control rats, whereas those exposed to one of three stressors showed enhanced c-fos expression in a wide range of brain areas. Constitutive Arc expression was observed in some areas such as cortex, striatum, hippocampus, reticular thalamic nucleus and cerebellar cortex. In response to stressors, a strong induction of Arc was observed, but the pattern was different from that of c-fos. For instance, activation of Arc but not c-fos was observed in the nucleus accumbens after immobilization and in the hippocampus after novel environment. No Arc induction was observed in diencephalic and brainstem areas. The present data show that Arc has a neuroanatomically restricted pattern of induction in the brain after emotional stress. Telencephalic activation suggests that a more intense induction of synaptic plasticity is occurring in this area after exposure to emotional stressors.

  12. Effects of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function and its molecular mechanism,64 adult male healthy Spragne-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups,the false operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group).After surgical operation,the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation,while the other group did not.Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h,8 h,24 h and 3 d after surgical operation,respectively.The rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus was also detected by the PerifluxPF model laser Doppler flowmetry,and the expressions of c-fos or c-jun or Bcl-2 and Bax were also measured by immune histochemistry S-P method accordingly.Results showed that the rCBF of the right frontal lobe and hippocampus in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group (P < 0.05).The learning indexes,error number (EN),day of reach standard and total reaction time (TRT) in the operation group,were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).However,the initiative evasion rate in the operation group was significantly lower than that in the false operation group.The study also found that the rCBF was relatively more,the indexes (EN,the day of reach standard and TRT) relatively fewer,but the initiative evasion rate and the memory keeping rate were relatively more.The positive expression and the average absorbency of Fos and Jun in the operation group were significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P< 0.05).Furthermore,Bax and Bcl-2 positive cells were all increased over time in the operation group,and the expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the operation group was significantly higher than that in the false operation group (P<0.01).In conclusion,rCBF decrease can impair the learning and memory function in rats,which may be related to

  13. Afasias e áreas cerebrais: argumentos prós e contras à perspectiva localizacionista Aphasias and brain areas: positive and negative aspects of the localization argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia C. Vieira

    2011-01-01

    investigate how cortex areas compromised by Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA are related to the classification of aphasia, since there are controversies about the location of the lesion in the brain and the characteristics related to variations in speech patterns. Through the Montreal-Toulose protocol, 26 right-handed persons who were affected by left cerebral-vascular lesion and have been showing aphasic symptoms have been evaluated. The Montreal-Toulose protocol, initial standard module - version alpha, includes nomination, repetition, oral comprehension, reading and writing comprehension tests as well as an interview, which allows an evaluation of the discourse fluency. The subjects were allocated into four sub-groups, according to the lesion sites: frontal, temporal, temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital. For the analysis of the data, a Multidimensional Similarity Structure Analysis (SSA was carried out along with an external variable method. The results show a high positive correlation between the lesion in the brain's frontal lobe and difficulties in the discourse fluency as well as a high positive correlation between the lesion in the brain's temporal lobe and hindrances in all abilities tested: nomination, repetition, oral comprehension, reading and writing comprehension. It is in accordance with localizational studies, since it highlights the fundamental role of the temporal lobe for the language and the importance of the frontal lobe for the speech praxis. However, in the remaining sub-groups (temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital there have been positive correlations only between oral comprehension and repetition, with the latter showing correlation only with the second group and presenting a low score. High negative correlations with the discourse fluency were observed. It suggests that this ability has remained preserved in those groups, which in turns weakens the localization argument.

  14. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  15. Functional MR imaging of the primary motor area in patients with brain tumors of the motor cortex. Evaluation with echo-planer imaging on a clinical 1.0 T MR imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Ehara, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Junji

    1998-01-01

    The study included 3 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with a brain tumor of the motor cortex. The fMRI study was based on the spin echo (SE) type single shot echo-planer technique. Ten contiguous axial slices consisted of 40-60 echo-planer images acquired during 80-120 seconds of repeated task performances and resting periods. Activation maps were calculated by a Z-score method with thresholding, and interpolated on T1 images and surface anatomy scans. In all cases, areas of a significant signal increase were detected as clusters of several pixels on the precentral gyrus contralateral to the motor task performance. The mean signal change was 3.6±0.9% in normal subjects, and 7.2±4.1% in brain tumor patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups. In 5 brain tumor patients significant displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed on T1- or T2-weighted SE images. Of these, 2 also had marked peritumoral edema spreading over the precentral gyrus. There was no significant difference in the size, or the degree, of signal change between patients with or without compression or edema, nor between patients with and without preoperative motor impairment. During surgical intervention, displacement of the precentral gyrus was observed as had been demonstrated on preoperative images of patients. In all patients the precentral gyrus was preserved in all cases, and no deterioration of motor function occurred. Resolution of the displacement and edema was detected on postoperative MRI. Using the echo-planer technique on a clinical 1.0 T imager fMRI localization of the primary motor cortex was obtained in normal and brain tumor subjects. The activated areas were detected on the precentral gyrus of both groups, and even when there was marked brain compression or edema. It is important to identify and preserve the precentral gyrus during surgery to avoid deterioration of motor function. (K.H.)

  16. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  17. Marijuana and cannabinoid regulation of brain reward circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupica, Carl R; Riegel, Arthur C; Hoffman, Alexander F

    2004-09-01

    The reward circuitry of the brain consists of neurons that synaptically connect a wide variety of nuclei. Of these brain regions, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) play central roles in the processing of rewarding environmental stimuli and in drug addiction. The psychoactive properties of marijuana are mediated by the active constituent, Delta(9)-THC, interacting primarily with CB1 cannabinoid receptors in a large number of brain areas. However, it is the activation of these receptors located within the central brain reward circuits that is thought to play an important role in sustaining the self-administration of marijuana in humans, and in mediating the anxiolytic and pleasurable effects of the drug. Here we describe the cellular circuitry of the VTA and the NAc, define the sites within these areas at which cannabinoids alter synaptic processes, and discuss the relevance of these actions to the regulation of reinforcement and reward. In addition, we compare the effects of Delta(9)-THC with those of other commonly abused drugs on these reward circuits, and we discuss the roles that endogenous cannabinoids may play within these brain pathways, and their possible involvement in regulating ongoing brain function, independently of marijuana consumption. We conclude that, whereas Delta(9)-THC alters the activity of these central reward pathways in a manner that is consistent with other abused drugs, the cellular mechanism through which this occurs is likely different, relying upon the combined regulation of several afferent pathways to the VTA.

  18. Impaired insulin action in the human brain: causes and metabolic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Kullmann, Stephanie; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has accumulated that the human brain is an insulin-sensitive organ. Insulin regulates activity in a limited number of specific brain areas that are important for memory, reward, eating behaviour and the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Accordingly, insulin in the brain modulates cognition, food intake and body weight as well as whole-body glucose, energy and lipid metabolism. However, brain imaging studies have revealed that not everybody responds equally to insulin and that a substantial number of people are brain insulin resistant. In this Review, we provide an overview of the effects of insulin in the brain in humans and the relevance of the effects for physiology. We present emerging evidence for insulin resistance of the human brain. Factors associated with brain insulin resistance such as obesity and increasing age, as well as possible pathogenic factors such as visceral fat, saturated fatty acids, alterations at the blood-brain barrier and certain genetic polymorphisms, are reviewed. In particular, the metabolic consequences of brain insulin resistance are discussed and possible future approaches to overcome brain insulin resistance and thereby prevent or treat obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are outlined.

  19. Considerações sobre a teoria do cérebro triuno e sua relevância para uma filosofia da mente e das emoções = Remarks on the triune brain theory and its relevance to a philosophy of mind and emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Mograbi, Gabriel José Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo estabelece algumas relações fundamentais entre evolução, a teoria do cérebro triuno e a relevância que esta pode ter para a fundamentação empírica de uma filosofia da mente e das emoções. Inicialmente, será especialmente considerada a posição do filósofo Ronald de Sousa no seu já clássico artigo The Minds Bermuda Triangle: Philosophy of Emotions and Empirical Science, parte do Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotions. A segunda seção discute a validade da teoria do cérebro triuno...

  20. MRI of the foetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, P.; Jones, R.; Britton, J.; Foote, S.; Thilaganathan, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasound examinations for foetal brain abnormalities have been a part of the routine antenatal screening programme in the UK for many years. In utero brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now being used increasingly successfully to clarify abnormal ultrasound findings, often resulting in a change of diagnosis or treatment plan. Interpretation requires an understanding of foetal brain development, malformations and acquired diseases. In this paper we will outline the technique of foetal MRI, relevant aspects of brain development and provide illustrated examples of foetal brain pathology

  1. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  2. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Bosch

    relatively low change efficacy. Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation. In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units.We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention.

  3. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J; Brennan, Sue E; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    change efficacy). Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible) senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation). In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units. We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention.

  4. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    commitment, but relatively low change efficacy). Regarding implementation processes, the importance of (visible) senior leadership for all professions involved was identified as a critical factor. An unpredictable and hectic environment brings challenges in creating an environment in which team-based and organisational learning can thrive (system antecedents for innovation). In addition, the position of the ED as the entry-point of the hospital points to the relevance of securing buy-in from other units. Conclusions We identified several organisational factors relevant to realising change in ED management of patients who present with mild head injuries. These factors will inform the intervention design and process evaluation in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of our implementation intervention. PMID:26845772

  5. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  6. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  7. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  8. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas. PMID:25823872

  9. Brain/MINDS: brain-mapping project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-05-19

    There is an emerging interest in brain-mapping projects in countries across the world, including the USA, Europe, Australia and China. In 2014, Japan started a brain-mapping project called Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS). Brain/MINDS aims to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain, and takes advantage of a unique non-human primate animal model, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In Brain/MINDS, the RIKEN Brain Science Institute acts as a central institute. The objectives of Brain/MINDS can be categorized into the following three major subject areas: (i) structure and functional mapping of a non-human primate brain (the marmoset brain); (ii) development of innovative neurotechnologies for brain mapping; and (iii) human brain mapping; and clinical research. Brain/MINDS researchers are highly motivated to identify the neuronal circuits responsible for the phenotype of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and to understand the development of these devastating disorders through the integration of these three subject areas.

  10. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  11. Acupuncture at Waiguan (SJ5) and sham points influences activation of functional brain areas of ischemic stroke patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Ji; Chen, Junqi; Huang, Yong; Lai, Xinsheng; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Chen, Hua; Qu, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies addressing the specificity of meridians and acupuncture points have focused mainly on the different neural effects of acupuncture at different points in healthy individuals. This study examined the effects of acupuncture on brain function in a pathological context. Sixteen patients with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to true point group (true acupuncture at right Waiguan (SJ5)) and sham point group (sham acupuncture). Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging revea...

  12. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  13. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  14. Baby brain atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Chang, Linda; Huang, Hao

    2018-04-03

    The baby brain is constantly changing due to its active neurodevelopment, and research into the baby brain is one of the frontiers in neuroscience. To help guide neuroscientists and clinicians in their investigation of this frontier, maps of the baby brain, which contain a priori knowledge about neurodevelopment and anatomy, are essential. "Brain atlas" in this review refers to a 3D-brain image with a set of reference labels, such as a parcellation map, as the anatomical reference that guides the mapping of the brain. Recent advancements in scanners, sequences, and motion control methodologies enable the creation of various types of high-resolution baby brain atlases. What is becoming clear is that one atlas is not sufficient to characterize the existing knowledge about the anatomical variations, disease-related anatomical alterations, and the variations in time-dependent changes. In this review, the types and roles of the human baby brain MRI atlases that are currently available are described and discussed, and future directions in the field of developmental neuroscience and its clinical applications are proposed. The potential use of disease-based atlases to characterize clinically relevant information, such as clinical labels, in addition to conventional anatomical labels, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  17. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation.

  18. The Credentials of Brain-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the current fashion for brain-based learning, in which value-laden claims about learning are grounded in neurophysiology. It argues that brain science cannot have the authority about learning that some seek to give it. It goes on to discuss whether the claim that brain science is relevant to learning involves a category…

  19. Brain Research: Implications to Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Motz, LaMoine L.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with brain research. It discusses how a growing understanding of the way the brain functions offers new insights into the minds of students at all stages of development. Brain-based research deals with classroom-relevant concerns, such as sensory perception, attention, memory, and how emotions affect learning. The goals for…

  20. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in selected areas of the brain in patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical neuroleptics: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Agata; Galińska, Beata; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kubas, Bozena; Dzienis, Wojciech; Konarzewska, Beata; Poplawska, Regina; Tomczak, Anna A; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej; Walecki, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    NAA, marker of neurons integrity and viability, is one of the most important brain metabolites visible in 1H MRS. In most studies of schizophrenia, the decrease of NAA level was observed in the temporal, frontal lobes and in the thalamus. This finding was observed more often among chronic patients, what suggests the influence of disease duration or the effect of neuroleptic treatment. The aim of the present study was the comparison of NAA levels in brain of schizophrenic patients taking typical and atypical neuroleptics. We analyzed the NAA levels in selected brain areas in 58 schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls. 10 patients were treated with typical neuroleptics, 10 patients with clozapine, 17 received olanzapine and 21 - risperidone. 1H MRS was performed on a 1,5 MR scanner with PRESS sequence. Voxels of 2x2x2 cm were localized in the left frontal, left temporal lobe and left thalamus. There were no differences in NAA levels between patients on typical and atypical medications analyzed together and separately (olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone groups). We also did not find any differences between patients taking selected atypical neuroleptics and controls. The NAA level in the thalamus in the group of patients receiving typical antipsychotics was the lowest among all groups and differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of our study suggest that atypical neuroleptics may have favorable effect on NAA concentration in brain of schizophrenic patients. Decrease in NAA level in patients taking typical medication may be caused by the progression of the disease or by the direct action of these drugs.

  1. The effect of amperozide on uptake and release of [3H]-dopamine in vitro from perfused rat striatal and limbic brain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, E.; Christensson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Amperozide, a putatively antipsychotic drug, was studied for its effects on uptake and release of [ 3 H]-dopamine in rat brain in vitro. Amperozide inhibited uptake of [ 3 H]-dopamine in striatal chopped tissue in vitro with an IC 50 of 18 μM. It also increased basal release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue in vitro at concentrations above 5 μM. Release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from perfused rat striatal and limbic tissue stimulated with 5 μM amphetamine, was inhibited by 1 μM amperozide to 46%. No significant difference was found for the effect of amperozide on in vitro release of [ 3 H]-dopamine from corpus striatum compared to tissue from limbic grain regions; neither on basal release nor on amphetamine-stimulated release of dopamine. (author)

  2. Dissociated Crossed Speech Areas in a Tumour Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Mauler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca’s area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere. The outcome of the Wada test and the intraoperative cortico-subcortical stimulation mapping were congruent with this finding. After tumour removal, language area function was fully preserved. Upon the occurrence of brain tumours with a risk of impaired speech function, the rare dissociate crossed speech areas disposition may gain a clinically relevant meaning by allowing for more extended tumour removal. Hence, for its identification, diagnostics which take into account both brain hemispheres, such as fMRI, are recommended.

  3. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  4. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization in the edematous area and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter using positron emission tomography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    We measured the cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization of the peritumoral white matter and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter in 50 patients with brain tumors using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The intraaxial tumors consisted of 34 cases (25 of gliomas, 6 of metastatic tumors, and 3 others), white the extraaxial tumors (all of meningiomas) were 16 cases. The cases were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the Xray CT scan findings. The cases of Edema (+) group showed moderate or large peritumoral edema in the white matter on the Xray CT scan, while Edema (-) group showed no or small edema. The method of PET study was the 15 O steady state inhalation technique by Frackoviak's method. ROIs (region of interest) were set on the peritumoral white matter and the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter, and the mean CBF, OEF and CMRO2 values of the white and gray matter were calculated. In the Edema (+) group, the mean values of blood flow and oxygen utilization were low in the peritumoral white matter, and there were no obvious differences of values between intra and extraaxial tumors. But, the values in the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter of intraaxial tumors were lower than those of extraaxial tumor. In the Edema (-) group, the mean values were almost normal in the white and gray matter, and there were no differences between intra and extraaxial tumors. The consideration about significance of the above stated results was discussed added with literature. (author)

  6. Fos Protein Expression in Olfactory-Related Brain Areas after Learning and after Reactivation of a Slowly Acquired Olfactory Discrimination Task in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullet, Florence; Lienard, Fabienne; Datiche, Frederique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Fos protein immunodetection was used to investigate the neuronal activation elicited in some olfactory-related areas after either learning of an olfactory discrimination task or its reactivation 10 d later. Trained rats (T) progressively acquired the association between one odor of a pair and water-reward in a four-arm maze. Two groups of…

  7. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh B. Kokare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  8. Intraoperative appearance of the resection area in brain-tumor operations in an open 0,5 MRT; Intraoperatives Erscheinungsbild des Resektionsbereichs bei Hirntumoroperationen in einem offenen 0,5-T-MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, J. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Neuroradiologie; Schneider, J.P.; Schulz, T. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany); Seifert, V.; Trantakis, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Leipzig (Germany); Kellermann, S. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuropathologie

    1998-11-01

    During MRI-controlled resection of brain tumors using an open MRI system, operation-induced alterations may occur, especially enhancement of the resection cavity wall. This may simulate tumor areas, resulting in false assessment of the resection or resection of non-tumorous areas. Based on 42 MRI- and biopsy-controlled brain tumor resections in an 0.5 T open MRI (Signa SP, GE), the appearance and origin of operation-induced reactions are analyzed. In our opinion, there is a superposition of preformed peritumoral reactions by operation-induced microcontusions. The beginning of the cavity wall enhancement needs at least 10-15 min. MRI-controlled analysis of the intraoperative steps by the neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist allows discrimination of operation-induced reactions from tumor areas and leads to safe operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der intraoperativen Kontrolle von Hirntumorresektionen in offenen MRT-Geraeten kann es zu operativ induzierten Veraenderungen, insbesondere Rand-enhancement-Zonen, kommen. Diese koennen Tumorreste vortaeuschen, so dass die Radikalitaet des Eingriffs unterschaetzt wird oder nicht tumortragende Hirnareale entfernt werden. Ergebnisse und Diskussion: Anhand von 42 in einem offenen 0,5-T-MRT (Signa SP, GE) vorgenommenen, biopsiekontrollierten Hirntumoroperationen werden Erscheinungsbild und Entstehungsweise der Randveraenderungen analysiert. Bei den haeufig vorzufindenden Rand-enhancement-Zonen handelt es sich um eine Ueberlagerung von praeformierten Tumorrandreaktionen mit Mikrokontusionen. Die Ausbildung dieser Veraenderungen braucht eine Mindestzeit von 10-15 min. Die staendige Analyse der die Tumorresektion begleitenden MRT-Kontrollen durch den Operateur und einen mit der Problematik vertrauten Radiologen gestattet in der Regel die Differenzierung der operativ induzierten Veraenderungen und erhoeht damit die Sicherheit des Eingriffs. (orig.)

  9. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  10. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Toyoda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Simon, Steven L; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Sasaki, Masao S; Rosenson, Rafail I; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2006-02-01

    calculations. A possible explanation of the differences between ESR and RLD/calculations doses is the following: for interpretation of ESR data the "shielding and behaviour" factors for investigated persons should be taken into account. The "upper level" of the combination of "shielding and behaviour" factors of dose reduction for inhabitants of Dolon' village of about 0.28 was obtained by comparing the individual ESR tooth enamel dose estimates with the calculated mean dose for this settlement. The biological dosimetry data related to the settlements near SNTS were presented at the Workshop. A higher incidence of unstable chromosome aberrations, micronucleus in lymphocytes, nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells, T-cell receptor mutations in peripheral blood were found for exposed areas (Dolon', Sarjal) in comparison with unexposed ones(Kokpekty). The significant greater frequency of stable translocations (results of analyses of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes by the FISH technique) was demonstrated for Dolon' village in comparison with Chekoman(unexposed village). The elevated level of stable translocations in Dolon' corresponds to a dose of about 180 mSv, which is close to the results of ESR dosimetry for this village. The importance of investigating specific morphological types of thyroid nodules for thyroid dosimetry studies was pointed out. In general the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop has demonstrated remarkable progress in developing an international level of common approaches for retrospective dose estimations around the SNTS and in understanding the tasks for the future joint work in this direction. In the framework of a special session the problems of developing a database and registry in order to support epidemiological studies around SNTS were discussed. The results of investigation of psychological consequences of nuclear tests, which are expressed in the form of verbal behaviour, were presented at this session as well.

  11. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  12. Psychotherapy, consciousness, and brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCollerton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purely psychological treatments for emotional distress produce lasting, measureable, and reproducible changes in cognitive and emotional consciousness and brain function. How these changes come about illustrates the interplay between brain and consciousness. Studies of the effects of psychotherapy highlight the holistic nature of consciousness. Pre and post treatment functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging localises the brain changes following psychotherapy to frontal, cingulate, and limbic circuits, but emphasise that these areas support a wide range of conscious experiences. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis of distributed changes in function across these brain areas may be able to provide the ability to distinguish between different states of consciousness.

  13. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  14. Correlation between special brain area and blood perfusion in patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period Feasibility for quantitative determination and estimation of learning and memory function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Presently, clinic memory scale is used to evaluate learning memory ability in most studies,and the influence of difference in measurement condition of individuals exists.OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) perfusion and learning memory function in special brain regions of patients with cerebral infarction at convalescent period,and to try to find out a method which can quantitatively evaluate learning ability.DESIGN: Case observation, and correlation analysis.SETTINGS: Shandong Institute for Behavioral Medicine; the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 70 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to Departtment of Neurology, Jining Medical College between January 2004 and December 2005 were involved. The involved patients, 58 male and 12 female, were averaged (52±3) years, and they were all right handed. They all met the diagnosis criteria instituted by the Fourth National Conference on Cerebrovascular Disease, and were confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT or MRI. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the patients and relatives.METHODS: When the patients were at convalescent period, their learning and memory ability were measured with" clinic memory scale (set A)". The 18 patients whose total mark over 100 were regarded as good learning memory function group; The 23 cases whose total mark less than 70 were regarded as poor learning memory function group. RCBF of hippocampus, nucleus amygdalae, temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe of patients between two groups were measured and compared by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The total scores of the 18 good learning memory patients and 23 poor learning memory patients were taken as dependent variable Y, and their rCBFs of hippocampus, nucleus amygdale,temporal cortex and prefrontal lobe respectively as independent variable X for linear correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  15. Effect of Different Forms of Hypokinesia on the Ultrastructure of Limbic, Extrapyramidal and Neocortical Areas of the Rat Brain: Electron Microscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhvania, Mzia G.; Japaridze, Nadezhda J.; Ksovreli, Mariam G.

    The effect of chronic restraint stress and chronic hypokinesia "without stress" on the ultrastructure of central and lateral nuclei of amygdala, CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, cingular cortex, nucleus caudatus and motor cortex of adult male rats were elucidated. In some neurons and synapses of abovementioned regions pathological modifications were revealed. More significant alterations provokes chronic restraint stress. Alterations are mostly concentrated: first—in the nuclei of amygdala, then in the CA1 and CA3 areas. Moderate alterations were observed in cingular cortex and nucleus caudatus. In comparing with it, hypokinesia "without stress" provokes only moderate modifications: predominantly in the nucleus caudatus, in lesser degree—in the hippocampus and amygdalae.

  16. Linking social and vocal brains: could social segregation prevent a proper development of a central auditory area in a female songbird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cousillas

    Full Text Available Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a "classical" animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area.

  17. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  18. Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become a Member Home Early Development & Well-Being Brain Development A child’s brain undergoes an amazing period of development from birth ... neural connections each second. The development of the brain is influenced by many factors, including a child’s ...

  19. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  20. Medial forebrain bundle lesions fail to structurally and functionally disconnect the ventral tegmental area from many ipsilateral forebrain nuclei: implications for the neural substrate of brain stimulation reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J M; Ackermann, R F; Gallistel, C R

    1998-10-15

    Lesions in the medial forebrain bundle rostral to a stimulating electrode have variable effects on the rewarding efficacy of self-stimulation. We attempted to account for this variability by measuring the anatomical and functional effects of electrolytic lesions at the level of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and by correlating these effects to postlesion changes in threshold pulse frequency (pps) for self-stimulation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We implanted True Blue in the VTA and compared cell labeling patterns in forebrain regions of intact and lesioned animals. We also compared stimulation-induced regional [14C]deoxyglucose (DG) accumulation patterns in the forebrains of intact and lesioned animals. As expected, postlesion threshold shifts varied: threshold pps remained the same or decreased in eight animals, increased by small but significant amounts in three rats, and increased substantially in six subjects. Unexpectedly, LH lesions did not anatomically or functionally disconnect all forebrain nuclei from the VTA. Most septal and preoptic regions contained equivalent levels of True Blue label in intact and lesioned animals. In both intact and lesioned groups, VTA stimulation increased metabolic activity in the fundus of the striatum (FS), the nucleus of the diagonal band, and the medial preoptic area. On the other hand, True Blue labeling demonstrated anatomical disconnection of the accumbens, FS, substantia innominata/magnocellular preoptic nucleus (SI/MA), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. [14C]DG autoradiography indicated functional disconnection of the lateral preoptic area and SI/MA. Correlations between patterns of True Blue labeling or [14C]deoxyglucose accumulation and postlesion shifts in threshold pulse frequency were weak and generally negative. These direct measures of connectivity concord with the behavioral measures in suggesting a diffuse net-like connection between forebrain nuclei and the VTA.

  1. Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Percent asymmetries were calculated (R-L/R+L) across studies for each area. For impulsivity, most activation peaks favored the right hemisphere. Overall, the percent difference was 32% (Χ2 = 16.026; p laterality into consideration is a missed opportunity in designing studies and gaining insight into the etiology of drug abuse and pathways for treatment.

  2. Neuroanatomical prerequisites for language functions in the maturing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Jens; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-02-01

    The 2 major language-relevant cortical regions in the human brain, Broca's area and Wernicke's area, are connected via the fibers of the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (AF/SLF). Here, we compared this pathway in adults and children and its relation to language processing during development. Comparison of fiber properties demonstrated lower anisotropy in children's AF/SLF, arguing for an immature status of this particular pathway with conceivably a lower degree of myelination. Combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data indicated that in adults the termination of the AF/SLF fiber projection is compatible with functional activation in Broca's area, that is pars opercularis. In children, activation in Broca's area extended from the pars opercularis into the pars triangularis revealing an alternative connection to the temporal lobe (Wernicke's area) via the ventrally projecting extreme capsule fiber system. fMRI and DTI data converge to indicate that adults make use of a more confined language network than children based on ongoing maturation of the structural network. Our data suggest relations between language development and brain maturation and, moreover, indicate the brain's plasticity to adjust its function to available structural prerequisites.

  3. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  4. Moral processing deficit in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with facial emotion recognition and brain changes in default mode and salience network areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Stam, Daphne; De Winter, François-Laurent; Mantini, Dante; Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt; Van Laere, Koen; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is associated with abnormal emotion recognition and moral processing. We assessed emotion detection, discrimination, matching, selection, and categorization as well as judgments of nonmoral, moral impersonal, moral personal low- and high-conflict scenarios. bvFTD patients gave more utilitarian responses on low-conflict personal moral dilemmas. There was a significant correlation between a facial emotion processing measure derived through principal component analysis and utilitarian responses on low-conflict personal scenarios in the bvFTD group (controlling for MMSE-score and syntactic abilities). Voxel-based morphometric multiple regression analysis in the bvFTD group revealed a significant association between the proportion of utilitarian responses on personal low-conflict dilemmas and gray matter volume in ventromedial prefrontal areas ( p height  emotions in moral cognition and suggest a common basis for deficits in both abilities, possibly related to reduced experience of emotional sensations. At the neural level abnormal moral cognition in bvFTD is related to structural integrity of the medial prefrontal cortex and functional characteristics of the anterior insula. The present findings provide a common basis for emotion recognition and moral reasoning and link them with areas in the default mode and salience network.

  5. Quantitative comparisons on hand motor functional areas determined by resting state and task BOLD fMRI and anatomical MRI for pre-surgical planning of patients with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob L. Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For pre-surgical planning we present quantitative comparison of the location of the hand motor functional area determined by right hand finger tapping BOLD fMRI, resting state BOLD fMRI, and anatomically using high resolution T1 weighted images. Data were obtained on 10 healthy subjects and 25 patients with left sided brain tumors. Our results show that there are important differences in the locations (i.e., >20 mm of the determined hand motor voxels by these three MR imaging methods. This can have significant effect on the pre-surgical planning of these patients depending on the modality used. In 13 of the 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and the rs-fMRI determined hand areas were more than 20 mm; in 13 of 25 cases (i.e., 52% the distances between the task-determined and anatomically determined hand areas were >20 mm; and in 16 of 25 cases (i.e., 64% the distances between the rs-fMRI determined and anatomically determined hand areas were more than 20 mm. In just three cases, the distances determined by all three modalities were within 20 mm of each other. The differences in the location or fingerprint of the hand motor areas, as determined by these three MR methods result from the different underlying mechanisms of these three modalities and possibly the effects of tumors on these modalities.

  6. State of the Art: Novel Applications for Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Holly A; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2018-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly developing field of neurosurgery with potential therapeutic applications that are relevant to conditions traditionally viewed as beyond the limits of neurosurgery. Our objective, in this review, is to highlight some of the emerging applications of DBS within three distinct but overlapping spheres, namely trauma, neuropsychiatry, and autonomic physiology. An extensive literature review was carried out in MEDLINE, to identify relevant studies and review articles describing applications of DBS in the areas of trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience. A wide range of applications of DBS in these spheres was identified, some having only been tested in one or two cases, others much better studied. We have identified various avenues for DBS to be applied for patient benefit in cases relevant to trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience. Further developments in DBS technology and clinical trial design will enable these novel applications to be effectively and rigorously assessed and utilized most effectively. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. An Improved Optimization Method for the Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, M. R.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we will re-visit the Relevance Voxel Machine (RVoxM), a recently developed sparse Bayesian framework used for predicting biological markers, e.g., presence of disease, from high-dimensional image data, e.g., brain MRI volumes. The proposed improvement, called IRVoxM, mitigates the ...

  8. Task relevant variables are encoded in OFC neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Our results demonstrate that OFC in rats might not only be involved in reward processing but it also conveys a wide variety of task relevant variables. Our hypothesis is that OFC acts as a hub for complex decision-making tasks where all possible information is processed and conveyed to other brain regions responsible for decision execution.

  9. Convection Enhanced Delivery of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus into the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kevin R; Gordon, Marcia N

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an extremely useful tool for the study of gene over expression or knockdown in the central nervous system of experimental animals. One disadvantage of intracranial injections of rAAV vectors into the brain parenchyma has been restricted distribution to relatively small volumes of the brain. Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a method for delivery of clinically relevant amounts of therapeutic agents to large areas of the brain in a direct intracranial injection procedure. CED uses bulk flow to increase the hydrostatic pressure and thus improve volume distribution. The CED method has shown robust gene transfer and increased distribution within the CNS and can be successfully used for different serotypes of rAAV for increased transduction of the mouse CNS. This chapter details the surgical injection of rAAV by CED into a mouse brain.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the ventral callosal radiations: new destination, correlations with diffusion tensor imaging fiber-tracking, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Verclytte, Sébastien; Delmaire, Christine; Deramond, Hervé; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Le Gars, Daniel; Godefroy, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    In the current literature, there is a lack of a detailed map of the origin, course, and connections of the ventral callosal radiations of the human brain. The authors used an older dissection technique based on a freezing process as well as diffusion tensor imaging to investigate this area of the human brain. The authors demonstrated interconnections between areas 11, 12, and 25 for the callosal radiations of the trunk and rostrum of the corpus callosum; between areas 9, 10, and 32 for the genu; and between areas 6, 8, and 9 for the ventral third of the body. The authors identified new ventral callosal connections crossing the rostrum between both temporal poles and coursing within the temporal stem, and they named these connections the "callosal radiations of Peltier." They found that the breadth of the callosal radiations slightly increases along their course from the rostrum to the first third of the body of the corpus callosum. The fiber dissection and diffusion tensor imaging techniques are complementary not only in their application to the study of the commissural system in the human brain, but also in their practical use for diagnosis and surgical planning. Further investigations, neurocognitive tests, and other contributions will permit elucidation of the functional relevance of the newly identified callosal radiations in patients with disease involving the ventral corpus callosum.

  11. Brains on video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-11-18

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.

  12. Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and…

  13. Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction as a biomarker for epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Klein, Guy; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Kamintsky, Lyn; Noyman, Iris; Veksler, Ronel; Dalipaj, Hotjensa; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Swissa, Evyatar; Rosenbach, Dror; Elazary, Netta; Milikovsky, Dan Z; Milk, Nadav; Kassirer, Michael; Rosman, Yossi; Serlin, Yonatan; Eisenkraft, Arik; Chassidim, Yoash; Parmet, Yisrael; Kaufer, Daniela; Friedman, Alon

    2017-06-01

    A biomarker that will enable the identification of patients at high-risk for developing post-injury epilepsy is critically required. Microvascular pathology and related blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation were shown to be associated with epileptogenesis after injury. Here we used prospective, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively follow blood-brain barrier pathology in rats following status epilepticus, late electrocorticography to identify epileptic animals and post-mortem immunohistochemistry to confirm blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Finally, to test the pharmacodynamic relevance of the proposed biomarker, two anti-epileptogenic interventions were used; isoflurane anaesthesia and losartan. Our results show that early blood-brain barrier pathology in the piriform network is a sensitive and specific predictor (area under the curve of 0.96, P brain barrier pathology as a clinically relevant predictive, diagnostic and pharmaco!dynamics biomarker for acquired epilepsy. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shun, E-mail: shchen_2013@163.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Tan, Hong-yu, E-mail: honhyutan@21cn.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Wu, Zhuo-hua, E-mail: zhh88@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Sun, Chong-peng, E-mail: Suncp2002@gmail.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); He, Jian-xun, E-mail: xundog@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Li, Xin-chun, E-mail: xinchunli@163.com [Imaging Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China); Shao, Ming, E-mail: yimshao@126.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College (China)

    2014-03-15

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA.

  15. Imaging of olfactory bulb and gray matter volumes in brain areas associated with olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shun; Tan, Hong-yu; Wu, Zhuo-hua; Sun, Chong-peng; He, Jian-xun; Li, Xin-chun; Shao, Ming

    2014-01-01

    We explored if magnetic resonance imaging sequences might aid in the clinical differential diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We measured the volumes of the olfactory bulb, the olfactory tract, and olfaction-associated cortical gray matter in 20 IPD patients, 14 MSA patients, and 12 normal subjects, using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging sequences in combination with voxel-based statistical analysis. We found that, compared to normal subjects and MSA patients, the volumes of the olfactory bulb and tract were significantly reduced in IPD patients. The gray matter volume of IPD patients decreased in the following order: the olfactory area to the right of the piriform cortex, the right amygdala, the left entorhinal cortex, and the left occipital lobe. Further, the total olfactory bulb volume of IPD patients was associated with the duration of disease. The entorhinal cortical gray matter volume was negatively associated with the UPDRS III score. Conclusion: Structural volumes measured by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may potentially be used for differential diagnosis of IPD from MSA

  16. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  17. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  18. Brain Research: Implications for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louise M.; Soares, Anthony T.

    Brain research has illuminated several areas of the learning process: (1) learning as association; (2) learning as reinforcement; (3) learning as perception; (4) learning as imitation; (5) learning as organization; (6) learning as individual style; and (7) learning as brain activity. The classic conditioning model developed by Pavlov advanced…

  19. Brain Death in Islamic Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikzad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In today's world, Islamic jurisprudence encounters  new issues. One of the areas where jurisprudence gets involved is the issues concerned with brain death, whether brain death in jurisprudence and Islamic law is considered the end of life. In this study, brain death was discussed from the Shiite jurisprudence perspective and also the opinions of the specialists are taken into account. METHODS: This study is designed based on library collection and review of the literature in the field of brain death. Also, Quranic verses, hadiths and fatwas (religious opinions of the scholars are used. Some of the articles which were centered around Islamic jurisprudence, particularly Shiite jurisprudence that explain and deal with brain death were given special consideration. FINDINGS: Brain death from religious and jurisprudence perspective is considered the termination of life and removing the vital organs from the body is not viewed as committing manslaughter. A person with brain death is not a normally known injured man who is still alive. The brain death patinets have no life and getting rid of the body does not constitute a case of manslaughter. Amputation of the organs of brain death patients for donation and transplantation amounts to the amputation of a dead body. If the life of a Muslim is subject to transplant of organs from the body of a brain death patient, it will be permissible. CONCLUSION: In principle, if the life of a Muslim entails transplant of organs of brain death patients, it will be permissible 

  20. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  1. Molecular biology of the mammalian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.R.; Griffin, W.S.T.

    1985-01-01

    The authors' characterization of abundant mRNAs by analysis of their in vitro translation products has provided detailed information on the changes in steady-state mRNA levels taking place during brain and neuroblastoma differentiation as well as on more general aspects of mRNA structure and utilization in the nervous system. Quantitation of specific mRNAs using radiolabelled recombinant DNA probes has confirmed that the measurements of translationally active tubulin and actin mRNAs by this method are indeed an accurate indication of their steady-state levels. The technology is now available to characterize neuropathology at the cellular level. Analysis of mRNA changes in diseased brain are of obvious relevance in documenting gross pathological changes in transcription patterns. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry can now be used, perhaps even in combination with computer reconstruction to investigate more critically the specific cell losses so characteristic of diseases such as Huntington's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's. In situ hybridization of probes to mRNAs encoding specific neurotransmitter enzymes and abundant ''housekeeping'' proteins can now be used to determine whether the remaining cells in affected brain areas are transcriptionally normal. Furthermore, this technique can also be used to document the transcriptional changes in cell types not presently identified as compromised and thus will pinpoint more precisely the initial cell targets of disease

  2. Brain-machine and brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friehs, Gerhard M; Zerris, Vasilios A; Ojakangas, Catherine L; Fellows, Mathew R; Donoghue, John P

    2004-11-01

    The idea of connecting the human brain to a computer or machine directly is not novel and its potential has been explored in science fiction. With the rapid advances in the areas of information technology, miniaturization and neurosciences there has been a surge of interest in turning fiction into reality. In this paper the authors review the current state-of-the-art of brain-computer and brain-machine interfaces including neuroprostheses. The general principles and requirements to produce a successful connection between human and artificial intelligence are outlined and the authors' preliminary experience with a prototype brain-computer interface is reported.

  3. Cortical surface area and cortical thickness in the precuneus of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E; Román, F J; de la Cuétara, J M; Martin-Loeches, M; Colom, R

    2015-02-12

    The precuneus has received considerable attention in the last decade, because of its cognitive functions, its role as a central node of the brain networks, and its involvement in neurodegenerative processes. Paleoneurological studies suggested that form changes in the deep parietal areas represent a major character associated with the origin of the modern human brain morphology. A recent neuroanatomical survey based on shape analysis suggests that the proportions of the precuneus are also a determinant source of overall brain geometrical differences among adult individuals, influencing the brain spatial organization. Here, we evaluate the variation of cortical thickness and cortical surface area of the precuneus in a sample of adult humans, and their relation with geometry and cognition. Precuneal thickness and surface area are not correlated. There is a marked individual variation. The right precuneus is thinner and larger than the left one, but there are relevant fluctuating asymmetries, with only a modest correlation between the hemispheres. Males have a thicker cortex but differences in cortical area are not significant between sexes. The surface area of the precuneus shows a positive allometry with the brain surface area, although the correlation is modest. The dilation/contraction of the precuneus, described as a major factor of variability within adult humans, is associated with absolute increase/decrease of its surface, but not with variation in thickness. Precuneal thickness, precuneal surface area and precuneal morphology are not correlated with psychological factors such as intelligence, working memory, attention control, and processing speed, stressing further possible roles of this area in supporting default mode functions. Beyond gross morphology, the processes underlying the large phenotypic variation of the precuneus must be further investigated through specific cellular analyses, aimed at considering differences in cellular size, density

  4. Neurological basis of AMP-dependent thermoregulation and its relevance to central and peripheral hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzi, Mirko; Blasi, Francesco; Masi, Alessio; Coppi, Elisabetta; Traini, Chiara; Felici, Roberta; Pittelli, Maria; Cavone, Leonardo; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is of relevance to treatment of increased body temperature and brain injury, but drugs inducing selective, rapid, and safe cooling in humans are not available. Here, we show that injections of adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), an endogenous nucleotide, promptly triggers hypothermia in mice by directly activating adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) within the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. Inhibition of constitutive degradation of brain extracellular AMP by targeting ecto 5′-nucleotidase, also suffices to prompt hypothermia in rodents. Accordingly, sensitivity of mice and rats to the hypothermic effect of AMP is inversely related to their hypothalamic 5′-nucleotidase activity. Single-cell electrophysiological recording indicates that AMP reduces spontaneous firing activity of temperature-insensitive neurons of the mouse POA, thereby retuning the hypothalamic thermoregulatory set point towards lower temperatures. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate also suppresses prostaglandin E2-induced fever in mice, having no effects on peripheral hyperthermia triggered by dioxymetamphetamine (ecstasy) overdose. Together, data disclose the role of AMP, 5′-nucleotidase, and A1R in hypothalamic thermoregulation, as well and their therapeutic relevance to treatment of febrile illness. PMID:23093068

  5. Complex brain networks: From topological communities to clustered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functional connectivity of the human brain has shown that both types of brain networks share .... the areas and also of the whole network, the Pearson correlation coefficient r and ..... Several areas important for intercommunity communication.

  6. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Xing Wang; Yu-Ping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis.Data Sources:All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18,2016,were identified through a literature search on PubMed,ScienceDirect,and Web of Science,with the keywords of"gut microbiota","gut-brain axis",and "neuroscience".Study Selection:All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed,with no limitation of study design.Results:It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological,behavioral,and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood.Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products,enteric nervous system,sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system,neural-immune system,neuroendocrine system,and central nervous system.Moreover,there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain,including the gut-brain's neural network,neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,gut immune system,some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria,and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier.The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota,and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota.Conclusions:Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain,which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  7. Social modulation of cognition: Lessons from rhesus macaques relevant to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Reynaud, Amélie J; Prado, Jérôme; Meunier, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms. The behavioral and neural data garnered in humans and macaques are summarized, with a focus on two findings relevant to human education. First, peers' mistakes stand out as exceptional professors and seem to have devoted areas and neurons in the primates' brain. Second, peers' mere presence suffices to enhance performance in well-learned tasks, possibly by boosting activity in the brain network involved in the task at hand. These findings could be translated into concrete pedagogical interventions in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of size and position of fracture relevant defects of samples fatigued in the VHCF area on the basis of metallographic examinations; Vorhersage der Groesse und der Lage bruchrelevanter Defekte von im VHCF-Bereich ermuedeter Proben auf Basis metallographischer Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Hans-Juergen; Grigorescu, Andrei; Kolyshkin, Anton [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik; Kaufmann, Edgar [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Mathematik; Zimmermann, Martina [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft

    2016-07-15

    This paper aims to examine the connection between the material quality with regard to the size and spatial distribution of the defects and the size or position of the defects causing the fracture which determine the durability of components in the range of Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF). For this purpose, the quality of the metastable austenitic steel 1.4301 was characterized via metallographic examinations. Longitudinal and cross sections were taken from a sheet steel. Afterwards size and position of all defects were measured. The metallographic information acquired was used to create a statistical defect distribution model. On the basis of this model and the stress distribution in the most stressed area of the used fatigue samples, the distribution of size and position of the inclusions relevant for the fatigue failure could be predicted. The results of the modelling are in good agreement with the experimental observations regarding the positions of crack initiation on samples failing under VHCF circumstances.

  9. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  10. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  11. Brain transcriptome atlases : A computational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfouz, A.M.E.T.A.; Huisman, S.M.H.; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    The immense complexity of the mammalian brain is largely reflected in the underlying molecular signatures of its billions of cells. Brain transcriptome atlases provide valuable insights into gene expression patterns across different brain areas throughout the course of development. Such atlases

  12. Linking brain, mind and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeig, Scott; Gramann, Klaus; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard

    2009-08-01

    Cortical brain areas and dynamics evolved to organize motor behavior in our three-dimensional environment also support more general human cognitive processes. Yet traditional brain imaging paradigms typically allow and record only minimal participant behavior, then reduce the recorded data to single map features of averaged responses. To more fully investigate the complex links between distributed brain dynamics and motivated natural behavior, we propose the development of wearable mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) systems that continuously capture the wearer's high-density electrical brain and muscle signals, three-dimensional body movements, audiovisual scene and point of regard, plus new data-driven analysis methods to model their interrelationships. The new imaging modality should allow new insights into how spatially distributed brain dynamics support natural human cognition and agency.

  13. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  14. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  15. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  16. A brain network processing the age of faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György A Homola

    Full Text Available Age is one of the most salient aspects in faces and of fundamental cognitive and social relevance. Although face processing has been studied extensively, brain regions responsive to age have yet to be localized. Using evocative face morphs and fMRI, we segregate two areas extending beyond the previously established face-sensitive core network, centered on the inferior temporal sulci and angular gyri bilaterally, both of which process changes of facial age. By means of probabilistic tractography, we compare their patterns of functional activation and structural connectivity. The ventral portion of Wernicke's understudied perpendicular association fasciculus is shown to interconnect the two areas, and activation within these clusters is related to the probability of fiber connectivity between them. In addition, post-hoc age-rating competence is found to be associated with high response magnitudes in the left angular gyrus. Our results provide the first evidence that facial age has a distinct representation pattern in the posterior human brain. We propose that particular face-sensitive nodes interact with additional object-unselective quantification modules to obtain individual estimates of facial age. This brain network processing the age of faces differs from the cortical areas that have previously been linked to less developmental but instantly changeable face aspects. Our probabilistic method of associating activations with connectivity patterns reveals an exemplary link that can be used to further study, assess and quantify structure-function relationships.

  17. [Schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorder or degenerative brain process?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    2008-05-01

    In the last two decades schizophrenia is viewed increasingly as a neurodevelopmental (ND) disorder; as indicators are discussed f.e. premorbid personality, behaviour anomalies, premorbid somatic signs, deviations shown by brain imaging methods, neuropathological findings or neuropsychological deficits. Premorbid personality and behaviour anomalies have to be distinguished from precursor syndromes (prodromes and outpost syndromes), preceding the first psychotic episode many years. Moreover, only a minority of patients, later developing schizophrenia, reveal abnormal premorbid personality traits. Explanations why clinical expression of the disorder is delayed until adult life or at least adolescence, remain speculative. Findings of neocortical and limbic maldevelopment, e.g. in parahippocampal cortex, are hitherto not yet conclusive. As an argument for the ND hypothesis is claimed that ventricular enlargement already is present at the onset of positive symptoms and does not progress on follow-ups. But, if a ND disorder would have caused the ventricular enlargement, cranial volume and head size must be decreased, what is not the case in schizophrenia. Furtheron, there are findings of progressive increase in ventricular size and also of gliosis, especially in subcortical and periventricular areas. Anomalies of cerebral asymmetry; also distinct ND brain anomalies such as cavum septi pellucidi or dysgenesis of corpus callosum do not occur more frequently than expected in schizophrenia. As to the rate of obstetric complications (OCs) and viral infections sufficiently reliable data are missing; the great majority of schizophrenics have no OCs. Altogether, attempts to correlate brain findings, regarded as expression of an aberrant brain development with clinical subgroups of schizophrenia, were not very successful. This is also valid for ND concepts confined to male, early onset or sporadic schizophrenias. Only a distinct psychopathological remission type with the component

  18. Patterns of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Linda S. de; Groenendaal, Floris

    2010-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made in assessing the neonatal brain, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we will describe the use of MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in detecting different patterns of brain injury in (full-term) human neonates following hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and indicate the relevance of these findings in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  19. Patterns of neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Linda S. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, KE 04.123.1, P.O. Box 85090, Utrecht (Netherlands); Groenendaal, Floris [University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    Enormous progress has been made in assessing the neonatal brain, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we will describe the use of MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in detecting different patterns of brain injury in (full-term) human neonates following hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and indicate the relevance of these findings in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  20. Touch-based Brain Computer Interfaces: State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) rely on the user's brain activity to control equipment or computer devices. Many BCIs are based on imagined movement (called active BCIs) or the fact that brain patterns differ in reaction to relevant or attended stimuli in comparison to irrelevant or unattended

  1. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  3. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  4. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  5. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  6. Relevant Scatterers Characterization in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Houda; Datcu, Mihai

    2006-11-01

    Recognizing scenes in a single look meter resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, requires the capability to identify relevant signal signatures in condition of variable image acquisition geometry, arbitrary objects poses and configurations. Among the methods to detect relevant scatterers in SAR images, we can mention the internal coherence. The SAR spectrum splitted in azimuth generates a series of images which preserve high coherence only for particular object scattering. The detection of relevant scatterers can be done by correlation study or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) methods. The present article deals with the state of the art for SAR internal correlation analysis and proposes further extensions using elements of inference based on information theory applied to complex valued signals. The set of azimuth looks images is analyzed using mutual information measures and an equivalent channel capacity is derived. The localization of the "target" requires analysis in a small image window, thus resulting in imprecise estimation of the second order statistics of the signal. For a better precision, a Hausdorff measure is introduced. The method is applied to detect and characterize relevant objects in urban areas.

  7. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  9. Brains, Genes and Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Callaway, Edward M.; Churchland, Patricia; Caddick, Sarah J.; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E.; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A.; Miller, Cory T.; Mitchell, Jude F.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R.; Movshon, J. Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H.; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Silva, Afonso C.; Strick, Peter L.; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward. PMID:25950631

  10. Brain abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found. However, the most common source is a lung infection. Less often, a heart infection is the cause. The following raise your chance of developing a brain abscess: A weakened immune system (such as in people ...

  11. Longitudinal connectome-based predictive modeling for REM sleep behavior disorder from structural brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, Luca; Ellmore, Timothy M.; Suescun, Jessika; Ocasio, Laura; Kamali, Arash; Riascos-Castaneda, Roy; Schiess, Mya C.

    2018-02-01

    Methods to identify neuroplasticity patterns in human brains are of the utmost importance in understanding and potentially treating neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) research will greatly benefit and advance from the discovery of biomarkers to quantify brain changes in the early stages of the disease, a prodromal period when subjects show no obvious clinical symptoms. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for an in-vivo estimation of the structural connectome inside the brain and may serve to quantify the degenerative process before the appearance of clinical symptoms. In this work, we introduce a novel strategy to compute longitudinal structural connectomes in the context of a whole-brain data-driven pipeline. In these initial tests, we show that our predictive models are able to distinguish controls from asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing PD (REM sleep behavior disorder, RBD) with an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (pParkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. By analyzing the brain connections most relevant for the predictive ability of the best performing model, we find connections that are biologically relevant to the disease.

  12. Brain imaging and brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage

  13. Brain stem type neuro-Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Satoshi; Hirose, Genjiro; Kosoegawa, Hiroshi; Oda, Rokuhei; Yoshioka, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome were evaluated by brain CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Super-conducting type, 0.5 tesla) to correlate with the neurological findings. In the acute phase, low density area with peripheral enhancement effect and mass effect were seen at the brain stem in brain CT. MRI revealed a extensive high intensity signal area mainly involving the corticospinal tract in the meso-diencephalon as well as pons by T 2 weighted images (spin echo, TR = 1, 600 msec, TE = 90 msec) and the value of T 1 , T 2 , at the brain stem lesion were prolonged moderately. After high dose steroid treatment, the low density area in brain CT and high signal area in MRI were gradually reduced in its size. Peripheral enhancement effect in brain CT disappeared within 10 months in case 1, one month in the other case. In the chronic stage, the reduction of low density area and atrophy of brain stem were noted in brain CT. The lesion in chronic stage had low intensity in T 1 , T 2 weighted images and the T 1 , T 2 values at the lesion were mildly prolonged in MRI. Sequentially CT with enhancement and MRI examinations with T 1 , T 2 weighted images were useful to detect the lesion and to evaluate the activity, evolution of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome. (author)

  14. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IMAGING OF BRAIN FUNCTION BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY - IMAGING ANALYSIS OF BRAIN FUNCTION BY FMRI AFTER ACUPUNCTURE AT LR3 IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yuying; Lan, Yujun; Qu, Xiaodong; Lin, Kelin; Zhang, Jiping; Qu, Shanshan; Wang, Yanjie; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. A total of 45 healthy subjects were randomly divided into the Taichong (LR3) group, sham acupuncture group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting state fMRI before acupuncture, after true (sham) acupuncture in each group. Analysis of changes in connectivity among the brain areas was performed using the brain functional connectivity method. The right cerebrum temporal lobe was selected as the seed point to analyze the functional connectivity. It had a functional connectivity with right cerebrum superior frontal gyrus, limbic lobe cingulate gyrus and left cerebrum inferior temporal gyrus (BA 37), inferior parietal lobule compared by before vs. after acupuncture at LR3, and right cerebrum sub-lobar insula and left cerebrum middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus compared by true vs. sham acupuncture at LR3, and right cerebrum occipital lobe cuneus, occipital lobe sub-gyral, parietal lobe precuneus and left cerebellum anterior lobe culmen by acupuncture at LR3 vs. sham acupoint. Acupuncture at LR3 mainly specifically activated the brain functional network that participates in visual function, associative function, and emotion cognition, which are similar to the features on LR3 in tradition Chinese medicine. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that had specific reference values for the interpretation of the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint.

  16. Brain classification reveals the right cerebellum as the best biomarker of dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demonet Jean

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental dyslexia is a specific cognitive disorder in reading acquisition that has genetic and neurological origins. Despite histological evidence for brain differences in dyslexia, we recently demonstrated that in large cohort of subjects, no differences between control and dyslexic readers can be found at the macroscopic level (MRI voxel, because of large variances in brain local volumes. In the present study, we aimed at finding brain areas that most discriminate dyslexic from control normal readers despite the large variance across subjects. After segmenting brain grey matter, normalizing brain size and shape and modulating the voxels' content, normal readers' brains were used to build a 'typical' brain via bootstrapped confidence intervals. Each dyslexic reader's brain was then classified independently at each voxel as being within or outside the normal range. We used this simple strategy to build a brain map showing regional percentages of differences between groups. The significance of this map was then assessed using a randomization technique. Results The right cerebellar declive and the right lentiform nucleus were the two areas that significantly differed the most between groups with 100% of the dyslexic subjects (N = 38 falling outside of the control group (N = 39 95% confidence interval boundaries. The clinical relevance of this result was assessed by inquiring cognitive brain-based differences among dyslexic brain subgroups in comparison to normal readers' performances. The strongest difference between dyslexic subgroups was observed between subjects with lower cerebellar declive (LCD grey matter volumes than controls and subjects with higher cerebellar declive (HCD grey matter volumes than controls. Dyslexic subjects with LCD volumes performed worse than subjects with HCD volumes in phonologically and lexicon related tasks. Furthermore, cerebellar and lentiform grey matter volumes interacted in dyslexic

  17. Neurogenesis and brain injury: managing a renewable resource for repair

    OpenAIRE

    Hallbergson, Anna F.; Gnatenco, Carmen; Peterson, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    The brain shows limited ability to repair itself, but neurogenesis in certain areas of the adult brain suggests that neural stem cells may be used for structural brain repair. It will be necessary to understand how neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated to develop strategies that harness neural stem cells for therapeutic use.

  18. Brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistel, H.

    1991-01-01

    Brain SPECT investigations have gained broad acceptance since the introduction of the lipophilic tracer Tc-99m-HMPAO. Depending on equipment and objectives in different departments, the examinations can be divided into three groups: 1. Under normal conditions and standardised patient preparation the 'rest' SPECT can be performed in every department with a tomographic camera. In cerebrovascular disease there is a demand for determination of either the perfusion reserve in reversible ischemia or prognostic values in completed stroke. In cases of dementia, SPECT may yield useful results according to differential diagnosis. Central cerebral system involvement in immunologic disease may be estimated with higher sensitivity than in conventional brain imaging procedures. In psychiatric diseases there is only a relative indication for brain SPECT, since results during recent years have been contradictory and may be derived only in interventional manner. In brain tumor diagnostics SPECT with Tl-201 possibly permits grading. In inflammatory disease, especially in viral encephalitis, SPECT may be used to obtain early diagnosis. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can be distinguished from other forms of dementia and, consequently, the necessity for shunting surgery can be recognised. 2. In departments equipped for emergency cases an 'acute' SPECT can be performed in illnesses with rapid changing symptoms such as different forms of migraine, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures (so-called 'ictal SPECT') or urgent forms like trauma. 3. In cooperation with several departments brain SPECT can be practised as an interventional procedure in clinical and in scientific studies. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Screening of Toll-like receptors expression in multiple system atrophy brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Winge, Kristian; Agander, Tina Klitmøller

    2013-01-01

    The family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays a key role in controlling innate immune responses to a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecules. It was recently suggested that TLRs have an important role in the crosstalk between neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system, thus...... inclusions in oligodendrocytes. α-Synuclein can act as a danger-associated molecular pattern and alter TLR expression thereby activating inflammatory responses in the brain. In this study, using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of TLRs (TLR1-10) in selected areas of MSA brains (substantia nigra......TLR-1 mRNA were elevated in substantia nigra and striatum whereas levels of hTLR-8 and hTLR-9 mRNAs were significantly higher in cerebella from MSA patients. The concerted alteration of expression of multiple TLRs in MSA brains can be of relevance for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease....

  20. Knockdown of ventral tegmental area mu-opioid receptors in rats prevents effects of social defeat stress: Implications for amphetamine cross-sensitization, social avoidance, weight regulation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Caitlin E.; Herschel, Daniel; Lasek, Amy W.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Nikulina, Ella M.

    2014-01-01

    Social defeat stress causes social avoidance and long-lasting cross-sensitization to psychostimulants, both of which are associated with increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Moreover, social stress upregulates VTA mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA. In the VTA, MOR activation inhibits GABA neurons to disinhibit VTA dopamine neurons, thus providing a role for VTA MORs in the regulation of psychostimulant sensitization. The present study determined the effect of lentivirus-mediated MOR knockdown in the VTA on the consequences of intermittent social defeat stress, a salient and profound stressor in humans and rodents. Social stress exposure induced social avoidance and attenuated weight gain in animals with non-manipulated VTA MORs, but both these effects were prevented by VTA MOR knockdown. Rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression exhibited cross-sensitization to amphetamine challenge (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), evidenced by a significant augmentation of locomotion. By contrast, knockdown of VTA MORs prevented stress-induced cross-sensitization without blunting the locomotor-activating effects of amphetamine. At the time point corresponding to amphetamine challenge, immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the effect of stress on VTA BDNF expression. Prior stress exposure increased VTA BDNF expression in rats with non-manipulated VTA MOR expression, while VTA MOR knockdown prevented stress-induced expression of VTA BDNF. Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of VTA MOR is necessary for the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by social defeat stress. Elucidating VTA MOR regulation of stress effects on the mesolimbic system may provide new therapeutic targets for treating stress-induced vulnerability to substance abuse. PMID:25446676

  1. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  3. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  4. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  5. Retractor-induced brain shift compensation in image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoyao; Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2013-03-01

    In image-guided neurosurgery, intraoperative brain shift significantly degrades the accuracy of neuronavigation that is solely based on preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR). To compensate for brain deformation and to maintain the accuracy in image guidance achieved at the start of surgery, biomechanical models have been developed to simulate brain deformation and to produce model-updated MR images (uMR) to compensate for brain shift. To-date, most studies have focused on shift compensation at early stages of surgery (i.e., updated images are only produced after craniotomy and durotomy). Simulating surgical events at later stages such as retraction and tissue resection are, perhaps, clinically more relevant because of the typically much larger magnitudes of brain deformation. However, these surgical events are substantially more complex in nature, thereby posing significant challenges in model-based brain shift compensation strategies. In this study, we present results from an initial investigation to simulate retractor-induced brain deformation through a biomechanical finite element (FE) model where whole-brain deformation assimilated from intraoperative data was used produce uMR for improved accuracy in image guidance. Specifically, intensity-encoded 3D surface profiles at the exposed cortical area were reconstructed from intraoperative stereovision (iSV) images before and after tissue retraction. Retractor-induced surface displacements were then derived by coregistering the surfaces and served as sparse displacement data to drive the FE model. With one patient case, we show that our technique is able to produce uMR that agrees well with the reconstructed iSV surface after retraction. The computational cost to simulate retractor-induced brain deformation was approximately 10 min. In addition, our approach introduces minimal interruption to the surgical workflow, suggesting the potential for its clinical application.

  6. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piloni, Natacha E.; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A.; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-01-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH − ) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH − ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6

  7. Genomic and Epigenomic Insights into Nutrition and Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Joy Dauncey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence links many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders with multiple complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors such as nutrition. Mental health problems, autism, eating disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and brain tumours are related to individual variability in numerous protein-coding and non-coding regions of the genome. However, genotype does not necessarily determine neurological phenotype because the epigenome modulates gene expression in response to endogenous and exogenous regulators, throughout the life-cycle. Studies using both genome-wide analysis of multiple genes and comprehensive analysis of specific genes are providing new insights into genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying nutrition and neuroscience. This review provides a critical evaluation of the following related areas: (1 recent advances in genomic and epigenomic technologies, and their relevance to brain disorders; (2 the emerging role of non-coding RNAs as key regulators of transcription, epigenetic processes and gene silencing; (3 novel approaches to nutrition, epigenetics and neuroscience; (4 gene-environment interactions, especially in the serotonergic system, as a paradigm of the multiple signalling pathways affected in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Current and future advances in these four areas should contribute significantly to the prevention, amelioration and treatment of multiple devastating brain disorders.

  8. Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overwalle, Frank

    2009-03-01

    This meta-analysis explores the location and function of brain areas involved in social cognition, or the capacity to understand people's behavioral intentions, social beliefs, and personality traits. On the basis of over 200 fMRI studies, it tests alternative theoretical proposals that attempt to explain how several brain areas process information relevant for social cognition. The results suggest that inferring temporary states such as goals, intentions, and desires of other people-even when they are false and unjust from our own perspective--strongly engages the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Inferring more enduring dispositions of others and the self, or interpersonal norms and scripts, engages the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), although temporal states can also activate the mPFC. Other candidate tasks reflecting general-purpose brain processes that may potentially subserve social cognition are briefly reviewed, such as sequence learning, causality detection, emotion processing, and executive functioning (action monitoring, attention, dual task monitoring, episodic memory retrieval), but none of them overlaps uniquely with the regions activated during social cognition. Hence, it appears that social cognition particularly engages the TPJ and mPFC regions. The available evidence is consistent with the role of a TPJ-related mirror system for inferring temporary goals and intentions at a relatively perceptual level of representation, and the mPFC as a module that integrates social information across time and allows reflection and representation of traits and norms, and presumably also of intentionality, at a more abstract cognitive level.

  9. Longitudinal volumetric changes following traumatic brain injury: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbota, Kimberly D M; Sodhi, Aparna; Bendlin, Barbara B; McLaren, Donald G; Xu, Guofan; Rowley, Howard A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2012-11-01

    After traumatic injury, the brain undergoes a prolonged period of degenerative change that is paradoxically accompanied by cognitive recovery. The spatiotemporal pattern of atrophy and the specific relationships of atrophy to cognitive changes are ill understood. The present study used tensor-based morphometry and neuropsychological testing to examine brain volume loss in 17 traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and 13 controls over a 4-year period. Patients were scanned at 2 months, 1 year, and 4 years post-injury. High-dimensional warping procedures were used to create change maps of each subject's brain for each of the two intervals. TBI patients experienced volume loss in both cortical areas and white matter regions during the first interval. We also observed continuing volume loss in extensive regions of white matter during the second interval. Neuropsychological correlations indicated that cognitive tasks were associated with subsequent volume loss in task-relevant regions. The extensive volume loss in brain white matter observed well beyond the first year post-injury suggests that the injured brain remains malleable for an extended period, and the neuropsychological relationships suggest that this volume loss may be associated with subtle cognitive improvements.

  10. GABAergic interneuron to astrocyte signalling: a neglected form of cell communication in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losi, Gabriele; Mariotti, Letizia; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2014-10-19

    GABAergic interneurons represent a minority of all cortical neurons and yet they efficiently control neural network activities in all brain areas. In parallel, glial cell astrocytes exert a broad control of brain tissue homeostasis and metabolism, modulate synaptic transmission and contribute to brain information processing in a dynamic interaction with neurons that is finely regulated in time and space. As most studies have focused on glutamatergic neurons and excitatory transmission, our knowledge of functional interactions between GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes is largely defective. Here, we critically discuss the currently available literature that hints at a potential relevance of this specific signalling in brain function. Astrocytes can respond to GABA through different mechanisms that include GABA receptors and transporters. GABA-activated astrocytes can, in turn, modulate local neuronal activity by releasing gliotransmitters including glutamate and ATP. In addition, astrocyte activation by different signals can modulate GABAergic neurotransmission. Full clarification of the reciprocal signalling between different GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes will improve our understanding of brain network complexity and has the potential to unveil novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of

  12. Brain-Based Teaching/Learning and Implications for Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean Marie

    2002-01-01

    Argues that physical activity and water can increase brain activity, and hence, learning. Findings of neuroscientists regarding the brain can inform educators. Brain-based teaching emphasizes teamwork, cooperative learning, and global responsibility. Argues against gathering information without relevance. Connects brain-based learning concepts to…

  13. Premutation female carriers of fragile X syndrome: a pilot study on brain anatomy and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D G; Mentis, M J; Pietrini, P; Grady, C L; Moore, C J; Horwitz, B; Hinton, V; Dobkin, C S; Schapiro, M B; Rapoport, S I

    1999-10-01

    It was thought that premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome (FraX) have no neurobiological abnormalities, but there have been no quantitative studies of brain morphometry and metabolism. Thus the authors investigated brain structure and metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX. Eight normal IQ, healthy female permutation FraX carriers aged 39 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD) and 32 age-sex-handedness-matched controls (39 +/- 10 years) were studied; in vivo brain morphometry was measured using volumetric magnetic resonances imaging, and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were measured using positron emission tomography and (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Compared with controls, FraX premutation carriers had a significant (1) decrease in volume of whole brain, and caudate and thalamic nuclei bilaterally; (2) increase in volume of hippocampus and peripheral CSF bilaterally, and third ventricle; (3) relative hypometabolism of right parietal, temporal, and occipital association areas; (4) bilateral relative hypermetabolism of hippocampus; (5) relative hypermetabolism of left cerebellum; and (6) difference in right-left asymmetry of the Wernicke and Broca language areas. Premutation carriers of FraX, as defined by analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, have abnormalities in brain anatomy and metabolism. The biological basis for this is unknown, but most likely it includes tissue heterogeneity for mutation status. The findings may be of relevance to people counseling families with FraX and to understanding other neuropsychiatric disorders which are associated with expansion of triplet repeats and genetic anticipation.

  14. Arts, Brain and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Bedeković, Marina Roje; Puretić, Marijana Bosnar; Pašić, Marija Bošnjak

    2016-12-01

    Art is a product of human creativity; it is a superior skill that can be learned by study, practice and observation. Modern neuroscience and neuroimaging enable study of the processes during artistic performance. Creative people have less marked hemispheric dominance. It was found that the right hemisphere is specialized for metaphoric thinking, playfulness, solution finding and synthesizing, it is the center of visualization, imagination and conceptualization, but the left hemisphere is still needed for artistic work to achieve balance. A specific functional organization of brain areas was found during visual art activities. Marked hemispheric dominance and area specialization is also very prominent for music perception. Brain is capable of making new connections, activating new pathways and unmasking secondary roads, it is "plastic". Music is a strong stimulus for neuroplasticity. fMRI studies have shown reorganization of motor and auditory cortex in professional musicians. Other studies showed the changes in neurotransmitter and hormone serum levels in correlation to music. The most prominent connection between music and enhancement of performance or changing of neuropsychological activity was shown by studies involving Mozart's music from which the theory of "The Mozart Effect" was derived. Results of numerous studies showed that listening to music can improve cognition, motor skills and recovery after brain injury. In the field of visual art, brain lesion can lead to the visuospatial neglect, loss of details and significant impairment of artistic work while the lesions affecting the left hemisphere reveal new artistic dimensions, disinhibit the right hemisphere, work is more spontaneous and emotional with the gain of artistic quality. All kinds of arts (music, painting, dancing...) stimulate the brain. They should be part of treatment processes. Work of many artists is an excellent example for the interweaving the neurology and arts.

  15. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänggi Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas. Methods Adults with PDS (n = 10 and controls (n = 10 matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM and grey matter (GM differences. Results We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale, the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis, the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.

  16. Brain Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relationship with your doctor(s): • Always report changes in cognition/memory and mood (depression, anxiety). • Make sure your physician ... joint pain. • Exercise regularly. Adequate physical exercise enhances cognition/memory. • Train the Brain! “If you don’t use ...

  17. Robot brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babuska, R.

    2011-01-01

    The brain hosts complex networks of neurons that are responsible for behavior in humans and animals that we generally call intelligent. I is not easy to give an exact definition of intelligence – for the purpose of this talk it will suffice to say that we refer to intelligence as a collection of

  18. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.

    2009-01-01

    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  19. Age differences in default and reward networks during processing of personally relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa

    2012-06-01

    We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one's self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the "positivity bias" with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  1. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  2. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  3. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain and ... healthy, and remove waste products. All About the Brain The brain is made up of three main ...

  4. Tribute to: Self-administered nicotine activates the mesolimbic dopamine system through the ventral tegmental area [William Corrigall, Kathleen Coen and Laurel Adamson, Brain Res. 653 (1994) 278-284].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Francesco; Vaccarino, Franco J

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, Dr. Corrigall and collaborators described elegant experiments designed to elucidate the neurobiology of nicotine reinforcement. The nicotinic receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) was infused in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats trained to self-administer nicotine intravenously. Additionally, DHβE was infused in the VTA of rats trained to self-administer food or cocaine, and nicotine self-administration was assessed in rats with lesions to the peduculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT). A number of key themes emerged from this fundamental study that remain relevant today. The primary finding was that infusions of DHβE in the VTA, but not in the NAC, lowered nicotine self-administration, suggesting that nicotinic receptors in VTA are involved in the reinforcing action of nicotine. This conclusion has been confirmed by subsequent findings, and the nature of the nicotinic receptors has also been elucidated. The authors also reported that DHβE in the VTA had no effect on food or cocaine self-administration, and that lesions to the PPT did not alter nicotine self-administration. Since this initial investigation, the question of whether nicotinic receptors in the VTA are necessary for the reinforcing action of other stimuli, and by which mechanisms, has been extensively explored. Similarly, many groups have further investigated the role of mesopontine cholinergic nuclei in reinforcement. This paper not only contributed in important ways to our understanding of the neurochemical basis of nicotine reinforcement, but was also a key catalyst that gave rise to several research themes central to the neuropharmacology of substance abuse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:50th Anniversary Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  6. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  7. Clinical impact of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during brain tumor surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Yohei; Takahashi, Jun; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    To attempt to improve surgical outcome of brain surgery, clinical significance of anatomo-functional evaluation of brain function during resection of brain tumors was assessed. Seventy four patients with glioma located near eloquent areas underwent surgery while awake. Intraoperative tractography-integrated functional neuronavigation and cortical/subcortical electrical stimulation were correlated with clinical symptoms during and after resection of tumors. Cortical functional areas were safely removed with negative electric stimulation and eloquent cortices could be removed in some circumstances. Subcortical functional mapping was difficult except for motor function. Studying cortical functional compensation allows more extensive removal of brain tumors located in the eloquent areas. (author)

  8. Rat Brain Biogenic Amine Levels during Acute and Sub- acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... substances in rat brain regions are altered during acute and sub-acute .... Different areas of the brain such as cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), .... dopamine metabolism and differential motor behavioral tolerance.

  9. Musical creativity and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Mónica; Limb, Charles J

    2012-01-01

    On the spot, as great jazz performers expertly improvise solo passages, they make immediate decisions about which musical phrases to invent and to play. Researchers, like authors Mónica López-González and Dana Foundation grantee Charles J. Limb, are now using brain imaging to study the neural underpinnings of spontaneous artistic creativity, from jazz riffs to freestyle rap. So far, they have found that brain areas deactivated during improvisation are also at rest during dreaming and meditation, while activated areas include those controlling language and sensorimotor skills. Even with relatively few completed studies, researchers have concluded that musical creativity clearly cannot be tied to just one brain area or process.

  10. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  11. Structural asymmetry of cortical visual areas is related to ocular dominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina H; Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M

    2015-01-01

    lateralized visual areas were identified, both right>left and left>right. When correlating the asymmetries to the functional parameters, we found a significant correlation to ocular dominance (P...The grey matter of the human brain is asymmetrically distributed between the cerebral hemispheres. This asymmetry includes visual areas, but its relevance to visual function is not understood. Voxel-based morphometry is a well-established technique for localization and quantification of cerebral...... was identified to be significantly larger in the left hemisphere for right-eyed participants and vice versa. These results suggest a cerebral basis for ocular dominance....

  12. The Role of “Mixed” Orexigenic and Anorexigenic Signals and Autoantibodies Reacting with Appetite-Regulating Neuropeptides and Peptides of the Adipose Tissue-Gut-Brain Axis: Relevance to Food Intake and Nutritional Status in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papezova, Hana; Vondra, Karel; Hill, Martin; Hainer, Vojtech; Nedvidkova, Jara

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders such as anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by abnormal eating behavior. The essential aspect of AN is that the individual refuses to maintain a minimal normal body weight. The main features of BN are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain. The gut-brain-adipose tissue (AT) peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies play an important role in the regulation of eating behavior and growth hormone release. The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve an interplay between gut, brain, and AT. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and serotoninergic systems are required for communication between brain satiety centre, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include neuropeptides ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, putative anorexigen obestatin, monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine (NE), serotonin, and neutralizing autoantibodies. This extensive and detailed report reviews data that demonstrate that hunger-satiety signals play an important role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. Neuroendocrine dysregulations of the AT-gut-brain axis peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies may result in AN and BN. The circulating autoantibodies can be purified and used as pharmacological tools in AN and BN. Further research is required to investigate the orexigenic/anorexigenic synthetic analogs and monoclonal antibodies for potential treatment of eating disorders in clinical practice. PMID:24106499

  13. The role of "mixed" orexigenic and anorexigenic signals and autoantibodies reacting with appetite-regulating neuropeptides and peptides of the adipose tissue-gut-brain axis: relevance to food intake and nutritional status in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitka, Kvido; Papezova, Hana; Vondra, Karel; Hill, Martin; Hainer, Vojtech; Nedvidkova, Jara

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders such as anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by abnormal eating behavior. The essential aspect of AN is that the individual refuses to maintain a minimal normal body weight. The main features of BN are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain. The gut-brain-adipose tissue (AT) peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies play an important role in the regulation of eating behavior and growth hormone release. The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve an interplay between gut, brain, and AT. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and serotoninergic systems are required for communication between brain satiety centre, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include neuropeptides ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, putative anorexigen obestatin, monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine (NE), serotonin, and neutralizing autoantibodies. This extensive and detailed report reviews data that demonstrate that hunger-satiety signals play an important role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. Neuroendocrine dysregulations of the AT-gut-brain axis peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies may result in AN and BN. The circulating autoantibodies can be purified and used as pharmacological tools in AN and BN. Further research is required to investigate the orexigenic/anorexigenic synthetic analogs and monoclonal antibodies for potential treatment of eating disorders in clinical practice.

  14. The Role of “Mixed” Orexigenic and Anorexigenic Signals and Autoantibodies Reacting with Appetite-Regulating Neuropeptides and Peptides of the Adipose Tissue-Gut-Brain Axis: Relevance to Food Intake and Nutritional Status in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvido Smitka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders such as anorexia (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN are characterized by abnormal eating behavior. The essential aspect of AN is that the individual refuses to maintain a minimal normal body weight. The main features of BN are binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain. The gut-brain-adipose tissue (AT peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies play an important role in the regulation of eating behavior and growth hormone release. The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve an interplay between gut, brain, and AT. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and serotoninergic systems are required for communication between brain satiety centre, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include neuropeptides ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY, peptide YY (PYY, cholecystokinin (CCK, leptin, putative anorexigen obestatin, monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine (NE, serotonin, and neutralizing autoantibodies. This extensive and detailed report reviews data that demonstrate that hunger-satiety signals play an important role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders. Neuroendocrine dysregulations of the AT-gut-brain axis peptides and neutralizing autoantibodies may result in AN and BN. The circulating autoantibodies can be purified and used as pharmacological tools in AN and BN. Further research is required to investigate the orexigenic/anorexigenic synthetic analogs and monoclonal antibodies for potential treatment of eating disorders in clinical practice.

  15. The Creative Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  16. On how high performers keep cool brains in situations of cognitive overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Etienne, Alex; Ozdoba, Christoph; Perrig, Walter J; Nirkko, Arto C

    2007-06-01

    What happens in the brain when we reach or exceed our capacity limits? Are there individual differences for performance at capacity limits? We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the impact of increases in processing demand on selected cortical areas when participants performed a parametrically varied and challenging dual task. Low-performing participants respond with large and load-dependent activation increases in many cortical areas when exposed to excessive task requirements, accompanied by decreasing performance. It seems that these participants recruit additional attentional and strategy-related resources with increasing difficulty, which are either not relevant or even detrimental to performance. In contrast, the brains of the high-performing participants "keep cool" in terms of activation changes, despite continuous correct performance, reflecting different and more efficient processing. These findings shed light on the differential implications of performance on activation patterns and underline the importance of the interindividual-differences approach in neuroimaging research.

  17. Associations between Family Adversity and Brain Volume in Adolescence: Manual vs. Automated Brain Segmentation Yields Different Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lyden, Hannah; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Del Piero, Larissa; Tsai, A. Bryna; Sachs, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Jonas T.; Margolin, Gayla; Saxbe, Darby

    2016-01-01

    Associations between brain structure and early adversity have been inconsistent in the literature. These inconsistencies may be partially due to methodological differences. Different methods of brain segmentation may produce different results, obscuring the relationship between early adversity and brain volume. Moreover, adolescence is a time of significant brain growth and certain brain areas have distinct rates of development, which may compromise the accuracy of automated segmentation appr...

  18. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  19. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  20. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions

  1. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how these functions are reflected in brain structures and functions; and how the brain and behavior are altered in disease. Behavioral and Brain Functions covers the entire area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience – an area where animal studies traditionally play a prominent role. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published online, allowing unlimited space for figures, extensive datasets to allow readers to study the data for themselves, and moving pictures, which are important qualities assisting communication in modern science.

  2. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  3. Brain Abscess Presenting as Postpartum Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia So-Haei Liu

    2004-03-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of brain abscess in this patient was masked by postpartum diabetes insipidus, which is an unusual manifestation. Symptoms and signs of brain abscess are nonspecific in the early stage and missed diagnosis is not uncommon. In conclusion, we reaffirm the importance of remarking on any past relevant information, and one should always be aware of any unresolved symptoms even though they may be nonspecific.