WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant assessment practices

  1. Developing a good practice for the review of evidence relevant to GMO risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Christian; Craig, Wendy; Frampton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    such research results in a transparent, reproducible and unbiased manner. The EU-funded project GRACE (GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence) aims to explore, adapt, apply, and promote these tools to enhance accountability in decision-making by providing policy makers with comprehensive, science......-based information on potential impacts (scenarios) of genetically modified plants and their derived products. Furthermore, GRACE will establish an open-access database in order to support the review process, to mirror the evidence synthesis, to assist the dissemination of results and conclusions, as well as to act......, in more general terms, as an information resource on biosafety of genetically modified plants....

  2. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  3. The relevance of the early history of probability theory to current risk assessment practices in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Probability theory is at the base of modern concepts of risk assessment in mental health. The aim of the current paper is to review the key developments in the early history of probability theory in order to enrich our understanding of current risk assessment practices.

  4. Determination of the relevant market as a criterion of assessment of concentration effects in the practice of antitrust authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Kostecka-Jurczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relevant market is the first and the most important step in antimonopoly proceedings due to the fact that the market position of an enterprise is always determined from the relevant market perspective. In respect of mergers, establishing the relevant market is essential in analysing whether the aim of the concentration is to distort and limit competition on the market. The author of the article focuses on describing methods for determining the relevant market applied by antimonopoly authorities.

  5. Top studies relevant to primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael

    2018-04-01

    To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  6. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  7. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  8. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  9. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana G. Feoktistova; Igor K. Turkin; Sergey V. Barinov

    2017-01-01

    The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate pre...

  10. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolutionary medicine: update on the relevance to family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugler, Christopher T

    2008-09-01

    To review the relevance of evolutionary medicine to family practice and family physician training. Articles were located through a MEDLINE search, using the key words evolution, Darwin, and adaptation. Most references presented level III evidence (expert opinion), while a minority provided level II evidence (epidemiologic studies). Evolutionary medicine deals with the interplay of biology and the environment in the understanding of human disease. Yet medical schools have virtually ignored the need for family physicians to have more than a cursory knowledge of this topic. A review of the main trends in this field most relevant to family practice revealed that a basic knowledge of evolutionary medicine might help in explaining the causation of diseases to patients. Evolutionary medicine has also proven key to explaining the reasons for the development of antibiotic resistance and has the potential to explain cancer pathogenesis. As an organizing principle, this field also has potential in the teaching of family medicine. Evolutionary medicine should be studied further and incorporated into medical training and practice. Its practical utility will be proven through the generation of testable hypotheses and their application in relation to disease causation and possible prevention.

  12. The relevance of behavioural sciences in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    2000-01-01

    includes compliance with certain oral hygiene regimens or specific dental visiting patterns. The outcome of the treatment depends on both the dental professional's knowledge and skills and the patient's skills, objectives and expectations. Furthermore, dental professionals and patients should be satisfied......The aim of this paper is to illustrate how knowledge from behavioural sciences is necessary and relevant in creating a successful dental practice, benefitting patients and dental professionals. There are many ways to create a successful dental practice, the products of which are the various...... treatments performed by dentists or dental hygienists for their patients. Advanced technologies and methods are constantly improving these treatments and thus the technical and managerial aspects of dentistry. However, the success of dental practice is not only dependent on the technique applied...

  13. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana G. Feoktistova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate precautionary measures will allow airlines to avoid incidents leading to drastic consequences for staff, as well as to direct and indirect costs for the enterprise among which there could be singled out both direct property damage and loss of profit and expenses connected to incident investigation, penalty and compensation payment, loss of business reputation and so on. To reduce the rate of accidents and to develop safe activities skills for airlines staff a risk assessment chart is supposed to be implemented, which will be an efficient accidents prevention involving the staff in the process and making them follow safe working conditions.Process risk assessment is an integral part of assessment of the whole enterprise activity and work efficiency of a department and particular workers evaluation system. Labour protection activity should be based on risk identification and its control. Risk assessment is a keystone of labour protection activity planning.

  14. Diabetes mellitus and its relevance to the practice of dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2010-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of abnormal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that results in acute and chronic complications due to the absolute or relative lack of insulin. Globally, it is expected that the number of people with diabetes will increase, and as a result dental practitioners will encounter an increasing number of patients affected by this chronic condition, which may have implications for the provision of safe and appropriate dental treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of diabetes and to discuss aspects of the condition relevant to dentistry. The article also discusses the management of diabetic emergencies in a dental practice setting.

  15. Deliberate practice theory: relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2008-10-01

    This study examined three assumptions of the theory of deliberate practice for practice playing music on an electronic keyboard. 40 undergraduate students, divided into two separate groups, practiced one of two music sequences and rated the relevance of practice for improving performance on the sequences, the amount of effort needed to learn the sequences, and the inherent enjoyment of practice sessions. Findings for each assumption were consistent with those suggested by theory but also showed that perceptions are affected by the amount of practice completed and performance of the skill.

  16. The assessment of practical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, M. J.; Abrahams, I.

    2015-01-01

    Major changes are currently afoot as to how practical work will be assessed in high status examinations (GCSEs for 16 year-olds and ‘A’ levels for 18 year-olds) in England. We explore here how practical skills might best be assessed in school science and introduce two terms: direct assessment of practical skills (DAPS) and indirect assessment of practical skills (IAPS). We conclude that both the direct and indirect assessment of practical skills have their place in effective assessment of sch...

  17. Radiological endpoints relevant to ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the potential risk from radiation due to the releases of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities, considerable research was performed to determine for humans the levels of dose received, their responses to the doses and mechanisms of action of radioactivity on living matter. More recently, there is an increased interest in the effects of radioactivity on non-human species. There are differences in approach between risk assessment for humans and ecosystems. For protection of humans, the focus is the individual and the endpoint of primary concern is cancer induction. For protection of ecosystems, the focus is on population stability and the endpoint of concern is reproductive success for organisms important ecologically and economically. For these organisms, information is needed on their responses to irradiation and the potential impact of the doses absorbed on their reproductive success. Considerable information is available on the effects of radiation on organisms from different phyla and types of ecosystems. Databases useful for assessing risk from exposures of populations to radioactivity are the effects of irradiation on mortality, fertility and sterility, the latter two of which are important components of reproductive success. Data on radiation effects on mortality are available both from acute and chronic irradiation. In relation to radiation effects, reproductive success for a given population is related to a number of characteristics of the species, including inherent radiosensitivity of reproductive tissues and early life stages, processes occurring during gametogenesis, reproductive strategy and exposure history. The available data on acute and chronic radiation doses is reviewed for invertebrates, fishes and mammals. The information reviewed indicates that wide ranges in responses with species can be expected. Parameters that most likely contribute to inherent radiosensitivity are discussed. (author)

  18. Rationalising prescribing: Evidence, marketing and practice-relevant knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadmann, Sarah; Bang, Lia E

    2015-06-01

    Initiatives in the name of 'rational pharmacotherapy' have been launched to alter what is seen as 'inappropriate' prescribing practices of physicians. Based on observations and interviews with 20 general practitioners (GPs) in 2009-2011, we explored how attempts to rationalise prescribing interact with chronic care management in Denmark. We demonstrate how attempts to rationalise prescribing by informing GPs about drug effects, adverse effects and price do not satisfy GPs' knowledge needs. We argue that, for GPs, 'rational' prescribing cannot be understood in separation from the processes that enable patients to use medication. Therefore, GPs do much more to obtain knowledge about medications than seek advice on 'rational pharmacotherapy'. For instance, GPs also seek opportunities to acquaint themselves with the material objects of medication and medical devices. We conceptualise the knowledge needs of GPs as a need for practice-relevant knowledge and argue that industry sales representatives are granted opportunity to access general practice because they understand this need of GPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. Copyright © 2013

  20. Contemporary cosmetic surgery: the potential risks and relevance for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2011-07-01

    To examine and critique the risks of cosmetic surgery and consider implications for practice. Cosmetic surgery is a growing industry with a significant global phenomenon. Feminists have been critical of aesthetic surgery practice, offering a range of representations in regard to 'identity', 'normality', 'cultural and social pressures', 'agency' and 'self-enhancement'. Discourses around minimising risk information acknowledge deficits in not supplying patients with full risk information. The results are usually devastating and lead to serious health complications that incisively diminish well-being for patients and increase health costs. Critical review. This paper represents a critical review of risks associated with cosmetic surgery. A Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (Medline) and British Nursing Index (BNI) search with relevant key words were undertaken and selected exemplary articles and research describing and/or evaluating cosmetic surgery risk. Only papers in the English language from 1982-2009 were reviewed. The papers examined were mainly empirical studies; some opinion papers, policy documents, textbooks and websites were examined too. The literature revealed that several factors influence consumer risks including regulation vagaries, medicalisation processes, fear of ageing discrimination, wanting to avoid ethnic prejudice and media pressure. Government strategies in the United Kingdom (UK) have attempted to improve clinical standards; however, little attempt has been made globally to raise institutional and professional awareness of the huge impact of cultural and social pressures on consumers. Avoiding shattering complications by improving the provision of risk information for patients is a worthwhile goal. Therefore, health professionals need to consider consumer rights and autonomy more carefully, facilitate rigorous screening and develop knowledge in regard to

  1. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  2. Assessing the scientific relevance of a single publication over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp A. Bloching

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively assessing the scientific relevance of a research paper is challenging for two reasons. Firstly, scientific relevance may change over time, and secondly, it is unclear how to evaluate a recently published paper. The temporally averaged paper-specific impact factor is defined as the yearly average of citations to the paper until now including bonus citations equal to the journal impact factor in the publication year. This new measure subsequently allows relevance rankings and annual updates of all (i.e. both recent and older scientific papers of a department, or even a whole scientific field, on a more objective basis. It can also be used to assess both the average and overall time-dependent scientific relevance of researchers in a specific department or scientific field.

  3. English Teachers Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman; Balinas, Elvira S.

    2016-01-01

    The new language assessment policies in the Philippines and in Indonesia have impact on English teachers' assessment practices. Classroom assessment; as mandated in the current curriculum of both countries swifts from sources of information to the inseparable process of teaching and learning. This study describes Filipino and Indonesian high…

  4. Practical Relevance of Experiments in Comprehensibility of Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) community has become increasingly aware of the importance of carrying out industry-relevant research. Researchers and practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of their empirical research to increase the likely adoption of RE methods in

  5. Electrocardiogram interpretation in general practice: relevance to prehospital thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, W A; Saltissi, S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess, in the context of their possible role in prehospital thrombolysis, the ability of general practitioners to recognise acute transmural myocardial ischaemia/infarction on an electrocardiogram. DESIGN--150 doctors (every fifth name) were selected from the alphabetical list of 750 on Merseyside general practitioner register and without prior warning were asked to interpret a series of six 12 lead electrocardiograms. Three of these showed acute transmural ischaemia/infarction, one was normal, and two showed non-acute abnormalities. Details of doctors' ages, postgraduate training, and clinical practice were sought. SETTING--General practitioners' surgeries and postgraduate centres within the Merseyside area. PARTICIPANTS--106 general practitioners (mean age 45 years) agreed to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Accuracy of general practitioners' interpretations of the six electrocardiograms. RESULTS--82% of general practitioners correctly recognised a normal electrocardiogram. Recognition of acute abnormalities was less reliable. Between 33% and 61% correctly identified acute transmural ischaemia/infarction depending on the specific trace presented. Accurate localisation of the site of the infarct was achieved only by between 8% and 30% of participants, while between 22% and 25% correctly interpreted non-acute abnormalities. Neither routine use of electrocardiography nor postgraduate hospital experience in general medicine was associated with significantly greater expertise. CONCLUSION--The current level of proficiency of a sample of general practitioners in the Merseyside area in recognising acute transmural ischaemia/infarction on an electrocardiogram suggests that refresher training is needed if general practitioners are to give prehospital thrombolysis. Images PMID:8398491

  6. Information sharing during diagnostic assessments: what is relevant for parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie

    2011-05-01

    ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.

  7. Advancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this editorial to inform both readers and potential authors, the editor provides a few details relevant to the School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) including: the mission, contemporary context, the new emphases of SPQ, the editorial board, and advice for authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Relevance of Academic Research in OSCM Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Wiliam D.; Vang, David O.; Lundsten, Lorman L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the relevance of academic research for operations and supply chain management (OSCM) professionals. Members of a major metropolitan APICS chapter were surveyed. Consistent with prior research, findings indicate that OSCM practitioners prefer trade journal articles to academic research. Nonetheless, respondents indicate interest…

  9. Relevance of motion-related assessment metrics in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Rodrigues, Sharon P; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-06-01

    Motion metrics have become an important source of information when addressing the assessment of surgical expertise. However, their direct relationship with the different surgical skills has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of motion-related metrics in the evaluation processes of basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills and their correlation with the different abilities sought to measure. A framework for task definition and metric analysis is proposed. An explorative survey was first conducted with a board of experts to identify metrics to assess basic psychomotor skills. Based on the output of that survey, 3 novel tasks for surgical assessment were designed. Face and construct validation was performed, with focus on motion-related metrics. Tasks were performed by 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts). Movements of the laparoscopic instruments were registered with the TrEndo tracking system and analyzed. Time, path length, and depth showed construct validity for all 3 tasks. Motion smoothness and idle time also showed validity for tasks involving bimanual coordination and tasks requiring a more tactical approach, respectively. Additionally, motion smoothness and average speed showed a high internal consistency, proving them to be the most task-independent of all the metrics analyzed. Motion metrics are complementary and valid for assessing basic psychomotor skills, and their relevance depends on the skill being evaluated. A larger clinical implementation, combined with quality performance information, will give more insight on the relevance of the results shown in this study.

  10. Research philosophy in pharmacy practice: necessity and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winit-Watjana, Win

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacy practice has gradually evolved with the paradigm shifted towards patient-focused practice or medicines optimisation. The advancement of pharmacy-related research has contributed to this progression, but the philosophy of research remained unexplored. This review was thus aimed to outline the succinct concept of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Research philosophy has been introduced to offer an alternative way to think about problem-driven research that is normally conducted. To clarify the research philosophy, four research paradigms, i.e. positivism (or empiricism), postpositivism (or realism), interpretivism (or constructivism) and pragmatism, are investigated according to philosophical realms, i.e. ontology, epistemology, axiology and logic of inquiry. With the application of research philosophy, some examples of quantitative and qualitative research were elaborated along with the conventional research approach. Understanding research philosophy is crucial for pharmacy researchers and pharmacists, as it underpins the choice of methodology and data collection. The review provides the overview of research philosophy and its application in pharmacy practice research. Further discussion on this vital issue is warranted to help generate quality evidence for pharmacy practice. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Professional Learning in Higher Education: Making Good Practice Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeannie

    2017-01-01

    Professionals working in a range of contexts are increasingly expected to engage in ongoing professional learning to maintain their skills and develop their practices. In this paper, I focus on professional learning in Higher Education and challenge the standardisation of professional learning that is becoming prevalent in a number of countries. I…

  12. Competence in chronic mental illness: the relevance of practical wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdershoven, Guy A M; Ruissen, Andrea; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Meynen, Gerben

    2017-06-01

    The concept of competence is central to healthcare because informed consent can only be obtained from a competent patient. The standard approach to competence focuses on cognitive abilities. Several authors have challenged this approach by emphasising the role of emotions and values. Combining cognition, emotion and values, we suggest an approach which is based on the notion of practical wisdom. This focuses on knowledge and on determining what is important in a specific situation and finding a balance between various values, which are enacted in an individual's personal life. Our approach is illustrated by two cases of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. [work motivation -- assessment instruments and their relevance for medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Rolf G; Ranft, Andreas; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2005-11-01

    The relevance of work motivation for medical research and healthcare, in particular rehabilitation, is described. Four diagnostic instruments in the German language are introduced which can assess work motivation using a scale system: AVEM, JDS, LMI and FBTM. Their possible application and potential usage for the clinical area are discussed. Apart from the FBTM, none of these instruments can be directly used as a general instrument in a normal medical clinical setting. Finally, a current model for work motivation (compensatory model of work motivation and volition) is presented that contains basis concepts, which are judged as important for future research questions concerning the development of motivation diagnostic instruments.

  14. Nocebo phenomena in medicine: their relevance in everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Hansen, Ernil; Enck, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Nocebo phenomena are common in clinical practice and have recently become a popular topic of research and discussion among basic scientists, clinicians, and ethicists. We selectively searched the PubMed database for articles published up to December 2011 that contained the key words "nocebo" or "nocebo effect." By definition, a nocebo effect is the induction of a symptom perceived as negative by sham treatment and/or by the suggestion of negative expectations. A nocebo response is a negative symptom induced by the patient's own negative expectations and/or by negative suggestions from clinical staff in the absence of any treatment. The underlying mechanisms include learning by Pavlovian conditioning and reaction to expectations induced by verbal information or suggestion. Nocebo responses may come about through unintentional negative suggestion on the part of physicians and nurses. Information about possible complications and negative expectations on the patient's part increases the likelihood of adverse effects. Adverse events under treatment with medications sometimes come about by a nocebo effect. Physicians face an ethical dilemma, as they are required not just to inform patients of the potential complications of treatment, but also to minimize the likelihood of these complications, i.e., to avoid inducing them through the potential nocebo effect of thorough patient information. Possible ways out of the dilemma include emphasizing the fact that the proposed treatment is usually well tolerated, or else getting the patient's permission to inform less than fully about its possible side effects. Communication training in medical school, residency training, and continuing medical education would be desirable so that physicians can better exploit the power of words to patients' benefit, rather than their detriment.

  15. A practical approach to programmatic assessment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of complex tasks integrating several competencies calls for a programmatic design approach. As single instruments do not provide the information required to reach a robust judgment of integral performance, 73 guidelines for programmatic assessment design were developed. When simultaneously applying these interrelated guidelines, it is challenging to keep a clear overview of all assessment activities. The goal of this study was to provide practical support for applying a programmatic approach to assessment design, not bound to any specific educational paradigm. The guidelines were first applied in a postgraduate medical training setting, and a process analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of four steps for programmatic assessment design: evaluation, contextualisation, prioritisation and justification. Firstly, the (re)design process starts with sufficiently detailing the assessment environment and formulating the principal purpose. Key stakeholders with sufficient (assessment) expertise need to be involved in the analysis of strengths and weaknesses and identification of developmental needs. Central governance is essential to balance efforts and stakes with the principal purpose and decide on prioritisation of design decisions and selection of relevant guidelines. Finally, justification of assessment design decisions, quality assurance and external accountability close the loop, to ensure sound underpinning and continuous improvement of the assessment programme.

  16. Bone markers during acute burn care: Relevance to clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2017-02-01

    Bone changes are increasingly described after burn. How bone markers could help to detect early bone changes or to screen burn patients at higher risk of demineralization is still not made clear. We performed an observational study assessing the changes in serum bone markers after moderate burn. Adults admitted in the first 24h following burn extended on >10% body surface area were included. Serum levels of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP), type 1 procollagen N-terminal (P1NP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) were measured at admission and every week during the first month. Data are expressed as median [min-max]. Bone markers were measured in 20 patients: 18 men, 2 women (including one post-menopausal). Age was 46 [19-86] years old, burn surface area reached 15 [7-85] %. Twelve patients completed the study. All biomarkers mainly remained into normal ranges during evolution. A huge variability was observed regarding biomarkers evolution. Patient's evolution was not linear and could fluctuate from a decrease to an increase of blood concentrations. There was not necessarily a consistency between the two formation or the two resorption markers. Variations observed between two consecutive measurements were lesser than the accepted critical difference in almost one third of the cases. Considering available data, role and interest of bone markers in management of burn related bone disease remain unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Assessment of Vocabulary and Relevant Language Skills for Evaluation Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Learner self-assessment of linguistic performance has been lately used due to its potential to activate the process of learning. Self-assessment raises learner awareness of language use and leads to developing learner responsibility and autonomy. However, usefulness of self-assessment for evaluation purposes has been scarcely researched. This paper examines some aspects of learners’ self-assessment for evaluation purposes at tertiary level. Research focuses on self-assessment of English for Specific Purposes (ESP vocabulary and some language skills relevant for vocabulary retention. Data on learner self-assessment are compared to actual results in tests. The analysis provided points to importance of self-evaluation in language acquisition and suggests practical implications of self-assessment for evaluation.

  18. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  19. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities

  20. The relevance of the Goudge inquiry to the practice of child protection/forensic paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

    2014-10-01

    In 2008 Ontario, Canada the Goudge Inquiry arose following increasing concerns about practices surrounding forensic pathology and the investigation of paediatric deaths. Some of the considerations and recommendations have relevance to child protection/forensic paediatricians, particularly in relation to their responsibilities in opinion formulation and as expert witnesses. By examining the Inquiry recommendations, this paper applies them in relation to child protection/forensic paediatrics by discussing forensic medicine and its legal context, how interpretation of published reports and data should be used in opinion formulation; issues of 'diagnosis' versus 'opinion'; issues specific to child protection paediatrics; quality control; aspects of report writing and terminological considerations. It concludes with an adaptation of key recommendations directly from those of Goudge, applied to the context of paediatric forensic medicine undertaken in child protection assessments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT: BEST PRACTICES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena VELCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current changing environment of work, the process of competence assessment is increasingly relevant as workers gain knowledge and practical skills through fulfilling different and new working tasks and through self-education. In this context, innovative tools for competence assessment and validation are very useful for encouraging movement of individuals between jobs and from unemployment or inactivity to employment and for increasing the capacity of companies to respond and adapt to changing and challenging environments. This article presents an overview of best practices for competence assessment and validation in order to identify and select methods that have been effective in various European countries including Romania. The article concludes with a set of „learned lessons” and short recommendations in order to improve the framework of competence assessment in Romanian context. Our findings are useful for the new human resources management that aims toward efficiently usage of the workforce, inside companies and in a global labour market, encouraging flexibility and adaptability.

  2. Developing predictive systems models to address complexity and relevance for ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Calow, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Ecological risk assessments (ERAs) are not used as well as they could be in risk management. Part of the problem is that they often lack ecological relevance; that is, they fail to grasp necessary ecological complexities. Adding realism and complexity can be difficult and costly. We argue that predictive systems models (PSMs) can provide a way of capturing complexity and ecological relevance cost-effectively. However, addressing complexity and ecological relevance is only part of the problem. Ecological risk assessments often fail to meet the needs of risk managers by not providing assessments that relate to protection goals and by expressing risk in ratios that cannot be weighed against the costs of interventions. Once more, PSMs can be designed to provide outputs in terms of value-relevant effects that are modulated against exposure and that can provide a better basis for decision making than arbitrary ratios or threshold values. Recent developments in the modeling and its potential for implementation by risk assessors and risk managers are beginning to demonstrate how PSMs can be practically applied in risk assessment and the advantages that doing so could have. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Practicality of intraoperative teamwork assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil

    2014-07-01

    High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician

  4. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 6: how to assess relevance of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Lewin, Simon; Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire; Colvin, Christopher J; Garside, Ruth; Bohren, Meghan A; Rashidian, Arash; Wainwright, Megan; Tunςalp, Özge; Chandler, Jacqueline; Flottorp, Signe; Pantoja, Tomas; Tucker, Joseph D; Munthe-Kaas, Heather

    2018-01-25

    The GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach has been developed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Working Group. The approach has been developed to support the use of findings from qualitative evidence syntheses in decision-making, including guideline development and policy formulation. CERQual includes four components for assessing how much confidence to place in findings from reviews of qualitative research (also referred to as qualitative evidence syntheses): (1) methodological limitations, (2) coherence, (3) adequacy of data and (4) relevance. This paper is part of a series providing guidance on how to apply CERQual and focuses on CERQual's relevance component. We developed the relevance component by searching the literature for definitions, gathering feedback from relevant research communities and developing consensus through project group meetings. We tested the CERQual relevance component within several qualitative evidence syntheses before agreeing on the current definition and principles for application. When applying CERQual, we define relevance as the extent to which the body of data from the primary studies supporting a review finding is applicable to the context (perspective or population, phenomenon of interest, setting) specified in the review question. In this paper, we describe the relevance component and its rationale and offer guidance on how to assess relevance in the context of a review finding. This guidance outlines the information required to assess relevance, the steps that need to be taken to assess relevance and examples of relevance assessments. This paper provides guidance for review authors and others on undertaking an assessment of relevance in the context of the CERQual approach. Assessing the relevance component requires consideration of potentially important contextual factors at an early stage in the review process. We expect the CERQual

  5. Assessment: Examining Practice in Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, Luke; Edwards, Corina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop knowledge about the nature of student assessment practice in entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces general assessment practice issues and highlights key considerations. It explains prior research on assessment practice in entrepreneurship education and argues…

  6. Drawing students' attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., Sluijsmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13636820.2011.630537

  7. Relevance of Geriatric Assessment in Older Patients With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Lore; Vanacker, Leen; Kenis, Cindy; Prenen, Hans; Van Cutsem, Erik; Van Der Auwera, Jacques; Van Eetvelde, Ellen; Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Flamaing, Johan; Milisen, Koen; Lobelle, Jean Pierre; De Grève, Jacques; Wildiers, Hans

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the relevance of geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to study functional status (FS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity during treatment. Patients with CRC aged ≥ 70 years were evaluated at baseline using a GA. Results were communicated to the treating physician. At 2 to 3 months follow-up, FS was reassessed, and chemotherapy-related toxicity was recorded. A total of 193 patients, with a median age of 77 years, were included. GA was abnormal in 75% and revealed unknown problems in 40%. Treatment was altered in 37% based on clinical assessment. GA led to geriatric interventions in 9 patients (5%) and additionally influenced treatment in 1 patient. At follow-up (n = 164), functional decline was observed in 29 patients (18%) for activities of daily living (ADL) and in 60 patients (37%) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Baseline IADL, depression, fatigue, and cognition were predictors for ADL decline, whereas no predictors for IADL decline could be identified. In the 109 patients receiving chemotherapy, stage and baseline fatigue were predictive for grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity, and baseline ADL, fatigue, and nutrition were predictive for grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicity. Although GA identified previously unknown problems in more than one-third of older CRC patients, the impact on interventions or treatment decisions was limited. Baseline GA parameters may predict functional decline and chemotherapy-related toxicity. Education of physicians treating older patients with CRC is an essential step in the implementation of GA and subsequent interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  9. Relevant dimensions for proactive environmental assessment of urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alberto Soria Lara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of negative environmental impacts in urban transportation (air pollution, energy consumption, etc. is thought to be crucial in promoting sustainable development outcomes in cities, however evidence shows that this objective is hardly achieved in practice. In the case of urban transport planning, the transition to sustainability requests that its performance must be assessed. This has originated important challenges for the academia in providing efficient assessment tools. As a response to these challenges, sustainability assessment has become a rapidly developing area associated with the family of impact assessment tools ((e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment. In recent years, many countries have conferred to sustainability assessment, and specifically to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, an important and decisive role into their planning systems. The effectiveness of the traditional methods for evaluating urban transport plans/interventions (e.g. EIA, EAE, Cost-Benefit Analysis is contested as strongly argued by several academics. A key problem is that these methods currently focus too much on identifying environmental impacts that might happen rather than on finding ways of preventing them from happening. They are used reactively rather than proactively. Underlying this is the belief that traditional evaluation methods have difficulty guiding improvements in urban transport plans and projects in decision-making and their capacity to support technical decisions becomes limited. First, this is a consequence of the fact that the environmental assessment (EA process mainly includes EA-makers and they are not integrated enough in the transport planning process. Second, the used methods not always are the most suitable to identify ways of preventing potential impacts with respect to the particular nature of urban transportation. In seeking to answer these problems, the paper presents a strategy

  10. assessing the relevance of academic research productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DGS-FUTO

    2018-06-01

    Jun 1, 2018 ... research process relevant to their future development. ... value the opportunity to work with academics in a one- to- one relationship while ... professional researchers that are publicized in scholarly journals are perceived to be.

  11. Online drug databases: a new method to assess and compare inclusion of clinically relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina; Fresco, Paula; Monteiro, Joaquim; Rama, Ana Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Evidence-Based Practice requires health care decisions to be based on the best available evidence. The model "Information Mastery" proposes that clinicians should use sources of information that have previously evaluated relevance and validity, provided at the point of care. Drug databases (DB) allow easy and fast access to information and have the benefit of more frequent content updates. Relevant information, in the context of drug therapy, is that which supports safe and effective use of medicines. Accordingly, the European Guideline on the Summary of Product Characteristics (EG-SmPC) was used as a standard to evaluate the inclusion of relevant information contents in DB. To develop and test a method to evaluate relevancy of DB contents, by assessing the inclusion of information items deemed relevant for effective and safe drug use. Hierarchical organisation and selection of the principles defined in the EGSmPC; definition of criteria to assess inclusion of selected information items; creation of a categorisation and quantification system that allows score calculation; calculation of relative differences (RD) of scores for comparison with an "ideal" database, defined as the one that achieves the best quantification possible for each of the information items; pilot test on a sample of 9 drug databases, using 10 drugs frequently associated in literature with morbidity-mortality and also being widely consumed in Portugal. Main outcome measure Calculate individual and global scores for clinically relevant information items of drug monographs in databases, using the categorisation and quantification system created. A--Method development: selection of sections, subsections, relevant information items and corresponding requisites; system to categorise and quantify their inclusion; score and RD calculation procedure. B--Pilot test: calculated scores for the 9 databases; globally, all databases evaluated significantly differed from the "ideal" database; some DB performed

  12. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  13. Nutrition in Medicine: Medical Students׳ Satisfaction, Perceived Relevance and Preparedness for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mogre

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: Students were dissatisfied with their current education in nutrition, felt inadequately prepared to provide nutrition care and considered nutrition education to be highly relevant to their future practice. The findings of this study provide additional evidence that suggests changes in the current format and content of nutrition education in medical education.

  14. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Assessment Practices in Undergraduate Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusher, Anna L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined accounting program assessment plans at 102 colleges and universities in the United States. The research focused on identifying assessment practices in undergraduate accounting programs by examining the skills and competencies assessed and determining the methods of assessment used. The study also investigated what course and/or…

  16. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  17. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors.

  18. Occupational Therapists’ Perceived Relevance of Nussbaum’s Central Capabilities to Client-centered Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Mousavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Client-centered practice is highly valued in occupational therapy. Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach focuses on the individual person and functional autonomy by encompassing 10 functional capabilities that could provide a framework for the systematic implementation of client-centered care. Method: To explore the perceived relevance of Nussbaum’s 10 capabilities with respect to client-centered practice, semi-structured interviews with 14 occupational therapists in British Columbia, Canada, were conducted and thematically analyzed. Results: Nussbaum’s Central Human Functional Capabilities approach provides a broad perspective, encompassing the range of settings of occupational therapy practice. Nussbaum’s 10 capabilities were viewed as being particularly aligned with the established tenets of client-centered practice. Conclusion: Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach has several compelling attributes for consideration by occupational therapists that warrant further exploration as a novel basis for systematically implementing client-centered care.

  19. The relevance of diatoms for water quality assessment in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment protocols based on the use of diatoms are now well developed and their value substantiated at an international level. The use of diatoms is not designed or intended to be a “rapid” technology. The detailed level of information generated from the procedure outweighs perceived disadvantages of ...

  20. Human tibial torsion - Morphometric assessment and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gandhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial torsion is an important anatomical parameter in clinical practice and displays variability among individuals. These variations are extremely significant in view of alignment guides such as those related to rotational landmarks of tibia in total knee arthroplasty. Further, precise knowledge and information pertaining to angle of tibial torsion also helps in correction of traumatic malunion or congenital maltorsion of tibia. Methods: The present study was carried out to determine the angle of tibial torsion in 100 adult dry tibia bones in the Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Amritsar. The study group comprised 50 males and 50 females with equal number of right- and left-sided bones. The measurements were meticulously recorded and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The results were analyzed and discussed in the light of existing literature. Results: On the right side, it was found to be 29.84° ± 4.86°° (range = 22.00° -38.00° in males and 28.92° ± 5.10°° (range = 15.00°-38.00° in females. On the left side, it was found to be 28.00° ± 4.94°° (range = 20.00°-40.00°° in males and 28.12° ± 4.28°° (range = 20.00°-37.00°° in females. Conclusion: The present study is an endeavor to provide baseline data with reference to the angle of tibial torsion in the Indian population. The results of the study assume special importance in view of the technical advancements in reconstructive surgical procedures in orthopedic practice.

  1. Improving the relevance and efficiency of human exposure assessments within the process of regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Chris

    2018-01-24

    The process for undertaking exposure assessments varies dependent on its purpose. But for exposure assessments to be relevant and accurate, they are reliant on access to reliable information on key exposure determinants. Acquiring such information is seldom straightforward and can take significant time and resources. This articles examines how the application of tiered and targeted approaches to information acquisition, within the context of European human health risk assessments, can not only lead to improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of the process but also in the confidence of stakeholders in its outputs. The article explores how the benefits might be further improved through the coordination of such activities, as well as those areas that represent barriers to wider international harmonisation.

  2. A Pareto analysis approach to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprint for petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani, Nejad M. Alireza, E-mail: alireza.tehraninejad@gmail.com

    2015-07-15

    Recently, linear programing (LP) models have been extended to track the marginal CO{sub 2} intensity of automotive fuels at the refinery gate. The obtained CO{sub 2} data are recommended for policy making because they capture the economic and environmental tensions as well as the processing effects related to oil products. However, they are proven to be extremely sensitive to small perturbations and therefore useless in practice. In this paper, we first investigate the theoretical reasons of this drawback. Then, we develop a multiple objective LP framework to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprints that preserve both defensibility and stability at a satisfactory level of acceptance. A case study illustrates this new methodology. - Highlights: • Refining LP models have limitations to provide useful marginal CO{sub 2} footprints. • A multi objective optimization framework is developed to assess relevant CO{sub 2} data. • Within a European Refinig industry, diesel is more CO{sub 2} intensive than gasoline.

  3. Increasing clinical relevance in oral radiology: Benefits and challenges when implementing digital assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, T; Møystad, A; Torgersen, G R

    2018-02-13

    The aims of the study were to investigate benefits and challenges in implementing a digital examination and study the clinical relevance of the digital examination in relation to clinical training and practice. The study was based on semi-structured focus-group interviews from two distinct student populations (2016 and 2017) in a bachelor programme in dental hygiene. In addition, conversational data from a plenary discussion from the whole second student population (2017) were collected and analysed. The data were approached on basis of content analysis. A benefit experienced in the digital examination was the ease in typing and editing answers on the computer. This suggests an increased effectiveness in computer-based compared to analogue examinations. An additional advantage was the experienced relevance of the examination related to the clinic. This finding refers not only to the digital presentations of images, but also to the entire setting in the clinic and dental practice. The limitations reported by the students were non-optimal viewing conditions for presenting radiographic images and difficulties in obtaining an overview of the assignments compared to paper-based examinations due to the linear digital examination format. The last finding on lacking overview revealed an influence on student performances which should be taken seriously in designing digital examinations. In conclusion, the digital layout increases efficiency and clinical relevance of examinations to a certain extent. Obstacles were found in limitations related to image presentation and lack of overview of the examination. The latter challenge raises questions related to developing suitable assessment software. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 12 CFR 263.62 - Relevant considerations for assessment of civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relevant considerations for assessment of civil... Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 263.62 Relevant considerations for assessment of civil penalty. In... the penalty with respect to the financial resources and good faith of the person charged, the gravity...

  5. A practical approach to competency assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claflin, N

    1997-01-01

    Assessing clinical performance is difficult. Members of the Nursing Service Clinical Practice Committee at the Carl T. Hayden Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Phoenix developed a comprehensive program of competency assessment based on performance measures. This article describes the committee's process of developing and implementing the program and includes a blueprint for competency assessment and selected performance measures for all nursing staff who provide patient care. The approach to competency assessment includes performance measures specific to patients' ages.

  6. The relevance of personality assessment in patients with hyperventilation symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; Boone, Eva; De Fruyt, Filip

    2012-05-01

    Relatively few data are available concerning the relations between hyperventilation symptoms and general personality traits in clinical populations. A clear picture of the personality traits associated with hyperventilation symptoms could enhance early detection of those individuals who are at risk for developing hyperventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of general personality in hyperventilation syndrome. Patients (N = 364) with symptoms not explained by an organic disease and supposedly caused by hyperventilation completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire--12, and the Nijmegen Questionnaire. Patients were also subjected to a hyperventilation provocation test and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)) values were registered. The results showed that patients with hyperventilation obtained mean Neuroticism scores above the normative mean. Moreover, only Neuroticism was positively linked with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and personality traits were more strongly related to self-reported complaints than to objective physical information. Neuroticism clearly differentiated between different diagnostic groups on the basis of Nijmegen Questionnaire and TcPCO(2) values, and an additional small effect of Agreeableness was observed. The present study contributes to the evidence that Neuroticism is strongly associated with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and provides substantial evidence that Neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in the development of hyperventilation. Therefore, personality assessment may be helpful in advancing the understanding and the early detection of hyperventilation symptoms.

  7. Assessment and treatment relevance in elderly glioblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchet, Luc; Zouaoui, Sonia; Darlix, Amélie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Ferreira, Ernestine; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc

    2014-11-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Its incidence continues to increase in the elderly because the older segment of the population is growing faster than any other age group. Most clinical studies exclude elderly patients, and "standards of care" do not exist for GBM patients aged >70 years. We review epidemiology, tumor biology/molecular factors, prognostic factors (clinical, imaging data, therapeutics), and their assessments as well as classic and specific endpoints plus recent and ongoing clinical trials for elderly GBM patients. This work includes perspectives and personal opinions on this topic. Although there are no standards of care for elderly GBM patients, we can hypothesize that (i) Karnofsky performance status (KPS), probably after steroid treatment, is one of the most important clinical factors for determining our oncological strategy; (ii) resection is superior to biopsy, at least in selected patients (depending on location of the tumor and associated comorbidities); (iii) specific schedules of radiotherapy yield a modest but significant improvement; (iv) temozolomide has an acceptable tolerance, even when KPS life and toxicity measures) will aid clinicians in determining the balance of potential benefits and risks of each oncological strategy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Environmental risk assessment of biocidal products: identification of relevant components and reliability of a component-based mixture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Vollmar, Pia; Heim, Jennifer; Sacher, Frank; Kehrer, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Biocidal products are mixtures of one or more active substances (a.s.) and a broad range of formulation additives. There is regulatory guidance currently under development that will specify how the combined effects of the a.s. and any relevant formulation additives shall be considered in the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products. The default option is a component-based approach (CBA) by which the toxicity of the product is predicted from the toxicity of 'relevant' components using concentration addition. Hence, unequivocal and practicable criteria are required for identifying the 'relevant' components to ensure protectiveness of the CBA, while avoiding unnecessary workload resulting from including by default components that do not significantly contribute to the product toxicity. The present study evaluated a set of different criteria for identifying 'relevant' components using confidential information on the composition of 21 wood preservative products. Theoretical approaches were complemented by experimentally testing the aquatic toxicity of seven selected products. For three of the seven tested products, the toxicity was underestimated for the most sensitive endpoint (green algae) by more than factor 2 if only the a.s. were considered in the CBA. This illustrated the necessity of including at least some additives along with the a.s. Considering additives that were deemed 'relevant' by the tentatively established criteria reduced the underestimation of toxicity for two of the three products. A lack of data for one specific additive was identified as the most likely reason for the remaining toxicity underestimation of the third product. In three other products, toxicity was overestimated by more than factor 2, while prediction and observation fitted well for the seventh product. Considering all additives in the prediction increased only the degree of overestimation. Supported by theoretical calculations and experimental verifications, the present

  9. Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger Bertolus, Julie; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sullivan, Regina M

    2016-10-01

    As altricial infants gradually transition to adults, their proximate environment changes. In three short weeks, pups transition from a small world with the caregiver and siblings to a complex milieu rich in dangers as their environment expands. Such contrasting environments require different learning abilities and lead to distinct responses throughout development. Here, we will review some of the learned fear conditioned responses to threats in rats during their ontogeny, including behavioral and physiological measures that permit the assessment of learning and its supporting neurobiology from infancy through adulthood. In adulthood, odor-shock conditioning produces robust fear learning to the odor that depends upon the amygdala and related circuitry. Paradoxically, this conditioning in young pups fails to support fear learning and supports approach learning to the odor previously paired with shock. This approach learning is mediated by the infant attachment network that does not include the amygdala. During the age range when pups transition from the infant to the adult circuit (10-15 d old), pups have access to both networks: odor-shock conditioning in maternal presence uses the attachment circuit but the adult amygdala-dependent circuit when alone. However, throughout development (as young as 5 d old) the attachment associated learning can be overridden and amygdala-dependent fear learning supported, if the mother expresses fear in the presence of the pup. This social modulation of the fear permits the expression of defense reactions in life threatening situations informed by the caregiver but prevents the learning of the caregiver itself as a threat. © 2016 Boulanger Bertolus et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    As altricial infants gradually transition to adults, their proximate environment changes. In three short weeks, pups transition from a small world with the caregiver and siblings to a complex milieu rich in dangers as their environment expands. Such contrasting environments require different learning abilities and lead to distinct responses throughout development. Here, we will review some of the learned fear conditioned responses to threats in rats during their ontogeny, including behavioral and physiological measures that permit the assessment of learning and its supporting neurobiology from infancy through adulthood. In adulthood, odor–shock conditioning produces robust fear learning to the odor that depends upon the amygdala and related circuitry. Paradoxically, this conditioning in young pups fails to support fear learning and supports approach learning to the odor previously paired with shock. This approach learning is mediated by the infant attachment network that does not include the amygdala. During the age range when pups transition from the infant to the adult circuit (10–15 d old), pups have access to both networks: odor–shock conditioning in maternal presence uses the attachment circuit but the adult amygdala-dependent circuit when alone. However, throughout development (as young as 5 d old) the attachment associated learning can be overridden and amygdala-dependent fear learning supported, if the mother expresses fear in the presence of the pup. This social modulation of the fear permits the expression of defense reactions in life threatening situations informed by the caregiver but prevents the learning of the caregiver itself as a threat. PMID:27634146

  11. Refining lecturers' assessment practices through formal professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Higher Education Quality Committee's emphasis on the assessment of student learning in its criteria for institutional audits (June 2004) signals that institutional arrangements to ensure quality assessment practices are to come under the spotlight. One means to demonstrate institutional commitment to quality in ...

  12. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M., Ed.; Schafer, William D., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of articles 23 through 26 published in the electronic journal "Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation" in 2001: (23) "Effects of Removing the Time Limit on First and Second Language Intelligence Test Performance" (Jennifer Mullane and Stuart J. McKelvie); (24) "Consequences of (Mis)use of the Texas Assessment of…

  13. Importance of Practical Relevance and Design Modules in Electrical Circuits Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpathy Sundaram

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The interactive technical electronic book, TechEBook, currently under development at the University of Central Florida (UCF, provides a useful tool for engineers and scientists through unique features compared to the most used traditional electrical circuit textbooks available in the market. TechEBook has comprised the two worlds of classical circuit books and an interactive operating platform such as iPads, laptops and desktops utilizing Java Virtual Machine operator. The TechEBook provides an interactive applets screen that holds many modules, in which each had a specific application in the self learning process. This paper describes two of the interactive techniques in the TechEBook known as, Practical Relevance Modules (PRM and Design Modules (DM. The Practical Relevance Module will assist the readers to learn electrical circuit analysis and to understand the practical application of the electrical network theory through solving real world examples and problems. The Design Module will help students design real-life problems. These modules will be displayed after each section in the TechEBook for the user to relate his/her understanding with the outside world, which introduces the term me-applying and me-designing, as a comprehensive full experience for self or individualized education. The main emphasis of this paper is the PRM while the DM will be discussed in brief. A practical example of applying the PRM and DM features is discussed as part of a basic electrical engineering course currently given at UCF and results show improved student performances in learning materials in Electrical Circuits. In the future, such modules can be redesigned to become highly interactive with illustrated animations.

  14. A Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Interventions Relevant to Orthoptic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Elliott, Sue; Gordon, Iris; Shah, Anupa

    2017-09-01

    To present an overview of the range of systematic reviews on intervention trials pertinent to orthoptic practice, produced by the Cochrane Eyes and Vision group (CEV). We searched the 2016 Cochrane Library database (31.03.2016) to identify completed reviews and protocols of direct relevance to orthoptic practice. These reviews are currently completed and published, available on www.thecochranelibrary.com (free to UK health employees) or via the CEV website (http://eyes.cochrane.org/) . We found 27 completed CEV reviews across the topics of strabismus, amblyopia, refractive errors, and low vision. Seven completed CEV protocols addressed topics of strabismus, amblyopia, refractive errors, low vision, and screening. We found 3 completed Cochrane Stroke reviews addressing visual field loss, eye movement impairment, and age-related vision loss. The systematic review process presents an important opportunity for any clinician to contribute to the establishment of reliable, evidence-based orthoptic practice. Each review has an abstract and plain language summary that many non-clinicians find useful, followed by a full copy of the review (background, objectives, methods, results, discussion) with a conclusion section that is divided into implications for practice and implications for research. The current reviews provide patients/parents/carers with information about various different conditions and treatment options, but also provide clinicians with a summary of the available evidence on interventions, to use as a guide for both clinical practice and future research planning. The reviews identified in this overview highlight the evidence available for effective interventions for strabismus, amblyopia, refractive errors, and low vision or stroke rehabilitation as well as the gaps in the evidence base. Thus, a demand exists for future robust, randomized, controlled trials of such interventions of importance in orthoptic practice.

  15. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkennes, Sharon; Green, Sally

    2006-12-06

    There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The objective of this review was to identify methods used to measure change in the clinical practices of health professionals following an intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence into practice. All published trials included in a recent, comprehensive Health Technology Assessment of interventions to implement clinical practice guidelines and change clinical practice (n = 228) formed the sample for this study. Using a standardised data extraction form, one reviewer (SH), extracted the relevant information from the methods and/or results sections of the trials. Measures of a change of health practitioner behaviour were the most common, with 88.8% of trials using these as outcome measures. Measures that assessed change at a patient level, either actual measures of change or surrogate measures of change, were used in 28.8% and 36.7% of studies (respectively). Health practitioners' knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 22.8% of the studies and changes at an organisational level were assessed in 17.6%. Most trials of interventions aimed at changing clinical practice measured the effect of the intervention at the level of the practitioner, i.e. did the practitioner change what they do, or has their knowledge of and/or attitude toward that practice changed? Less than one-third of the trials measured, whether or not any change in practice, resulted in a change in the ultimate end-point of

  16. Patient Assessment Skills Pertinent to Practicing Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe pharmacists’ opinions regarding which patient assessment skills are necessary to understand and/or perform to provide optimal patient care in pharmacy practice. Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to pharmacists licensed in North Carolina (n=14,167, as identified by the Board of Pharmacy. The 80 patient assessment items in the questionnaire were derived from a course text book and faculty experience. Participants indicated whether they “need to understand and be able to perform”, “need to understand only”, or “not need to understand or be able to perform” each item in their current practice setting. Descriptive statistics were used to describe background demographics and perceived need for each item. Post-hoc chi-square analyses were performed to determine differences in need based on practice setting and Pharm.D. degree completion. Results: Of 1036 responses received, 770 were used in data analysis; incomplete questionnaires and non-practicing pharmacist responses were excluded. Fifty-nine percent of respondents held a Pharm.D. degree. Participants identified their practice site(s as inpatient (29%, outpatient (16%, community/retail (50%, long term care (5%, and other (8%. The top five patient assessment items respondents identified as important to understand and perform included automatic blood pressure measurement (63%, point of care testing (57%, manual blood pressure measurement (53%, heart rate measurement (52%, and peak flow meter use (47%. Post-hoc analyses showed a significant difference among those with a Pharm.D. versus those without for the response “need to understand and be able to perform” for 20 patient assessment items; a significant difference was also noted among practice settings for 29 items. Conclusions: The top items pharmacists identified they need to both understand and perform could be applied in various practice settings. The study results may guide which patient

  17. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  18. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  19. A Narrative Review of Lumbar Fusion Surgery With Relevance to Chiropractic Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Clinton J; Wakefield, Pamela J; Bub, Glenn A; Toombs, James D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to describe the most common spinal fusion surgical procedures, address the clinical indications for lumbar fusion in degeneration cases, identify potential complications, and discuss their relevance to chiropractic management of patients after surgical fusion. The PubMed database was searched from the beginning of the record through March 31, 2015, for English language articles related to lumbar fusion or arthrodesis or both and their incidence, procedures, complications, and postoperative chiropractic cases. Articles were retrieved and evaluated for relevance. The bibliographies of selected articles were also reviewed. The most typical lumbar fusion procedures are posterior lumbar interbody fusion, anterior lumbar interbody fusion, transforaminal interbody fusion, and lateral lumbar interbody fusion. Fair level evidence supports lumbar fusion procedures for degenerative spondylolisthesis with instability and for intractable low back pain that has failed conservative care. Complications and development of chronic pain after surgery is common, and these patients frequently present to chiropractic physicians. Several reports describe the potential benefit of chiropractic management with spinal manipulation, flexion-distraction manipulation, and manipulation under anesthesia for postfusion low back pain. There are no published experimental studies related specifically to chiropractic care of postfusion low back pain. This article describes the indications for fusion, common surgical practice, potential complications, and relevant published chiropractic literature. This review includes 10 cases that showed positive benefits from chiropractic manipulation, flexion-distraction, and/or manipulation under anesthesia for postfusion lumbar pain. Chiropractic care may have a role in helping patients in pain who have undergone lumbar fusion surgery.

  20. Assessment of pharmaceutical care practices of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook to assess the pharmaceutical care practices of community pharmacists in patients with co-morbidity of hypertension and diabetes in Delta State. A seventeen item questionnaire consisting of 5 points response scale was developed and administered to pharmacists in the community setting. The questionnaire ...

  1. Student Teachers' Perceptions towards Teaching Practice Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chireshe, R.; Chireshe, E.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the perceptions of student teachers towards teaching practice assessment. Participants N=180:90 males, 90 females were randomly drawn from three primary school teachers' colleges in Masvingo Educational Region of Zimbabwe. A questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A chi-square test was used to analyse the…

  2. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Relevance of Social Theory in the Practice of Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I argue that the dominance of certain paradigms and theories on policies can have an influence on the value added by impact assessments. A link exists between paradigms and theories and policies and consequently the practices humans develop to tackle real world problems. I also argue that different types of thinking (contained in paradigms and theories) need to be integrated, at least at the scientific level, to enhance our understanding of social phenomena. This in turn can have a positive influence on policy processes that follow impact assessment recommendations. I am not arguing for the adoption of theoretical positions by practitioners, Instead, I contend that if impact assessments are informed by a variety of paradigms and theories, the policy practitioner might have a better understanding of the issue and the moral choices he or she needs to make. I will highlight the connection between theory and policies with practical examples from the social impact assessment of the De Hoop Dam, which was constructed on the Steelpoort River. I also argue for an integration of different theories to give a deeper understanding of real world problems.

  4. Discourses and Practices in Teaching Methods and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gopinath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Translating the purposes of education into practice is particularly challenging for those who are new or have recently entered academia. By reflecting on my first years of teaching in higher education, I discuss two key aspects of my teaching practice: shifts in choice of teaching methods and a critique of different forms of assessment. Through the discussion, I argue that a teacher needs to be reflective on both these aspects and that such reflection needs to be carried out so that the student develops into a “self-directing,” “self-monitoring,” and “self-correcting” individual. At the end of the discussion, the relevance of a “project-based learning” approach starts to become significant in taking my pedagogical practice forward.

  5. [Impact of an evaluation of the professional practices on the relevance of proton pump inhibitors prescriptions pertinence at the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas, A; Garros, E; Mendizabal, H; Gayet, S; Bernard, F; Bagnères, D; Demoux, A-L; Rossi, P; Villani, P; Granel, B

    2018-04-05

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are widely prescribed for unrecognized indications, at high a dose and for a long duration, in spite of side effects and numerous drug interactions. In 2009, the HAS (French Health Authority) published recommendations of good prescription but the latter are poorly respected. In this context of over prescription and additional cost for the society, we performed a professional practice evaluation of on the model of the Deming wheel. The objective of this work was to optimize the relevance of the prescriptions of the IPP in two services of internal medicine and geriatrics through an evaluation of the professional practices. All PPI prescriptions introduced in outpatient visits or during hospitalization were analyzed. Data collection was prospective, over two periods of 2 months and included 163 (first phase), then 139 patients (second phase). An assessment grid of PPI prescriptions was completed by physicians regarding the active substance, the dose, the duration and the indication of the prescription. The relevance of the prescription corresponded to PPI with a conformed indication and duration and to the prescriptions no recommended stopped. Following the first period of data collection, information was given to medical students and physicians on the relevance of their prescriptions with regard to the current recommendations and informative flyers were offered with the aim of improving the practices before the second period of evaluation (second phase). During the first phase, only 25% of the pre-hospital prescriptions and 33% of the hospital prescriptions respected the HAS recommendations. The main indication of the PPI was the prevention of peptic ulcers in a context of associated drug estimated at risk. An improvement of the global relevance of prescription was observed after awareness of the physicians: 26% relevance during the first phase and 60% in the second one (Pprescriptions introduced at hospital decreased from 33 to 17% and

  6. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT IN EFL CLASSROOM PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Sri Widiastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the challenges and opportunities of formative assessment in EFL classes. It made use of qualitative research design by using indepth interviews to collect the required data. Three teachers and three students were involved as research participants in this study and they were intensively interviewed to get valid and reliable data regarding their understanding of formative assessment and the follow up actions they took after implementing formative assessment. The results of this study showed that the English teachers were found not to take appropriate follow up actions due to their low understanding of formative assessment. The teachers’ understanding could influence their ability in deciding the actions. This study indicates that EFL teachers need urgent further intensive training on the appropriate implementation of formative assessment and how follow up actions should be integrated into classroom practices

  7. The relevance of social theory in the practice of environmental management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available as follows. In the first part I define the concepts ‘paradigm’, ‘theory’ and ‘ethics’. The purpose of this section is to show the difference between a paradigm and a theory and to lay the foundation for the rest of the article. I also illustrate the link... between paradigms and theories and ethics, and by implication practice. I follow this part with Rosenau’s (2003) argument that we are all theorists; the purpose of which is to highlight that environmental assessment practitioners use paradigms...

  8. Relevance and reliability of experimental data in human health risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenhäuser, Johanna; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Niemann, Lars; Schubert, Jens; Stein, Bernd; Solecki, Roland

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of data relevance, reliability and contribution to uncertainty is crucial in regulatory health risk assessment if robust conclusions are to be drawn. Whether a specific study is used as key study, as additional information or not accepted depends in part on the criteria according to which its relevance and reliability are judged. In addition to GLP-compliant regulatory studies following OECD Test Guidelines, data from peer-reviewed scientific literature have to be evaluated in regulatory risk assessment of pesticide active substances. Publications should be taken into account if they are of acceptable relevance and reliability. Their contribution to the overall weight of evidence is influenced by factors including test organism, study design and statistical methods, as well as test item identification, documentation and reporting of results. Various reports make recommendations for improving the quality of risk assessments and different criteria catalogues have been published to support evaluation of data relevance and reliability. Their intention was to guide transparent decision making on the integration of the respective information into the regulatory process. This article describes an approach to assess the relevance and reliability of experimental data from guideline-compliant studies as well as from non-guideline studies published in the scientific literature in the specific context of uncertainty and risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Paediatric case mix in a rural clinical school is relevant to future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen M; Maley, Moira A L; Playford, Denese E; Nicol, Pam; Evans, Sharon F

    2017-11-29

    Exposure to a representative case mix is essential for clinical learning, with logbooks established as a way of demonstrating patient contacts. Few studies have reported the paediatric case mix available to geographically distributed students within the same medical school. Given international interest in expanding medical teaching locations to rural contexts, equitable case exposure in rural relative to urban settings is topical. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia locates students up to 3500 km from the urban university for an academic year. There is particular need to examine paediatric case mix as a study reported Australian graduates felt unprepared for paediatric rotations. We asked: Does a rural clinical school provide a paediatric case mix relevant to future practice? How does the paediatric case mix as logged by rural students compare with that by urban students? The 3745 logs of 76 urban and 76 rural consenting medical students were categorised by presenting symptoms and compared to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) database Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs). Rural and urban students logged core paediatric cases, in similar order, despite the striking difference in geographic locations. The pattern of overall presenting problems closely corresponded to Australian paediatric hospital admissions. Rural students logged 91% of cases in secondary healthcare settings; urban students logged 90% of cases in tertiary settings. The top four presenting problems were ENT/respiratory, gastrointestinal/urogenital, neurodevelopmental and musculoskeletal; these made up 60% of all cases. Rural and urban students logged similar proportions of infants, children and adolescents, with a variety of case morbidity. Rural clinical school students logged a mix of core paediatric cases relevant to illnesses of Australian children admitted to public hospitals, with similar order and pattern by age group to urban students, despite major differences

  10. Assessing construction innovation: theoretical and practical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is key for productivity improvement and advancements in different sectors of the economy, including the construction sector.  The criticism of the slow pace of innovation in construction industry may be unwarranted, considering the structure of the industry and nature of the construction business.  The loosely coupled nature of firms, mostly Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s, delivering ‘projects’ through partial engagement, together with the distinction between the project innovation and firm innovation makes it difficult to extract innovations in a meaningful way.  The problem also lies in conceptualising, defining, articulating and assessing innovation in construction.  The literature is replete with research into construction innovation, however, there is limited research into understanding how innovation is perceived and narrated in practice.  The paper aims to explore how innovation is assessed and narrated in construction, specifically analysing theory and practice perspectives.  A theoretical model was constructed from a structured literature review illustrating existing discourse and narratives of construction innovation assessment.  A qualitative analysis of ‘Professional Excellence in Building’ submission documents to the Australian Institute of Building was performed to identify the practice perspective of innovation.  The findings suggest that internal organizational and process innovation account for the majority of improvements identified.  Importantly a taxonomy of narrative is developed that articulates how the construction industry in Australia views industry innovation.

  11. Being relevant: Practical guidance for early career researchers interested in solving conservation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Chapman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.

  12. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  13. Quantifying Relevance of Mobile Digital Evidence As They Relate to Case Types: A Survey and a Guide for Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Saleem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a survey was conducted to help quantify the relevance of nineteen types of evidence (such as SMS to seven types of digital investigations associated with mobile devices (MD (such as child pornography. 97 % of the respondents agreed that every type of digital evidence has a different level of relevance to further or solve a particular investigation. From 55 serious participants, a data set of 5,772 responses regarding the relevance of nineteen types of digital evidence for all the seven types of digital investigations was obtained. The results showed that (i SMS belongs to the most relevant type of digital evidence for all the seven types of investigations, (ii MMS belongs to the most relevant type of digital evidence for all the types of digital investigations except espionage and eavesdropping where it is the second most relevant type of digital evidence, (iii Phonebook and Contacts is the most relevant type of digital evidence for all types of digital investigations except child pornography, (iv Audio Calls is the most relevant type of digital evidence for all types of digital investigations except credit card fraud and child pornography and (v Standalone Files are the least relevant type of digital evidence for most of the digital investigations. The size of the response data set was fairly reasonable to analyze and then define; by generalization, relevance based best practices for mobile device forensics, which can supplement any forensics process model, including digital triage. For the reliability of these best practices, the impact of responses from the participants with more than five years of experience was analyzed by using one hundred and thirty three (133 instances of One-Way ANOVA tests. The results of this research can help investigators concentrate on the relevant types of digital evidence when investigating a specific case, consequently saving time and effort.

  14. Measures for assessing practice change in medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Sally

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increasing numbers of randomised trials and systematic reviews examining the efficacy of interventions designed to bring about a change in clinical practice. The findings of this research are being used to guide strategies to increase the uptake of evidence into clinical practice. Knowledge of the outcomes measured by these trials is vital not only for the interpretation and application of the work done to date, but also to inform future research in this expanding area of endeavour and to assist in collation of results in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Methods The objective of this review was to identify methods used to measure change in the clinical practices of health professionals following an intervention aimed at increasing the uptake of evidence into practice. All published trials included in a recent, comprehensive Health Technology Assessment of interventions to implement clinical practice guidelines and change clinical practice (n = 228 formed the sample for this study. Using a standardised data extraction form, one reviewer (SH, extracted the relevant information from the methods and/or results sections of the trials. Results Measures of a change of health practitioner behaviour were the most common, with 88.8% of trials using these as outcome measures. Measures that assessed change at a patient level, either actual measures of change or surrogate measures of change, were used in 28.8% and 36.7% of studies (respectively. Health practitioners' knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 22.8% of the studies and changes at an organisational level were assessed in 17.6%. Conclusion Most trials of interventions aimed at changing clinical practice measured the effect of the intervention at the level of the practitioner, i.e. did the practitioner change what they do, or has their knowledge of and/or attitude toward that practice changed? Less than one-third of the trials measured, whether or not any change

  15. Relevance and feasibility of Social Life Cycle Assessment from a Company Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2009-01-01

    Methodology development should reflect demands from the intended users: what are the needs of the user group and what is feasible in terms of requirements involving data and work? Mapping these questions of relevance and feasibility is thus a way to facilitate a higher degree of relevance...... of the developed methodology. For the emerging area of social life cycle assessment (SLCA), several different potential user groups may be identified. This article addresses the issues of relevance and feasibility of SLCA from a company perspective through a series of interviews among potential company users....... The empirical basis for the survey is a series of eight semi-structured interviews with larger Danish companies, all of which potentially have the capacity and will to use comprehensive social assessment methodologies. SLCA is not yet a well-defined methodology, but still it is possible to outline several...

  16. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jeffrey O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  17. Psychological assessment for bariatric surgery: current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Carolina Aita

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients.

  18. Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; McCloskey, Eugène; Bruyère, Olivier; Cesari, Matteo; Rolland, Yves; Rizzoli, René; Araujo de Carvalho, Islène; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Bautmans, Ivan; Bertière, Marie-Claude; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Burlet, Nansa; Cavalier, Etienne; Cerreta, Francesca; Cherubini, Antonio; Fielding, Roger; Gielen, Evelien; Landi, Francesco; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Visser, Marjolein; Kanis, John; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-10-05

    Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were afterwards organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. This paper proposes some user-friendly and inexpensive methods that can be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings. Healthcare providers, particularly in primary care, should consider an assessment of sarcopenia in individuals at increased risk; suggested tools for assessing risk include the Red Flag Method, the SARC-F questionnaire, the SMI method or different prediction equations. Management of sarcopenia should primarily be patient centered and involve the combination of both resistance and endurance based activity programmes with or without dietary interventions. Development of a number of pharmacological interventions is also in progress. Assessment of sarcopenia in individuals with risk factors, symptoms and/or conditions exposing them to the risk of disability will become particularly important in the near future.

  19. Risk assessment instruments in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Gilles; Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether the items in one of the most widely validated instruments of violence risk assessment, the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20), are used in review board hearings to assess the risk of violence by people found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD). This study was conducted from October 2004 to August 2006 in Quebec's sole forensic psychiatric hospital and 2 large civil psychiatric hospitals designated for the care of people declared NCRMD in the Montreal metropolitan area. The risk assessments presented by clinicians at annual review board hearings and the boards' rationale for the release or detention of people found NCRMD were contrasted with the risk assessments conducted by the research team using the HCR-20. The final sample was comprised of 96 men. Very few of the risk factors identified by prior research (HCR-20 items) were mentioned in the hearing process, whether in clinical reports, discussions during the hearing, or in the disposition justification. The findings confirm that there remains a significant gap between research evidence and risk assessment practice.

  20. Euthanasia and surgeons: an overview of the Victorian Voluntary Assisted Dying Act 2017 and its relevance to surgical practice in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Christian; Brown, Kilian; Sandroussi, Charbel

    2018-05-14

    Surgeons play a significant role in the treatment of patients with many types of cancer, including the management of advanced and recurrent disease after long periods of apparent remission. The recently introduced Victorian Voluntary Assisted Dying (VAD) Act represents a shift in paradigm in Australian medical practice. To be eligible for VAD, the new legislation requires patient assessment by a physician with at least 5 years post-fellowship experience and relevant expertise in the patient's condition. Given many specialist surgeons' experience in managing advanced and often incurable malignancy, it is likely that many will receive referrals for assessment for VAD. It is foreseeable that other states and territories in Australia will follow suit with similar legislation. It is imperative that surgeons receiving referrals to assess patients seeking access to VAD are familiar with the legislation and assessment process. This article summarizes the current regulation of VAD in Australia, including the patient application and assessment process, briefly reviews world-wide assisted dying practices and discusses the relevance to surgeons practicing in Australia. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF A MODEL FOR ASSESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr NOVOTNÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an important sub-sector of transport infrastructure. Disruption of its operation due to emergencies can result in a reduction in functional parameters of provided services with consequent impacts on society. Identification of critical elements of this system enables its timely and effective protection. On that ground, the article presents a draft model for assessing the criticality of railway infrastructure elements. This model uses a systems approach and multicriteria semi-quantitative analysis with weighted criteria for calculating the criticality of individual elements of the railway infrastructure. In the conclusion, it presents a practical application of the proposed model including the discussion of results.

  2. DEFINING THE RELEVANT OUTCOME MEASURES IN MEDICAL DEVICE ASSESSMENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEFINITION PROCESS IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Esther; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Eikermann, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Defining relevant outcome measures for clinical trials on medical devices (MD) is complex, as there is a large variety of potentially relevant outcomes. The chosen outcomes vary widely across clinical trials making the assessment in evidence syntheses very challenging. The objective is to provide an overview on the current common procedures of health technology assessment (HTA) institutions in defining outcome measures in MD trials. In 2012-14, the Web pages of 126 institutions involved in HTA were searched for methodological manuals written in English or German that describe methods for the predefinition process of outcome measures. Additionally, the institutions were contacted by email. Relevant information was extracted. All process steps were performed independently by two reviewers. Twenty-four manuals and ten responses from the email request were included in the analysis. Overall, 88.5 percent of the institutions describe the type of outcomes that should be considered in detail and 84.6 percent agree that the main focus should be on patient relevant outcomes. Specifically related to MD, information could be obtained in 26 percent of the included manuals and email responses. Eleven percent of the institutions report a particular consideration of MD related outcomes. This detailed analysis on common procedures of HTA institutions in the context of defining relevant outcome measures for the assessment of MD shows that standardized procedures for MD from the perspective of HTA institutions are not widespread. This leads to the question if a homogenous approach should be implemented in the field of HTA on MD.

  3. Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Monica; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Policy protection goals are set up in most countries to minimise harm to the environment, humans and animals caused by human activities. Decisions on whether to approve new agricultural products, like pesticides or genetically modified (GM) crops, take into account these policy protection goals. To support decision-making, applications for approval of commercial uses of GM crops usually comprise an environmental risk assessment (ERA). These risk assessments are analytical tools, based on science, that follow a conceptual model that includes a problem formulation step where policy protection goals are considered. However, in most countries, risk assessors face major problems in that policy protection goals set in the legislation are stated in very broad terms and are too ambiguous to be directly applicable in ERAs. This means that risk assessors often have to interpret policy protection goals without clear guidance on what effects would be considered harmful. In this paper we propose a practical approach that may help risk assessors to translate policy protection goals into unambiguous (i.e., operational) protection goals and to establish relevant assessment endpoints and risk hypotheses that can be used in ERAs. Examples are provided to show how this approach can be applied to two areas of environmental concern relevant to the ERAs of GM crops.

  4. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, Nicoline; Veerbeek, Janne; Schiemanck, Sven; van der Wees, Philip; Nollet, Frans; Kwakkel, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. Methods: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  5. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, N.; Veerbeek, J.; Schiemanck, S.; Wees, P.J. van der; Nollet, F.; Kwakkel, G.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. METHODS: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  6. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  7. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.

    2012-05-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for the bill of materials (BoM) is a paramount activity in order to manage obsolescence proactively and cost-effectively. This is the reason why it was necessary to undertake a benchmarking study to develop best practice in this process. A total of 22 obsolescence experts from 13 different organisations/projects from across UK and USA have participated in this study. Their current processes and experience have been taken into account in the development of the best practice process for obsolescence risk assessment. The key factors that have to be analysed in the risk assessment process for each component in the BoM are: number of manufacturers, years to end of life, stock available, consumption rate and operational impact criticality. For the very high risk components, a more detailed analysis is required to inform the decisions regarding the most suitable mitigation strategies. On the contrary, for the low risk components, a fully proactive approach is neither appropriate nor cost effective. Therefore, it is advised for these components that obsolescence issues are dealt with reactively. This process has been validated using case studies with several experts from industry and is currently being implemented by the UK Ministry of Defence as technical guidance within the JSP 886 Volume 7 Part 8.13 standards.

  8. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, F J Romero; Roy, R; Kelly, S

    2012-01-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for the bill of materials (BoM) is a paramount activity in order to manage obsolescence proactively and cost-effectively. This is the reason why it was necessary to undertake a benchmarking study to develop best practice in this process. A total of 22 obsolescence experts from 13 different organisations/projects from across UK and USA have participated in this study. Their current processes and experience have been taken into account in the development of the best practice process for obsolescence risk assessment. The key factors that have to be analysed in the risk assessment process for each component in the BoM are: number of manufacturers, years to end of life, stock available, consumption rate and operational impact criticality. For the very high risk components, a more detailed analysis is required to inform the decisions regarding the most suitable mitigation strategies. On the contrary, for the low risk components, a fully proactive approach is neither appropriate nor cost effective. Therefore, it is advised for these components that obsolescence issues are dealt with reactively. This process has been validated using case studies with several experts from industry and is currently being implemented by the UK Ministry of Defence as technical guidance within the JSP 886 Volume 7 Part 8.13 standards.

  9. Medical Student Dissection of CadaversImproves Performance on Practical Exams, but not Dissection-Relevant Questions in the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Final Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sargent Jones

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only, and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was learned from the partner-prosected cadavers. Performance for each student on the exams was then assessed as a function of the regions those students actually dissected. While the results indicated a small performance advantage for MIs answering questions on material they had dissected on the NBME Subject Exam questions relevant to dissection (78-88% of total exam, the results were not statistically significant. However, a similar, small performance advantage on the course practical exams was highly significant.

  10. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  11. Genetic cancer risk assessment in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, S.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of genetic testing has made a dramatic impact on the management of individuals with inherited susceptibility to cancer and their relatives. Genetic counsel ing, with or without testing, is warranted when clues to familial cancer are recognized. Today, genetic testing for classic cancer genetic syndromes is now the standard of care, and has been complemented by genetic testing for other situations commonly encountered in clinical practice. Genetic testing for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer raise important issues about the parameters for testing. Genetic cancer risk assessment can lead to measurable reductions in morbidity and mortality through strategies that rely on surveillance, chemo prevention, and risk-reducing surgery

  12. Strategic characterization of anti-drug antibody responses for the assessment of clinical relevance and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarewicz, Suzanna M; Mytych, Daniel T; Manning, Marta Starcevic; Swanson, Steven J; Moxness, Michael S; Chirmule, Narendra

    2014-06-01

    All therapeutic proteins have the potential to induce anti-drug antibodies (ADA). Clinically relevant ADA can impact efficacy and/or safety of a biological therapeutic. Immunogenicity assessment strategy evaluates binding and neutralizing ADA, and the need for additional characterization (e.g., epitope, titer and so on) is determined using a risk-based approach. The choice of characterization assays depends on the type, application and immunogenicity of the therapeutic. ADA characterization can impact the interpretation of the risk profile of a given therapeutic, and offers insight into opportunities for risk mitigation and management. This article describes common ADA characterization methods. Strategic assessment and characterization of clinically relevant ADA are discussed, in order to support clinical options for safe and effective patient care and disease management.

  13. The Arthasastra: Assessing the Contemporary Relevance of an Ancient Indian Treatise on Statecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    12 Kauṭilya, The Arthashastra, trans. L N. Rangarajan (New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 1992), Kindle Location 562-571. Hereafter refered to as...of power. Hard power refers to a state’s influence originating from coercive usage of military and economic capability of a state. On the other hand... economic spectrum of a state’s affairs, this paper identifies concepts relevant to the modern idea of national power and uses them to assess China’s geo

  14. Ecological models and pesticide risk assessment: current modeling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; Chapman, Peter; Grimm, Volker

    2010-04-01

    Ecological risk assessments of pesticides usually focus on risk at the level of individuals, and are carried out by comparing exposure and toxicological endpoints. However, in most cases the protection goal is populations rather than individuals. On the population level, effects of pesticides depend not only on exposure and toxicity, but also on factors such as life history characteristics, population structure, timing of application, presence of refuges in time and space, and landscape structure. Ecological models can integrate such factors and have the potential to become important tools for the prediction of population-level effects of exposure to pesticides, thus allowing extrapolations, for example, from laboratory to field. Indeed, a broad range of ecological models have been applied to chemical risk assessment in the scientific literature, but so far such models have only rarely been used to support regulatory risk assessments of pesticides. To better understand the reasons for this situation, the current modeling practice in this field was assessed in the present study. The scientific literature was searched for relevant models and assessed according to nine characteristics: model type, model complexity, toxicity measure, exposure pattern, other factors, taxonomic group, risk assessment endpoint, parameterization, and model evaluation. The present study found that, although most models were of a high scientific standard, many of them would need modification before they are suitable for regulatory risk assessments. The main shortcomings of currently available models in the context of regulatory pesticide risk assessments were identified. When ecological models are applied to regulatory risk assessments, we recommend reviewing these models according to the nine characteristics evaluated here. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  15. Creation of an active learning healthcare communications course using simulations relevant to pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Izabela A; Baker, David M

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and develop a health care communications course built around practice-like simulations and active learning in the first year of a professional pharmacy program. A three-credit health care communications course was divided into one didactic (two hours per week) and three simulation components (one hour per week). The simulation components consisted of one written patient education pamphlet, three group presentations, and three one-on-one patient counseling sessions. This was accomplished by breaking the class of approximately 75 students into eight separate sections, each consisting of 8-10 students and one instructor. Each week four sections were devoted to counseling role-plays: half in the role of pharmacists and half as patients. The other four sections were devoted to hour-long professional group presentations-half in the presenting group and half as audience. The students' performance in the simulated counseling sessions and group presentations has been tracked and analyzed to determine if the simulated exercises had a positive impact on the students' active communications skills. Consistently, over the first four years of the implementation of the course, students' communications skills, as measured by faculty assessments, in both professional group presentations and one-on-one counseling sessions significantly improved. Incorporation of active-learning simulation exercises into a healthcare communications course has a positive impact on the development of students' communications skills. This creates a foundation upon which students can build over the remainder of the professional program and into their future careers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder with major depression: relevance to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Beherre, Prakash B; Rathi, Rajesh; Panigrahi, Mahima; Patil, Pradeep Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and depressive disorder are fairly common; symptoms do overlap, often under-identified and under-emphasized, particularly in rural India. The objective was to assess the occurrence of PMS and PMDD in a sample of students and staff of a nursing college and to find their correlation with depression. A prospective cohort study; Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural India (Wardha, Maharashtra); 118 female nursing students or staff aged between 18 and 40 years, who were likely to stay within the institution for the study period. The participants were rated on Penn daily symptom report prospectively for a period of 3-month. Those who scored positive were applied diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4(th) edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for PMDD; and were applied primary care evaluation of mental disorders depression screening followed by DSM-IV TR criteria for depression. Severity of depression was measured using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Main outcome measures were frequency and severity of depression in individuals with PMS and PMDD and their clinical and sociodemographic correlation. The age range of the sample was 18-37 years. Some PMS symptoms were observed in 67%; diagnosis of PMDD in 10%; depressive symptoms in 28% of the sample. 46.4% of those with depressive symptoms had major depression. The diagnosis of major depression was significantly associated with the severity of PMS symptoms as well as the presence of PMDD. Premenstrual syndrome is present in a substantial proportion of young females. Concurrent depression is increased by the severity of PMS symptoms and the presence of PMDD. Gynecologist needs to screen such subjects for depression and refer to mental-health professional early, in routine clinical practice.

  17. A survey of anatomical items relevant to the practice of rheumatology: upper extremity, head, neck, spine, and general concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Biundo, Joseph J; Kalish, Robert A; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; McGonagle, Dennis; Carette, Simon; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the anatomical items of the upper extremity and spine that are potentially relevant to the practice of rheumatology. Ten rheumatologists interested in clinical anatomy who published, taught, and/or participated as active members of Clinical Anatomy Interest groups (six seniors, four juniors), participated in a one-round relevance Delphi exercise. An initial, 560-item list that included 45 (8.0 %) general concepts items; 138 (24.8 %) hand items; 100 (17.8 %) forearm and elbow items; 147 (26.2 %) shoulder items; and 130 (23.2 %) head, neck, and spine items was compiled by 5 of the participants. Each item was graded for importance with a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). Thus, scores could range from 10 (1 × 10) to 50 (5 × 10). An item score of ≥40 was considered most relevant to competent practice as a rheumatologist. Mean item Likert scores ranged from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 4.6 ± 0.7. A total of 115 (20.5 %) of the 560 initial items reached relevance. Broken down by categories, this final relevant item list was composed by 7 (6.1 %) general concepts items; 32 (27.8 %) hand items; 20 (17.4 %) forearm and elbow items; 33 (28.7 %) shoulder items; and 23 (17.6 %) head, neck, and spine items. In this Delphi exercise, a group of practicing academic rheumatologists with an interest in clinical anatomy compiled a list of anatomical items that were deemed important to the practice of rheumatology. We suggest these items be considered curricular priorities when training rheumatology fellows in clinical anatomy skills and in programs of continuing rheumatology education.

  18. Rethinking Partnerships with the Aim of Producing Knowledge with Practical Relevance: a Case Study in the Field of Ecological Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Gonzalo-Turpin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in conservation biology and restoration ecology often work in partnership with local actors to increase the practical relevance of the knowledge they produce. Although an academic mode of knowledge production is essential in research for a better understanding of biological systems, it often fails to produce frameworks and methodologies having practical relevance that can be used in conservation and restoration programs. The involvement of researchers in collective plans of action is supposed to contribute to the production of a more contextualized form of knowledge. In this paper, we report our experience of partnership research in an ecological restoration project. We show that changing our mode of knowledge production to one that produces knowledge having more practical relevance requires a particular spectrum of partners and reflexive communication between all the partners. We advocate the need for participatory approaches that favor collective and reflexive processes of problem finding and problem solving in conservation and restoration projects. Putting such processes into practice is not only a challenge for researchers but also for their partners, and presupposes a profound transformation of their roles.

  19. The Environment for Professional Interaction and Relevant Practical Experience in AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 276 of 1,128 faculty at Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited schools indicated that 231 were certified; only 96 served in professional associations; large numbers received financial support for professional activities, but only small numbers felt involvement or relevant experience (which are required for…

  20. Perceptions and Practices of Culturally Relevant Science Teaching in American Indian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Roehrig, Gillian; Kern, Anne; Reynolds, Bree

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of culturally relevant science teaching of 35 teachers of American Indian students. These teachers participated in professional development designed to help them better understand climate change science content and teaching climate change using both Western science and traditional and cultural knowledge. Teacher…

  1. Term Relevance Feedback and Mediated Database Searching: Implications for Information Retrieval Practice and Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda

    1995-01-01

    This study uses the human approach to examine the sources and effectiveness of search terms selected during 40 mediated interactive database searches and focuses on determining the retrieval effectiveness of search terms identified by users and intermediaries from retrieved items during term relevance feedback. (Author/JKP)

  2. Recent Advances in Pancreatic Cancer Surgery of Relevance to the Practicing Pathologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssen, Lennart B.; Rombouts, Steffi J. E.; Walma, Marieke S.; Vogel, Jantien A.; Tol, Johanna A.; Molenaar, Isaac Q.; van Eijck, Casper H. J.; Verheij, Joanne; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Besselink, Marc G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in pancreatic surgery have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with pancreatic cancer. We address 3 new, trending topics in pancreatic surgery that are of relevance to the pathologist. First, increasing awareness of the prognostic impact of intraoperatively detected

  3. Professional Interaction, Relevant Practical Experience, and Intellectual Contributions at Nondoctoral AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a survey of faculty members at nondoctoral AACSB-accredited accounting programs in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to determine the environment for professional interaction and relevant experience in light of institutional demands for intellectual contributions. The findings show that the…

  4. [Normative dimensions of nursing practice--the ethical relevance of the body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, H

    1997-10-01

    A combination of preliminary considerations concerning a theory of action and a philosophy of science illustrates the determining influence of the scientific preconception of the subject matter, and of the approach which is presupposed by this preconception, on the normative orientation of nursing practice. The specific physical nearness involved in nursing practice ("body to body") holds problems with regard to an appropriate theoretical frame of reference and corresponding practical convictions. This background provides the context for a concluding critical examination of several representative nursing theories with regard to their implicit, normative premises.

  5. Technological Advances in Cardiovascular Safety Assessment Decrease Preclinical Animal Use and Improve Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Brian R; Schultze, A Eric; Heyen, Jon R; Searfoss, George H; Sarazan, R Dustan

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) safety liabilities are significant concerns for drug developers and preclinical animal studies are predominately where those liabilities are characterized before patient exposures. Steady progress in technology and laboratory capabilities is enabling a more refined and informative use of animals in those studies. The application of surgically implantable and telemetered instrumentation in the acute assessment of drug effects on CV function has significantly improved historical approaches that involved anesthetized or restrained animals. More chronically instrumented animals and application of common clinical imaging assessments like echocardiography and MRI extend functional and in-life structural assessments into the repeat-dose setting. A growing portfolio of circulating CV biomarkers is allowing longitudinal and repeated measures of cardiac and vascular injury and dysfunction better informing an understanding of temporal pathogenesis and allowing earlier detection of undesirable effects. In vitro modeling systems of the past were limited by their lack of biological relevance to the in vivo human condition. Advances in stem cell technology and more complex in vitro modeling platforms are quickly creating more opportunity to supplant animals in our earliest assessments for liabilities. Continuing improvement in our capabilities in both animal and nonanimal modeling should support a steady decrease in animal use for primary liability identification and optimize the translational relevance of the animal studies we continue to do. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. On the Assessment of Paramedic Competence: A Narrative Review with Practice Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, W; Boet, S

    2016-02-01

    Paramedicine is experiencing significant growth in scope of practice, autonomy, and role in the health care system. Despite clinical governance models, the degree to which paramedicine ultimately can be safe and effective will be dependent on the individuals the profession deems suited to practice. This creates an imperative for those responsible for these decisions to ensure that assessments of paramedic competence are indeed accurate, trustworthy, and defensible. The purpose of this study was to explore and synthesize relevant theoretical foundations and literature informing best practices in performance-based assessment (PBA) of competence, as it might be applied to paramedicine, for design or evaluation of assessment programs. A narrative review methodology was applied to focus intentionally, but broadly, on purpose relevant, theoretically derived research that could inform assessment protocols in paramedicine. Primary and secondary studies from a number of health professions that contributed to and informed best practices related to the assessment of paramedic clinical competence were included and synthesized. Multiple conceptual frameworks, psychometric requirements, and emerging lines of research are forwarded. Seventeen practice implications are derived to promote understanding as well as best practices and evaluation criteria for educators, employers, and/or licensing/certifying bodies when considering the assessment of paramedic competence. The assessment of paramedic competence is a complex process requiring an understanding, appreciation for, and integration of conceptual and psychometric principles. The field of PBA is advancing rapidly with numerous opportunities for research.

  7. The Development of a Regional Nursing History Collection: Its Relevance to Practice, Education, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Linda F.; Linebach, Laura M.

    1991-01-01

    The Nursing History Collection at the University of Missouri-Kansas City preserves artifacts and memorabilia of regional nursing history. Such collections are essential to practice, education, and research in nursing. (SK)

  8. Environmental biodosimetry: a biologically relevant tool for ecological risk assessment and biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulsh, B. E-mail: ulshb@mcmaster.ca; Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.D.; Dugan, L.C.; Whicker, F.W.; Bedford, J.S

    2003-07-01

    Biodosimetry, the estimation of received doses by determining the frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, is widely applied in humans acutely exposed as a result of accidents or for clinical purposes, but biodosimetric techniques have not been utilized in organisms chronically exposed to radionuclides in contaminated environments. The application of biodosimetry to environmental exposure scenarios could greatly improve the accuracy, and reduce the uncertainties, of ecological risk assessments and biomonitoring studies, because no assumptions are required regarding external exposure rates and the movement of organisms into and out of contaminated areas. Furthermore, unlike residue analyses of environmental media environmental biodosimetry provides a genetically relevant biomarker of cumulative lifetime exposure. Symmetrical chromosome translocations can impact reproductive success, and could therefore prove to be ecologically relevant as well. We describe our experience in studying aberrations in the yellow-bellied slider turtle as an example of environmental biodosimetry.

  9. Bootcamp EMMA MOOC Assessment for learning in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Brouns, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a relevant theme for teachers and educationalists. Formative assessment is a valuable tool for supporting the learning process. It is applied during learning and offers you more and better opportunities to guide your students. Formative assessment

  10. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...] Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and... Needs to Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products... an important tool for evaluating the risks associated with new emerging infectious diseases (EIDs...

  11. Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. CONTRIBUTION TO NEW KNOWLEDGE: This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Revisioning Assessment through a Children's Rights Approach: Implications for Policy, Process and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Jannette; Lundy, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The linkage between the impact of assessment and compliance with children's rights is a connection, which although seemingly obvious, is nonetheless rarely made, particularly by governments, which, as signatories to the relevant human rights treaties, have the primary responsibility for ensuring that educational practice is compatible with…

  13. Culturally Relevant Pedagogical Practice among White College Faculty: A Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty contribute to the campus racial climate for all students, but particularly for students of color, and play a significant role in shaping intellectual, social, and behavioral standards through their pedagogical practice (Hurtado, Milem, Clayton-Petersen, & Allen, 1998; Solózano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000; Rankin & Reason, 2005).…

  14. Parental Values and Practices Relevant to Young Children's Social Development in Taiwan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Huntsinger, Phillip R.; Liaw, Fong-Ruey

    2000-01-01

    Compared self-reported parental values and child-rearing practices and teacher-reported and observed children's social skills among families of young children who were first-generation Chinese Americans, European Americans, or Taiwanese Chinese. All Chinese parents more strongly endorsed traditional Chinese values and exerted more parental control…

  15. Faith healing in paediatrics: what do we know about its relevance to clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, A; Finlay, F

    2012-05-01

    There is widespread use of complementary or alternative medicine among adults and children. Families may use faith healing alongside conventional medicine or as an alternative. In their clinical practice, professionals should be aware of this and need to consider asking patients and their families about complementary or alternative medicine use, including faith healing. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Making Real Analysis Relevant to Secondary Teachers: Building up from and Stepping down to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Villanueva, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Weber, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Future teachers often claim that advanced undergraduate courses, even those that attempt to connect to school mathematics, are not useful for their teaching. This paper proposes a new way of designing advanced undergraduate content courses for secondary teachers. The model involves beginning with an analysis of the curriculum and practices of…

  17. Feature relevance assessment for the semantic interpretation of 3D point cloud data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weinmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysis of large 3D point clouds represents a crucial task in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the semantic interpretation of such point clouds which involves feature relevance assessment in order to reduce both processing time and memory consumption. Given a standard benchmark dataset with 1.3 million 3D points, we first extract a set of 21 geometric 3D and 2D features. Subsequently, we apply a classifier-independent ranking procedure which involves a general relevance metric in order to derive compact and robust subsets of versatile features which are generally applicable for a large variety of subsequent tasks. This metric is based on 7 different feature selection strategies and thus addresses different intrinsic properties of the given data. For the example of semantically interpreting 3D point cloud data, we demonstrate the great potential of smaller subsets consisting of only the most relevant features with 4 different state-of-the-art classifiers. The results reveal that, instead of including as many features as possible in order to compensate for lack of knowledge, a crucial task such as scene interpretation can be carried out with only few versatile features and even improved accuracy.

  18. Preliminary thoughts on the relevance of the research field of cognition for Practical Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi P. Kruger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research from the vantage point of Practical Theology, the author focusses on the importance and the possible value of the concept of cognition for further research. The philosophical roots of the concepts of knowledge and understanding are highlighted in a qualitative manner by means of a short selection from the insights of philosophers from the era of the Greek Philosophy to the nineteenth century. The insights of Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes and Kant are utilised. The purpose was to indicate the importance of the concepts of knowing and cognition from an early stage. Research from the field of cognitive science also received attention in this research. The purpose of this discussion is to indicate that cognition is not a mere intellectual activity. Cognition is important in the processes of perspective-making and moral choices. Cognitive distortions could possibly endanger people�s ability to have the right cognition about people, events and life itself. The concept of phronesis, as the concept that comes the nearest to the essence of cognition, is also investigated from the vantage point of Philippians 2:5 and Romans 12:3. Wisdom thinking is really important in research on the acts of people from a practical theological vantage point. Cognition must be regarded as people�s attempt to make sense out what they already know and also out of what they are observing. In the final part of the article, fields for possible further investigation are highlighted in order to make the statement that practical theologians can consider the fact to reclaim the field of investigation on cognition in further research. The importance of cognition for liturgy, homiletics, pastoral care and youth ministry is indicated.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article is undertaken from a practical theological vantage point in order to highlight the importance of the concept of cognition for further research. In

  19. [How can we give quick yet relevant nutritional advice in our daily medical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, S; Andrey, M; Ruiz, J

    2007-06-06

    Within our diabetology Unit CHUV-PMU, the dietetic consultation is an integral part of the patients' management, for the majority of diabetic patients. The general practitioner offers very different perspectives. What are the possible modalities of ambulatory dietetic counselling? Are the numerous existing standardized documents really relevant? We bring a critical analysis on such documents, the use of which often engenders a feeling of failure for the patients and the health professionals. We suggest an intervention guide so that the nutritional education work undertaken in an ambulatory consultation may then lead to dietetic management.

  20. Practical Chronic Pain Assessment Tools in Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lončarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Milošević, Milan; Žilić, Antonio; Mišković, Petar; Majerić-Kogler, Višnja; Žunić, Josip

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show the role of tools in the evaluation of chronic pain (CP) in general practitioner (GP) everyday clinical practice. The study was done by analyzing electronic database of the first visits of 1090 CP patients referred to the Pain Clinic of the Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia, by their GPs. All patient records were analyzed according to the cause of CP, strongest pain a week before the examination, quality of sleep, and the Patients’ Global Impression...

  1. “THE UNDERTAKING” AND “THE RELEVANT MARKET”: KEY CONCEPTS IN THE ANALYSIS OF ANTICOMPETITIVE PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA CUCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The desire to maintain themselves on a particular market, at a higher level of profitability or at a reasonable level at least, can lead the undertakings to adopt an anticompetitive behaviour more easily. This may result from either the existence of anticompetitive agreements and concerted practices, or the tendency to abuse its dominant position which the undertaking has on a certain market. “The undertaking” and “the relevant market” are the key concepts in the analysis of anticompetitive practices. The active subject of anticompetitive practices is “the undertaking”. This concept has a particular significance in the competition law, different from the common law. Competition rules apply to the conduct of undertakings and associations of undertakings so that the concept of undertaking makes it possible to determine the categories of actors to which the competition rules apply. However, the term undertaking is nowhere defined in the EU Treaties; as such, the concept has generated a complex body of jurisprudence."The market" is a term with pronounced economic resonances; synthetically, the market is the place where supply meets demand. In the context of the competition law, "the market" means "relevant market". The relevant market is the market of product/service in terms of demand and supply, and then superimposed on the geographic market.The analysis of these key concepts necessarily entails the conceptual delimitation of the notions. On this purpose, the relevant legal provisions will be identified in the Romanian and EU law, together with the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this matter.

  2. Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Kirsten A; Sjerps, Rosa M A; Schriks, Merijn; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2018-06-13

    Toxicological risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in (sources of) drinking water is required to identify potential health risks and prioritize chemicals for abatement or monitoring. In such assessments, concentrations of chemicals in drinking water or sources are compared to either (i) health-based (statutory) drinking water guideline values, (ii) provisional guideline values based on recent toxicity data in absence of drinking water guidelines, or (iii) generic drinking water target values in absence of toxicity data. Here, we performed a toxicological risk assessment for 163 CEC that were selected as relevant for drinking water. This relevance was based on their presence in drinking water and/or groundwater and surface water sources in downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse, in combination with concentration levels and physicochemical properties. Statutory and provisional drinking water guideline values could be derived from publically available toxicological information for 142 of the CEC. Based on measured concentrations it was concluded that the majority of substances do not occur in concentrations which individually pose an appreciable human health risk. A health concern could however not be excluded for vinylchloride, trichloroethene, bromodichloromethane, aniline, phenol, 2-chlorobenzenamine, mevinphos, 1,4-dioxane, and nitrolotriacetic acid. For part of the selected substances, toxicological risk assessment for drinking water could not be performed since either toxicity data (hazard) or drinking water concentrations (exposure) were lacking. In absence of toxicity data, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach can be applied for screening level risk assessment. The toxicological information on the selected substances was used to evaluate whether drinking water target values based on existing TTC levels are sufficiently protective for drinking water relevant CEC. Generic drinking water target levels of 37 μg/L for

  3. Survivorship care plans: are randomized controlled trials assessing outcomes that are relevant to stakeholders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Urquhart, Robin; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Zizzi, Alexandra R; Haines, Emily; Stover, Angela; Mayer, Deborah K; Hahn, Erin E

    2018-03-23

    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes assessed in extant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to outcomes that stakeholders expect from survivorship care plans (SCPs). To facilitate the transition from active treatment to follow-up care for the 15.5 million US cancer survivors, many organizations require SCP use. However, results of several RCTs of SCPs' effectiveness have been null, possibly because they have evaluated outcomes on which SCPs should be expected to have limited influence. Stakeholders (e.g., survivors, oncologists) may expect outcomes that differ from RCTs' outcomes. We identified RCTs' outcomes using a PubMed literature review. We identified outcomes that stakeholders expect from SCPs using semistructured interviews with stakeholders in three healthcare systems in the USA and Canada. Finally, we mapped RCTs' outcomes onto stakeholder-identified outcomes. RCT outcomes did not fully address outcomes that stakeholders expected from SCPs, and RCTs assessed outcomes that stakeholders did not expect from SCPs. RCTs often assessed outcomes only from survivors' perspectives. RCTs of SCPs' effectiveness have not assessed outcomes that stakeholders expect. To better understand SCPs' effectiveness, future RCTs should assess outcomes of SCP use that are relevant from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. SCPs' effectiveness may be optimized when used with an eye toward outcomes that stakeholders expect from SCPs. For survivors, this means using SCPs as a map to guide them with respect to what kind of follow-up care they should seek, when they should seek it, and from whom they should seek it.

  4. "Is general surgery still relevant to the subspecialised trainee?" A 10 year comparison of general versus specialty surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C A; Khan, Z; Andrews, E J; Fulton, G J; Redmond, H P; Corrigan, M A

    2015-02-01

    The splintering of general surgery into subspecialties in the past decade has brought into question the relevance of a continued emphasis on traditional general surgical training. With the majority of trainees now expressing a preference to subspecialise early, this study sought to identify if the requirement for proficiency in managing general surgical conditions has reduced over the past decade through comparison of general and specialty surgical admissions at a tertiary referral center. A cross-sectional review of all surgical admissions at Cork University Hospital was performed at three individual time points: 2002, 2007 & 2012. Basic demographic details of both elective & emergency admissions were tabulated & analysed. Categorisation of admissions into specialty relevant or general surgery was made using International guidelines. 11,288 surgical admissions were recorded (2002:2773, 2007:3498 & 2012:5017), showing an increase of 81 % over the 10-year period. While growth in overall service provision was seen, the practice of general versus specialty relevant emergency surgery showed no statistically significant change in practice from 2002 to 2012 (p = 0.87). General surgery was mostly practiced in the emergency setting (84 % of all emergency admissions in 2012) with only 28 % elective admissions for general surgery. A reduction in length of stay was seen in both elective (3.62-2.58 bed days, p = 0.342) & emergency admissions (7.36-5.65, p = 0.026). General surgical emergency work continues to constitute a major part of the specialists practice. These results emphasize the importance of general surgical training even for those trainees committed to sub-specialisation.

  5. Governance in Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from the Portuguese practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Margarida B.; Partidário, Maria Rosário

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of governance in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) can help understand why, whether and how strategic decision-making happens. Understanding the governance context is strategic to improve the role and capacity of SEA to stimulate, and legitimate decisions that integrate environmental issues and are sustainability driven. The objective of this paper is to discuss why governance is important in SEA. In the SEA literature governance is mostly addressed in silos (i.e. public participation or decisions transparency or accountability) rather than in an integrated way. In addition few authors adopt a strategic view to address the governance context within which SEA is used. In this paper we address the heuristics of governance in SEA based on theoretical and empirical evidence, suggesting how SEA may incorporate the governance dimension. First a review of the SEA literature in relation to governance sets the context to the analysis on how governance is approached in practice, based on 60 Portuguese SEA cases. This is followed by the presentation of an empirical SEA case conducted in Portugal to illustrate what, in our understanding, can be an example of good practice in considering governance in SEA. Final discussion reflects on the role of governance in SEA in promoting engagement, enabling collaborative action, learning processes and dialogues, concluding on the relevance of governance in creating development contexts that can deal with change.

  6. An investigation into the relevance of gamelan music to the practice of music therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Loth, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Indonesian gamelan with participants who have special needs or with special populations, and considers what the playing of gamelan music has to offer music therapy practice. The gamelan is an ensemble of instruments on which the traditional music of Indonesia is played, consisting of mainly tuned and un-tuned percussion instruments tuned to four, five or seven tone scales. Gamelan are being increasingly used for music activities with participants who have sp...

  7. Determinants of dermal exposure relevant for exposure modelling in regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, J; Brouwer, D H; Gijsbers, J H J; Links, I H M; Warren, N; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European research programme, an analysis of potential dermal exposure determinants was made based on the available studies and models and on the expert judgement of the authors of this publication. Only a few potential determinants appear to have been studied in depth. Several studies have included clusters of determinants into vaguely defined parameters, such as 'task' or 'cleaning and maintenance of clothing'. Other studies include several highly correlated parameters, such as 'amount of product handled', 'duration of task' and 'area treated', and separation of these parameters to study their individual influence is not possible. However, based on the available information, a number of determinants could clearly be defined as proven or highly plausible determinants of dermal exposure in one or more exposure situation. This information was combined with expert judgement on the scientific plausibility of the influence of parameters that have not been extensively studied and on the possibilities to gather relevant information during a risk assessment process. The result of this effort is a list of determinants relevant for dermal exposure models in the scope of regulatory risk assessment. The determinants have been divided into the major categories 'substance and product characteristics', 'task done by the worker', 'process technique and equipment', 'exposure control measures', 'worker characteristics and habits' and 'area and situation'. To account for the complex nature of the dermal exposure processes, a further subdivision was made into the three major processes 'direct contact', 'surface contact' and 'deposition'.

  8. Psychometric Assessment and Reporting Practices: Incongruence between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Tkatchouk, Masha; Gabriel, Stephanie M.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current study is twofold: (a) to investigate the rates at which researchers assess and report on the psychometric properties of the measures they use in their research and (b) to examine whether or not researchers appear to be generally employing sound/unsound rationales when it comes to how they conduct test evaluations. Based on a…

  9. Relevant Etiological Factors Involved in Human Trafficking in order to Practice Prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boroi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking (especially women and young girls, though men count equally among the victims are recently developed worldwide. The situation in certain regions of Central and Eastern Europe (with the opening of borders, increasing unemployment and poverty, dislocations and reducing state control structures tend to favour the development of all forms of trafficking, especially of human trafficking forsexual exploitation. To adopt appropriate measures to prevent and combat we have to know first the causes and conditions that generate human beings trafficking. Analysis of case studies and police statistics allowed the structuring of categories of causes and conditions that generate and sustain the phenomenon of traffickingin order to practice prostitution.

  10. Assessing the body image: relevance, application and instruments for oncological settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Giovannini, Lorena; Muzzatti, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Body image is the sum of physical, cognitive, emotional, and relational elements that, when integrated, allow the development of a whole, healthy self-identity. Even though body image is normally studied in relation to eating disorders, it can also be influenced by other pathologies, including cancer. In oncology, an effective body image assessment is fundamental. The physical effects of cancer and cancer treatments are important and frequently irreversible also on a functional and emotional level; however, only few surveys have investigated body image in this peculiar context. An extensive literature review was carried out in PubMed and PsycINFO. We considered articles published from 1990 to 2010. Two hundred sixty-three papers matched the search criteria. Assessment methodologies included clinical interviews, self-report measures, questionnaires, symptom check lists, and graphic tests and projective techniques. After excluding the instruments that referred to eating disorders, validated only for adolescents, and/or projective and graphic tests, we found 81 articles with six questionnaires specifically dedicated to body image assessment in oncology. From our systematic review, we could identify six instruments specifically designed for assessing body image in the oncological area. In this paper, we discuss their general characteristics, psychometrics properties and the clinical implications, and body image relevance on the quality of life in cancer patients.

  11. Chiral drug analysis using mass spectrometric detection relevant to research and practice in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-12-21

    This paper reviews analytical approaches published in 2002-2012 for chiral drug analysis and their relevance in research and practice in the field of clinical and forensic toxicology. Separation systems such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electromigration, and supercritical fluid chromatography, all coupled to mass spectrometry, are discussed. Typical applications are reviewed for relevant chiral analytes such as amphetamines and amphetamine-derived designer drugs, methadone, tramadol, psychotropic and other CNS acting drugs, anticoagulants, cardiovascular drugs, and some other drugs. Usefulness of chiral drug analysis in the interpretation of analytical results in clinical and forensic toxicology is discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological Assessment of Housekeeping Practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-03-31

    Mar 31, 2016 ... hygienic techniques for slaughtering and dressing. (FAO, 1992). However, meat ... contaminated water, unhygienic practices like poor handling, use of ... without any type of treatment and the butchered meat is washed by the ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG CASSAVA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philips Olusola

    public policies on food safety management. ... in the contemporary world and a significant factor in the reduction of productivity. There is some .... adduced to the views of the majority who considered food safety practices a big ..... Contingency.

  14. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Drasti; Koehmstedt, Christine; Jones, Rebecca; Coffey, Nathan T; Cai, Xinsheng; Garfinkel, Steven; Shaewitz, Dahlia M; Weinstein, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP) specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice. A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed. There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information. Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur.

  15. Issues related to adapting assessment practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    they leave school, then teaching and specifically assessment have failed. Gruender ... argues that the success of any system of assessment can be judged by the modeling ... proposed to replace the previous eight design features of Curriculum. 2005. ... ment of formative and continuous assessment (Chisholm, 1999:253).

  16. In vivo versus in vitro produced bovine ova: similarities and differences relevant for practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    - Abstract This present review describes some differences and similarities between bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro. The first part outlines the respective environments during maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development of the two types of embryos and compares their mor...... differences between in vitro and in vivo produced embryos are also well documented. How- ever, improved culture conditions have been reported to minimise the differences. The second part focuses on the practical consequences of the differences in relation to embryo selection, cryo- preservation, sanitary...... risks and pregnancy following transfer as well as normality of calves. Lower viability following transfer and increased susceptibility to cryopreservation of in vitro produced embryos is discussed. Finally and most importantly, reported evidence of increased sanitary risks and abnormal foetal...

  17. The relevance of gastric cancer biomarkers in prognosis and pre- and post- chemotherapy in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muhammad; Habib, Murad; Naveed, Muhammad; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Dhama, Kuldeep; Shi, Meiqi; Dingding, Chen

    2017-11-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one among the major cancer types, causing human deaths and present noticeable heterogeneity. The incidences and mortality rates are higher in males in comparison to females with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. A lot of studies have revealed out the molecular basis, pathogenesis, invasion and metastasis related findings of gastric stomach cancer. Present review encompasses the salient information on various biomarkers for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer elaborate the clinical importance of serum tumor markers in patients with this cancer as well as checking the growths, together with epigenetic changes and genetic polymorphisms. A deep and rigorous search was carried out in Pub Med/MEDLINE using specific key words; "gastric cancer", with "tumor marker". Our search yielded 4947 important reports about related topic from books and articles that were published before the end of August 2017. Conclusively, Scientists are utilizing high time and resource to salvage this nemesis which is of global importance and cause health burden. Classical and novel biomarkers are important for treatment as well as pre- and post- diagnosis of GC. Major causes for GC are cigarette smoking, infection by Helicobacter pylori, atrophic gastritis, sex/gender, and high salt intake. Early diagnoses of GC is important for the management, treatment, pathological diagnoses by stage prognosis and metastatic setting; although the treatment outcome proved to be not much fruitful following chemotherapy, and oral medication with oxaliplatin, capecitabine, cisplatin and 5- fluorouracil (5-FU). More research studies and exploring the practical usage of gastric cancer biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and pre- and post- chemotherapy in clinical practice for countering gastric cancers would alleviate to some extent the ill health sufferings of humans being caused by this important and common cancerous condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

  18. Linking electricity and water models to assess electricity choices at water-relevant scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, S; Rogers, J; Macknick, J; Lopez, A; Yates, D; Flores-Lopez, F

    2012-01-01

    Hydrology/water management and electricity generation projections have been modeled separately, but there has been little effort in intentionally and explicitly linking the two sides of the water–energy nexus. This paper describes a platform for assessing power plant cooling water withdrawals and consumption under different electricity pathways at geographic and time scales appropriate for both electricity and hydrology/water management. This platform uses estimates of regional electricity generation by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) as input to a hydrologic and water management model—the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system. In WEAP, this electricity use represents thermoelectric cooling water withdrawals and consumption within the broader, regional water resource context. Here we describe linking the electricity and water models, including translating electricity generation results from ReEDS-relevant geographies to the water-relevant geographies of WEAP. The result of this analysis is water use by the electric sector at the regional watershed level, which is used to examine the water resource implications of these electricity pathways. (letter)

  19. A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Amanda; Barken, Rachel; Sussman, Tamara; Rothwell, David; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada.

  20. Strength and fatigability of selected muscles in upper limb: assessing muscle imbalance relevant to tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehkhaiyat, O; Fisher, A C; Kemp, G J; Frostick, S P

    2007-08-01

    The aetiology of tennis elbow has remained uncertain for more than a century. To examine muscle imbalance as a possible pathophysiological factor requires a reliable method of assessment. This paper describes the development of such a method and its performance in healthy subjects. We propose a combination of surface and fine-wire EMG of shoulder and forearm muscles and wrist strength measurements as a reliable tool for assessing muscle imbalance relevant to the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Six healthy volunteers participated. EMG data were acquired at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction from five forearm muscles during grip and three shoulder muscles during external rotation and abduction, and analysed using normalized median frequency slope as a fatigue index. Wrist extension/flexion strength was measured using a purpose-built dynamometer. Significant negative slope of median frequency was found for all muscles, with good reproducibility, and no significant difference in slope between the different muscles of the shoulder and the wrist. (Amplitude slope showed high variability and was therefore unsuitable for this purpose.) Wrist flexion was 27+/-8% stronger than extension (mean+/-SEM, p=0.006). This is a reliable method for measuring muscle fatigue in forearm and shoulder. EMG and wrist strength studies together can be used for assessing and identifying the muscle balance in the wrist-forearm-shoulder chain.

  1. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  2. Assessment of vegetable production practices in Qwaqwa within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the information such as biographical information of the vegetable farmers, information about the vegetable gardens or farms, the current vegetable farming practices, irrigation practices on the vegetable soil and the farmers' physical and financial records were assessed. The assessment was conducted through ...

  3. Assessing population and environmental effects on thermal resistance in Drosophila melanogaster using ecologically relevant assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Hoffmann, Ary A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2011-01-01

    To make laboratory studies of thermal resistance in ectotherms more ecologically relevant, temperature changes that reflect conditions experienced by individuals in nature should be used. Here we describe an assay that is useful for quantifying multiple measures of thermal resistance of individual...... adult flies. We use this approach to assess upper and lower thermal limits and functional thermal scope for Drosophila melanogaster and also show that the method can be used to (1) detect a previously described latitudinal cline for cold tolerance in D. melanogaster populations collected along the east...... thermal environments have wider thermal limits compared to those from the less variable tropics, at least when flies were reared under constant temperature conditions and (4) demonstrate that different measures of cold resistance are often not strongly correlated. Based on our findings, we suggest...

  4. Assessing Hospital Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems: A Review of the Relevant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Pynoo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.

  5. Implications of teacher educators' practices in assessment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents findings on teacher educators' practices in assessment and their implications for student learning in Tanzania. Research on classroom assessment has been dichotomizing assessment and teaching-learning processes instead of viewing assessment as an integral part of the teachinglearning process.

  6. Identification and content validation of wound therapy clinical endpoints relevant to clinical practice and patient values for FDA approval. Part 1. Survey of the wound care community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Vickie R; Gould, Lisa J; Dotson, Peggy; Gibbons, Gary W; Li, William W; Ennis, William J; Kirsner, Robert S; Eaglstein, William H; Bolton, Laura L; Carter, Marissa J

    2017-05-01

    Wounds that exhibit delayed healing add extraordinary clinical, economic, and personal burdens to patients, as well as to increasing financial costs to health systems. New interventions designed to ease such burdens for patients with cancer, renal, or ophthalmologic conditions are often cleared for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) using multiple endpoints but the requirement of complete healing as a primary endpoint for wound products impedes FDA clearance of interventions that can provide other clinical or patient-centered benefits for persons with wounds. A multidisciplinary group of wound experts undertook an initiative, in collaboration with the FDA, to identify and content validate supporting FDA criteria for qualifying wound endpoints relevant to clinical practice (CP) and patient-centered outcomes (PCO) as primary outcomes in clinical trials. As part of the initiative, a research study was conducted involving 628 multidisciplinary expert wound clinicians and researchers from 4 different groups: the interdisciplinary core advisory team; attendees of the Spring 2015 Symposium on Advanced Wound Care (SAWC); clinicians employed by a national network of specialty clinics focused on comprehensive wound care; and Association for the Advancement of Wound Care (AAWC) and Wound Healing Society (WHS) members who had not previously completed the survey. The online survey assessed 28 literature-based wound care endpoints for their relevance and importance to clinical practice and clinical research. Fifteen of the endpoints were evaluated for their relevance to improving quality of life. Twenty-two endpoints had content validity indexes (CVI) ≥ 0.75, and 15 were selected as meriting potential inclusion as additional endpoints for FDA approval of future wound care interventions. This study represents an important first step in identifying and validating new measurable wound care endpoints for clinical research and practice and for regulatory

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste in evaporite formations - a review of published radiological assessments and their relevance to the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, G.

    1983-11-01

    Radiological assessments of the disposal of radioactive waste in evaporite formations, principally halite, have been reviewed. These assessments were carried out in the USA, the Netherlands, Denmark and West Germany. The general nature of evaporite formations in the UK is discussed and comments are given on the broad relevance of the assessments to the potential disposal of radioactive waste in UK evaporite formations. (author)

  8. Using holistic interpretive synthesis to create practice-relevant guidance for person-centred fundamental care delivered by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Rebecca; Conroy, Tiffany; Marshall, Rhianon J; Rasmussen, Philippa; Wiechula, Richard; Kitson, Alison L

    2017-04-01

    Nursing policy and healthcare reform are focusing on two, interconnected areas: person-centred care and fundamental care. Each initiative emphasises a positive nurse-patient relationship. For these initiatives to work, nurses require guidance for how they can best develop and maintain relationships with their patients in practice. Although empirical evidence on the nurse-patient relationship is increasing, findings derived from this research are not readily or easily transferable to the complexities and diversities of nursing practice. This study describes a novel methodological approach, called holistic interpretive synthesis (HIS), for interpreting empirical research findings to create practice-relevant recommendations for nurses. Using HIS, umbrella review findings on the nurse-patient relationship are interpreted through the lens of the Fundamentals of Care Framework. The recommendations for the nurse-patient relationship created through this approach can be used by nurses to establish, maintain and evaluate therapeutic relationships with patients to deliver person-centred fundamental care. Future research should evaluate the validity and impact of these recommendations and test the feasibility of using HIS for other areas of nursing practice and further refine the approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fire and Water combined: Understanding the Relevance of Working Life Studies through a Concept of Practical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Räsänen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When I presented the basic ideas of this paper at a conference, a Swedish colleague commented: ‘you manage to combine water and fire.’ I understood his kind comment to mean that he used water and fire as metaphors for practice and theory. The comment puzzled me for a while. Water and fire obviously destroy each other, or at least radically transform each other. Then I realized that humans have actually managed to combine water and fire in several ways. One solution is the kettle. It makes possible to use fire in a controlled way for the human purpose of boiling water. Thus, this paper can be taken as an attempt at offering a kettle-like vehicle for bringing together practicetheoretical concepts and vocational practice. My kettle is a concept of practical activity. I am trying to boil up an answer to the following question: in what senses a study of work can be practically relevant to those who are doing the work being studied?

  10. Quality assessment and improvements in pathology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, C.C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Every patient has the right to receive optimal quality health care. With regard to pathology practice, a small (interpretational) difference can have major impact for the patient, because prognosis and treatment selection are often based on the pathology report. Unfortunately, it is inevitable that

  11. Issues in Assessment: Putting Theory into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Patricia A., Ed.

    Assessment as conducted at Finger Lakes Community College (FLCC) in Canandaigua (New York) has taken various forms and has been conducted under various names. This publication offers an overview of assessment at the college from a philosophical and historical perspective. In both general and specific terms, the efforts of the college to meet the…

  12. The ICSD-3 and DSM-5 guidelines for diagnosing narcolepsy: clinical relevance and practicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Chad; Rye, David

    2016-07-20

    reflect narcolepsy pathophysiology, DSM-5 criteria have greater clinical practicality, suggesting that valid and reliable biomarkers to help standardize narcolepsy diagnosis would be welcomed.

  13. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  14. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELEVANCE OF DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN METHODS/CRITERIA TO NUCLEAR PLANT STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFMAYER, C.; MILLER, C.; WANG, Y.; COSTELLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    Revisions to the USNRC Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan Sections devoted to earthquake engineering practice are currently in process. The intent is to reflect changes in engineering practice that have evolved in the twenty years that have passed since those criteria were originally published. Additionally, field observations of the effects of the Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes have inspired some reassessment in the technical community about certain aspects of design practice. In particular, questions have arisen about the effectiveness of basing earthquake resistant designs on resistance to seismic forces and, then evaluating tolerability of the expected displacements. Therefore, a research effort was undertaken to examine the implications for NRC's seismic practice of the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The results of the NRC sponsored research on this subject are reported in this paper. A slow trend toward the utilization of displacement based methods for design was noted. However, there is a more rapid trend toward the use of displacement based methods for seismic evaluation of existing facilities. A document known as FEMA 273, has been developed and is being used as the basis for the design of modifications to enhance the seismic capability of existing non-nuclear facilities. The research concluded that displacement based methods, such as given in FEMA 273, may be useful for seismic margin studies of existing nuclear power stations. They are unlikely to be useful for the basic design of new stations since nuclear power stations are designed to remain elastic during a seismic event. They could, however, be useful for estimating the margins associated with that design

  16. Integrating Communication Best Practices in the Third National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate science assessments now have a history of nearly a quarter-century. This experience, together with important advances in relevant social sciences, has greatly improved our ability to communicate climate science effectively. As a result, the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was designed to be truly accessible and useful to all its intended audiences, while still being comprehensive and scientifically accurate. At a time when meeting the challenge of climate change is increasingly recognized as an urgent national and global priority, the NCA is proving to be valuable to decision-makers, the media, and the public. In producing this latest NCA, a communication perspective was an important part of the process from the beginning, rather than an afterthought as has often been the case with scientific reports. Lessons learned from past projects and science communications research fed into developing the communication strategy for the Third NCA. A team of editors and graphic designers worked closely with the authors on language, graphics, and photographs throughout the development of the report, Highlights document, and other products. A web design team helped bring the report to life online. There were also innovations in outreach, including a network of organizations intended to extend the reach of the assessment by engaging stakeholders throughout the process. Professional slide set development and media training were part of the preparation for the report's release. The launch of the NCA in May 2014 saw widespread and ongoing media coverage, continued references to the NCA by decision-makers, and praise from many quarters for its excellence in making complex science clear and accessible. This NCA is a professionally crafted report that exemplifies best practices in 21st century communications.

  17. The role of neuropsychology in UK pediatric HIV care: Relevance to clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anita

    2017-11-01

    There has been a dramatic improvement in the survival of children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) following the introduction of effective treatment in 1990s. The care for children living with PHIV is now focused on more accurately understanding the effects of both HIV and HIV treatment on the developing body and brain. An evaluation of current HIV neuroimaging, and neurocognitive research, when combined with clinical experience in the area of HIV, could help to inform United Kingdom (UK) PHIV service provision. This paper argues that an understanding from a neuropsychological perspective will help these young people to optimize their health, quality of life, and future functioning. The aim of the paper is to bring together research and clinical understanding of HIV and its treatment effects on the developing brain, together with an understanding of other potential neurological risk factors. It is argued here that there is a need for targeted neuropsychology assessment and preventative interventions, supported by clinical and preliminary research on the neurocognitive effects of HIV and its treatments.

  18. Audit Practices: Summary of Risk Assessment Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The primary objective of an audit risk assessment is to provide its users with the assurance that audit resources are focused on those areas needing greatest attention and will provide the best value...

  19. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool,” we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs. The Program Assessment Tool uses 19 criteria derived from literature on best and promising practices to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation. We describe the benefits, strengths, and challenges in implementing the tool in 22 community-based chronic disease prevention projects in Ontario, Canada. The Program Assessment Tool helps put best processes into operation to complement adoption and adaptation of evidence-informed practices for chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721789

  20. We Look More, Listen More, Notice More: Impact of Sustained Professional Development on Head Start Teachers' Inquiry-Based and Culturally-Relevant Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.

  1. Social vulnerability assessment: a growing practice in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, S.; McC arthy, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper builds upon work on social vulnerability from the CapHaz-Net consortium, an ongoing research project funded by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Programme. The project focuses on the social dimensions of natural hazards, as well as on regional practices of risk prevention and management, and aims at improving the resilience of European societies to natural hazards, paying particular attention to social capacity building. The topic of social vulnerability is one of seven themes being addressed in the project. There are various rationales for examining the relevance of social vulnerability to natural hazards. Vulnerability assessment has now been accepted as a requirement for the effective development of emergency management capability, and assessment of social vulnerability has been recognised as being integral to understanding the risk to natural hazards. The aim of our research was to examine social vulnerability, how it might be understood in the context of natural hazards in Europe, and how social vulnerability can be addressed to increase social capacity. The work comprised a review of research on social vulnerability to different natural hazards within Europe and included concepts and definitions of social vulnerability (and related concepts), the purpose of vulnerability assessment and who decides who is vulnerable, different approaches to assessing or measuring social vulnerability (such as the use of 'classical' quantitative vulnerability indicators and qualitative community-based approaches, along with the advantages and disadvantages of both), conceptual frameworks for assessing social vulnerability and three case studies of social vulnerability studies within Europe: flash floods in the Italian Alps, fluvial flooding in Germany and heat waves in Spain. The review reveals variable application of social vulnerability analysis across Europe and there are indications why this might be the case. Reasons could range from the scale of

  2. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drasti Patel,1 Christine Koehmstedt,1 Rebecca Jones,1 Nathan T Coffey,1 Xinsheng Cai,2 Steven Garfinkel,2 Dahlia M Shaewitz,2 Ali A Weinstein1 1Center for Study of Chronic Illness and Disability, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 2American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC, USA Purpose: Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice.Methods: A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed.Results: There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information.Conclusion: Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur. Keywords: health information, information behavior, knowledge utilization

  3. Assessment, Student Learning and Classroom Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amua-Sekyi, Ekua Tekyiwa

    2016-01-01

    Assessment in its various forms has always been a central part of educational practice. Evidence gleaned from the empirical literature suggests that assessment, especially high stakes external assessment has effect on how teachers teach and consequently, how students learn. Through focus group discussions, this paper draws upon the experiences of…

  4. The Practicalities of Assessing Freezing of Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, C.; Mallia, E.; Debu, B.; Bloem, B.R.; Ferraye, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a mysterious, complex and debilitating phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Adequate assessment is a pre-requisite for managing FOG, as well as for assigning participants in FOG research. The episodic nature of FOG, as well as its multiple clinical expressions

  5. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an ...

  6. Enhancing teaching and assessment practices in affective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study indicate that social studies tutors in the TTCs seldom teach in the affective domain because they have little knowledge about the taxonomic levels of internalisation of the affective domain. Similarly, the tutors hardly assess the affective outcomes and ineffectively too because of lack of adequate ...

  7. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  8. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  9. Obsolescence Risk Assessment Process Best Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Rojo, Francisco Javier; Roy, Rajkumar; Kelly, S.

    2013-01-01

    A component becomes obsolete when it is no longer available from the original manufacturer to the original specification. In long-lifecycle projects, obsolescence has become a major problem as it prevents the maintenance of the system. This is the reason why obsolescence management is now an essential part of the product support activities in sectors such as defence, aerospace, nuclear and railway; where systems need to be supported for several decades. The obsolescence risk assessment for th...

  10. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  12. MR assessment of the repaired rotator cuff: prevalence, size, location, and clinical relevance of tendon rerupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Calmet, J.; Ballabriga, J.; Gine, J.; Olona, M.; Camins, A.; Perez del Palomar, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate the prevalence, size, location, and clinical relevance of tendon rerupture following complete repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tear (RCT). A total of 78 surgically proven full-thickness rotator cuff tears in 74 patients were retrospectively included in the study. Clinical assessment was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles score. Postoperative MR imaging was evaluated to determine prevalence, size, and location of tendon rerupture. At a mean 48.4 months' follow-up, 62 shoulders (79.5%) had favorable outcomes and 45 shoulders (57.6%) showed rerupture on MR imaging studies. Reruptures were significantly more prevalent among patients with intermediate-to-bad outcomes (81.3%), with surgically demonstrated two-tendon tears (78.9%) or three-tendon tears (100%), and with preoperative fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle greater than 1 (91.6%). Reruptures were also significantly larger in those subgroups. Complete repair of RCT of all sizes may have favorable outcomes in a significant proportion of patients in spite of a high prevalence of reruptures. Preoperative tear size and degree of muscle fatty degeneration influence the prevalence and rerupture size. After repair of supraspinatus tears, reruptures tend to invade the posterior aspect of the tendon. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of relevant factors and relationships concerning human dermal exposure to pesticides in greenhouse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vidal, Jose L; Egea González, Francisco J; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Galera, María; Aguilera, Pedro A; López Carrique, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the gas chromatographic data obtained from 23 different greenhouse trials. This was used to establish which factors, including application technique (very small, small, medium and large drop-size), crop characteristics (short/tall, thin/dense) and pattern application of the operator (walking towards or away from the treated area) are relevant to the dermal exposure levels of greenhouse applicators. The results showed that the highest exposure by pesticides during field applications in greenhouses, in the climatic conditions and in the crop conditions typical of a southern European country, occurs on the lower legs and front thighs of the applicators. Similar results were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Drop-size seems to be very important in determining total exposure, while height and density of crops have little influence on total exposure under the conditions of the present study. No pesticide type is a major factor in total exposure. The application of multiple regression analysis (MRA) allowed assessment of the relationships between the pesticide exposure of the less affected parts of the body with the most affected parts.

  14. The relevance of polymeric synthetic membranes in topical formulation assessment and drug diffusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Rouse, Jennifer J; Sanderson, Francis D; Eccleston, Gillian M

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic membranes are composed of thin sheets of polymeric macromolecules that can control the passage of components through them. Generally, synthetic membranes used in drug diffusion studies have one of two functions: skin simulation or quality control. Synthetic membranes for skin simulation, such as the silicone-based membranes polydimethylsiloxane and Carbosil, are generally hydrophobic and rate limiting, imitating the stratum corneum. In contrast, synthetic membranes for quality control, such as cellulose esters and polysulfone, are required to act as a support rather than a barrier. These synthetic membranes also often contain pores; hence, they are called porous membranes. The significance of Franz diffusion studies and synthetic membranes in quality control studies involves an understanding of the fundamentals of synthetic membranes. This article provides a general overview of synthetic membranes, including a brief background of the history and the common applications of synthetic membranes. This review then explores the types of synthetic membranes, the transport mechanisms across them, and their relevance in choosing a synthetic membrane in Franz diffusion cell studies for formulation assessment purposes.

  15. Gene Expression Analysis to Assess the Relevance of Rodent Models to Human Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.

  16. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Kecskes, S.; Aiello, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  17. MR assessment of the repaired rotator cuff: prevalence, size, location, and clinical relevance of tendon rerupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M. [Hospital Reina Sofia de Tudela, Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Tudela, Navarra (Spain); Calmet, J.; Ballabriga, J.; Gine, J. [Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Servei de Cirurgia Ortopedica i Traumatologia, Tarragona (Spain); Olona, M. [Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Servei de Medicina Preventiva i Epidemiologia, Tarragona (Spain); Camins, A. [Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Tarragona (Spain); Perez del Palomar, L. [Hospital Ernest Lluch, Servicio de Radiologia, Calatayud, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate the prevalence, size, location, and clinical relevance of tendon rerupture following complete repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tear (RCT). A total of 78 surgically proven full-thickness rotator cuff tears in 74 patients were retrospectively included in the study. Clinical assessment was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles score. Postoperative MR imaging was evaluated to determine prevalence, size, and location of tendon rerupture. At a mean 48.4 months' follow-up, 62 shoulders (79.5%) had favorable outcomes and 45 shoulders (57.6%) showed rerupture on MR imaging studies. Reruptures were significantly more prevalent among patients with intermediate-to-bad outcomes (81.3%), with surgically demonstrated two-tendon tears (78.9%) or three-tendon tears (100%), and with preoperative fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle greater than 1 (91.6%). Reruptures were also significantly larger in those subgroups. Complete repair of RCT of all sizes may have favorable outcomes in a significant proportion of patients in spite of a high prevalence of reruptures. Preoperative tear size and degree of muscle fatty degeneration influence the prevalence and rerupture size. After repair of supraspinatus tears, reruptures tend to invade the posterior aspect of the tendon. (orig.)

  18. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  19. [Latest international guidelines for screening, prevention and treatment of familial breast cancer - implications for the relevant practice in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romics, László; Kocsis, Judit; Ormándi, Katalin; Molnár, Béla Ákos

    2016-07-01

    Screening, prevention and treatment of familial breast cancer require a multidisciplinary approach. New guidelines were published in the United Kingdom for the management of familial breast cancer. The authors summarise these new guidelines and analyse the relevant practice in Hungary. Relevant guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and Familial Breast Cancer Report (NHS Scotland) are described. New guidelines will increase the number of genetic tests as well as genetic counselling. An increase in the number of breast magnetic resonance imaging is expected, too. Chemoprevention can be offered for individuals with medium risk and above. Promising trials are underway with platinum based chemotherapy and polyADP-ribose polimerase inhibitors for the systemic treatment of familial breast cancer. The increase in the number of genetic tests, counselling, and breast magnetic resonance imaging may have a significant impact on health care budget. These guidelines will change some aspects of the current management of familial breast cancer. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(28), 1117-1125.

  20. Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia | Negussie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of alcohol advertising practices in Ethiopia. ... Abstract. Background: Alcohol advertising should be prepared with an appropriate sense of responsibility to the consumer public. In Ethiopia ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  1. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.

  2. Integrating Occupational Therapy Specific Assessments in Practice: Exploring Practitioner Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Asaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupational therapists sometimes find it challenging to integrate client-centered and occupational therapy specific assessments in practice. The aim of this study was to explore the use of occupational therapy specific assessments such as the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS among occupational therapists in Sweden and Japan. Methods. Interviews and qualitative thematic analyses were utilized. Findings. Four themes are reported: (1 use it or lose it, (2 simply no space until after hours, (3 biggest barriers can be colleagues, and (4 being more specific: communication. Conclusion. In keeping with previous studies, occupational therapists often find it challenging to implement client-centered and occupation-based assessment tools into practice. However, more work is needed to understand how best practices can be incorporated into a changing occupational therapy daily practice.

  3. An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene (wash) practices and quality of routinely ... East African Medical Journal ... There was a high uptake of households with treated drinking water (92%), availability of hand washing facilities in ...

  4. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of Agricultural Produce Among Women Marketers in Ogbomoso Agricultural of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment - Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a uniquely pedagogical while still comprehensive state-of-the-art description of LCA-methodology and its broad range of applications. The five parts of the book conveniently provide: I) the history and context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with its central role as quantitative and s...... needed to perform an LCA. V) An appendix with an LCA report template, a full example LCA report serving as inspiration for students who write their first LCA report, and a more detailed overview of existing LCIA methods and their similarities and differences....

  6. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  7. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rasella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective: To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design: This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results: Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions: Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.

  8. Outcome measures in European patients with haemophilia: Survey of implementation in routine clinical practice, perception of relevance and recommendations by European treaters in the EHTSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; de Moerloose, P; Garrido, R P

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation of outcome measures in routine clinical haemophilia practice and to explore and appreciate the perception of the relevance of such measures by treaters. A survey was completed by 19 of the 26 physicians involved in the European Haemophilia Therapy Strategy Board (EHTSB). Employing an extensive inventory of outcome measures used in patients with haemophilia, information was collected about the frequency of data collection and the subjective appreciation of their importance during clinic review. The survey revealed that most treaters currently collect data that are mainly related to the haemostatic treatment (consumption of concentrates) and the bleeding symptoms (number and location of bleeds) in a non-uniform and non-standardized way. By contrast, functional, physical and quality of life scorings are rarely used and show considerable heterogeneity between treaters. Also, many disparities emerged between practice and perception, in particular quality of life data that are perceived as being important but for most of the time are not collected. This survey represents, in our view, the first attempt to evaluate the actual utilization of outcome measures in haemophilia care. While the value of outcome measures is appreciated, they are not assessed regularly. Therefore, there is a need to include appropriate performance indicators (outcome measures) of haemophilia care in routine clinical practice. Consensus recommendations to provide a framework for achieving this aim are provided. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Methodical assessment of all non-ionizing radiation sources that can provide a relevant contribution to public exposure. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornkessel, Christian; Schubert, Markus; Wuschek, Matthias; Brueggemeyer, Hauke; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research project was to systematically identify artificial sources on non-ionizing radiation (electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields in a frequency range from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, as well optical radiation in a wavelength range from 100 nm to 1 mm), that have relevant contribution to public exposure. The report includes the following chapters: (1) Concept for the relevance assessment for non-ionizing radiation sources; (2) concept for the systematic identification of sources from establishes technologies; (3) concept for the systematic identification of sources from new or foreseeable technologies; (4)overview of relevant radiation sources.

  10. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  11. Cholera Vaccination Campaign Contributes to Improved Knowledge Regarding Cholera and Improved Practice Relevant to Waterborne Disease in Rural Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibana, Omowunmi; Franke, Molly; Teng, Jessica; Hilaire, Johanne; Raymond, Max; Ivers, Louise C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haiti's cholera epidemic has been devastating partly due to underlying weak infrastructure and limited clean water and sanitation. A comprehensive approach to cholera control is crucial, yet some have argued that oral cholera vaccination (OCV) might result in reduced hygiene practice among recipients. We evaluated the impact of an OCV campaign on knowledge and health practice in rural Haiti. Methodology/Principal Findings We administered baseline surveys on knowledge and practice relevant to cholera and waterborne disease to every 10th household during a census in rural Haiti in February 2012 (N = 811). An OCV campaign occurred from May–June 2012 after which we administered identical surveys to 518 households randomly chosen from the same region in September 2012. We compared responses pre- and post-OCV campaign. Post-vaccination, there was improved knowledge with significant increase in percentage of respondents with ≥3 correct responses on cholera transmission mechanisms (odds ratio[OR] 1.91; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.52–2.40), preventive methods (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.46–2.30), and water treatment modalities (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.16–3.50). Relative to pre-vaccination, participants were more likely post-OCV to report always treating water (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.28–2.05). Respondents were also more likely to report hand washing with soap and water >4 times daily post-vaccine (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03–1.64). Knowledge of treating water as a cholera prevention measure was associated with practice of always treating water (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14–1.89). Post-vaccination, knowledge was associated with frequent hand washing (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.35–4.51). Conclusion An OCV campaign in rural Haiti was associated with significant improvement in cholera knowledge and practices related to waterborne disease. OCV can be part of comprehensive cholera control and reinforce, not detract from, other control efforts in Haiti. PMID:24278498

  12. Cholera vaccination campaign contributes to improved knowledge regarding cholera and improved practice relevant to waterborne disease in rural Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Aibana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Haiti's cholera epidemic has been devastating partly due to underlying weak infrastructure and limited clean water and sanitation. A comprehensive approach to cholera control is crucial, yet some have argued that oral cholera vaccination (OCV might result in reduced hygiene practice among recipients. We evaluated the impact of an OCV campaign on knowledge and health practice in rural Haiti.We administered baseline surveys on knowledge and practice relevant to cholera and waterborne disease to every 10th household during a census in rural Haiti in February 2012 (N = 811. An OCV campaign occurred from May-June 2012 after which we administered identical surveys to 518 households randomly chosen from the same region in September 2012. We compared responses pre- and post-OCV campaign. Post-vaccination, there was improved knowledge with significant increase in percentage of respondents with ≥ 3 correct responses on cholera transmission mechanisms (odds ratio[OR] 1.91; 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.52-2.40, preventive methods (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.46-2.30, and water treatment modalities (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.16-3.50. Relative to pre-vaccination, participants were more likely post-OCV to report always treating water (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.28-2.05. Respondents were also more likely to report hand washing with soap and water >4 times daily post-vaccine (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.03-1.64. Knowledge of treating water as a cholera prevention measure was associated with practice of always treating water (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89. Post-vaccination, knowledge was associated with frequent hand washing (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.35-4.51.An OCV campaign in rural Haiti was associated with significant improvement in cholera knowledge and practices related to waterborne disease. OCV can be part of comprehensive cholera control and reinforce, not detract from, other control efforts in Haiti.

  13. Analytical characterization of engineered ZnO nanoparticles relevant for hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragaru, Adina; Kusko, Mihaela; Vasile, Eugeniu; Simion, Monica; Danila, Mihai; Ignat, Teodora; Mihalache, Iuliana; Pascu, Razvan; Craciunoiu, Florea

    2013-01-01

    The optoelectronic properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have determined development of novel applications in catalysis, paints, wave filters, UV detectors, transparent conductive films, solar cells, or sunscreens. While the immediate advantages of using nano-ZnO in glass panel coatings and filter screens for lamps, as protecting products against bleaching, have been demonstrated, the potential environmental effect of the engineered NPs and the associated products was not fully estimated; this issue being of utmost importance, as these materials will be supplied to the market in quantities of tons per year, equating to thousands of square meters. In this study, ZnO-NPs with commercial name Zincox™ have been subjected to a comprehensive characterization, relevant for hazard assessment, using complementary physico-chemical methods. Therefore, the morphological investigations have been corroborated with XRD pattern analyses and UV–Vis absorption related properties resulting an excellent correlation between the geometrical sizes revealed by microscopy (8.0–9.0 nm), and, respectively, the crystallite size (8.2–9.5 nm) and optical size (7.8 nm) calculated from the last two techniques’ data. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic diameter of ZnO-NPs and stability of aqueous dispersions with different concentration of nanoparticles have been analyzed as function of significant solution parameters, like concentration, pH and solution ionic strength. The results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO dissolution stability, the complete set of analyses providing useful information toward better control of dosage during biotoxicological tests.

  14. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  15. Bootcamp EMMA MOOC Assessment for learning in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Brouns, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the EDEN Conference an introduction to the EMMA platform will be combined with learning activities relevant to the topic of Formative Assessment. EDEN conference participants will have an opportunity to join the MOOC prior to the conference or at the conference. A range of learning activities

  16. The Practice of Campus-Based Threat Assessment: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Deisinger, Eugene R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of threat assessment and management as implemented on campuses of higher education. Standards of practice and state calls for implementation are cited. An overview of some of the basic principles for threat assessment and management implementation is accompanied by examples of how they are utilized. Pitfalls…

  17. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Increased Authenticity in Practical Assessment Using Emergency Case OSCE Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Muller, Michael P.; Junger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In case of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and assessed during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable assessment format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine…

  19. Systems Thinking and Systems-Based Practice Across the Health Professions: An Inquiry Into Definitions, Teaching Practices, and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M; Goldman, Ellen F; Scott, Andrea R; Pintz, Christine; Herrmann, Debra; Kline, Kathleen; Thompson, Tracey; Brundage, Shelley B

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Systems thinking is the cornerstone of systems-based practice (SBP) and a core competency in medicine and health sciences. Literature regarding how to teach or apply systems thinking in practice is limited. This study aimed to understand how educators in medicine, physical therapy, physician assistant, nursing, and speech-language pathology education programs teach and assess systems thinking and SBP. Twenty-six educators from seven different degree programs across the five professions were interviewed and program descriptions and relevant course syllabi were reviewed. Qualitative analysis was iterative and incorporated inductive and deductive methods as well as a constant comparison of units of data to identify patterns and themes. Six themes were identified: 1) participants described systems thinking as ranging across four major levels of healthcare (i.e., patient, care team, organization, and external environment); 2) participants associated systems thinking with a wide range of activities across the curriculum including quality improvement, Inter-professional education (IPE), error mitigation, and advocacy; 3) the need for healthcare professionals to understand systems thinking was primarily externally driven; 4) participants perceived that learning systems thinking occurred mainly informally and experientially rather than through formal didactic instruction; 5) participants characterized systems thinking content as interspersed across the curriculum and described a variety of strategies for teaching and assessing it; 6) participants indicated a structured framework and inter-professional approach may enhance teaching and assessment of systems thinking. Insights: Systems thinking means different things to different health professionals. Teaching and assessing systems thinking across the health professions will require further training and practice. Tools, techniques, taxonomies and expertise outside of healthcare may be used to enhance the teaching

  20. Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Performance-Relevant Parameters and Performance Outcomes in Sports: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmayer, Lucia; Birrer, Daniel; Röthlin, Philipp; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness as a present-oriented form of mental training affects cognitive processes and is increasingly considered meaningful for sport psychological training approaches. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on physiological and psychological performance surrogates or on performance outcomes in sports. The aim of the present meta-analytical review was to examine the effects of mindfulness practice or mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological performance surrogates and on performance outcomes in sports in athletes over 15 years of age. A structured literature search was conducted in six electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (mindful* OR meditat* OR yoga) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR perform* OR capacity OR skill*) AND (health* OR adult* OR athlete*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies that compared mindfulness practice techniques as an intervention with an inactive control or a control that followed another psychological training program in healthy sportive participants were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] scales were independently assessed by two researchers. A third independent researcher was consulted to achieve final consensus in case of disagreement between both researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated as weighted Hedges' g and served as the main outcomes in comparing mindfulness practice versus control. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Nine trials of fair study quality (mean PEDro score 5.4, standard deviation 1.1) with 290 healthy sportive participants (athletics, cyclists, dart throwers, hammer throwers, hockey players, hurdlers, judo fighters, rugby players, middle-distance runners, long

  1. Mental Health Professionals' Suicide Risk Assessment and Management Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.

  2. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L. Fleming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the present-day global and regional distributions (2010–2014 and trends (2000–2014 for five ozone metrics relevant for short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics, calculated by the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report, are: 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone (4MDA8; number of days with MDA8 > 70 ppb (NDGT70, SOMO35 (annual Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb and two seasonally averaged metrics (3MMDA1; AVGMDA8. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites worldwide, which were classified as urban or non-urban based on population and nighttime lights data. Present-day distributions of 4MDA8 and NDGT70, determined predominantly by peak values, are similar with highest levels in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. For the other three metrics, distributions are similar with North–South gradients more prominent across Europe and Japan. Between 2000 and 2014, significant negative trends in 4MDA8 and NDGT70 occur at most US and some European sites. In contrast, significant positive trends are found at many sites in South Korea and Hong Kong, with mixed trends across Japan. The other three metrics have similar, negative trends for many non-urban North American and some European and Japanese sites, and positive trends across much of East Asia. Globally, metrics at many sites exhibit non-significant trends. At 59% of all sites there is a common direction and significance in the trend across all five metrics, whilst 4MDA8 and NDGT70 have a common trend at ~80% of all sites. Sensitivity analysis shows AVGMDA8 trends differ with averaging period (warm season or annual. Trends are unchanged at many sites when a 1995–2014 period is used; although fewer sites exhibit non-significant trends. Over the longer period 1970–2014, most Japanese sites exhibit positive 4MDA8/SOMO35 trends. Insufficient data exist to characterize ozone trends for the rest of Asia and other world regions.

  3. Assessment Training: A Precondition for Teachers' Competencies and Use of Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2016-01-01

    Student assessment, particularly at classroom level, remains an integral part of teaching and learning and is a driving force for the implementation of educational policies and practices in many countries. Nevertheless, problems associated with teachers' classroom assessment practices continue to exist in schools and research shows that teachers…

  4. Bilingual Language Assessment: Contemporary Versus Recommended Practice in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Graciela; Friberg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The study was modeled to replicate portions of Caesar and Kohler's (2007) study and expanded to include a nationally representative sample. A total of 166 respondents completed an electronic survey. Results indicated that the majority of respondents have performed bilingual language assessments. Furthermore, the most frequently used informal and standardized assessments were identified. SLPs identified supports, and barriers to assessment, as well as their perceptions of graduate preparation. The findings of this study demonstrated that although SLPs have become more compliant to ASHA and IDEA guidelines, there is room for improvement in terms of adequate training in bilingual language assessment.

  5. SAUDI TEACHERS’ PRACTICES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Almuntasheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting from teacher-centred to student-centred practices requires teachers to understand strategies to interact with students in science classes. Formative assessment strategies are very critical component of classroom interaction where teachers obtain information about student learning wherever possible. Traditionally, however, teachers ask questions and evaluate student responses but without investigating student contributions to the classroom interaction. This qualitative study aimed at developing teachers’ knowledge of formative assessment strategies when teaching science-based inquiry in Saudi Arabia. 12 teachers were observed when teaching science and details of one teachers’ practices of formative assessment is presented in this study. Formative assessment framework that describes assessment conversations is used and modified to observe teachers’ assessment practices. Assessment conversation consists of four-step cycles, where the teacher elicits information from students through questioning, the student responds, the teacher recognizes the student’s response, and then uses the information to develop further inquiry. Findings indicate that teachers ask questions and receive responses but rarely allow students to share their own ideas or discuss their own thinking. The study underlines the importance of integrating formative assessment strategies during scientific inquiry teaching for professional development as a way to increase student participation and allow opportunities for students’ inquiry in science classes.

  6. Translating Theory Into Practice: Implementing a Program of Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Karen E; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Fitzhenry, Kristen; Boscardin, Christy

    2018-03-01

    A program of assessment addresses challenges in learner assessment using a centrally planned, coordinated approach that emphasizes assessment for learning. This report describes the steps taken to implement a program of assessment framework within a medical school. A literature review on best practices in assessment highlighted six principles that guided implementation of the program of assessment in 2016-2017: (1) a centrally coordinated plan for assessment aligns with and supports a curricular vision; (2) multiple assessment tools used longitudinally generate multiple data points; (3) learners require ready access to information-rich feedback to promote reflection and informed self-assessment; (4) mentoring is essential to facilitate effective data use for reflection and learning planning; (5) the program of assessment fosters self-regulated learning behaviors; and (6) expert groups make summative decisions about grades and readiness for advancement. Implementation incorporated stakeholder engagement, use of multiple assessment tools, design of a coaching program, and creation of a learner performance dashboard. The assessment team monitors adherence to principles defining the program of assessment and gathers and responds to regular feedback from key stakeholders, including faculty, staff, and students. Next steps include systematically collecting evidence for validity of individual assessments and the program overall. Iterative review of student performance data informs curricular improvements. The program of assessment also highlights technology needs that will be addressed with information technology experts. The outcome ultimately will entail showing evidence of validity that the program produces physicians who engage in lifelong learning and provide high-quality patient care.

  7. Assessing Course Content Relevance for Employment of Adult Non-Formal Education and Training Graduates in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayombe, Celestin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the course content relevance in contributing to wage- or self-employment of adult non-formal education and training (NFET) in the context of South Africa. The concern that informed this article is that adults who face long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after…

  8. Construct Relevant or Irrelevant? The Role of Linguistic Complexity in the Assessment of English Language Learners' Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of language-related construct-irrelevant variance on content area tests from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics. We propose that the construct relevance of language used in content area assessments, and consequent claims of construct-irrelevant variance and bias, should be determined according to…

  9. Energy Efficiency Practices: Assessment of Ohrid Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides information on the extent how the hotel industry in Ohrid meets the energy efficiency practices in terms of the current level of involvement. By undertaking an online survey in three, four and five-star hotels, the study assesses the attitudes and willingness of hotel managers concerning applying energy efficiency and environmental protection concepts and practices. Moreover, it investigates various determinants of energy consumption, like: solid waste management, resource...

  10. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four te...

  11. Adult Dental Anxiety: Recent Assessment Approaches and Psychological Management in a Dental Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry; Spyt, James; Herbison, Alice G; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-05-01

    Dental anxiety of patients is a common feature of the everyday experience of dental practice. This article advocates the use of regular assessment of this psychological construct to assist in patient management. Various tools, such as the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), are available to monitor dental anxiety that are quick to complete and easy to interpret. Patient burden is low. A new mobile phone assessment system (DENTANX) is being developed for distribution. This application and other psychological interventions are being investigated to assist patients to receive dental care routinely. Clinical relevance: This article provides evidence and expert opinion on the worth of regular dental anxiety assessment in dental practice using structured tools, such as the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and consideration of psychological intervention development.

  12. Environmental impact assessment in practice: A gender critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, P.A.; Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN

    1995-01-01

    The author evaluates the extent to which environmental impact assessment (EIA) as conceptualized by EIA systems is a gendered process. Through a discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with bureaucrats, technocrats, and activists involved with the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India, the author examines the practice of EIA in a Third World country. She uses a theoretical framework, informed by a theory of gender, to evaluate the interviews. In practice, EIA is marked by gender biases that ignore the gender-specific nature of impacts. Such biases distort the impact assessment process, making environmental sustainability difficult, if not impossible, to achieve

  13. Practice and assessment of sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.; Bewers, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    This paper discusses the practice and assessment of the ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes. It describes the international and multilateral regulatory framework, the sources, composition, packaging and rate of dumping and, in particular, the recent radiological assessment of the only operational disposal site in the northeast Atlantic. The paper concludes with a discussion of future ocean disposal practices for radioactive wastes, and the application of the approach to the dumping of non-radioactive contaminants in the ocean. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non...

  15. Progestin potency – Assessment and relevance to choice of oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Goldstuck

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: Newer progestins are more receptor selective and potency is less relevant than it was with older progestins. Epidemiological studies of progestin potency and its role in disease generally use out of date information. There is still confusion about the relationship of dose and potency in some studies. The use of the EPA can help eliminate this.

  16. The assessment of learning in engineering education practice and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, John

    2016-01-01

    Explores how we judge engineering education in order to effectively redesign courses and programs that will prepare new engineers for various professional and academic careers This book considers the functions of assessment and its measurement in engineering education. Chapters two through three discuss efforts toward alternative curriculum in engineering and advanced level exams for university entry in engineering science. Chapter four reviews investigations of what engineers do at work and their implications assessment. Chapter five records the development of competency based assessment and considers its implications for the engineering curriculum. Chapter six discusses the impact of the accrediting authorities on assessment, outcomes based assessment, taxonomies and assessment in mastery and personalized systems of instruction. Chapters seven through eight consider student variability (e.g. intellectual development, emotional intelligence) and reflective practice. Questio s are raised about the assessment...

  17. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team

  18. Availability, quality and relevance of toxicogenomics data for human health risk assessment: A scoping review of the literature on trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Julien; Pagé-Larivière, Florence; Sirard, Marc-André; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Levallois, Patrick; Campagna, Céline

    2018-03-05

    Human health risk assessment (HHRA) must be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century, and the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is among the changes that regulatory agencies worldwide are trying to implement. However, the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is still limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications as potential barriers to their use in HHRA. We conducted a scoping review of available toxicogenomics literature, using trihalomethanes as a case study. Four bibliographic databases (including the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) were assessed. An evaluation table was developed to characterise quality and relevance of studies included on the basis of criteria proposed in the literature. Studies were selected and analysed by two independent reviewers. Only nine studies, published between 1997 and 2015, were included in the analysis. Based on the selected criteria, critical methodological details were often missing; in fact, only three out of nine studies were considered to be of adequate quality for HHRA. No studies met more than three (out of seven) criteria of relevance to HHRA (e.g. adequate number of doses and sample size, etc.). This first scoping review of toxicogenomics publications on trihalomethanes shows that low availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications presents potential barriers to their use in HHRA. Improved reporting of methodological details and study design is needed in the future so that toxicogenomics studies can be appropriately assessed regarding their quality and value for HHRA.

  19. Relevance feature selection of modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition in structural health assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Qing Mu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modal frequency is an important indicator for structural health assessment. Previous studies have shown that this indicator is substantially affected by the fluctuation of ambient conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, recognizing the pattern between modal frequency and ambient conditions is necessary for reliable long-term structural health assessment. In this article, a novel machine-learning algorithm is proposed to automatically select relevance features in modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition based on structural dynamic response and ambient condition measurement. In contrast to the traditional feature selection approaches by examining a large number of combinations of extracted features, the proposed algorithm conducts continuous relevance feature selection by introducing a sophisticated hyperparameterization on the weight parameter vector controlling the relevancy of different features in the prediction model. The proposed algorithm is then utilized for structural health assessment for a reinforced concrete building based on 1-year daily measurements. It turns out that the optimal model class including the relevance features for each vibrational mode is capable to capture the pattern between the corresponding modal frequency and the ambient conditions.

  20. The relevance of clinical balance assessment tools to differentiate balance deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B

    2010-01-01

    Control of balance is complex and involves maintaining postures, facilitating movement, and recovering equilibrium. Balance control consists of controlling the body center of mass over its limits of stability. Clinical balance assessment can help assess fall risk and/or determine the underlying reasons for balance disorders. Most functional balance assessment scales assess fall risk and the need for balance rehabilitation but do not differentiate types of balance deficits. A system approach t...

  1. Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Hasan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article is based on questions related to the formative assessment of preparatory trainee ship in the professional life of Physical Education teachers. In general, in the first training program, the traineeship represents an integral part of training. In this sense, the traineeship offers a vital opportunity for future teacher to gain practical experience in the real environment, given that formative evaluation is a process of collecting evidence from trainees by cooperative teachers to make decisions about their knowledge and skills, to guide their own instructional activities and to control their behavior. Accordingly, this study proposed to explore practices of Tunisians cooperative teachers in relation to the formative assessment. Material: To verify our proposed object, we conducted a research using a questionnaire distributed among 96 cooperative teachers in different educational institutions located in the region of the greater Tunis. During the school year 2015-2016, the questionnaire was the subject of a statistical analysis using frequencies and percentages. Results: The analysis of such data revealed a range of practices about formative estimation among cooperative teachers. In particular, each teacher acknowledged the value of guiding and encouraging student’s self-assessment. So that they could lead their students to assume a share of evaluative activity. Conclusion: Both theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, and some recommendations are made for future practice.

  2. The assessment of female students' perceptions, practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to assess perceptions, practices and challenges of ... Stratified sampling followed by Simple random sampling (lottery method) technique ... The gathered information was analyzed using both quantitative and ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  3. Assessment of Pragmatic Difficulties and Socioemotional Adjustment in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Marion; Oliver, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Background: In professional practice, psychologists and other professionals such as therapists and teachers receive referrals of many children who present with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties that are difficult to understand and assess. The problems of some of these children may stem from pragmatic difficulties in communication.…

  4. Comparative assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer and its screening among female clinical nursing students in Southern Nigeria. Methodology: ... There is need to adopt urgent and drastic intervention strategies to save our women from unnecessary death. Keywords: ...

  5. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  6. Assessment of best practice of software development in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Understand the technology of the software (4.03), Memory limit set (3.91), Application pool not shared (3.88) and other parameters were examined for software development. The analysis shows the variance of the assessment of best practices in Software development firms and they are in conformity with the global trend.

  7. Students' Assessment Of Farm Practical Programme In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' Assessment Of Farm Practical Programme In Selected Universities Of Southwestern, Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Students reported that lack of planning, improper implementation of activities lined up for the programme, lack of fund to properly finance the programme and ...

  8. Review Article: The roles of assessment in curriculum practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment is indispensable component of curriculum practice. In systems of education, one of the prime considerations of administrators, teachers, and students alike are the outcomes of learning, what ability students can demonstrate because of increase in their knowledge and changes in understanding because of ...

  9. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  10. A practical, systematic and structured approach to piping vibration assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaih, Naren

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present a systematic and structured approach to piping vibration assessment and control. Piping vibration assessment is a complex subject, since there are no general analytical methods for dealing with vibration problems. It was noted that most existing vibrating piping systems had poor or degraded support arrangements. This approach therefore focuses mainly on vibration control through assessing and improving the supporting systems. Vibration theory has not been covered in any detail. A simplified procedure is presented for the Integrity custodian to determine when a simple assessment may be carried out and when specialist/consultant services are required. The assessment techniques are based on simplifying assumptions, good rules of thumb and available literature and current practices. A typical case study is used to illustrate the use and the flexibility of the above approach. A standard sheet is proposed to record and document the assessment and recommendations

  11. Assessing the Practicality and Relevance of Adventist Educational Philosophy in a Contemporary Education Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, W. Marc

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the key tenets of contemporary education philosophy and compares it to the principles of the Adventist educational philosophy. The intent is to determine whether Adventist educational philosophy aligns with the demands of contemporary education. In this vein, 10 key principles of contemporary education are first described.…

  12. Evaluating an holistic assessment tool for palliative care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlfatrick, Sonja; Hasson, Felicity

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate a holistic assessment tool for palliative care practice. This included identifying patients' needs using the holistic tool and exploring the usability, applicability and barriers and facilitators towards implementation in practice. The delivery of effective holistic palliative care requires a careful assessment of the patients' needs and circumstances. Whilst holistic assessment of palliative care needs is advocated, questions exist around the appropriateness of tools to assist this process. Mixed-method research design. Data collection involved an analysis of piloted holistic assessments undertaken using the tool (n = 132) and two focus groups with healthcare professionals (n = 10). The tool enabled health professionals to identify and gain an understanding of the needs of the patients, specifically in relation to the physical healthcare needs. Differences, however, between the analysis of the tool documentation and focus group responses were identified in particular areas. For example, 59 (68·8%) respondents had discussed preferred priorities of care with the patient; however, focus group comments revealed participants had concerns around this. Similarly, whilst over half of responses (n = 50; 57·5%) had considered a prognostic clinical indicator for the patient as an action, focus group results indicated questions around healthcare professionals' knowledge and perceived usefulness of such indicators. Positive aspects of the tool were that it was easy to understand and captured the needs of individuals. Negative aspects of the tool were that it was repetitive and the experience of assessors required consideration. The tool evaluation identified questions regarding holistic assessment in palliative care practice and the importance of communication. A holistic assessment tool can support patient assessment and identification of patients' needs in the 'real world' of palliative care practice, but the 'tool' is merely an aid to assist professionals to

  13. Assessment and monitoring practices of Australian fitness professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Craike, Melinda J; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2018-04-01

    Assessment and monitoring of client health and fitness is a key part of fitness professionals' practices. However, little is known about prevalence of this practice. This study describes the assessment/monitoring practices of a large sample of Australian fitness professionals. Cross-sectional. In 2014, 1206 fitness professionals completed an online survey. Respondents reported their frequency (4 point-scale: [1] 'never' to [4] 'always') of assessment/monitoring of eight health and fitness constructs (e.g. body composition, aerobic fitness). This was classified as: (i) 'high' ('always' assessing/monitoring ≥5 constructs); (ii) 'medium' (1-4 constructs); (iii) 'low' (0 constructs). Classifications are reported by demographic and fitness industry characteristics. The odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor' according to social ecological correlates were examined using a multiple-factor logistic regression model. Mean age of respondents was 39.3 (±11.6) years and 71.6% were female. A total of 15.8% (95% CI: 13.7%-17.9%) were classified as a 'high' assessor/monitor. Constructs with the largest proportion of being 'always' assessed were body composition (47.7%; 95% CI: 45.0%-50.1%) and aerobic fitness (42.5%; 95% CI: 39.6%-45.3%). Those with the lowest proportion of being 'always' assessed were balance (24.0%; 95% CI: 24.7%-26.5%) and mental health (20.2%; 95% CI: 18.1%-29.6%). A perceived lack of client interest and fitness professionals not considering assessing their responsibility were associated with lower odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor'. Most fitness professionals do not routinely assess/monitor client fitness and health. Key factors limiting client health assessment and monitoring include a perceived lack of client interest and professionals not considering this their role. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT FOR DECISION MAKING IN LATIN AMERICA: GOOD PRACTICE PRINCIPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Soto, Natalie C; Augustovski, Federico Ariel; García Martí, Sebastián; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2018-06-11

    The aim of this study was to identify good practice principles for health technology assessment (HTA) that are the most relevant and of highest priority for application in Latin America and to identify potential barriers to their implementation in the region. HTA good practice principles proposed at the international level were identified and then explored during a deliberative process in a forum of assessors, funders, and product manufacturers. Forty-two representatives from ten Latin American countries participated. Good practice principles proposed at the international level were considered valid and potentially relevant to Latin America. Five principles were identified as priority and with the greatest potential to be strengthened at this time: transparency in the production of HTA, involvement of relevant stakeholders in the HTA process, mechanisms to appeal decisions, clear priority-setting processes in HTA, and a clear link between HTA and decision making. The main challenge identified was to find a balance between the application of these principles and the available resources in a way that would not detract from the production of reports and adaptation to the needs of decision makers. The main recommendation was to progress gradually in strengthening HTA and its link to decision making by developing appropriate processes for each country, without trying to impose, in the short-term, standards taken from examples at the international level without adequate adaptation of these to local contexts.

  15. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobos, Víctor; Partidario, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories

  16. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  17. Final assessment of nursing students in clinical practice: Perspectives of nursing teachers, students and mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminen, Kristiina; Johnson, Martin; Isoaho, Hannu; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2017-12-01

    To describe the phenomenon of final assessment of the clinical practice of nursing students and to examine whether there were differences in assessments by the students and their teachers and mentors. Final assessment of students in clinical practice during their education has great importance for ensuring that enough high-quality nursing students are trained, as assessment tasks affect what the nursing student learns during the clinical practice. This study used descriptive, cross-sectional design. The population of this study comprised nursing students (n = 276) and their teachers (n = 108) in five universities of applied sciences in Finland as well as mentors (n = 225) who came from five partner hospitals. A questionnaire developed for this study contained questions about background variables as well as structured questions scored on a four-point scale, which also allowed the respondents to provide additional comments. When comparing the results related to nursing teachers' presence in the final assessment situation, it was found that teachers and mentors evaluated this as being carried out more often than nursing students suggested. Nursing students noted that fair and consistent assessment is carried out more often than nursing teachers thought. Mentors and teachers said that honest and direct criteria-based final assessment was carried out more often than nursing students evaluated. Nursing students and mentors need support from educational institutions and from nursing teachers in order to ensure the completion of a relevant assessment process. The findings of this study highlight an awareness of final assessment process. It is desirable to have a common understanding, for example, of how the assessment should be managed and what the assessment criteria are, as this will ensure a good quality process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The relevance of western crisis communication theories to authoritarian Chinese practices : a study on the SARS epidemic and the Wenchuan earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Renna

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical field of crisis management has just been established and developed since 1970s and in the past three decades, most of such theories were western-oriented and US-dominated. Inspired by Huang, Lin and Su (Taiwan) and Lee (Hong Kong)‘s explorations of cultural context in crisis communication, this thesis applied crisis communication theories to governmental practices in the mainland China examining the relevancy between theory and practice in a non-western context. The thesis spe...

  19. Optimizing Team Dynamics: An Assessment of Physician Trainees and Advanced Practice Providers Collaborative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cortney B; Simone, Shari; Bagdure, Dayanand; Garber, Nan A; Bhutta, Adnan

    2016-09-01

    The presence of advanced practice providers has become increasingly common in many ICUs. The ideal staffing model for units that contain both advanced practice providers and physician trainees has not been described. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ICU staffing models that include physician trainees and advanced practice providers and their effects on patient outcomes, resident and fellow education, and training experience. A second aim was to assess strategies to promote collaboration between team members. PubMed, CINAHL, OVID MEDLINE, and Cochrane Review from 2002 to 2015. Experimental study designs conducted in an ICU setting. Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and independently abstracted data using the identified search terms. We found 21 articles describing ICU team structure and outcomes. Four articles were found describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident or fellow education. Two articles were found discussing strategies to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and critical care fellows or residents. Several articles were identified describing the utilization of advanced practice providers in the ICU and the impact of models of care on patient outcomes. Limited data exist describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident and fellow education and training experience. In addition, there are minimal data describing methods to enhance collaboration between providers. Future research should focus on determining the optimal ICU team structure to improve patient outcomes, education of trainees, and job satisfaction of team members and methods to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and physicians in training.

  20. Self-Assessment in Librarianship: Current Practices and Future Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Dymarz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this qualitative study set out to investigate self-assessment practices within the library profession. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of nine librarians coming from a range of library settings and possessing a diversity of library experience. Interviews were then transcribed and coded in NVIVO to identify emergent themes. This paper details some of the results of that study, highlighting motivations, limitations, and strategies with regard to self-assessment. The findings present a summary of a range of approaches to the practice of assessment as reported by the interviewees. One area of possible growth for our profession, as highlighted by the findings, is in the development of peer networks as a support for the individual practice of self-assessment. While the results of this small case study cannot be generalized, the authors hope these preliminary findings can open up the conversation around self-assessment both for individual librarians and for those librarians and managers working to shape their workplace culture.

  1. Status of reliability in determining SDDR for manual maintenance activities in ITER: Quality assessment of relevant activation cross sections involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Garcia, M.; Pampin, R.; Sanz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of manual maintenance activities in ITER port cell and port interspace. • Activation of relevant materials and components placed in the current ITER model. • Dominant radionuclides and pathways for shutdown dose rate in ITER. • Quality analysis of typically used EAF and TENDL activation libraries is performed. • EAF performance found as trustworthy with slight recommended improvements. - Abstract: This paper assesses the quality of the EAF-2007 and 2010 activation cross sections for relevant reactions in the determination of the Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR) in the Port Cell (PC) and Port Interspace (PI) areas of ITER. For each of relevant ITER materials, dominant radionuclides responsible of SDDR and their production pathways are listed. This information comes from a review of the recent reports/papers about SDDR in ITER and own calculations. A total of 26 relevant pathways are found. The quality of these cross sections pathways is assessed following EAF validation procedure, and for those found as not validated last TENDL library versions have been investigated in order to check possible improvements when compared to EAF. The use of EAF libraries is found as trustworthy and it is recommended for the prediction of SDDR in the ITER PC and PI. However, 3 cross section reactions are considered for further improvement: Co59(n,2n)Co58, Cu63(n,g)Cu64 and Cr50(n,g)Cr51.

  2. Status of reliability in determining SDDR for manual maintenance activities in ITER: Quality assessment of relevant activation cross sections involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R., E-mail: rgarciam@ind.uned.es [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M. [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pampin, R. [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, J. [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of manual maintenance activities in ITER port cell and port interspace. • Activation of relevant materials and components placed in the current ITER model. • Dominant radionuclides and pathways for shutdown dose rate in ITER. • Quality analysis of typically used EAF and TENDL activation libraries is performed. • EAF performance found as trustworthy with slight recommended improvements. - Abstract: This paper assesses the quality of the EAF-2007 and 2010 activation cross sections for relevant reactions in the determination of the Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR) in the Port Cell (PC) and Port Interspace (PI) areas of ITER. For each of relevant ITER materials, dominant radionuclides responsible of SDDR and their production pathways are listed. This information comes from a review of the recent reports/papers about SDDR in ITER and own calculations. A total of 26 relevant pathways are found. The quality of these cross sections pathways is assessed following EAF validation procedure, and for those found as not validated last TENDL library versions have been investigated in order to check possible improvements when compared to EAF. The use of EAF libraries is found as trustworthy and it is recommended for the prediction of SDDR in the ITER PC and PI. However, 3 cross section reactions are considered for further improvement: Co59(n,2n)Co58, Cu63(n,g)Cu64 and Cr50(n,g)Cr51.

  3. Behaviour and cross-contamination of pathogenic bacteria in household kitchens - relevance to exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumaningrum, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    Illness resulting from consumption of contaminated food is a continuous serious public health problem in the world. A proportion of this foodborne disease is attributable to improper preparation practices in the home, including cross-contamination.Salmonella , Campylobacter and Staphylococcus aureus

  4. Determinants of Dermal Exposure Relevant for Exposure Modelling in Regulatory Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, J.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Links, I.H.M.; Warren, N.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European

  5. The policy-relevancy of impact assessment tools: Evaluating nine years of European research funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podhora, A.; Helming, K.; Adenauer, L.; Heckelei, T.; Kautto, P.; Reidsma, P.; Rennings, K.; Turnpenny, J.; Jansen, J.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2002, the European Commission has employed the instrument of ex-ante impact assessments (IA) to help focus its policy-making process on implementing sustainable development. Scientific tools should play an essential role of providing the evidence base to assess the impacts of alternative

  6. Integrated approaches for assessment of cellular performance in industrially relevant filamantous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The performance of filamentous fungi in submerged cultivation determines their suitability for large-scale industrial biotechnology processes and is the result of complex interplay between the physical and chemical parameters of the process and the cellular biology of the fungi. Filamentous fungi...... of these organisms. Increased future focus on multicellular physiology and relevant assays will lead to fungal cells and processes that are customizable to a greater degree, finally allowing the full potential of these complex organisms and their product diversity to unfold....

  7. The clinical relevance of assessing advanced glycation endproducts accumulation in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillebrands Jan-Luuk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. There is increasing evidence that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis, in particular in diabetes. AGE accumulation is a measure of cumulative metabolic and oxidative stress, and may so represent the "metabolic memory". Furthermore, increased AGE accumulation is closely related to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes. This review article will focus on the clinical relevance of measuring AGE accumulation in diabetic patients by focusing on AGE formation, AGEs as predictors of long-term complications, and interventions against AGEs.

  8. The relevance of crack arrest phenomena for pressure vessel structural integrity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors, D.C.; Dowling, A.R.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential role of a crack arrest argument for the structural integrity assessments of steel pressure vessels and the relationship between crack initiation and crack arrest philosophies are described. A typical structural integrity assessment using crack initiation fracture mechanics is illustrated by means of a case study based on assessment of the steel pressure vessels for Magnox power stations. Evidence of the occurrence of crack arrest in structures is presented and reviewed, and the applications to pressure vessels which are subjected to similar conditions are considered. An outline is given of the material characterisation that would be required to undertake a crack arrest integrity assessment. It is concluded that crack arrest arguments could be significant in the structural integrity assessment of PWR reactor pressure vessels under thermal shock conditions, whereas for Magnox steel pressure vessels it would be limited in its potential to supporting existing arguments. (author)

  9. A framework to assess the value of application of formal criteria to check clinical relevance in RCTs as part of a benefit assessment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vach, Werner; Gladstone, Beryl Primrose

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the topic of assessing clinical relevance on top of statistical significance in the analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) has got increasing attention, in particular as part of benefit assessments. Several formal criteria to serve this purpose have been published. In this paper, we present a framework to assess the value of the application of such criteria. We propose to quantify the need for the assessment of clinical relevance by the actual risk of having accepted a benefit for a treatment with an irrelevant effect in a successful RCT. We then study how this risk can be controlled by two popular criteria based on comparing the effect estimate or the lower bound of the confidence interval with a given threshold. We further propose to quantify the impact of using formal criteria by considering the expected costs when specifying error-specific costs for each of the three possible types of errors: A benefit may be accepted for a treatment, which is actually inferior, or which is not inferior, but only implies an irrelevant improvement, or a benefit may be rejected for a treatment implying a relevant improvement. This way we can demonstrate that the impact depends on parameters which are typically not explicitly defined in the frame of benefit assessments. Depending on the values of these parameters, formal checks of clinical relevance may imply better decisions on average, but they may also imply more harm than good on average. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Assessing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism – a practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrni, Jennifer; Husmann, Marc; Gretener, Silvia B; Keo, Hong H

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This risk is lowered by anticoagulation, with a large effect in the initial phase following the venous thromboembolic event, and with a smaller effect in terms of secondary prevention of recurrence when extended anticoagulation is performed. On the other hand, extended anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and thus leads to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk of recurrence for VTE on an individual basis, and a recommendation for secondary prophylaxis should be specifically based on risk calculation of recurrence of VTE and bleeding. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of relevant risk factors for recurrent VTE and a practical approach for assessing the risk of recurrence in daily practice. PMID:26316770

  11. Assessing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism--a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrni, Jennifer; Husmann, Marc; Gretener, Silvia B; Keo, Hong H

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This risk is lowered by anticoagulation, with a large effect in the initial phase following the venous thromboembolic event, and with a smaller effect in terms of secondary prevention of recurrence when extended anticoagulation is performed. On the other hand, extended anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and thus leads to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk of recurrence for VTE on an individual basis, and a recommendation for secondary prophylaxis should be specifically based on risk calculation of recurrence of VTE and bleeding. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of relevant risk factors for recurrent VTE and a practical approach for assessing the risk of recurrence in daily practice.

  12. Safety analysis methodology with assessment of the impact of the prediction errors of relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The best estimate plus uncertainty approach (BEAU) requires the use of extensive resources and therefore it is usually applied for cases in which the available safety margin obtained with a conservative methodology can be questioned. Outside the BEAU methodology, there is not a clear approach on how to deal with the issue of considering the uncertainties resulting from prediction errors in the safety analyses performed for licensing submissions. However, the regulatory document RD-310 mentions that the analysis method shall account for uncertainties in the analysis data and models. A possible approach is presented, that is simple and reasonable, representing just the author's views, to take into account the impact of prediction errors and other uncertainties when performing safety analysis in line with regulatory requirements. The approach proposes taking into account the prediction error of relevant parameters. Relevant parameters would be those plant parameters that are surveyed and are used to initiate the action of a mitigating system or those that are representative of the most challenging phenomena for the integrity of a fission barrier. Examples of the application of the methodology are presented involving a comparison between the results with the new approach and a best estimate calculation during the blowdown phase for two small breaks in a generic CANDU 6 station. The calculations are performed with the CATHENA computer code. (author)

  13. Practice parameters facilitating adoption of advanced technologies for enhancing neuropsychological assessment paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; McMahan, Timothy; Kane, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have long underutilized computer technologies for neuropsychological assessment. Given the rapid advances in technology (e.g. virtual reality; tablets; iPhones) and the increased accessibility in the past decade, there is an on-going need to identify optimal specifications for advanced technologies while minimizing potential sources of error. Herein, we discuss concerns raised by a joint American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology/National Academy of Neuropsychology position paper. Moreover, we proffer parameters for the development and use of advanced technologies in neuropsychological assessments. We aim to first describe software and hardware configurations that can impact a computerized neuropsychological assessment. This is followed by a description of best practices for developers and practicing neuropsychologists to minimize error in neuropsychological assessments using advanced technologies. We also discuss the relevance of weighing potential computer error in light of possible errors associated with traditional testing. Throughout there is an emphasis on the need for developers to provide bench test results for their software's performance on various devices and minimum specifications (documented in manuals) for the hardware (e.g. computer, monitor, input devices) in the neuropsychologist's practice. Advances in computerized assessment platforms offer both opportunities and challenges. The challenges can appear daunting but are a manageable and require informed consumers who can appreciate the issues and ask pertinent questions in evaluating their options.

  14. Promoting Assessment Efficacy through an Integrated System for Online Clinical Assessment of Practical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Peter J.; Engstrom, Craig; Green, Anita; Friis, Peter; Dickens, Sue; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evaluation outcomes from an externally funded research project involving the online clinical assessment of practical skills (eCAPS) using web-based video technologies within a university medical programme. eCAPS was implemented to trial this web-based approach for promoting the efficacy of "practical" skills…

  15. Endorsing the Practical Endorsement? OCR's Approach to Practical Assessment in Science A-Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steve; Wade, Neil

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises the practical requirements for new science A-levels in biology, chemistry and physics for first teaching from September 2015. It discusses the background to how the new approach was reached and how OCR has seen this taking shape in our assessment models. The opportunities presented by this new approach to practical…

  16. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Free and Open Source GIS Tools: Role and Relevance in the Environmental Assessment Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of an explicit geographical context in most environmental decisions can complicate assessment and selection of management options. These decisions typically involve numerous data sources, complex environmental and ecological processes and their associated models, ris...

  19. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  20. Still Subversive after All These Years: The Relevance of Feminist Therapy in the Age of Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, based on my Carolyn Wood Sherif Memorial Award Address, I address questions of the viability of feminist practice in the current zeitgeist. Using the framework of responding to questions raised by doctoral students about feminist therapy, I address how feminist practice aligns with the evidence-based practice movement,…

  1. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  2. Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

    2017-01-01

    Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals.

  3. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... were interviewed face-to-face; HIA experts participated in an e-survey. Results: Six DDPC members were interviewed and 100 HIA-experts participated in a survey. The DDPC members consider direct as the link between determinants and the related risk factors. The HIA experts consider direct as the link...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...

  4. Scenario based seismic hazard assessment and its application to the seismic verification of relevant buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Fabio; Vaccari, Franco; Altin, Giorgio; Panza, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    The procedure we developed, and applied to a few relevant cases, leads to the seismic verification of a building by: a) use of a scenario based neodeterministic approach (NDSHA) for the calculation of the seismic input, and b) control of the numerical modeling of an existing building, using free vibration measurements of the real structure. The key point of this approach is the strict collaboration, from the seismic input definition to the monitoring of the response of the building in the calculation phase, of the seismologist and the civil engineer. The vibrometry study allows the engineer to adjust the computational model in the direction suggested by the experimental result of a physical measurement. Once the model has been calibrated by vibrometric analysis, one can select in the design spectrum the proper range of periods of interest for the structure. Then, the realistic values of spectral acceleration, which include the appropriate amplification obtained through the modeling of a "scenario" input to be applied to the final model, can be selected. Generally, but not necessarily, the "scenario" spectra lead to higher accelerations than those deduced by taking the spectra from the national codes (i.e. NTC 2008, for Italy). The task of the verifier engineer is to act so that the solution of the verification is conservative and realistic. We show some examples of the application of the procedure to some relevant (e.g. schools) buildings of the Trieste Province. The adoption of the scenario input has given in most of the cases an increase of critical elements that have to be taken into account in the design of reinforcements. However, the higher cost associated with the increase of elements to reinforce is reasonable, especially considering the important reduction of the risk level.

  5. How to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, T D; Clauson, K A; Misra, S; Lewis, T L; Husain, I

    2014-02-01

    There are thousands of medical applications for mobile devices targeting use by healthcare professionals. However, several factors related to the structure of the existing market for medical applications create significant barriers preventing practitioners from effectively identifying mobile medical applications for individual professional use. To define existing market factors relevant to selection of medical applications and describe a framework to empower clinicians to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in their own practice. Resources available on the Internet regarding mobile medical applications, guidelines and published research on mobile medical applications. Mobile application stores (e.g. iTunes, Google Play) are not effective means of identifying mobile medical applications. Users of mobile devices that desire to implement mobile medical applications into practice need to carefully assess individual applications prior to utilisation. Searching and identifying mobile medical applications requires clinicians to utilise multiple references to determine what application is best for their individual practice methods. This can be done with a cursory exploration of mobile application stores and then moving onto other available resources published in the literature or through Internet resources (e.g. blogs, medical websites, social media). Clinicians must also take steps to ensure that an identified mobile application can be integrated into practice after carefully reviewing it themselves. Clinicians seeking to identify mobile medical application for use in their individual practice should use a combination of app stores, published literature, web-based resources, and personal review to ensure safe and appropriate use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Global challenges in the risk assessment of nanomaterials: Relevance to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gulumian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, there are efforts to develop standardised toxicity testing and risk assessmentmethods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs. To this end, health risk assessments need tobe conducted on ENMs synthesised in South Africa. Country-specific risk characterisationrequires specific exposure assessments for those ENMs for which the likelihood exists foroccupational and environmental exposure in that country. A challenge in hazard identificationand risk assessment related to ENMs, regardless of country of origin, is that data on toxicity,carcinogenicity, pharmacokinetics, and occupational or environmental exposure are generallynot available for most ENMs. Although the mechanisms previously identified as importantin the toxicity and carcinogenicity of particles and fibres may be applicable, the possibilityexists that the unusual physicochemical properties of ENMs may give rise to unique, andas yet unidentified, adverse effects. Moreover, generalised exposure scenarios that considerthe life cycle of the agent have not been developed and are needed for the complete riskcharacterisation of ENMs. As health risk assessment is both resource and labour intensive, it isimperative to identify the aims of such an exercise prior to embarking on large-scale projects,to ensure that the data most useful for public health decision-making is provided. Identifyingpriorities in South Africa, in coordination with international efforts, can facilitate the effectiveuse of research efforts for risk assessment and risk management decision-making.

  7. Primary health care in rural Malawi - a qualitative assessment exploring the relevance of the community-directed interventions approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaula Peter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary Health Care (PHC is a strategy endorsed for attaining equitable access to basic health care including treatment and prevention of endemic diseases. Thirty four years later, its implementation remains sub-optimal in most Sub-Saharan African countries that access to health interventions is still a major challenge for a large proportion of the rural population. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi and community-directed interventions (CDI are participatory approaches to strengthen health care at community level. Both approaches are based on values and principles associated with PHC. The CDI approach has successfully been used to improve the delivery of interventions in areas that have previously used CDTi. However, little is known about the added value of community participation in areas without prior experience with CDTi. This study aimed at assessing PHC in two rural Malawian districts without CDTi experience with a view to explore the relevance of the CDI approach. We examined health service providers’ and beneficiaries’ perceptions on existing PHC practices, and their perspectives on official priorities and strategies to strengthen PHC. Methods We conducted 27 key informant interviews with health officials and partners at national, district and health centre levels; 32 focus group discussions with community members and in-depth interviews with 32 community members and 32 community leaders. Additionally, official PHC related documents were reviewed. Results The findings show that there is a functional PHC system in place in the two study districts, though its implementation is faced with various challenges related to accessibility of services and shortage of resources. Health service providers and consumers shared perceptions on the importance of intensifying community participation to strengthen PHC, particularly within the areas of provision of insecticide treated bed nets, home case management for

  8. Exploring the information and communication technology competence and confidence of nursing students and their perception of its relevance to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kenny, Raelene; Van der Riet, Pamela; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley; Bourgeois, Sharon; Luxford, Yoni

    2009-08-01

    This paper profiles a study that explored nursing students' information and communication technology competence and confidence. It presents selected findings that focus on students' attitudes towards information and communication technology as an educational methodology and their perceptions of its relevance to clinical practice. Information and communication technology is integral to contemporary nursing practice. Development of these skills is important to ensure that graduates are 'work ready' and adequately prepared to practice in increasingly technological healthcare environments. This was a mixed methods study. Students (n=971) from three Australian universities were surveyed using an instrument designed specifically for the study, and 24 students participated in focus groups. The focus group data revealed that a number of students were resistant to the use of information and communication technology as an educational methodology and lacked the requisite skills and confidence to engage successfully with this educational approach. Survey results indicated that 26 per cent of students were unsure about the relevance of information and communication technology to clinical practice and only 50 per cent felt 'very confident' using a computer. While the importance of information and communication technology to student's learning and to their preparedness for practice has been established, it is evident that students' motivation is influenced by their level of confidence and competence, and their understanding of the relevance of information and communication technology to their future careers.

  9. Assessment of application of 5S practices in ceramic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Kleszcz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of research connected with determining the degree of implementation of 5S practices in ceramics industry are discussed in this paper. Direct survey with employees of companies plus ex-pert interview was used in the research. A 21 point scale was used to assess the degree of implemen-tation the 5S practices at individual stages of the manufacturing process. The specificity of produc-tion in ceramics industry enforces maintaining the regime of cleanliness during production. The research revealed that the level of conscious implementation of the 5S practices in companies de-pends on the culture of organization and the degree of involvement of employees in the improvement actions in their company. The presented results are a part of the research aimed at determining refer-ence requirements for companies in terms of implementation and making use of the Lean Manage-ment (LM instruments.

  10. Learning Assessment in physical education: the relationship between assessment practices of teachers and learning approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vinicio Gutiérrez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the result of an investigation that studied teachers’ assessment practices in Physical Education in public schools from Suba in Bogota and the relationship between these practices with both superfluous and superficial learning approaches. It is organized into two sections; the first presents a classification of the evaluation practices, and the second establishes the relationship between these practices with the superficial and profound learning approaches. This article nourishes itself from a mixed-method research approach wherein the sample consisted of 68 teachers from whom data was collected using a survey. This data was then analyzed using the statistical software R. The results show the object, the purpose, procedures and ways in which teachers develop their assessment practice in physical education, and as well show a trend towards promoting meaningful and profound learning.

  11. Diagnostic relevance of a questionnaire for osteoporosis risk assessment - comparison with osteodensitometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2001-01-01

    The early detection of osteoporosis is a key factor for reducing associated costs. Clinical risk factors have been used for selection of subjects suitable for bone densitometry. Questionnaires for preliminary osteoporosis risk assessment have already been implemented. The purpose of this study is to apply an original questionnaire for risk assessment and to assess its diagnostic value by comparison to forearm bone mineral density data (BMD). 285 females were included - mean age 53.5 ±8.8 years, 82% were menopausal. The osteoporosis risk was assessed by an original score system based on a questionnaire. Forearm BMD was measured by single-energy x-ray absorptiometry using own reference ranges. Two diagnosis models were tested by 'cluster analysis' - classifications with 3 or 2 diagnostic items. The second proved better. Sensitivity in detecting women with forearm osteoporosis was 86.7%, specificity - 16.5% and 75.8% of all women were correctly classified. The total score distribution in the study population is skewed to the right which reflects the two subgroups - at high and low risk for osteoporosis. The value of a similar questionnaire in the overall strategy for diagnosis and treatment of low BMD is discussed. (author)

  12. Developing Students' Understanding of Industrially Relevant Economic and Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Claudia J.; Chapman, Clint; Pennybaker, Atherly; Subramaniam, Bala

    2017-01-01

    Training future leaders to understand life cycle assessment data is critical for effective research, business, and sociopolitical decision-making. However, the technical nature of these life cycle reports often makes them challenging for students and other nonexperts to comprehend. Therefore, we outline here the key takeaways from recent economic…

  13. Natura 2000 appropriate assessment: Shortcomings and improvements in Finnish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, Tara

    2009-01-01

    The EU Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC requires impact assessments called Appropriate Assessments (AA) for plans and projects probably having adverse effects on the sites of European ecological importance, Natura 2000 sites. Seventy-three Appropriate Assessment reports and seventy official opinions given on them by regional environmental authorities from 1997 to 2005 were reviewed. The findings of the study demonstrate typical shortcomings of ecological impact assessment: a weak information basis for assessment outcomes and lack of proper cumulative impact assessment with respect to ecological structures and processes. The quality of reporting has improved over time with respect to direct impacts on individual habitat types and species and detailed mitigation measures. Regional environment centres considered one fifth of the AA reports to be inadequate because of lacking data. In most cases the regional environment centres demanded a change of plan or project, added mitigation measures, choice of only one alternative for further planning or a new completed assessment with additional information in order to be able to evaluate the significance of the effects. The study underlines the need for iterative planning practices in which the preparation of a plan or project with alternative options goes hand in hand with the impact assessment equipped with sufficient data

  14. Formative Assessment: Exploring Tunisian Cooperative Teachers Practices in Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Melki Hasan; S. Bouzid Mohamed; Haweni Aymen; Fadhloun Mourad; Mrayeh Meher; Souissi Nizar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article is based on questions related to the formative assessment of preparatory trainee ship in the professional life of Physical Education teachers. In general, in the first training program, the traineeship represents an integral part of training. In this sense, the traineeship offers a vital opportunity for future teacher to gain practical experience in the real environment, given that formative evaluation is a process of collecting evidence from trainees by cooperative teac...

  15. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  16. Relevance of 3D Cholangiography and Transient Elastography to Assess Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Liver Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lemaitre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease (CFLD is a major cause of death. The objective of our retrospective study was to describe the relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and liver stiffness measurement (LSM for CFLD evaluation. Methods. All cystic fibrosis adult patients evaluated by MRI and LSM were included. MR signs of portal hypertension (PHT, dysmorphia, or cholangitis were collected and LSM expressed in kPa and Metavir. Results. Of 25 patients, 52% had abnormal MRI. Median LSM was 5.7 kPa (3.4–9.9. Three patients had F2 score and one had F3 score. In patients with PHT, LSM was 7.85 kPa (3.7–9.9 compared to 5 (3.4–7.5 in others, p=0.02. In patients with abnormal liver function tests, 50% had increased LSM (≥F2, whereas 94% with normal tests had normal LSM (p=0.04. Seven patients had abnormal MRI despite normal ultrasonography. Conclusions. MRI and LSM provide useful information on CFLD and may help to screen patients with PHT.

  17. Individual negative symptoms and domains - Relevance for assessment, pathomechanisms and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefan; Lyne, John; Agartz, Ingrid; Clarke, Mary; Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Faerden, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia can be divided into two domains. Avolition/apathy includes the individual symptoms of avolition, asociality and anhedonia. Diminished expression includes blunted affect and alogia. Until now, causes and treatment of negative symptoms have remained a major challenge, which is partially related to the focus on negative symptoms as a broad entity. Here, we propose that negative symptoms may become more tractable when the different domains and individual symptoms are taken into account. There is now increasing evidence that the relationship with clinical variables - in particular outcome - differs between the domains of avolition/apathy and diminished expression. Regarding models of negative symptom formation, those relevant to avolition/apathy are now converging on processes underlying goal-directed behavior and dysfunctions of the reward system. In contrast, models of the diminished expression domains are only beginning to emerge. The aim of this article is to review the specific clinical, behavioral and neural correlates of individual symptoms and domains as a better understanding of these areas may facilitate specific treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of efficiency of functioning the infocommunication systems a special purpose in the conditions of violation quality of relevance information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinov, A. V.; Korotkikh, L. P.; Desyatov, D. B.; Stepanov, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The uniqueness of information processing mechanisms in special-purpose infocommunication systems and the increased interest of intruders lead to an increase in the relevance of the problems associated with their protection. The paper considers the issues of building risk-models for the violation of the relevance and value of information in infocommunication systems for special purposes. Also, special attention is paid to the connection between the qualities of relevance and the value of information obtained as a result of the operation of infocommunication systems for special purposes. Analytical expressions for the risk and damage function in the time range in special-purpose infocommunication systems are obtained, which can serve as a mathematical basis for risk assessment. Further, an analytical expression is obtained to assess the chance of obtaining up-to-date information in the operation of infocommunication systems up to the time the information quality is violated. An analytical expression for estimating the chance can be used to calculate the effectiveness of a special-purpose infocommunication system.

  19. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental, Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); King, Nicholas [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  20. Global megatrends and their implications for environmental assessment practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retief, Francois; Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; King, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the future of environmental assessment (EA) practice in light of a rapidly changing world. We apply a literature review-based methodology to firstly identify key global megatrends and then reflect upon the implications for EA practice based on some known challenges. The key megatrends identified are synthesised into six categories: i) demographics, ii) urbanization, iii) technological innovation, iv) power shifts, v) resource scarcity and vi) climate change. We then discuss the implications of these megatrends for EA practice against four known EA challenges namely: dealing with i) complexity and uncertainty, ii) efficiency, iii) significance and iv) communication and participation. Our analysis suggests important implications for EA practice such as: increased difficulties with accuracy of prediction; the need for facilitative adaptation; an increase in the occurrence of unexpected events; higher expectations for procedural efficiency; challenges with information and communication management; dealing with significance judgements; and mitigation amidst resource scarcity and increasing pressures on earth systems. The megatrends underscore the need for continued evolution of EA thinking and practice, especially moving away from seeking a predictable single future or outcome towards the possibility of multiple scenarios with associated adaptability and enhanced system resilience capable of responding to rapid change.

  1. Assessment of Teacher Perceived Skill in Classroom Assessment Practices Using IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess teacher perceived skill in classroom assessment practices. Data were collected from a sample of (N = 691) teachers selected from government primary, junior secondary, and senior secondary schools in Botswana. Item response theory models were used to identify teacher response on items that measured their…

  2. Best practices for assessing ocean health in multiple contexts using tailorable frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S. Stewart Lowndes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine policy is increasingly calling for maintaining or restoring healthy oceans while human activities continue to intensify. Thus, successful prioritization and management of competing objectives requires a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the ocean. Unfortunately, assessment frameworks to define and quantify current ocean state are often site-specific, limited to a few ocean components, and difficult to reproduce in different geographies or even through time, limiting spatial or temporal comparisons as well as the potential for shared learning. Ideally, frameworks should be tailorable to accommodate use in disparate locations and contexts, removing the need to develop frameworks de novo and allowing efforts to focus on the assessments themselves to advise action. Here, we present some of our experiences using the Ocean Health Index (OHI framework, a tailorable and repeatable approach that measures health of coupled human-ocean ecosystems in different contexts by accommodating differences in local environmental characteristics, cultural priorities, and information availability and quality. Since its development in 2012, eleven assessments using the OHI framework have been completed at global, national, and regional scales, four of which have been led by independent academic or government groups. We have found the following to be best practices for conducting assessments: Incorporate key characteristics and priorities into the assessment framework design before gathering information; Strategically define spatial boundaries to balance information availability and decision-making scales; Maintain the key characteristics and priorities of the assessment framework regardless of information limitations; and Document and share the assessment process, methods, and tools. These best practices are relevant to most ecosystem assessment processes, but also provide tangible guidance for assessments using the OHI framework. These

  3. The use of conjoint method for assessing the relevance of railway investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika WOJTOWICZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with designing and testing the use of conjoint analysis method, as one of the tool that provides information gathered within carrying out the ex-ante evaluation of railway infrastructure investments. The authors point to a possible area of application of the method and its usefulness for policy-makers. The proposed method has been tested in empirical research, and the results confirmed the usefulness of the data that can be obtained through its use. Originality of undertaken subject arises from the fact that conjoint method has not been used as a component of ex ante evaluations of EU co-funded programmes, which focus on the railway sector investments. The use of the method may help to strengthen the synergy effects between planned to realize within broader programmes investments. The issue has important practical dimension resulting from intensified investments in the railway sector in the countries which benefit from EU cohesion policy’s funds.

  4. Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and the relevancy of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Maïté, C; Gaétane, D; Axel, C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform two tasks simultaneously has become increasingly important as attention-demanding technologies have become more common in daily life. This type of attentional resources allocation is commonly called "divided attention". Because of the importance of divided attention in natural world settings, substantial efforts have been made recently so as to promote an integrated, realistic assessment of functional abilities in dual-task paradigms. In this context, virtual reality methods appear to be a good solution. However to date, there has been little discussion on validity of such methods. Here, we offer a comparative review of conventional tools used to assess divided attention and of the first virtual reality studies (mostly from the field of road and pedestrian safety). The ecological character of virtual environments leads to a better understanding of the influence of dual-task settings and also makes it possible to clarify issues such as the utility of hands-free phones. After discussing the theoretical and clinical contributions of these studies, we discuss the limits of virtual reality assessment, focusing in particular: (i) on the challenges associated with lack of familiarity with new technological devices; (ii) on the validity of the ecological character of virtual environments; and (iii) on the question of whether the results obtained in a specific context can be generalized to all dual-task situations typical of daily life. To overcome the limitations associated with virtual reality, we propose: (i) to include a standardized familiarization phase in assessment protocols so as to limit the interference caused by the use of new technologies; (ii) to systematically compare virtual reality performance with conventional tests or real-life tests; and (iii) to design dual-task scenarios that are independent from the patient's expertise on one of the two tasks. We conclude that virtual reality appears to constitute a useful tool when used in

  5. Assessment of acquired capability for suicide in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; Hawgood, Jacinta; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2016-12-01

    The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of suicide proposes that the interaction between Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Acquired Capability for Suicide (ACS) predicts proximal risk of death by suicide. Instruments to assess all three constructs are available. However, research on the validity of one of them, the acquired capability for suicide scale (ACSS), has been limited, especially in terms of its clinical relevance. This study aimed to explore the utility of the different versions of the ACSS in clinical assessment. Three versions of the scale were investigated, the full 20-item version, a 7-item version and a single item version representing self-perceived capability for suicide. In a sample of patients recruited from a clinic specialising in the treatment of suicidality and in a community sample, all versions of the ACSS were found to show reasonable levels of reliability and to correlate as expected with reports of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and attempted suicide. The item assessing self-perceived acquired capacity for suicide showed highest correlations with all levels of suicidal behaviour. However, no version of the ACSS on its own showed a capacity to indicate suicide attempts in the combined sample. It is concluded that the versions of the scale have construct validity, but their clinical utility is limited. An assessment using a single item on self-perceived ACS outperforms the full and shortened versions of ACSS in clinical settings and can be recommended with caution for clinicians interested in assessing this characteristic.

  6. Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Muscles in Duroc Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20 and LQLD (n = 20 Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%, ATPase activity (19%, oxidoreductase activity (13%, cytoskeletal protein binding (13%, actin binding (12%, calcium ion binding (6%, and structural constituent of muscle (6%. Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of

  7. Teaching earth science in the field: GPS-based educational trails as a practically relevant, empirical verified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , typical vegetation) are provided just as well as the impressive special form of the impact tectonics. The learning success of the 441 probands is evaluated through an anonym, unheralded test in both grades, which prompt the cognitive competence three weeks after the treatment. The learning success of the GPS-based educational trail groups is compared to groups that completed the particular topics in a carousel activity in a "normal" class. Both treatments, the carousal activity and the GPS-educational-trail are similar, because the students work at one Geopoint / learning-station after another and the amount of time given in the same. It can be said, that the GPS-based educational trails evoke a better learning success than normal classes do, because the test results differ with partially (highly) significant differences and high effect sizes. As the feedback given by the included teachers suggests, the new concept of GPS-based educational trail is practically relevant and realizable in every-day life. So did teachers and trainees in several trainings. In the future, the concept could be enhanced through smartphones and tablets. Whether or not this could be a realistic option, will also be discussed.

  8. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  9. Incorporating Self and Peer Assessment in Reflective Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available More currently literature reviews suggests the use of authentic assessment, which aims to involve students to be more responsible with their learning. This article reports the findings of a descriptive study on student teachers’ perception on the use of self and peer assessment to give evaluation on planning the lesson and teaching performance in Reflective Teaching Class. There were 100 samples taken randomly from 234 students in a survey using questionnaire and 15 students participating in the focus group discussion (FGD. The finding from the questionnaire shows that they had a very positive perception toward the use of self and peer assessment. Additionally, from the FGD, they conveyed by practicing doing self assessment, they could learn to see self performance deeply, strengths and weaknesses. From peer-assessment, they could learn collaboratively from feedback given by peers how to make a better lesson plan and perform a more effective teaching. Hence, self and peer assessment is considered beneficial for preparing the real teaching practicum and future career development. However, there are some problems challenged them, such as feeling subjectivity in assessing both self or peers, embarrassed and less confidence, and time constraints to make evaluation and reflection in the classroom

  10. Spirituality and medical practice: using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandarajah, G; Hight, E

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between spirituality and medicine has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. Studies suggest that many patients believe spirituality plays an important role in their lives, that there is a positive correlation between a patient's spirituality or religious commitment and health outcomes, and that patients would like physicians to consider these factors in their medical care. A spiritual assessment as part of a medical encounter is a practical first step in incorporating consideration of a patient's spirituality into medical practice. The HOPE questions provide a formal tool that may be used in this process. The HOPE concepts for discussion are as follows: H--sources of hope, strength, comfort, meaning, peace, love and connection; O--the role of organized religion for the patient; P--personal spirituality and practices; E--effects on medical care and end-of-life decisions.

  11. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, C; Fernandes, E A.N.; Franca, E J; Bacchi, M A; Tagliaferro, F S [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  12. Relevance of leaf surface contamination for assessing chemical composition of bromeliads in a restinga forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, C.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    Resuspended soil and other airborne particles adhered to the leaf surface affect the chemical composition of the plant. A well-defined cleaning procedure is necessary to avoid this problem, providing a correct assessment of the inherent chemical composition of bromeliads. To evaluate the influence of a washing procedure, INAA was applied for determining chemical elements in the leaves of bromeliads from Vriesea carinata species, both non-washed and washed with Alconox, EDTA and bi-distilled water. Br, Ce, Hg, La, Sc, Se, Sm and Th showed higher mass fractions in nonwashed leaves. The washing procedure removed the exogenous material without leaching chemical elements from inside the tissues. (author)

  13. The Most Relevant Labour Market Competencies for Employers and their Assessment by Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Erika

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is aimed at examining what principal business competencies (can enhance the success and competitiveness of employees according to the employers and we also wish to explore what personality traits have a decisive effect on the decision-making mechanism in taking on new staff. At present employers can make selection from a lot of fresh graduates in economics so for them it is essential to know the competencies by which they are classified and ranked by the employers. However, it is also important to bear in mind from which aspects their opinion meet the employers′ expectations. Based on surveying the employers′ expectations, the required competencies play a vital role in the hiring process and they are mainly acquired in practical trainings. An answer is also sought to the question of how the rank order of competencies have been changed, how their role was appreciated and reevaluated and what skills and abilities are no longer or only to a slight extent necessary for success in the labour market vs. the ones that were not required previously but have become indispensable these days. One of our further objectives was to create and test a competency structure tailored to the current Hungarian labour market situation and specialities on the basis of the professional literature.

  14. An assessment of new developments relevant to the science of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.; Kertland, P.

    1995-01-01

    The literature review presented in this paper is a summary of almost 400 technical papers which have appeared in a variety of peer-reviewed scientific journals and other fora during 1993. It is intended to provide an update of available information, not a full assessment of scientific knowledge about global warming and an extensive list of references is included at the end of the paper. Some of the key conclusions of the assessment are that policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions are unlikely to prevent global warming since and increase in atmospheric concentrations over the coming centuries to 4 to 7 times current levels appears probable under most manageable policy options. Among the most attractive options for reducing or offsetting CO 2 emissions are energy efficiency, better municipal planning, technology transfer to less developed countries, carbon sequestration in agro-forest ecosystems and use of biomass and alternative fuels. The lack of decisive action by decision makers is the greatest obstacle to problem resolution than scientific uncertainty. 380 refs., 4 figs

  15. Quantification of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula in composting plants: assessment of the relevance of S. rectivirgula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jenny; Klug, Kerstin; van Kampen, Vera; Jäckel, Udo

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols in composting plants can lead to negative health effects on compost workers. Health complaints vary between cough, irritation of the eyes and the skin, sinusitis, or dyspnea among others. It is fact that compost materials harbor high concentrations of microorganisms, which were aerosolized during handling compost. Within the present study, total cell numbers between 3.4 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(8) cell counts per m(3) air were determined after 4',6-Diamidin-2-phenylindol DAPI staining in 124 samples from German composting plants. Special attention should be paid to some specific microorganisms, which are able to cause health complaints. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, known to be one of the major causes of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA, also called hypersensitivity pneumonitis, HP), was often found in environments of agricultural production, where the classical form of EAA ('farmer's lung disease') is common, but also in composting plants. In Germany, cases are known where workers had to terminate their work due to this disease. However, up to now, the relevance of S. rectivirgula at composting plants is unexplained. This study showed that high concentrations of airborne S. rectivirgula were found in composting plants similar to that found in agricultural production. Altogether, in 86.7% of the 124 analyzed samples, S. rectivirgula was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Estimated concentrations ranged between 1.24 × 10(2) cell counts of S. rectivirgula per cubic meter air next to the rotted residues and 1.5 × 10(7) cell counts next to a converter. Furthermore, our methodical proceedings were verified. To analyze DNA extraction limits through the amount of cells within one sample, the DNA concentration was compared with total cell counts (TCCs). Altogether, when TCC was DNA extraction assay, no DNA was measurable; when TCC reached 3.5 × 10(6) cells, DNA was always detectable by fluorometric method. To

  16. Practice and progress in integrated assessments of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the state of the art integrated socioeconomic-biophysical assessments of climate change as presented at the IIASA workshop in October 1993. The paper seeks to tally the major improvements facilitated by integrated assessments in understanding the global warming problem and the crucial unresolved problems they currently face. The basic conclusion is that, as a result of a healthy diversity in practice, integrated assessments show significant progress in structuring the economic issues of climate change and providing the first broad insights into policy options. But, as some of the simple and traditional cases seem to be solved, more complex and difficult contingencies come to the fore. This suggests a long way to go to develop skills that will be required to address the numerous open issues. (author)

  17. COPD management: role of symptom assessment in routine clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; Miravitlles, Marc; Kocks, Janwillem WH

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present with a variety of symptoms that significantly impair health-related quality of life. Despite this, COPD treatment and its management are mainly based on lung function assessments. There is increasing evidence that conventional lung function measures alone do not correlate well with COPD symptoms and their associated impact on patients’ everyday lives. Instead, symptoms should be assessed routinely, preferably by using patient-centered questionnaires that provide a more accurate guide to the actual burden of COPD. Numerous questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to find a simple and reliable tool to use in everyday clinical practice. In this paper, we review three such patient-reported questionnaires recommended by the latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, ie, the modified Medical Research Council questionnaire, the clinical COPD questionnaire, and the COPD Assessment Test, as well as other symptom-specific questionnaires that are currently being developed. PMID:24143085

  18. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-11-01

    Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  20. Considering Culturally Relevant Practices and Knowledge-Sharing When Creating an Activity-Promoting Community Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Angela M.; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to discuss and reflect upon a process of building relationships and conducting community consultations to co-create a relevant community-based participatory research agenda exploring Indigenous youth activity-promoting programming. Four consultations were conducted with approximately 30 community members in Edmonton,…

  1. The Relevance of Foucauldian Art-of-Living for Ethics Education in a Military Context: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy

    2018-01-01

    How can ethical decision-making in organizations be further reinforced? This article explores the relevance of Michel Foucault's ideas on art-of-living for ethics education in organizations. First, we present a theoretical analysis of art-of-living in the work of Foucault as well as in the work of two philosophers who greatly influenced his work,…

  2. Clinical relevance of the gap between pre-marketing trials and medical practice : the case of the cardiovascular drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N F; Denig, P; de Graeff, P A; Vos, R

    OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: The external validity of trial results of new cardiovascular drugs is limited, because the short-term studies are performed with relatively small, highly selected populations. Using qualitative methods, we examined the clinical relevance of under-representation of subgroups of

  3. Quantitative assessment of organizational culture within hospitals and its relevance to infection prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A; Waisfisz, B; Frank, U

    2015-05-01

    It has been suggested that organizational culture (OC) is an important driver of infection prevention and control (IPC) behaviour among healthcare workers. This study examined OC in seven European hospitals using a validated assessment tool based on Hofstede's model, and identified significant variations in OC scores. Hospitals with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) exhibited high scores for change facilitation and change readiness, whereas hospitals with high prevalence of MRSA exhibited low scores for these determinants. It is possible to use tools, available outside health care, to study OC within hospitals and gain better insight into IPC behaviour change strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of hypervapotron heat sink performance using CFD under DEMO relevant first wall conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domalapally, Phani, E-mail: p_kumar.domalapally@cvrez.cz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Hypervapotron heat sink was tested for First wall limiter application. • Two different materials were tested Eurofer 97 and CuCrZr at PWR conditions. • Simulations were performed to see the effect of the different inlet conditions and materials on the maximum temperature. • It was found that CuCrZr heat sink performance is far better than Eurofer heat sink at the same operating conditions. - Abstract: Among the proposed First Wall (FW) cooling concepts for European Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO), water cooled FW is one of the options. The heat flux load distribution on the FW of the DEMO reactor is not yet precisely defined. But if the heat loads on the FW are extrapolated from ITER conditions, the numbers are quite high and have to be handled none the less. The design of the FW itself is challenging as the thermal conductivity ratio of heat sink materials in ITER (CuCrZr) and in DEMO (Eurofer 97) is ∼10–12 and the operating conditions are of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in DEMO instead of 70 °C and 4 MPa as in ITER. This paper analyzes the performance of Hypervapotron (HV) heat sink for FW limiter application under DEMO conditions. Where different materials, temperatures, heat fluxes and velocities are considered to predict the performance of the HV, to establish its limits in handling the heat loads before reaching the upper limits from temperature point of view. In order to assess the performance, numerical simulations are performed using commercial CFD code, which was previously validated in predicting the thermal hydraulic performance of HV geometry. Based on the results the potential usage of HV heat sink for DEMO will be assessed.

  5. [Relevance of a driving simulator in the assessment of handicapped individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroz, A; Comte, P-A; Nicolo, D; Dériaz, O; Vuadens, P

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the value of our driving simulator in deciding whether or not to allow patients with physical and/or cognitive deficits to resuming driving and to analyze whether or not the medical expert's final decision is based more on the results of the driving simulator than those of the neuropsychological examination. One hundred and twenty-three patients were evaluated with the driving simulator. Thirty-five of those with cognitive deficits also underwent a neuropsychological examination prior to the medical expert's decision on driving aptitude. In cases of uncertainty or disagreement, a driving assessment in real conditions was performed by a driving instructor. In cases of physical handicap, the medical expert's decision concurred with that of the occupational therapist. For brain-injured patients, there was a significant correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the occupational therapist (kappa=0.33; P=0.01). However, the sensibility and specificity were only 55 and 80%, respectively. The correlation between an occupational therapy decision based on the driving simulator and that of the medical expert was very significant (kappa=0.81; Psensibility and specificity were 84 and 100%, respectively. In contrast, these values were lower (63 and 71%, respectively) for the correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the medical expert. Our driving simulator enables the danger-free evaluation of driving aptitude. The results mirror an in situ assessment and are more sensitive than neuropsychological examination. In fact, the neuropsychologist's opinion often is more negative or uncertain with respect to the patient's real driving aptitude. When taking a decision on a patient's driving aptitude, the medical expert is more inclined to trust the results of the driving simulator.

  6. Do pressure ulcer risk assessment scales improve clinical practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kottner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan Kottner1, Katrin Balzer21Department of Nursing Science, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; 2Nursing Research Group, Institute for Social Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, GermanyAbstract: Standardized assessment instruments are deemed important for estimating pressure ulcer risk. Today, more than 40 so-called pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are available but still there is an ongoing debate about their usefulness. From a measurement point of view pressure ulcer (PU risk assessment scales have serious limitations. Empirical evidence supporting the validity of PU risk assessment scale scores is weak and obtained scores contain varying amounts of measurement error. The concept of pressure ulcer risk is strongly related to the general health status and severity of illness. A clinical impact due do the application of these scales could also not be demonstrated. It is questionable whether completion of standardized pressure ulcer risk scales in clinical practice is really needed.Keywords: Braden pressure ulcer, prevention, risk assessment, nursing assessment, predictive value, clinical effectiveness, review

  7. Transforming Big Data into cancer-relevant insight: An initial, multi-tier approach to assess reproducibility and relevance* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD^2) Network was established to accelerate the transformation of "Big Data" into novel pharmacological targets, lead compounds, and biomarkers for rapid translation into improved patient outcomes. It rapidly became clear in this collaborative network that a key central issue was to define what constitutes sufficient computational or experimental evidence to support a biologically or clinically relevant finding.

  8. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  9. Assessing therapeutic relevance of biologically interesting, ampholytic substances based on their physicochemical and spectral characteristics with chemometric tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judycka, U.; Jagiello, K.; Bober, L.; Błażejowski, J.; Puzyn, T.

    2018-06-01

    Chemometric tools were applied to investigate the biological behaviour of ampholytic substances in relation to their physicochemical and spectral properties. Results of the Principal Component Analysis suggest that size of molecules and their electronic and spectral characteristics are the key properties required to predict therapeutic relevance of the compounds examined. These properties were used for developing the structure-activity classification model. The classification model allows assessing the therapeutic behaviour of ampholytic substances on the basis of solely values of descriptors that can be obtained computationally. Thus, the prediction is possible without necessity of carrying out time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests, which is its main advantage.

  10. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    animal and training of the anaesthetist. Current practice in equine anaesthesia varies widely, and the study has highlighted important topics relevant for designing a future prospective multicentre cohort study (CEPEF-4). The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Persons with rheumatoid arthritis challenge the relevance of the health assessment questionnaire: a qualitative study of patient perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbevi, David; Essén, Anna; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt

    2017-05-12

    The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. The study used secondary data analysis. Persons with RA participated in semi-structured interviews in previous research projects. Thirty-nine interviews were included based on data fit, and thematic analysis applied. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.

  12. Innovative Soil Management Practices (SMP) Assessment in Europe and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia

    2017-04-01

    The growing world population poses a major challenge to global agricultural food and feed production through the pressure to increase agricultural outputs either by increasing the land area dedicated to agriculture or by productivity increases. Whether in developed or developing regions, agricultural intensification based on conventional approaches has resulted in severe environmental impacts and innovative soil management practices are needed to halter ongoing soil degradation and promote sustainable land management capable to produce more from less. The iSQAPER project - Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience - aims to develop a Soil Quality app (SQAPP) linking soil and agricultural management practices to soil quality indicators. This easy friendly tool will provide a direct and convenient way to advise farmers and other suitable actors in this area, regarding the best management practices to be adopted in very specific and local conditions. In this particular study from iSQAPER, we aimed to identify the most promising innovative soil management practices (SMP) currently used and its geographical distribution along different pedo-climatic regions in Europe (Boreal, Atlantic, Mediterranean Temperate, Mediterranean Semi-Arid, Southern Sub-Continental and Northern Sub-Continental) and China (Middle Temperate, Warm temperate and Central Asia Tropical). So far we have identified 155 farms where innovative SMP's are used, distributed along 4 study site regions located in China (Qiyang, Suining, Zhifanggou and Gongzhuling) and 10 study site regions located in Europe (The Netherlands, France, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Poland and Estonia) and covering the major pedo-climatic regions. From this identification we concluded that the most used innovative SMP's in the study site regions in Europe are Manuring & Composting (14%), Min-till (14%), Crop rotation (12

  13. Morally-Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Assisted Dying Practices in Paradigm and Non-Paradigm Circumstances: Could They Inform Regulatory Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    There has been contentious debate over the years about whether there are morally relevant similarities and differences between the three practices of continuous deep sedation until death, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary euthanasia. Surprisingly little academic attention has been paid to a comparison of the uses of these practices in the two types of circumstances in which they are typically performed. A comparative domains of ethics analysis methodological approach is used in the paper to compare 1) the use of the three practices in paradigm circumstances, and 2) the use of the practices in paradigm circumstances to their use in non-paradigm circumstances. The analytical outcomes suggest that a bright moral line cannot be demonstrated between any two of the practices in paradigm circumstances, and that there are significant, morally-relevant distinctions between their use in paradigm and non-paradigm circumstances. A thought experiment is employed to illustrate how these outcomes could possibly inform the decisions of hypothetical deliberators who are engaged in the collaborative development of assisted dying regulatory frameworks.

  14. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group. The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p0.05 in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity were found significantly increased (p<0.05 in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead, internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  15. A clinically relevant in vivo model for the assessment of scaffold efficacy in abdominal wall reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey CY Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal model that allows for assessment of the degree of stretching or contraction of the implant area and the in vivo degradation properties of biological meshes is required to evaluate their performance in vivo. Adult New Zealand rabbits underwent full thickness subtotal unilateral rectus abdominis muscle excision and were reconstructed with the non-biodegradable Peri-Guard®, Prolene® or biodegradable Surgisis® meshes. Following 8 weeks of recovery, the anterior abdominal wall tissue samples were collected for measurement of the implant dimensions. The Peri-Guard and Prolene meshes showed a slight and obvious shrinkage, respectively, whereas the Surgisis mesh showed stretching, resulting in hernia formation. Surgisis meshes showed in vivo biodegradation and increased collagen formation. This surgical rabbit model for abdominal wall defects is advantageous for evaluating the in vivo behaviour of surgical meshes. Implant area stretching and shrinkage were detected corresponding to mesh properties, and histological analysis and stereological methods supported these findings.

  16. Paradigms for Assessing Hedonic Processing and Motivation in Humans: Relevance to Understanding Negative Symptoms in Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M; Kring, Ann M

    2017-07-01

    Clinicians and researchers have long known that one of the debilitating aspects of psychotic disorders is the presence of "negative symptoms," which involve impairments in hedonic and motivational function, and/or alterations in expressive affect. We have a number of excellent clinical tools available for assessing the presence and severity of negative symptoms. However, to better understand the mechanisms that may give rise to negative symptoms, we need tools and methods that can help distinguish among different potential contributing causes, as a means to develop more targeted intervention pathways. Using such paradigms is particularly important if we wish to understand whether the causes are the same or different across disorders that may share surface features of negative symptoms. This approach is in line with the goals of the Research Diagnostic Criteria Initiative, which advocates understanding the nature of core dimensions of brain-behavior relationships transdiagnostically. Here we highlight some of the emerging measures and paradigms that may help us to parse the nature and causes of negative symptoms, illustrating both the research approaches from which they emerge and the types of constructs that they can help elucidate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine debris and marine wildlife entanglement remains a significant global issue. • We examined awareness of this issue in an Australian community sample. • Findings reveal gaps exist in terms of what entanglement is and the risks posed. • Enhancing community understanding may facilitate greater conservation action. • The ‘Seal the Loop’ initiative provides one potential mechanism for such education. - Abstract: Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative ‘Seal the Loop’ [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours)

  18. Radiographic Relevance of the Distal Medial Cuneiform Angle in Hallux Valgus Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Daniel J; Smith, Abigail; Fowler, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The angle formed by the distal articular facet of the medial cuneiform has been evaluated and discussed by various investigators. However, no consistent method has been available to radiograph and measure this entity. The wide variability of the angle is not conducive to comparative analysis. Additionally, investigators have noted that the angles observed (obliquity) vary greatly because of changes in radiographic angle, foot position, rotation of the first ray, and declination of the first metatarsal. Recognizing that these variables exist, we propose a reproducible assessment using digital radiography and application of deformity of correction principles. Our results have indicated a mean distal medial cuneiform angle of 20.69° in normal feet, 23.51° with moderate hallux valgus, and 20.41° with severe hallux valgus deformity. The radiograph beam was kept at 15° from the coronal plane. An inverse relationship was found between the distal medial cuneiform angle and bunion severity. This was in contrast to our expected hypothesis. The overall angle of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform did, however, correlate with the severity of the bunion deformity (p hallux valgus. A better indicator appears to be the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform angle. This pathologic entity is a 3-dimensional one that incorporates the joint morphology of the first ray, triplane osseous positioning, and soft tissue imbalances. Perhaps, 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging will provide better insight into this entity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of regulatory effectiveness. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This report arises from the seventh series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled 'Assessment of Regulatory Effectiveness'. The term 'regulatory effectiveness' covers the quality of the work and level of performance of a regulatory body. In this sense, regulatory effectiveness applies to regulatory body activities aimed at preventing safety degradation and ensuring that an acceptable level of safety is being maintained by the regulated operating organizations. In addition, regulatory effectiveness encompasses the promotion of safety improvements, the timely and cost effective performance of regulatory functions in a manner which ensures the confidence of the operating organizations, the general public and the government, and striving for continuous improvements to performance. Senior regulators from 22 Member States participated in two peer group discussions during March and May 1999. The discussions were focused on the elements of an effective regulatory body, possible indicators of regulatory effectiveness and its assessment. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by senior regulators, which do not necessarily reflect those of the governments of the nominating Member States, the organizations they belong to, or the International Atomic Energy Agency. In order to protect people and the environment from hazards associated with nuclear facilities, the main objective of a nuclear regulatory body is to ensure that a high level of safety in the nuclear activities under its jurisdiction is achieved, maintained and within the control of operating organizations. Even if it is possible to directly judge objective safety levels at nuclear facilities, such safety levels would not provide an exclusive indicator of regulatory effectiveness. The way the regulatory body ensures the safety of workers and the public and the way it discharges its responsibilities also determine its effectiveness. Hence the

  20. COPD management: role of symptom assessment in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Molen T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thys van der Molen,1,2 Marc Miravitlles,3 Janwillem WH Kocks1,21Department of General Practice, 2GRIAC (Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 3Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Biomedical Research Networking Centre in Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD present with a variety of symptoms that significantly impair health-related quality of life. Despite this, COPD treatment and its management are mainly based on lung function assessments. There is increasing evidence that conventional lung function measures alone do not correlate well with COPD symptoms and their associated impact on patients' everyday lives. Instead, symptoms should be assessed routinely, preferably by using patient-centered questionnaires that provide a more accurate guide to the actual burden of COPD. Numerous questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to find a simple and reliable tool to use in everyday clinical practice. In this paper, we review three such patient-reported questionnaires recommended by the latest Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, ie, the modified Medical Research Council questionnaire, the clinical COPD questionnaire, and the COPD Assessment Test, as well as other symptom-specific questionnaires that are currently being developed.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, symptoms, questionnaires

  1. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grün, Rebecca, E-mail: r.gruen@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390 (Germany); Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032 (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291, Germany and Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64289 (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration

  2. Assessing the environmental health relevance of cooling towers--a systematic review of legionellosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Sandra M; Gerstner, Doris G; Brenner, Bernhard; Höller, Christiane; Liebl, Bernhard; Herr, Caroline E W

    2014-03-01

    Bioaerosols from cooling towers are often suspected to cause community-acquired legionellosis outbreaks. Although Legionella infections can mostly be assigned to the emission sources, uncertainty exists about the release and distribution into the air, the occurrence of the respirable virulent form and the level of the infective concentration. Our study aimed to evaluate studies on legionellosis outbreaks attributed to cooling towers published within the last 11 years by means of a systematic review of the literature. 19 legionellosis outbreaks were identified affecting 12 countries. Recurring events were observed in Spain and Great Britain. In total, 1609 confirmed cases of legionellosis and a case-fatality rate of approximately 6% were reported. Duration of outbreaks was 65 days on average. For diagnosis the urinary antigen test was mainly used. Age, smoking, male sex and underlying diseases (diabetes, immunodeficiency) could be confirmed as risk factors. Smoking and underlying diseases were the most frequent risk factors associated with legionellosis in 11 and 10 of the 19 studies, respectively. The meteorological conditions varied strongly. Several studies reported a temporal association of outbreaks with inadequate maintenance of the cooling systems. A match of clinical and environmental isolates by serotyping and/or molecular subtyping could be confirmed in 84% of outbreaks. Legionella-contaminated cooling towers as environmental trigger, in particular in the neighbourhood of susceptible individuals, can cause severe health problems and even death. To prevent and control Legionella contamination of cooling towers, maintenance actions should focus on low-emission cleaning procedures of cooling towers combined with control measurements of water and air samples. Procedures allowing rapid detection and risk assessment in the case of outbreaks are essential for adequate public health measures. Systematic registration of cooling towers will facilitate the

  3. Assessment of Isometric Trunk Strength - The Relevance of Body Position and Relationship between Planes of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences in maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion strength during standing, sitting and kneeling. Additionally, we were interested in correlations between the maximal strength in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane, measured in the sitting position. Sixty healthy subjects (24 male, 36 female; age 41.3 ± 15.1 yrs; body height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 72.7 ± 13.3 kg) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles in standing, sitting and kneeling position. The subjects also performed lateral flexions and rotations in the sitting position. Each task was repeated three times and average of maximal forces was used for data analysis. RANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. The level of statistical significance was set to p strength showed the strongest correlation, followed by frontal-transverse and sagittal-frontal plane correlation pairs (R(2) = 0.830, 0.712 and 0.657). The baseline trunk isometric strength data provided by this study should help further strength diagnostics, more precisely, the prevention of low back disorders. Key pointsMaximal voluntary isometric force of the trunk extensors increased with the angle at the hips (highest in sitting, medium in kneeling and lowest in upright standing).The opposite trend was true for isometric MVC force of trunk flexors (both genders together and men only).In the sitting position, the strongest correlation between MVC forces was found between sagittal (average flexion/extension) and transverse plane (average left/right rotation).IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALIDITY OF TRUNK STRENGTH TESTING THE LETTER SHOULD INCLUDE: specific warm-up, good pelvic fixation and visual feedback.

  4. Relevance of quality of life assessment for multiple sclerosis patients with memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Memory disturbances, in particular episodic verbal memory dysfunction, are the most frequent cognitive impairment observed in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these subjects has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this impaired population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and memory performance (Grober and Buschke test. In accordance with the French norms of the memory test, non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for short- and long-delay free composites and for short- and long-delay total composites. For the 8 populations, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. The analysis performed in the impaired populations showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that memory dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  5. NELCAS, an efficient and relevant tool to assess key environmental indicators for nuclear energy - 5334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.; Ouvrier, N.; Serp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Nuclear energy is anticipated to be one of the possible energy sources which can allow the production of energy at high load with a high level of reliability without significant impact on the environment, specifically in terms of green-house gases. It could therefore promote the mitigation of the anticipated global climate change. However, nuclear energy is regularly questioned about its overall environmental impact and footprint, in particular after the Fukushima accident. However, very little information is available on the actual footprint of current and future nuclear systems. In order to bring insights on this issue, we developed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) simulation tool NELCAS based on the French nuclear system which allows the calculation of representative key environmental indicators and potential impact indicators for the whole nuclear systems. Indicators were chosen based on their occurrence in literature. Calculations were performed while considering the whole fuel cycle from ore-mining to geological repository and for each of the plant, the contribution from their construction, their operation and their future cleaning and dismantling. Transports were also considered all along the fuel cycle. All the matters and energy fluxes were considered and normalized versus the electric production. Whenever it is possible, actual and recent data were collected. In particular we widely used the Transparency and Safety Annual reports issued for each fuel cycle plant in France. Finally, statistical influence of the severe accidents was also considered based on the recent Fukushima accident. This presentation will detail the methodology and the overall results obtained for the different indicators. A specific emphasis will be given on the relative benefice of the nuclear energy by comparison to other energy sources. (authors)

  6. Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the environmental implications of nanotechnology lies in studying nanoparticle uptake in organisms at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Typically, high exposure concentrations are needed to trigger measurable effects and to detect accumulation above background. But application of tracer techniques can overcome these limitations. Here we synthesised, for the first time, citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles using Ag that was 99.7 % 109Ag. In addition to conducting reactivity and dissolution studies, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these isotopically modified Ag nanoparticles (109Ag NPs) to a freshwater snail under conditions typical of nature. We showed that accumulation of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs is detectable in the tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis after 24-h exposure to aqueous concentrations as low as 6 ng L–1 as well as after 3 h of dietary exposure to concentrations as low as 0.07 μg g–1. Silver uptake from unlabelled Ag NPs would not have been detected under similar exposure conditions. Uptake rates of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs mixed with food or dispersed in water were largely linear over a wide range of concentrations. Particle dissolution was most important at low waterborne concentrations. We estimated that 70 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration in L. stagnalis at exposures –1 originated from the newly solubilised Ag. Above this concentration, we predicted that 80 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration originated from the 109Ag NPs. It was not clear if agglomeration had a major influence on uptake rates.

  7. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  8. Land Degradation Neutrality: Concept development, practical applications and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga; Cowie, Annette

    2017-06-15

    The paper explores the background and scientific basis of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), a new paradigm reflecting the inter-related aspirations and demands of land-related sustainable development goals. The paper draws on academic literature, field observations, insight from development researchers and practitioners, professional meetings, and agency reports to describe the LDN concept and its relationship with sustainable land management (SLM). We discuss the potential for LDN to facilitate the adoption and assessment of SLM, and to provide a framework to achieve the "land degradation neutral world" goal of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. We present insights relevant to the implementation of LDN. These include the need to: consider quality as well as quantity of land degraded and restored; apply an ecosystem-based approach for LDN assessment; consider land degradation risks; recognize different uses of land and approaches to reach the LDN target; and define the LDN baseline and indicators. We discuss the contradictions of using two different modes for evaluating land degradation and successes in land restoration, which we name the "Anti-degradation view" and "Production-advocacy view". To harmonize these approaches we propose that LDN be considered as a phenomenon of equilibrium of the land system, in terms of the balance between deterioration and improvement of terrestrial ecosystems' qualities, functions and services. Indicators to reflect this balance can use different approaches relevant to the various countries and areas, and to the types of land use. Two examples of using this approach are described. The first shows the assessment of the state of LDN based on the homeostasis of land cover and is based on assessment of distribution of ecosystems, and the dynamics of the land cover pattern in the areas prone to land degradation. The second is based on the combination of the well-known principle of Leibig's Law of the Minimum (1843), and Shelford

  9. Electron microscopy of human peripheral nerves of clinical relevance to the practice of nerve blocks. A structural and ultrastructural review based on original experimental and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, M A; Arriazu, R; Collier, C B; Sala-Blanch, X; Izquierdo, L; de Andrés, J

    2013-12-01

    The goal is to describe the ultrastructure of normal human peripheral nerves, and to highlight key aspects that are relevant to the practice of peripheral nerve block anaesthesia. Using samples of sciatic nerve obtained from patients, and dural sac, nerve root cuff and brachial plexus dissected from fresh human cadavers, an analysis of the structure of peripheral nerve axons and distribution of fascicles and topographic composition of the layers that cover the nerve is presented. Myelinated and unmyelinated axons, fascicles, epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium obtained from patients and fresh cadavers were studied by light microscopy using immunohistochemical techniques, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Structure of perineurium and intrafascicular capillaries, and its implications in blood-nerve barrier were revised. Each of the anatomical elements is analyzed individually with regard to its relevance to clinical practice to regional anaesthesia. Routine practice of regional anaesthetic techniques and ultrasound identification of nerve structures has led to conceptions, which repercussions may be relevant in future applications of these techniques. In this regard, the ultrastructural and histological perspective accomplished through findings of this study aims at enlightening arising questions within the field of regional anaesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Creating scientists teaching and assessing science practice for the NGSS

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Teach students to reason like scientists. This practical new book provides a clear framework for helping students develop scientific thinking so they are not just memorizing content but are becoming engaged in the real work scientists do. You'll learn how to teach students to analyse scientific testing, to understand if something caused something else, and to understand the value of evidence. The book offers ideas for lesson plans and assessments and also features reproducible tools and handouts that you can use in the classroom immediately.

  11. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  12. Comparison of landslide hazard and risk assessment practices in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, J.; Mavrouli, O.

    2012-04-01

    An overview is made of the landslide hazard and risk assessment practices that are officially promoted or applied in Europe by administration offices, geological surveys, and decision makers (recommendations, regulations and codes). The reported countries are: Andorra, Austria, France, Italy (selected river basins), Romania, Spain (Catalonia), Switzerland and United Kingdom. The objective here was to compare the different practices for hazard and risk evaluation with respect to the official policies, the methodologies used (qualitative and quantitative), the provided outputs and their contents, and the terminology and map symbols used. The main observations made are illustrated with examples and the possibility of harmonization of the policies and the application of common practices to bridge the existing gaps is discussed. Some of the conclusions reached include the following: zoning maps are legally binding for public administrators and land owners only in some cases and generally when referring to site-specific or local scales rather than regional or national ones; so far, information is mainly provided on landslide susceptibility and hazard and risk assessment is performed only in a few countries; there is a variation in the use of scales between countries; the classification criteria for landslide types and mechanisms present large diversity even within the same country (in some cases no landslide mechanisms are specified while in others there is an exhaustive list); the techniques to obtain input data for the landslide inventory and susceptibility maps vary from basic to sophisticated, resulting in various levels of data quality and quantity; the procedures followed for hazard and risk assessment include analytical procedures supported by computer simulation, weighted-indicators, expert judgment and field survey-based, or a combination of all; there is an important variation between hazard and risk matrices with respect to the used parameters, the thresholds

  13. Fluorescent nanodiamonds as a relevant tag for the assessment of alum adjuvant particle biodisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Housam; David, Marie-Odile; Crépeaux, Guillemette; Henry, Laetitia; Joshi, Vandana; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Sennour, Mohamed; Cadusseau, Josette; Gherardi, Romain K; Curmi, Patrick A

    2015-06-17

    Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to alum particles have emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, revealing an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells and a fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term. However, lack of specific staining makes difficult the assessment of low quantities of bona fide alum adjuvant particles in tissues. We explored the feasibility of using fluorescent functionalized nanodiamonds (mfNDs) as a permanent label of alum (Alhydrogel(®)). mfNDs have a specific and perfectly photostable fluorescence based on the presence within the diamond lattice of nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV centers). As the NV center does not bleach, it allows the microspectrometric detection of mfNDs at very low levels and in the long-term. We thus developed fluorescent nanodiamonds functionalized by hyperbranched polyglycerol (mfNDs) allowing good coupling and stability of alum:mfNDs (AluDia) complexes. Specificities of AluDia complexes were comparable to the whole reference vaccine (anti-hepatitis B vaccine) in terms of particle size and zeta potential. In vivo, AluDia injection was followed by prompt phagocytosis and AluDia particles remained easily detectable by the specific signal of the fND particles in the injected muscle, draining lymph nodes, spleen, liver and brain. In vitro, mfNDs had low toxicity on THP-1 cells and AluDia showed cell toxicity similar to alum alone. Expectedly, AluDia elicited autophagy, and allowed highly specific detection of small amounts of alum

  14. Tracking the Evolution of "Research & Practice in Assessment" through the Pages of RPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin D.; Curtis, Nicolas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago, "Research & Practice in Assessment" (RPA) was born, providing an outlet for assessment-related research. Since that first winter issue, assessment research and practice has evolved. Like with many evolutions, the assessment practice evolution is best described as a change of emphasis as opposed to a radical revolution.…

  15. Toxicity assessment strategies, data requirements, and risk assessment approaches to derive health based guidance values for non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Kalberlah, Fritz

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, limits for tolerable concentrations of "non-relevant metabolites" for active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products in drinking water between 0.1 and 10 microg/L are discussed depending on the toxicological information available. "Non-relevant metabolites" are degradation products of AIs, which do not or only partially retain the targeted toxicities of AIs. For "non-relevant metabolites" without genotoxicity (to be confirmed by testing in vitro), the application of the concept of "thresholds of toxicological concern" results in a health-based drinking water limit of 4.5 microg/L even for Cramer class III compounds, using the TTC threshold of 90 microg/person/day (divided by 10 and 2). Taking into account the thresholds derived from two reproduction toxicity data bases a drinking water limit of 3.0 microg/L is proposed. Therefore, for "non-relevant metabolites" whose drinking water concentration is below 3.0 microg/L, no toxicity testing is necessary. This work develops a toxicity assessment strategy as a basis to delineate health-based limits for "non-relevant metabolites" in ground and drinking water. Toxicological testing is recommended to investigate, whether the metabolites are relevant or not, based on the hazard properties of the parent AIs, as outlined in the SANCO Guidance document. Also, genotoxicity testing of the water metabolites is clearly recommended. In this publication, tiered testing strategies are proposed for non-relevant metabolites, when drinking water concentrations >3.0 microg/L will occur. Conclusions based on structure-activity relationships and the detailed toxicity database on the parent AI should be included. When testing in animals is required for risk assessment, key aspects are studies along OECD-testing guidelines with "enhanced" study designs addressing additional endpoints such as reproductive toxicity and a developmental screening test to derive health-based tolerable drinking water limits with a limited number

  16. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainieri, C; Marra, A; Gargaro, D; Fabbrocino, G; Rainieri, G M; Pepe, M

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented. (paper)

  17. Depression of home cage wheel running: a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Lee, Andrea T; Morgan, Michael M

    2017-12-01

    The development of new anti-migraine treatments is limited by the difficulty inassessing migraine pain in laboratory animals. Depression of activity is one of the few diagnostic criteria formigraine that can be mimicked in rats. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis thatdepression of home cage wheel running is a reliable and clinically relevant method to assess migraine painin rats. Adult female rats were implanted with a cannula to inject allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) onto the dura to induce migraine pain, as has been shown before. Rats recovered from implantation surgery for 8 days in cages containing a running wheel. Home cage wheel running was recorded 23 h a day. AITC and the migraine medication sumatriptan were administered in the hour prior to onset of the dark phase. Administration of AITC caused a concentration-dependent decrease in wheel running that lasted 3 h. The duration and magnitude of AITC-induced depression of wheel running was consistent following three repeated injections spaced 48 h apart. Administration of sumatriptan attenuated AITC-induced depressionof wheel running when a large dose (1 mg/kg) was administered immediately following AITC administration. Wheel running patterns did not change when sumatriptan was given to naïve rats. These data indicate that home cage wheel running is a sensitive, reliable, and clinically relevant method to assess migraine pain in the rat.

  18. Russian practice of RPV integrity assessment under PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piminov, V.; Dragunov, Yu.; Kostyrkin, S.; Akbachev, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the approach used by Gidopress (main designer of Russian WWER reactors) for RPV integrity assessment is presented. Recently performed calculations for RPVs of Novoronezh NPP, units 3 and 4, are used as an example of practical application of this approach. The calculations have been performed on the base of Russian regulatory requirements, at the same time the recommendations of IAEA Guidelines for PTS assessment was also taken into account. The scope of the work includes: Analysis of real state of NPP systems and PTS selection; analysis of material behavior including results of templets investigation; thermal hydraulic calculations; structural analyses for the leading transients; development of supplementary measures to reduce the risk of RPV fracture. 5 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  19. Russian practice of RPV integrity assessment under PTS conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piminov, V; Dragunov, Yu; Kostyrkin, S; Akbachev, I

    1997-09-01

    In this paper the approach used by Gidopress (main designer of Russian WWER reactors) for RPV integrity assessment is presented. Recently performed calculations for RPVs of Novoronezh NPP, units 3 and 4, are used as an example of practical application of this approach. The calculations have been performed on the base of Russian regulatory requirements, at the same time the recommendations of IAEA Guidelines for PTS assessment was also taken into account. The scope of the work includes: Analysis of real state of NPP systems and PTS selection; analysis of material behavior including results of templets investigation; thermal hydraulic calculations; structural analyses for the leading transients; development of supplementary measures to reduce the risk of RPV fracture. 5 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Health visiting assessment--unpacking critical attributes in health visitor needs assessment practice: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; Cowley, Sarah

    2008-02-01

    Assessment of family health need is a central feature of health visiting practice in which a range of skills, knowledge and judgements are used. These assessments are pivotal in uncovering need, safeguarding children and in determining levels of health intervention to be offered to children and their families by the health visiting service in the UK. The central focus of this paper is to outline the critical attributes of the basic principles that underpin health visiting assessment practice that emerged as part of a case study enquiry. A case study design informed by a constructivist methodology was used to examine health visitors' professional judgements and use of formal guidelines in identifying health needs and prioritising families requiring extra health visiting support. The main study was conducted in three community Trust case sites in England, UK, with pilot work being undertaken in a fourth site. Fifteen health visitors participated in the main study and data were collected during 56 observed home visits to families receiving extra health visiting support. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with the health visitors, pre- and post-home contacts, while 53 client interviews also took place. The analysis suggests that there are certain fundamental elements associated with the majority of health visitor assessments and these have been termed assessment principles. These characteristics are integral to, and provide the basis upon which health visitors' assessments are conducted and professional judgement is formed. They reflect the basic principles of health visiting assessment practice, which exist despite the constraints and realities of the practice context and can be differentiated from the activity centred methods of assessment processes.

  1. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  2. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  3. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  4. Teacher coaching supported by formative assessment for improving classroom practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M

    2018-06-01

    The present study is a wait-list controlled, randomized study investigating a teacher coaching approach that emphasizes formative assessment and visual performance feedback to enhance elementary school teachers' classroom practices. The coaching model targeted instructional and behavioral management practices as measured by the Classroom Strategies Assessment System (CSAS) Observer and Teacher Forms. The sample included 89 general education teachers, stratified by grade level, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) immediate coaching, or (b) waitlist control. Results indicated that, relative to the waitlist control, teachers in immediate coaching demonstrated significantly greater improvements in observations of behavior management strategy use but not for observations of instructional strategy use. Observer- and teacher-completed ratings of behavioral management strategy use at postassessment were significantly improved by both raters; ratings of instructional strategy use were significantly improved for teacher but not observer ratings. A brief coaching intervention improved teachers' use of observed behavior management strategies and self-reported use of behavior management and instructional strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Environmental assessment for sustainable development: process, actors and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, P.; Delisle, C.E.; Reveret, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple environmental problems afflict our contemporary world and have been the subject of discussions during many international meetings. All declarations resulting from these meetings insist on including environmental problems and on environmental assessment (EA) as an important tool to achieve this. This book aims to reach three objectives. First, it introduces EA to people from different disciplines, and therefore it opens up the perspective of new disciplinary horizons. Second, the authors discuss EA as a socio-political process rather than emphasizing methodologies. Third, this book draws mainly on the experience in Francophone countries which is still poorly disseminated. This book focusses on process and actors. Thus, the subject matter is divided into five major parts: the history and major issues of EA from a sustainable development perspective (Chapters 1 to 3); the actors, i.e. the Project Proponent and consulting firms, the public, the decision maker and international actors (Chapters 4 to 7); methods and tools including public participation (Chapters 8 and 9); processes in practice through step by step processes in practice and case studies (Chapters 10 and 11); and, finally, recent and upcoming developments in EA, including elements of strategic environmental assessment (Chapters 12 and 13). An index facilitates searching for information. The reader is also invited to consult the book's website

  6. Practical consequences of the assessment of different energy health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Public authorities must make decisions about energy, and the risks of alternative strategies need to be calculated including health and environmental costs. Information from various sources must be organized into a logical framework for comparing impacts. This must include the widest practicable range of health and environmental damage - public health impact of pollution, role of accidents, disease and hazardous materials in the workplace, and odds for catastrophes. It must put each part of the energy cycle into perspective - giving particular attention to uncertainties in knowledge - to convey what is known, what is uncertain, and the importance of each factor in the overall picture. This paper gives examples of the use of health-impact assessment by decision-makers: (1) comparative risk assessment of the health effects of coal and nuclear fuel cycles used in nuclear power plant siting and licensing hearings, and (2) health risks of acid deposition and other air-transported pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment for the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. (author)

  7. Practical implications of pre-employment nurse assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, James E; Ramon, Cheree; Gonzalez, Ronald; Biddle, Dan A

    2013-01-01

    Hiring nurses is a difficult task that can have serious repercussions for medical facilities. If nurses without proper skills are hired, patients can suffer from insufficient quality of care and potentially life-threatening conditions. Nurse applicants' technical knowledge is extremely important to avoid negative outcomes; however, there are soft skills that factor into their success, such as bedside manner, personality, communication, and decision making. In order for medical facilities to select and maintain high-performing nurse staff, hiring managers must incorporate evaluations for these types of skills in their hiring process. The current study focused on using content/criterion-related validation design to create assessments by which nurse applicants can be evaluated for both technical knowledge/skills and soft skills. The study included participation of more than 876 nursing staff members. To rank applicants on divergent skills, 3 assessment types were investigated, resulting in the creation of an assessment with 3 components. The clinical, situational, and behavioral components that were created measure applicants' job knowledge, interpersonal competency in medical facility-related situations, and aspects of personality and behavior, respectively. Results indicate that using the assessment can predict 45% of a nurse applicant's future job performance. Practical implications include hiring and maintaining a higher quality of nurses and decreased hiring costs.

  8. Health risk assessment and the practice of industrial hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustenbach, D J

    1990-07-01

    It has been claimed that there may be as many as 2000 airborne chemicals to which persons could be exposed in the workplace and in the community. Of these, occupational exposure limits have been set for approximately 700 chemicals, and only about 30 chemicals have limits for the ambient air. It is likely that some type of health risk assessment methodology will be used to establish limits for the remainder. Although these methods have been used for over 10 yr to set environmental limits, each step of the process (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of traps into which scientists and risk managers can fall. For example, regulatory approaches to the hazard identification step have allowed little discrimination between the various animal carcinogens, even though these chemicals can vary greatly in their potency and mechanisms of action. In general, epidemiology data have been given little weight compared to the results of rodent bioassays. The dose-response extrapolation process, as generally practiced, often does not present the range of equally plausible values. Procedures which acknowledge and quantitatively account for some or all of the different classes of chemical carcinogens have not been widely adopted. For example, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) and biologically based models need to become a part of future risk assessments. The exposure evaluation portion of risk assessments can now be significantly more valid because of better dispersion models, validated exposure parameters, and the use of computers to account for complex environmental factors. Using these procedures, industrial hygienists are now able to quantitatively estimate the risks caused not only by the inhalation of chemicals but also those caused by dermal contact and incidental ingestion. The appropriate use of risk assessment methods should allow scientists and risk managers to set scientifically valid

  9. [Health technology assessment for decision-making in Latin America: good practice principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Soto, Natalie C; Augustovski, Federico Ariel; García Martí, Sebastián; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2018-02-19

    Identify the most relevant, applicable, and priority good practice principles in health technology assessment (HTA) in Latin America, and potential barriers to implementing them in the region. HTA good practice principles postulated worldwide were identified and then explored through a deliberative process in a forum of evaluators, funders, and technology producers. Forty-two representatives from ten Latin American countries participated in the forum. The good practice principles postulated at the international level were considered valid and potentially applicable in Latin America. Five principles were identified as priorities and as having greater potential to be expanded at this time: transparency in carrying out HTA; involvement of stakeholders in the HTA process; existence of mechanisms to appeal decisions; existence of clear mechanisms for HTA priority-setting; and existence of a clear link between assessment and decision-making. The main challenge identified was to find a balance between application of these principles and available resources, to prevent the planned improvements from jeopardizing report production times and failing to meet decision-makers' needs. The main recommendation was to gradually advance in improving HTA and its link to decision-making by developing appropriate processes for each country, without attempting to impose, in the short term, standards taken from examples at the international level without adequate adaptation to the local context.

  10. Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.

  11. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  12. 76 FR 37119 - Development of Best Practices for Community Health Needs Assessment and Implementation Strategy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Best Practices for Community Health Needs Assessment and Implementation Strategy; Public Forum AGENCY... processes relating to community health needs assessment (CHNA) and implementation strategy/plan development... practices in CHNA and implementation strategy development and execution for improved community health...

  13. TEACHER EDUCATION IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES FOR HOLISTIC QUALITY AND RELEVANT TEACHER EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Harriet Wambui Njui

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on selected pedagogical practices with a view to making recommendations on how teacher training colleges in Kenya could employ collaborative pedagogies in instruction in order to nurture teacher trainees with knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that prepare them to effectively facilitate learning in schools after pre-service training. Collaborative pedagogies have the advantage of developing learners with 21st century skills such as creativity, critical think...

  14. Revisiting the relevance of economic theory to hotel revenue management education and practice in the era of Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Natalie; Egan, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract\\ud This paper explores the role of economics in hospitality education and industry practice, with a particular focus on revenue management, and puts forward an argument for a return to the inclusion of economic theory in UK hospitality education, not seen since the 1990s. Given the increasing amounts of pricing data available to both managers and customers and the consequent market complexities now seen, developing economic literacy is demonstrated to be a crucial skill required for ...

  15. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Britta L; Juliano, Laura M; Schulkin, Jay

    2009-09-01

    Caffeine has relevance for women's health and pregnancy, including significant associations with spontaneous abortion and low birth weight. According to scientific data, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should be advised to limit their caffeine consumption. This article reviews the implications of caffeine for women's psychological and physical health, and presents data on obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and practices pertaining to caffeine. Ob-gyns (N = 386) who are members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network responded to a 21-item survey about caffeine. Although most knew that caffeine is passed through breast milk, only 24.8% were aware that caffeine metabolism significantly slows as pregnancy progresses. Many respondents were not aware of the caffeine content of commonly used products, such as espresso and Diet Coke, with 14.3% and 57.8% indicating amounts within an accurate range, respectively. Furthermore, ob-gyns did not take into account large differences in caffeine content across different caffeinated beverages with most recommending one to two servings of coffee or tea or soft drinks per day. There was substantial inconsistency in what was considered to be "high levels" of maternal caffeine consumption, with only 31.6% providing a response. When asked to indicate the risk that high levels of caffeine have on various pregnancy outcomes, responses were not consistent with scientific data. For example, respondents overestimated the relative risk of stillbirths and underestimated the relative risk of spontaneous abortion. There was great variability in assessment and advice practices pertaining to caffeine. More than half advise their pregnant patients to consume caffeine under certain circumstances, most commonly to alleviate headache and caffeine withdrawal. The data suggest that ob-gyns could benefit from information about caffeine and its relevance to their

  16. Relevance of hydro-climatic change projection and monitoring for assessment of water cycle changes in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

  17. Development and Validation of a Scalable Next-Generation Sequencing System for Assessing Relevant Somatic Variants in Solid Tumors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovelson, Daniel H.; McDaniel, Andrew S.; Cani, Andi K.; Johnson, Bryan; Rhodes, Kate; Williams, Paul D.; Bandla, Santhoshi; Bien, Geoffrey; Choppa, Paul; Hyland, Fiona; Gottimukkala, Rajesh; Liu, Guoying; Manivannan, Manimozhi; Schageman, Jeoffrey; Ballesteros-Villagrana, Efren; Grasso, Catherine S.; Quist, Michael J.; Yadati, Venkata; Amin, Anmol; Siddiqui, Javed; Betz, Bryan L.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Feng, Felix Y.; Roh, Michael H.; Nelson, Peter S.; Liu, Chia-Jen; Beer, David G.; Wyngaard, Peter; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Sadis, Seth; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Tomlins, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled genome-wide personalized oncology efforts at centers and companies with the specialty expertise and infrastructure required to identify and prioritize actionable variants. Such approaches are not scalable, preventing widespread adoption. Likewise, most targeted NGS approaches fail to assess key relevant genomic alteration classes. To address these challenges, we predefined the catalog of relevant solid tumor somatic genome variants (gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutations, high-level copy number alterations, and gene fusions) through comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of >700,000 samples. To detect these variants, we developed the Oncomine Comprehensive Panel (OCP), an integrative NGS-based assay [compatible with 95% accuracy for KRAS, epidermal growth factor receptor, and BRAF mutation detection as well as for ALK and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusions. Associating positive variants with potential targeted treatments demonstrated that 6% to 42% of profiled samples (depending on cancer type) harbored alterations beyond routine molecular testing that were associated with approved or guideline-referenced therapies. As a translational research tool, OCP identified adaptive CTNNB1 amplifications/mutations in treated prostate cancers. Through predefining somatic variants in solid tumors and compiling associated potential treatment strategies, OCP represents a simplified, broadly applicable targeted NGS system with the potential to advance precision oncology efforts. PMID:25925381

  18. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  19. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad [Radiation Safety & Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, N. A. H. Abd. [Faculty of Science & Mathematics, Sultan Idris of Education Universit, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  20. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H 0 ) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  1. Assessing the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism – a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrni J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Fahrni,1 Marc Husmann,2 Silvia B Gretener,3 Hong H Keo1 1Division of Angiology, Medical University Clinic, Kantonsspital Aarau AG, Aarau, Switzerland; 2Clinic for Angiology, University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland; 3Clinic for Angiology Oberaargau, Langenthal, Switzerland Abstract: Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This risk is lowered by anticoagulation, with a large effect in the initial phase following the venous thromboembolic event, and with a smaller effect in terms of secondary prevention of recurrence when extended anticoagulation is performed. On the other hand, extended anticoagulation is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding and thus leads to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the risk of recurrence for VTE on an individual basis, and a recommendation for secondary prophylaxis should be specifically based on risk calculation of recurrence of VTE and bleeding. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of relevant risk factors for recurrent VTE and a practical approach for assessing the risk of recurrence in daily practice. Keywords: thrombosis, hemorrhage, risk assessment 

  2. Studies of climatic effects relevant to site selection and to assessments of the radiological impact of disposal at selected sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodess, C.M.; Palutikof, J.P.; Davies, T.D.

    1988-07-01

    Projected timescales for the transport of radionuclides from an undisturbed underground nuclear waste repository to the surface are in the range of tens of thousands to millions of years. Over these timescales major natural and anthropogenic changes in climate can be expected. As part of the UK safety assessment programme time-dependent models of the repository environment are being developed and the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) has undertaken a study of relevant climatic change and climatic effects. In order to estimate the probable range succession and duration of major climate states likely to be experienced in the UK over the next 10 6 years the nature and mechanisms of climatic variations in the past are first reviewed. (Author)

  3. New statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Collins, J.J.; Brown, C.D.; Carnes, B.A.; Curtiss, J.B.; Devine, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present research develops new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases of relevance to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies, and uses these to identify, quantify, and pedict adverse health effects of energy related pollutants. Efforts are in five related areas including: (1) evaluation and development of statistical procedures for the analysis of death rate data, disease incidence data, and large scale data sets; (2) development of dose response and demographic models useful in the prediction of the health effects of energy technologies; (3) application of our method and models to analyses of the health risks of energy production; (4) a reanalysis of the Tri-State leukemia survey data, focusing on the relationship between myelogenous leukemia risk and diagnostic x-ray exposure; and (5) investigation of human birth weights as a possible early warning system for the effects of environmental pollution

  4. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  5. Needs assessment for business strategies of anesthesiology groups' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock, Corey; Dexter, Franklin; Reich, David L; Galati, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Progress has been made in understanding strategic decision making influencing anesthesia groups' operating room business practices. However, there has been little analysis of the remaining gaps in our knowledge. We performed a needs assessment to identify unsolved problems in anesthesia business strategy based on Porter's Five Forces Analysis. The methodology was a narrative literature review. We found little previous investigation for 2 of the 5 forces (threat of new entrants and bargaining power of suppliers), modest understanding for 1 force (threat of substitute products or services), and substantial understanding for 2 forces (bargaining power of customers and jockeying for position among current competitors). Additional research in strategic decisions influencing anesthesia groups should focus on the threat of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers, and the threat of substitute products or services.

  6. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  7. Nutritional screening, assessment and implementation strategies for adults in an Australian acute tertiary hospital: a best practice implementation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise; Chapman, Amanda; Flowers, Kelli; Wright, Kylie; Chen, Tanghua; O'Connor, Charmaine; Astorga, Cecilia; Francis, Nevenka; Vigh, Gia; Wainwright, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The project aimed to improve the effectiveness of nutritional screening and assessment practices through clinical audits and the implementation of evidence-based practice recommendations. In the absence of optimal nutrition, health may decline and potentially manifest as adverse health outcomes. In a hospitalized person, poor nutrition may adversely impact on the person's outcome. If the nutritional status can be ascertained, nutritional needs can be addressed and potential risks minimized.The overall purpose of this project was to review and monitor staff compliance with nutritional screening and assessment best practice recommendations ensuring there is timely, relevant and structured nutritional therapeutic practices that support safe, compassionate and person-centered care in adults in a tertiary hospital in South Western Sydney, Australia, in the acute care setting. A baseline retrospective chart audit was conducted and measured against 10 best practice criteria in relation to nutritional screening and assessment practices. This was followed by a facilitated multidisciplinary focus group to identify targeted strategies, implementation of targeted strategies, and a post strategy implementation chart audit.The project utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) and Getting Research into Practice (GRIP) tool, including evidence from other available supporting literature, for promoting change in healthcare practice. The baseline audit revealed deficits between current practice and best practice across the 10 criteria. Barriers for implementation of nutritional screening and assessment best practice criteria were identified by the focus group and an education strategy was implemented. There were improved outcomes across all best practice criteria in the follow-up audit. The baseline audit revealed gaps between current practice and best practice. Through the implementation of a targeted education program and

  8. The practicalities and pitfalls of establishing a policy-relevant and cost-effective soil biological monitoring scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, J.H.; Creamer, R.E.; Mulder, C.; Römbke, J.; Rutgers, M.; Sousa, J.P.; Stone, D.; Griffiths, B.S.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of biological indicators have been proposed over the years for assessing soil quality. Although many of those have been applied in monitoring schemes across Europe, no consensus exists on the extent to which these indicators might perform best and how monitoring schemes can be further

  9. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.; Simon, I.; Little, R.H.; Charles, D.; Grogan, H.A.; Smith, G.M.; Sumerling, T.J.; Watkins, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  10. Cumulative Risk Assessment: Overview of Agency Guidance, Practice and Current Major Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation that includes the EPA's definition of CRA, relevant publications already in existence, the CRA Guidelines effort, science issues where research is still needed, program office practices related to CRA, and EPA research activities.

  11. Relevance of tissue Doppler in the quantification of stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicari Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present article we review the main published data on the application of Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI to stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia. TDI has been applied to stress echocardiography in order to overcome the limitations of visual analysis for myocardial ischemia. The introduction of a new technology for clinical routine use should pass through the different phases of scientific assessment from feasibility studies to large multicenter studies, from efficacy to effectiveness studies. Nonetheless the pro-technology bias plays a major role in medicine and expensive and sophisticated techniques are accepted before their real usefulness and incremental value to the available ones is assessed. Apparently, TDI is not exempted by this approach : its applications are not substantiated by strong and sound results. Nonetheless, conventional stress echocardiography for myocardial ischemia detection is heavily criticized on the basis of its subjectivity. Stress echocardiography has a long lasting history and the evidence collected over 20 years positioned it as an established tool for the detection and prognostication of coronary artery disease. The quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia remains a scientific challenge and a clinical goal but time has not come for these newer ultrasonographic techniques which should be restricted to research laboratories.

  12. Assessing Clinical Microbiology Practice Guidelines: American Society for Microbiology Ad Hoc Committee on Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, Irving; Kirn, Thomas J; Westblade, Lars F; Humphries, Romney

    2017-11-01

    As part of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines Committee of the Professional Practice Committee, an ad hoc committee was formed in 2014 to assess guidelines published by the committee using an assessment tool, Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation II (AGREE II). The AGREE II assessment helps reviewers determine whether published guidelines are robust, transparent, and clear in presenting practice recommendations in a standardized manner. Identifying strengths and weaknesses of practice guidelines by ad hoc assessments helps with improving future guidelines through the participation of key stakeholders. This minireview describes the development of the ad hoc committee and results from their review of several ASM best practices guidelines and a non-ASM practice guideline from the Emergency Nurses Association. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Walking the sustainability assessment talk — Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  14. Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois [School of Environmental Sciences and Development, North West University (South Africa)

    2012-09-15

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  15. From Assessment Cocktail to Assessment Symphony: The Development of Best Assessment Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Kadri

    2015-12-01

    Despite the proven positive effects of formative compared to summative assessment on students׳ learning, most examinations in medical schools are still summative. Even assessment that is meant to be formative, is often used for summative decision making. The question therefore is: Are we reversing back to the psychometric era?

  16. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubaker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety, a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing culture has been devised and distributed to residents. 228 responses have been collected and analyzed. Using a scale similar to the one adopted for a university student GPA calculation, the electrical safety level (ESL in Hail region has been found to be 0.76 (in a scale of 4 points which is a very low score and indicates a poor electrical safety culture. Several recommendations involving different competent authorities have been proposed. Future work will concern the assessment of safety in industrial companies in Hail region.

  17. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  18. Longitudinal MRI assessment: the identification of relevant features in the development of Posterior Fossa Syndrome in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, M.; Lewis, E.; Windridge, D.; Avula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Up to 25% of children who undergo brain tumour resection surgery in the posterior fossa develop posterior fossa syndrome (PFS). This syndrome is characterised by mutism and disturbance in speech. Our hypothesis is that there is a correlation between PFS and the occurrence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) in lobes within the posterior fossa, known as the inferior olivary nuclei (ION). HOD is exhibited as an increase in size and intensity of the ION on an MR image. Intra-operative MRI (IoMRI) is used during surgical procedures at the Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liver- pool, England, in the treatment of Posterior Fossa tumours and allows visualisation of the brain during surgery. The final MR scan on the IoMRI allows early assessment of the ION immediately after the surgical procedure. The longitudinal MRI data of 28 patients was analysed in a collaborative study with Alder Hey Children's Hospital, in order to identify the most relevant imaging features that relate to the development of PFS, specifically related to HOD. A semi-automated segmentation process was carried out to delineate the ION on each MRI. Feature selection techniques were used to identify the most relevant features amongst the MRI data, demographics and clinical data provided by the hospital. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to analyse the discriminative ability of the selected features. The results indicate the presence of HOD as the most efficient feature that correlates with the development of PFS, followed by the change in intensity and size of the ION and whether HOD occurred bilaterally or unilaterally.

  19. Monitoring long-term ecological changes through the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network: science-based and policy relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A

    2001-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.

  20. Home cage wheel running is an objective and clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ram; Calsbeek, Jonas J.; Morgan, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The assessment of nociception in preclinical studies is undergoing a transformation from pain-evoked to pain-depressed tests to more closely mimic the effects of clinical pain. Many inflammatory pain-depressed behaviors (reward seeking, locomotion) have been examined, but these tests are limited because of confounds such as stress and difficulties in quantifying behavior. New Method The present study evaluates home cage wheel running as an objective method to assess the magnitude and duration of inflammatory pain in male and female rats. Results Injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hindpaw to induce inflammatory pain almost completely inhibited wheel running for 2 days in males and females. Wheel running gradually returned to baseline levels within 12 days despite persistent mechanical hypersensitivity (von Frey test). Comparison with Existing Methods Continuously monitoring home cage wheel running improves on previous studies examining inflammatory pain-depressed wheel running because it is more sensitive to noxious stimuli, avoids the stress of removing the rat from its cage for testing, and provides a complete analysis of the time course for changes in nociception. Conclusions The present data indicate that home cage wheel running is a clinically relevant method to assess inflammatory pain in the rat. The decrease in activity caused by inflammatory pain and subsequent gradual recovery mimics the changes in activity caused by pain in humans. The tendency for pain-depressed wheel running to be greater in female than male rats is consistent with the tendency for women to be at greater risk of chronic pain than men. PMID:26891874

  1. Appropriate diagnostic imaging - Assessment of the quality of referrals from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Merethe Kirstine Kousgaard; Torfing, Trine; Ulrichsen, Walther

    and MRI regarding musculoskeletal issues. The reviews were conducted according to a preformed registration schema. Themes for the survey were: Relevance of referral, relevance of chosen modality, exhaustiveness of referral information, relevance of information and eventual suggestions for a more relevant......-scanning was the most relevant (87%). Overall, referral information was relevant in 80% of the cases, and most relevant in referrals to x-ray (87%). In 9.5% of referrals the chosen modality was not the optimal, which was most pronounced for ultrasound referrals (13%). Referral information was most insufficient...... regarding MRI, where 56.4% of information was described as less insufficient/insufficient. It was a frequent notation, that there was too much irrelevant information, which was ascribed to copy-paste from the general practitioners’ records. Conclusion A majority of referrals from general practice...

  2. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  3. A questionnaire for assessing breastfeeding intentions and practices in Nigeria: validity, reliability and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Andy; Clow, Sheila E

    2017-06-07

    Validating a questionnaire/instrument (whether developed or adapted) before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. This article presents the modification of an Irish questionnaire for a Nigerian setting. The validation process and reliability testing of this questionnaire (which was used in assessing previous breastfeeding practices and breastfeeding intentions of pregnant women in English and Hausa languages) were also presented. Five experts in the field of breastfeeding and infant feeding voluntarily and independently evaluated the instrument. The experts evaluated the various items of the questionnaire based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on a Likert scale of 4. The analysis was performed to determine the content validity index (CVI).Two language experts performed the translation and back-translation. Ten pregnant women completed questionnaires which were evaluated for internal consistency. Two other pregnant women completed the questionnaire twice at an interval of two weeks to test the reliability. SPSS version 21 was used to calculate the coefficient of reliability. The content validity index was high (0.94 for relevance, clarity and ambiguity and 0.96 for simplicity). The analysis suggested that four of the seventy one items should be removed. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.81, while the reliability coefficient was 0.76. The emerged validated questionnaire was translated from English to Hausa, then, back-translated into English and compared for accuracy. The final instrument is reliable and valid for data collection on breastfeeding in Nigeria among English and Hausa speakers. Therefore, the instrument is recommended for use in assessing breastfeeding intention and practices in Nigeria.

  4. People's knowledge and practice about dengue, its vectors, and control means in Brasilia (DF), Brazil: its relevance with entomological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégallier, N; Vilarinhos, P T; de Carvalho, M S; Knox, M B; Caetano, J

    2000-06-01

    In South America, the epidemiology and ecology of dengue fever are strongly associated with human habits because the vector Aedes aegypti is strictly urban. Thus, the evaluation of people's knowledge and practice (PKP) is of great importance to improve integrated control measures. A PKP evaluation has been done in a suburb of Brasilia. Thirty questions were submitted to 130 habitants about income level, education, sources of information, specific knowledge about dengue, vector biology, and control measures applied. Other questions were about the responsibility of dengue control and the opportunity of applying a fine to people who would not cooperate with the control measures. Level of PKP was fairly high, either for housekeepers, workers, or students. The mosquito bite was cited as source of infection by 60.8% of interviewed people but 22.3% had no knowledge about this topic. The most cited symptoms in association with dengue were fever (73.1%), headache (66.2%), and rash (35.4%). Knowledge about mosquito biology and control was also fairly accurate, as demonstrated by 96.9% of answers. Elimination of water containers was the most efficient means according to 73% of people. Such action should be done mainly by the citizen (75.3% of answers). Despite the good PKP, correlations existed only between the PKP about vector biology and presence of potential breeding containers in March, and between the PKP about the disease and potential breeding containers in April. In conclusion, global educational campaigns may have a real impact on the PKP but this did not result in effective control of the mosquito breeding containers by the people.

  5. Modeling the Connectedness Between best Management Practices and Vulnerability Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Bailey, N.; Thomas, M.; Bartnick, B.

    2015-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to better understand the connectedness between Best management practices (BMPs) and vulnerability assessments (VA) in a changing landuse. Developing this connectedness will help understand key vulnerabilities and improve adaptive capacity important for ecosystem sustainability. BMPs are practical management practices or systems designed and installed in watersheds to provide a wide range of effects to protect or restore the physical, chemical, and biological condition of waterbodies (e.g. changing hydrology; improving vegetative habitat; mitigate adverse environmental change). VAs can be defined as "the degree to which the system is susceptible to and is unable to cope with adverse effects of change" and are often characterized as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. There are many variables and factors used in calculating the impact of BMPs and VAs. The event mean concentration or load (e.g. nutrient, sediment,) associated with the specific landuse is an important variable. There is much data that predicts the loads associated with the major landuses (urban, agricultural). Loads greatly vary with region; rainfall characteristics (e.g. rainfall intensity, rainfall frequency); soil characteristics (e.g. soil type, hydrologic soil groups); hydrologic characteristics (e.g. runoff potential). A concern also exists that possibly all of the variables associated with changes in an individual land use have not been identified and distinguished for their impact on land use. For example, the loads associated with a high density residential with much green space may be more similar to medium density than loads associated with high rise apartment buildings. Other factors may include age of construction, % of families with children, % of families with pets, level of transiency, and construction activity The objective of our study is to develop an initial framework using multiple variables and factors to represent the

  6. Assessment of Teaching and Learning Styles in Practical Motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Teaching and Learning Styles in Practical Motor Vehicle Mechanics Work At ... Board should organize workshop for its teachers in technical colleges on the ... students to participate actively in any activities when teaching practical skills.

  7. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    extensive data held within the Department of the Interior (DOI). The numerous seismic reflection and refraction surveys collected prior to 1970 by academic and governmental institutions are generally not included in this compilation, except where they provide unique data in a region. These data sources were omitted from this report because they were deemed to be of insufficient quality (poorly navigated or low resolution) to meet the CLCS standards for a submission, or they were redundant with higher-quality, more modern data. Hence, this report attempts to identify those data sets of highest utility for establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. If there was any ambiguity or uncertainty about the relevance of a data set to a continental shelf submission, either by its quality, location, or other parameter, it was included in this compilation. This report does not summarize other geophysical data (such as marine magnetics or gravity) that might be relevant to understanding crustal provenance and geological continuity. Detailed metadata tables and maps are included to facilitate the location and utilization of these sources when a comprehensive assessment (?desktop study?) is undertaken.

  8. Assessing farmers’ intention to adopt soil conservation practices across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijttebier, J.; Ruysschaert, G.; Marchand, F.; Hijbeek, R.; Pronk, A.A.; Schlatter, N.; Guzmàn, G.; Syp, A.; Werner, M.; Bechini, L.; Guiffant, N.; Wauters, E.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decennia, soil conservation practices (SCPs) have been developed in order to maintain or restore soil health which is essential to the resilience of the farm. However, the adoption rate in practice is rather low. Amongst other reasons, these practices might lack onfarm compatibility,

  9. Self-Assessment of Gerontology Teaching Practice: A First-Step in Enhancing Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonDras, Dean D.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses self-assessment of gerontology teaching practice. Through a process of self-reflection one may find insight into their teaching and, concomitantly, develop best-practices for enhancing student learning in gerontology. A self-assessment framework is presented, illuminating best-practices in the areas of the lecture-discussion…

  10. Toward generally accepted forensic assessment practices among clinical neuropsychologists: a survey of professional practice and common test use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Casey; Barr, William; Brodale, Donald L; Rabin, Laura A

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment.  Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice. Forensic participants were more likely to be male and Caucasian, and reported higher ages, more years of professional experience, and a higher prevalence of board certification. While characteristics of their professional and forensic practice varied, forensic participants reported spending most of their professional time conducting neuropsychological assessments with adult clients in a private or group practice setting, focusing on civil referrals and civil legal questions involving older adult issues, developmental issues, head injury, and psychiatric issues. Common test use across neuropsychological assessment domains is presented for board-certified forensic participants (n = 77). An examination of these results reveals that the current pattern of test use is similar to the results of a more general survey of neuropsychological test use.  The findings provide insight into the practice of forensic neuropsychological assessment, and further establish the admissibility of neuropsychological evidence in the United States legal system. Results will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists, field leaders, and legal professionals hoping to gain insight into the role of clinical neuropsychology in civil and criminal legal decision-making.

  11. An economic assessment of contemporary kidney transplant practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, David A; Schnitzler, Mark A; Xiao, Huiling; Irish, William; Tuttle-Newhall, Elizabeth; Chang, Su-Hsin; Kasiske, Bertram L; Alhamad, Tarek; Lentine, Krista L

    2018-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease, prolonging survival and reducing spending. Prior economic analyses of kidney transplantation, using Markov models, have generally assumed compatible, low-risk donors. The economic implications of transplantation with high Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) deceased donors, ABO incompatible living donors, and HLA incompatible living donors have not been assessed. The costs of transplantation and dialysis were compared with the use of discrete event simulation over a 10-year period, with data from the United States Renal Data System, University HealthSystem Consortium, and literature review. Graft failure rates and expenditures were adjusted for donor characteristics. All transplantation options were associated with improved survival compared with dialysis (transplantation: 5.20-6.34 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] vs dialysis: 4.03 QALYs). Living donor and low-KDPI deceased donor transplantations were cost-saving compared with dialysis, while transplantations using high-KDPI deceased donor, ABO-incompatible or HLA-incompatible living donors were cost-effective (<$100 000 per QALY). Predicted costs per QALY range from $39 939 for HLA-compatible living donor transplantation to $80 486 for HLA-incompatible donors compared with $72 476 for dialysis. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is cost-effective across all donor types despite higher costs for marginal organs and innovative living donor practices. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Assessing the Ecological Relevance of Organic Discharge Limits for Constructed Wetlands by Means of a Model-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Donoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polder watercourses within agricultural areas are affected by high chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentrations, due to intensive farming activities and runoff. Practical cases have shown that constructed wetlands (CWs are eco-friendly and cost-effective treatment systems which can reduce high levels of organic and nutrient pollution from agricultural discharges. However, accumulated recalcitrant organic matter, originated by in-situ sources or elements of CWs (i.e., plants or microbial detritus, limits the fulfilment of current COD discharge threshold. Thus, to evaluate its relevance regarding rivers ecosystem health preservation, we analysed the response of bio-indicators, the Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index Flanders (MMIF and the occurrence of organic pollution sensitive taxa towards organic pollutants. For this purpose, statistical models were developed based on collected data in polder watercourses and CWs located in Flanders (Belgium. Results showed that, given the correlation between COD and BOD5, both parameters can be used to indicate the ecological and water quality conditions. However, the variability of the MMIF and the occurrence of sensitive species are explained better by BOD5, which captures a major part of their common effect. Whereas, recalcitrant COD and the interaction among other physico-chemical variables indicate a minor variability on the bio-indicators. Based on these outcomes we suggest a critical re-evaluation of current COD thresholds and moreover, consider other emerging technologies determining organic pollution levels, since this could support the feasibility of the implementation of CWs to tackle agricultural pollution.

  13. Assessment of Relevant Exposure Pathways in Scenario of Reuse of Very Low Level Radioactive Steel in Tunnel Constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning process and related management of generated radioactive materials during this process became important topics during last several years because of continuously increasing number of nuclear power plant approaching the end of their lifetime. The very low level radioactive waste category includes considerable amount of materials arising from decommissioning. In line with international incentives of optimization of the waste management process, alternative concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are considered. One of these concepts of such optimization is the conditional release of materials with their subsequent recycling and reuse in industrial or nuclear sector. This paper is devoted to an option of recycling and reuse of conditionally released steel in industrial sector, specifically in motorway tunnel constructions. It is assumed that very low level radioactive steel would be released and reused in form of steel reinforcing components, such as steel nets and bars, assembled in primary and secondary lining of motorway tunnel. Assessment of exposure pathways relevant for construction, operation and post-operation period was performed. The computational tool VISIPLAN 3D ALARA was used for calculation of external individual effective dose for personnel constructing the tunnel and for members of the public driving through already built motorway tunnel. The simulation software GOLDSIM was used for the assessment of internal exposure pathways. GOLDSIM environment enables modelling of degradation processes and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated zone of subsoil. There are international recommendations available for the concept of release of radioactive materials into the environment derived from the principles that the individual effective dose received by critical individual must not exceed some tens of microSv/yr. Dose limits 10 microSv/yr or 50 microSv/yr considering specific conditions are stated in Slovak legislation

  14. Process for massage therapy practice and essential assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann Blair; Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Sharpe, Patricia A; Travillian, Ravensara S; Saunders, Ruth P

    2016-07-01

    Little evidence exists about processes in massage therapy practice. Investigating current frameworks is warranted. This qualitative study is a secondary data analysis using grounded theory to understand how massage therapy experts describe massage therapy practice. 31 massage therapy experts were invited to a 2-day symposium to discuss best practices for the profession. Through qualitative analysis, memoing, and discussion, the data were summarized into themes. Three themes were identified around massage therapy practice: 1) client centered, 2) structure for practice, and 3) influencing factors. Each theme is clarified and expanded. Conceptual models were developed for research and clinical practice and a definition for massage therapy practice was identified. Challenges and limitations are discussed. The goal of providing these models is to give massage therapists tools to deliver the best possible care. The models need testing to see if they help advance the profession. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achrekar, Meera S; Murthy, Vedang; Kanan, Sadhana; Shetty, Rani; Nair, Mini; Khattry, Navin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form. Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM). Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1) and 16 th week (A2), post introduction of SIM. Nurse's opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Majority of nurses were females (65%) in the age group 21-30 years (80%). There was a significant association ( P = 0.019) between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement ( P = 0.043) seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20) and A2 (mean: 24.26) and also in "Situation" domain ( P = 0.045) as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient's allergies and relevant past history (7%) while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76%) of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53%) to document while recommendation was the difficult (53%) part. SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  16. Introduction of Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation into Nursing Practice: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera S Achrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to introduce and evaluate the compliance to documentation of situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form. Methods: Twenty nurses involved in active bedside care were selected by simple random sampling. Use of SBAR was illustrated thru self-instructional module (SIM. Content validity and reliability were established. The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR form was disseminated for use in a clinical setting during shift handover. A retrospective audit was undertaken at 1 st week (A1 and 16 th week (A2, post introduction of SIM. Nurse′s opinion about the SBAR form was also captured. Results : Majority of nurses were females (65% in the age group 21-30 years (80%. There was a significant association (P = 0.019 between overall audit scores and graduate nurses. Significant improvement (P = 0.043 seen in overall scores between A1 (mean: 23.20 and A2 (mean: 24.26 and also in "Situation" domain (P = 0.045 as compared to other domains. There was only a marginal improvement in documentation related to patient′s allergies and relevant past history (7% while identifying comorbidities decreased by 40%. Only 70% of nurses had documented plan of care. Most (76% of nurses expressed that SBAR form was useful, but 24% nurses felt SBAR documentation was time-consuming. The assessment was easy (53% to document while recommendation was the difficult (53% part. Conclusions: SBAR technique has helped nurses to have a focused and easy communication during transition of care during handover. Importance and relevance of capturing information need to be reinforced. An audit to look for reduced number of incidents related to communication failures is essential for long-term evaluation of patient outcomes. Use of standardized SBAR in nursing practice for bedside shift handover will improve communication between nurses and thus ensure patient safety.

  17. Effect and relevance of the artificial drainage system when assessing the hydrologic impact of the imperviousness distribution within the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenoux, M.; Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and urban growth have relevant environmental and social impacts, which could eventually be enhanced or reduced during the urban planning process. From the point of view of hydrology, impermeability and natural soil compaction are one of the main problems that urbanization brings to watershed. Previous studies demonstrate and quantify the impacts of the distribution of imperviousness in a watershed, both on runoff volumes and flow, and the quality and integrity of streams and receiving bodies. Moreover, some studies have investigated the optimal distribution of imperviousness, based on simulating different scenarios of land use change and its effects on runoff, mostly at the outlet of the watershed. However, these studies typically do not address the impact of artificial drainage system associated with the imperviousness scenarios, despite it is known that storm sewer coverage affects the flow accumulation and generation of flow hydrographs. This study seeks to quantify the effects and relevance of the artificial system when it comes to assess the hydrological impacts of the spatial distribution of imperviousness and to determine the characteristics of this influence. For this purpose, an existing model to generate imperviousness distribution scenarios is coupled with a model developed to automatically generate artificial drainage networks. These models are applied to a natural watershed to generate a variety of imperviousness and storm sewer layout scenarios, which are evaluate with a morphoclimatic instantaneous unit hydrograph model. We first tested the ability of this approach to represent the joint effects of imperviousness (i.e. level and distribution) and storm sewer coverage. We then quantified the effects of these variables on the hydrological response, considering also different return period in order to take into account the variability of the precipitation regime. Overall, we show that the layout and spatial coverage of the storm sewer system

  18. Model-based Impact Assessment of an Integrated Water Management Strategy on Ecosystem Services relevant to Food Security in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, R.; Liehr, S.

    2012-04-01

    North-central Namibia is characterized by seasonal alterations of drought and heavy rainfall, mostly saline groundwater resources and a lack of perennial rivers. Water scarcity poses a great challenge for freshwater supply, harvest and food security against the background of high population growth and climate change. CuveWaters project aims at poverty reduction and livelihood improvement on a long term basis by introducing a multi-resource-mix as part of an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. Herein, creating water buffers by rainwater harvesting (RWH) and subsurface water storage as well as reuse of treated wastewater facilitates micro-scale gardening activities. This link constitutes a major component of a sustainable adaptation strategy by contributing to the conservation and improvement of basic food and freshwater resources in order to reduce drought vulnerability. This paper presents main findings of an impact assessment carried out on the effect of integrated water resources management on ecosystem services (ESS) relevant to food security within the framework of CuveWaters project. North-central Namibia is perceived as a social-ecological system characterized by a strong mutual dependence between natural environment and anthropogenic system. This fundamental reliance on natural resources highlights the key role of ESS in semi-arid environments to sustain human livelihoods. Among other services, food provision was chosen for quantification as one of the most fundamental ESS in north-central Namibia. Different nutritional values were utilized as indicators to adopt a demand-supply approach (Ecosystem Service Profile) to illustrate the ability of the ecosystem to meet people's nutritional requirements. Calculations have been conducted using both Bayesian networks to incorporate uncertainty introduced by the variability of monthly precipitation and the application of plant specific water production functions. Results show that improving the

  19. Best Practices in Physics Program Assessment: Should APS Provide Accreditation Standards for Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Theodore

    The Phys21 report, ``Preparing Physics Students for 21st Century Careers,'' provides guidance for physics programs to improve their degree programs to make them more relevant for student career choices. Undertaking such changes and assessing impact varies widely by institution, with many departments inventing assessments with each periodic departmental or programmatic review. American Physical Society has embarked on a process to integrate information from Phys21, the results of other national studies, and educational research outcomes to generate a best-practices guide to help physics departments conduct program review, assessment, and improvement. It is anticipated that departments will be able to use this document to help with their role in university-level accreditation, and in making the case for improvements to departmental programs. Accreditation of physics programs could stem from such a document, and I will discuss some of the thinking of the APS Committee on Education in creating this guide, and how they are advising APS to move forward in the higher education landscape that is increasingly subject to standards-based evaluations. I will describe plans for the design, review, and dissemination of this guide, and how faculty can provide input into its development. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1540570. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the NSF.

  20. Using a CAS Self-Study to Teach Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Brian

    2017-01-01

    There are likely as many approaches to teaching assessment as there are people teaching assessment. Graduate courses on assessment can be structured with a singular focus, such as learning outcomes assessment, or along a competencies-based framework. Such frameworks include the Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) Standards developed by College…

  1. Assessing undergraduate nursing students in clinical practice: do preceptors use assessment strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bridie; Murphy, Siobhan

    2008-04-01

    Health care organisations such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) and An Bord Altranais (ABA, The Irish Nursing Registration Board) demand higher standards of new graduate nurses than heretofore. This is in conjunction with the implementation of degree programmes for undergraduate nurse education. These organisations stipulate that graduates must be well-educated, accountable, and can demonstrate the skills of a safe, caring and competent decision-making practitioner. The Bachelor of Science (BSc) four-year degree programme for undergraduate nurse education was introduced in Ireland in 2002, and is provided in universities and colleges of higher education throughout The Republic of Ireland. During the implementation process, each university and college of higher education developed a range of assessment strategies to clinically assess students. Preceptor nurses were subsequently assigned the responsibility of clinically assessing students, a remit previously undertaken by Clinical Ward/Unit Nurse Managers. Preceptors are qualified nurses, working in clinical units who are specially prepared to support BSc students during clinical placements. The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent preceptor nurses use the devised assessment strategies to clinically assess BSc students in one university in The Republic of Ireland. Data were collected by using a questionnaire distributed to all known preceptors in General, Psychiatric and Intellectual Disability nursing, during year four of the first cycle of the BSc programme. Findings from this descriptive study revealed that many preceptors were inexperienced, did not fully comprehend the assessment process and were not applying all of the recommended assessment strategies when assessing students in clinical practice. In light of these findings suggestions are made in the context of further research, management and education.

  2. Best practices in academic assessment in higher education: A case in formative and shared assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel López Pastor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE The aim of this article is three-fold: (a to present an example of best practices in formative assessment in university instruction, offering three different methods of learning and assessment to pass a subject; (b to analyze differences in academic performance depending on method of learning and assessment chosen; (c to consider professors´ and students´ evaluation of these assessment methods, as well as analyze the workload these methods suppose for both students and professors. The design is based on a single case study. The study analyzes the results obtained in a third- year course at the University of Valladolid (Spain that participated in an ECTS pilot program. Data was collected during academic year 2009-10. Total number of registered students was 77. This paper describes the procedure to develop a formative assessment system and collect data, as well as the main techniques to obtain and analyze data. Findings indicate that there are important differences in student academic performance depending on the learning and assessment method employed in an academic course. Courses are using formative and on going assessment result in significantly higher student academic performance than courses using other learning and assessment methods. Lastly, empirical data suggest that the workload is in line with the ECTS European Credit Transfer System, and is no excessive for the professor. However, students´ subjective perception is that this method involves a heavier workload. These findings may be important, given the current process of convergence towards the new Degrees and ECTS credit system, and the need to adapt these degrees and credits to students’ real workload.  

  3. Outcome measures for oral health based on clinical assessments and claims data: feasibility evaluation in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Riët; Bruers, Josef; van der Galiën, Onno; van der Sanden, Wil; van der Heijden, Geert

    2017-10-05

    It is well known that treatment variation exists in oral healthcare, but the consequences for oral health are unknown as the development of outcome measures is still in its infancy. The aim of this study was to identify and develop outcome measures for oral health and explore their performance using health insurance claims records and clinical data from general dental practices. The Dutch healthcare insurance company Achmea collaborated with researchers, oral health experts, and general dental practitioners (GDPs) in a proof of practice study to test the feasibility of measures in general dental practices. A literature search identified previously described outcome measures for oral healthcare. Using a structured approach, identified measures were (i) prioritized, adjusted and added to after discussion and then (ii) tested for feasibility of data collection, their face validity and discriminative validity. Data sources were claims records from Achmea, clinical records from dental practices, and prospective, pre-determined clinical assessment data obtained during routine consultations. In total eight measures (four on dental caries, one on tooth wear, two on periodontal health, one on retreatment) were identified, prioritized and tested. The retreatment measure and three measures for dental caries were found promising as data collection was feasible, they had face validity and discriminative validity. Deployment of these measures demonstrated variation in clinical practices of GDPs. Feedback of this data to GDPs led to vivid discussions on best practices and quality of care. The measure 'tooth wear' was not considered sufficiently responsive; 'changes in periodontal health score' was considered a controversial measure. The available data for the measures 'percentage of 18-year-olds with no tooth decay' and 'improvement in gingival bleeding index at reassessment' was too limited to provide accurate estimates per dental practice. The evaluated measures 'time to first

  4. Teacher Assessment of Practical Skills in A-Level Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Ferguson, Carolyn M.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a two-year assessment undertaken to evaluate the Nuffield A-Level chemistry course. Secondary teachers selected chemistry experiments for assessment purposes and assessed their students in manipulative skills, observational skills, interpretation skills, creative skills, and attitudes. (MLH)

  5. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Tchaghchagian, Victoria; Jamal, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Sound human resources (HR) management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties) in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%), lack of qualified personnel (35.1%), and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%). Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%), improving salaries (14.4%), and developing retention strategies (10.3%). Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully assume these responsibilities and who can continuously improve

  6. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Diana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound human resources (HR management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%, lack of qualified personnel (35.1%, and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%. Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%, improving salaries (14.4%, and developing retention strategies (10.3%. Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully

  7. Imagining flood futures: risk assessment and management in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart N; Landström, Catharina; Whatmore, Sarah J

    2011-05-13

    The mantra that policy and management should be 'evidence-based' is well established. Less so are the implications that follow from 'evidence' being predictions of the future (forecasts, scenarios, horizons) even though such futures define the actions taken today to make the future sustainable. Here, we consider the tension between 'evidence', reliable because it is observed, and predictions of the future, unobservable in conventional terms. For flood risk management in England and Wales, we show that futures are actively constituted, and so imagined, through 'suites of practices' entwining policy, management and scientific analysis. Management has to constrain analysis because of the many ways in which flood futures can be constructed, but also because of commitment to an accounting calculus, which requires risk to be expressed in monetary terms. It is grounded in numerical simulation, undertaken by scientific consultants who follow policy/management guidelines that define the futures to be considered. Historical evidence is needed to deal with process and parameter uncertainties and the futures imagined are tied to pasts experienced. Reliance on past events is a challenge for prediction, given changing probability (e.g. climate change) and consequence (e.g. development on floodplains). So, risk management allows some elements of risk analysis to become unstable (notably in relation to climate change) but forces others to remain stable (e.g. invoking regulation to prevent inappropriate floodplain development). We conclude that the assumed separation of risk assessment and management is false because the risk calculation has to be defined by management. Making this process accountable requires openness about the procedures that make flood risk analysis more (or less) reliable to those we entrust to produce and act upon them such that, unlike the 'pseudosciences', they can be put to the test of public interrogation by those who have to live with their consequences

  8. Review and assessment of research relevant to design aspects of nuclear power plant piping systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Maxey, W.A.; Eiber, R.J.

    1977-06-01

    Significant research on piping systems is evaluated, and the correlation of that research with design practices is presented. The objective is to quantify the research/design practices in terms of the reliability of piping used in nuclear power plants

  9. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Connecting Practice and Research: Integrated Reading and Writing Instruction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverly, David C.; Taylor, Judi Salsburg; Dimino, Renee K.; Lampi, Jodi P.

    2016-01-01

    The first "Connecting Practice and Research" column (Lampi, Dimino, & Salsburg Taylor, 2015), introduced a Research-to-Practice partnership (Coburn & Penuel, 2016) between two faculty from a community college and a university professor who were aiming to develop effective integrated reading and writing (IRW) instruction through a…

  11. An assessment of the evaporation and condensation phenomena of lithium during the operation of a Li(d,xn fusion relevant neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Knaster

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The flowing lithium target of a Li(d,xn fusion relevant neutron source must evacuate the deuteron beam power and generate in a stable manner a flux of neutrons with a broad peak at 14 MeV capable to cause similar phenomena as would undergo the structural materials of plasma facing components of a DEMO like reactors. Whereas the physics of the beam-target interaction are understood and the stability of the lithium screen flowing at the nominal conditions of IFMIF (25 mm thick screen with +/–1 mm surface amplitudes flowing at 15 m/s and 523 K has been demonstrated, a conclusive assessment of the evaporation and condensation of lithium during operation was missing. First attempts to determine evaporation rates started by Hertz in 1882 and have since been subject of continuous efforts driven by its practical importance; however intense surface evaporation is essentially a non-equilibrium process with its inherent theoretical difficulties. Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir (HKL equation with Schrage’s ‘accommodation factor’ η = 1.66 provide excellent agreement with experiments for weak evaporation under certain conditions, which are present during a Li(d,xn facility operation. An assessment of the impact under the known operational conditions for IFMIF (574 K and 10−3Pa on the free surface, with the sticking probability of 1 inherent to a hot lithium gas contained in room temperature steel walls, is carried out. An explanation of the main physical concepts to adequately place needed assumptions is included.

  12. Professional practice assessment. Pertinence of positron emission tomography clinical indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Stanc, E.; Tainturier, C.; Swaenepoel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As part of the health care quality and safety policy in France, Professional Practice Assessment (P.P.A.) are mandatory in the health services 'certification' process. We present our study regarding the pertinence of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) indications in oncology. Materials and methods A multidisciplinary task group used the Quick Audit method with two rounds of 100 request forms each. The assessment list of criteria comprised four items of decreasing relevance grading the PET scans clinical indications, which were derived from the three French published guidelines (S.O.R. [F.N.C.L.C.C]., 'Guide du bon usage des examens d'imagerie medicale' [S.F.R.-S.F.M.N.], 'Guide pour la redaction de protocoles pour la TEP au F.D.G. en cancerologie' [S.F.M.N.]) and five additional items: clinical information, patient's body weight, previous treatments dates, diabetes, claustrophobia. Results The first round showed that 68% of the requested scans corresponded to the two most relevant groups of indications (S.O.R. Standards and Options). The request forms were correctly filled in regarding the clinical information, but this was not the case for the other items we tested. Several actions were conducted: dedicated PET request form, availability of the S.O.R. on the hospital intranet, boost of the referring physicians awareness during the multidisciplinary oncology meetings (Reunions de Concertation Pluridisciplinaires RCP). The second round showed a better pertinence of the PET scans indications (75% versus 68%); the patient's body weight was more frequently mentioned on the request form. Discussion This study is an example of P.P.A. in our discipline. It led to an improvement of the oncologic PET scans clinical indications in our hospital. This work is pursued in everyday discussion with the referring clinicians, especially during the RCP. (authors)

  13. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, E.; Pahkin, K.; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, A-L.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or skeptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices. (authors)

  14. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, Eerikki; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  15. Assessment method for analyzing and developing human resource management practices in the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeki, Eerikki [Aalto Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management; Pahkin, Krista; Lindstroem, S.; Kurki, Anna-Leena [Finnish Institue of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations

    2015-04-15

    Implementation of HRM practices is often devolved from the HRM unit to front line managers and supervisors. However, the implementation of these practices by line managers and supervisors may vary significantly. They may, for example, be unaware of how to implement HRM practices or sceptical towards the effectiveness of the intended practices. Based on the literature, interviews and workshops in the nuclear power industry, a self-assessment method of HRM practices for intra-organizational use was developed. The assessment method was piloted in four nuclear power organizations. The assessment method seems to be a good tool for generating fruitful discussion on HRM practices, finding areas of HRM practices that need to be developed, and triggering peer-to-peer knowledge sharing and learning on HRM practices.

  16. Implication of formative assessment practices among mathematics teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Mas Norbany binti Abu; Tajudin, Nor'ain binti Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Formative assessment of school-based assessment (SBA) is implemented in schools as a move to improve the National Education Assessment System (NEAS). Formative assessment focuses on assessment for learning. There are various types of formative assessment instruments used by teachers of mathematics, namely the form of observation, questioning protocols, worksheets and quizzes. This study aims to help teachers improve skills in formative assessments during the teaching and learning (t&l) Mathematics. One mathematics teacher had been chosen as the study participants. The collecting data using document analysis, observation and interviews. Data were analyzed narrative and assessments can help teachers implement PBS. Formative assessment is conducted to improve the skills of students in t&l effectively.

  17. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting

    2016-02-01

    Low impact development (LID) practices have become more important in urban stormwater management worldwide. However, most research on design optimization focuses on relatively large scale, and there is very limited information or guideline regarding individual LID practice designs (i.e., optimal depth, width and length). The objective of this study is to identify the optimal design by assessing the hydrological performance and the cost-effectiveness of different designs of LID practices at a household or business scale, and to analyze the sensitivity of the hydrological performance and the cost of the optimal design to different model and design parameters. First, EPA SWMM, automatically controlled by MATLAB, is used to obtain the peak runoff of different designs of three specific LID practices (i.e., green roof, bioretention and porous pavement) under different design storms (i.e., 2 yr and 50 yr design storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, U.S.). Then, life cycle cost is estimated for the different designs, and the optimal design, defined as the design with the lowest cost and at least 20% peak runoff reduction, is identified. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal design to the different design parameters is examined. The optimal design of green roof tends to be larger in area but thinner, while the optimal designs of bioretention and porous pavement tend to be smaller in area. To handle larger storms, however, it is more effective to increase the green roof depth, and to increase the area of the bioretention and porous pavement. Porous pavement is the most cost-effective for peak flow reduction, followed by bioretention and then green roof. The cost-effectiveness, measured as the peak runoff reduction/thousand Dollars of LID practices in Hong Kong (e.g., 0.02 L/103 US s, 0.15 L/103 US s and 0.93 L/103 US s for green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm) is lower than that in Seattle (e.g., 0.03 L/103 US s, 0.29 L/103 US s and 1.58 L/103 US s for

  18. Writing Information Literacy Assessment Plans: A Guide to Best Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Oakleaf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic librarians throughout higher education add value to the teaching and learning missions of their institutions though information literacy instruction. To demonstrate the full impact of librarians on students in higher education, librarians need comprehensive information literacy assessment plans, composed of instructional program-level and outcome-level components, that summarize the purpose of information literacy assessment, emphasize the theoretical basis of their assessment efforts, articulate specific information literacy goals and outcomes, describe the major assessment methods and tools used to capture evidence of student learning, report assessment results, and highlight improvements made as a consequence of learning assessment.

  19. A Practical Risk Assessment Methodology for Safety-Critical Train Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project proposes a Practical Risk Assessment Methodology (PRAM) for analyzing railroad accident data and assessing the risk and benefit of safety-critical train control systems. This report documents in simple steps the algorithms and data input...

  20. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  1. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  2. Assessment of Facilities and Best Practices in Orphanages in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), disasters (such as ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 28 (2) 69-76 ... practices, caregiver,. Nigeria, orphanage, orphans, over- crowding, standard. Correspondence to:.

  3. a worldwide assessment of medical journal editors' practices and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responding editors reported having access to the Internet, making participation in ... of improving the quality of medical science and practice.! A critical activity of ... undertook a worldwide survey of medical editors to determine their interest in a ...

  4. Practical Functional Approach to Quality Assessment in Subtitling: Pocahontas II – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Eddin Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with subtitling errors encountered by simulators and proof-readers. The resultant work is of significant contribution to problem decision makings in the field of quality assessment of audiovisual translation (AVT. The outcome of this paper is the result of accumulated working experience in this domain. The relevant errors are related to syntax, spelling, style, length of sentences, lack of clarity, and gender-related issues. These errors though made by one subtitler who has translated the animation feature film Pocahontas II released in 2012, are still typical and therefore a thorough investigation has been done and a set of linguistic rules has been suggested as a guideline for the audiovisual industry. These rules are to be added to the technical and software requirements sent by subtitling companies (such as the number of characters per line, the font, the reading speed per minute, and punctuation. This set of rules helps monitor the quality of the subtitled target text (TT.     Keywords: audiovisual translation, subtitling, quality assessment, practical functional approach, Arabic-English simulation

  5. Assessment Moderation in an Australian Context: Processes, Practices, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Denise; Adie, Lenore; Lloyd, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is a quality assurance process that plays a central role in the teaching, learning, and assessment cycle in higher education. While there is a growing body of research globally on teaching, learning, and, to a lesser degree, assessment in higher education, the process of moderation of assessment has received even less attention. In a…

  6. A Practical Rationale for Classroom Assessment: The SWOT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, Sidney E.; Bell, Beulah; Smith, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The classroom assessment process can have encouraging results when it begins with "early assessment" that addresses student learning, as well as the social and emotional needs of student(s) in the classroom. This paper presents a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis for classroom assessment. It will review literature…

  7. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Veerman (Lennert); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health

  8. Assessment Competence through In Situ Practice for Preservice Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kimberly S.

    2018-01-01

    Effective assessment is the cornerstone of the teaching and learning process and a benchmark of teaching competency. P-12 assessment in physical activity can be complex and dynamic, often requiring a set of skills developed over time through trial and error. Novice teachers have limited time to hone an assessment process that can showcase their…

  9. Bridging the gap between theory and practice in integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Norman

    2006-01-01

    There is growing support for the use of integrated assessments (IAs)/sustainability impact assessments (SIAs), at different government levels and geographic scales of policy-making and planning, both nationally and internationally. However, delivering good quality IAs/SIAs, in the near future, could be challenging. This paper mainly focuses upon one area of concern, differences between research and other technical contributions intended to strengthen assessment methodologies and the types of assessment methods considered usable by practitioners. To help in addressing this concern, the development of a common assessment framework is proposed, which is based on a shared, practitioner-researcher-stakeholder understanding of what constitutes a satisfactory integrated/sustainability impact assessment. The paper outlines a possible structure for this framework, which contains three interconnected elements-the planning context in which the assessment is to be carried out; the process by which the assessment is to be undertaken and its findings used; and the methods, technical and consultative, by which impacts are to be assessed. It concludes with suggested 'next steps', addressed to researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, by which the assessment framework might be tested and improved, and its subsequent use supported

  10. Improving School Nurse Pain Assessment Practices for Students With Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brenna L; Smolinski, Megan

    2017-01-01

    School nurses are afforded minimal resources related to assessing pain in students with intellectual disability (ID) and have called for continuing education. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of an education program regarding best practices for assessing pain in students with ID. Educational sessions were presented to 248 school nurses. Pre-, post-, and follow-up surveys measured (1) difficulty school nurses face when assessing pain, (2) knowledge and use of pain assessment methods, and (3) intent to change and actual changes to professional practices. Participants experienced less difficulty assessing pain following the educational program. Almost all participants intended to change pain assessment practices, but large caseloads limited new practice adoption. Policy makers must consider population size and acuity when determining school nurse staffing. Trainings and other resources should be made available to school nurses in order to make pain assessments for students with ID more thorough and efficient.

  11. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Students' Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque A. Haolader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learn-ing/teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing students and its effect on students' competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion survey and competence test. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used for data interpretation and analysis in this descriptive type of research study. Findings revealed that the learning materials are mainly theory oriented and mostly cover those contents usually common in exams. About half of teachers are aware of the taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing, but they rarely put importance on it. In the classroom, teachers spend only a little time for delivering content at the level of apply/analyse. However, a significant number of tasks performed in labs are practical and occupation relevant and can be classified at higher levels of the taxonomy. In student assessment, the test-items assess mainly theoretical knowledge at the level of remember. The effect of these practices is reflected in demonstrating student performance in a competence test. The study concludes with some recommendations.

  12. A Review of Cloud Application Assessment Practices at the University of Ballarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmott, Deirdre; Knox, Ian

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that traditional assessment practices in tertiary institutions tend not to equip students well for the processes of effective learning in a learning society [1]. This paper reviews alternative Internet based assessment practices used in Library, Business and Education courses at the University of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia…

  13. Making Judgements about Students Making Work: Lecturers’ Assessment Practices in Art and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Susan; Bloxham, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This research study explores the assessment practices in two higher education art and design departments. The key aim of this research was to explore art and design studio assessment practices as lived and experienced by art and design lecturers. This work draws on two bodies of pre-existing research. Firstly this study adopted methodological…

  14. Assessment and Intervention Practices for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A National Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borick, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…

  15. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics...

  16. Promoting Physicians' Self-Assessment and Quality Improvement: The ABIM Diabetes Practice Improvement Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S.; Meehan, Thomas P.; Lynn, Lorna; Doyle, Paula; Sherwin, Tierney; Duffy, F. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized that certification and recertification must be based on an assessment of performance in practice as well as an examination of medical knowledge. Physician self-assessment of practice performance is proposed as one method that certification boards may use to evaluate competence…

  17. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  18. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, A.; Godinez, V.; Lopez, R.

    2010-10-01

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  19. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, A.; Godinez, V.; Lopez, R., E-mail: abpaz@cnsns.gob.m [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  20. Handbook of reading assessment a one-stop resource for prospective and practicing educators

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Sherry Mee

    2015-01-01

    The Handbook of Reading Assessment, Second Edition, covers the wide range of reading assessments educators must be able to use and understand to effectively assess and instruct their students. Comprehensive and filled with numerous authentic examples, the text addresses informal classroom based assessment, progress monitoring, individual norm-referenced assessment, and group norm-referenced or 'high-stakes' testing. Coverage includes assessment content relevant for English language learners and adults. A set of test guidelines to use when selecting or evaluating an assessment tool is provided.

  1. Assessing the Attitudes and Practices of Public Health Professionals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project, managed by the American University of Beirut, will survey public health academics and practitioners around the world about their attitudes and practices around funding from for-profit corporations, particularly those whose products are associated with non-communicable diseases. The project will also review ...

  2. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Clinical Practice | Amira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inulin clearance is the gold standard against which other markers are compared but it is not practical and inulin is in short supply and difficult to measure. Isotopic methods are also reliable and compare well with inulin clearance; however there are issues of radiation exposure and radionuclide requirements. GFR is often ...

  3. A practical manual to assess and improve farm performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.F.M.; Grignard, A.; Boonen, J.; Haan, de M.; Hennart, S.; Oenema, J.; Lorinquer, E.; Sylvain, F.; Herrmann, K.; Elsaesser, M.; Castellan, E.; Kohnen, H.

    2013-01-01

    The business of a dairy farmer is to supply society with dairy products in a way that provides him sufficient income and satisfaction. But he has to avoid farming practices hampering the rural area to deliver other valuable products, like clean drinking water, biodiversity, and attractive recreation

  4. Assessment of facilities and best practices in orphanages in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care ... nutritional status, housing and security, the availability of potable water, playground/ playing materials and the adequacy of child-caregivers ratio was used to obtain information about the orphanages and the findings were compared with the standard practices.

  5. Assessment of knowledge and practices for disposal of unfinished ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Municipal involving 409 (186 male and 223 female) conveniently sampled participants visiting major drug ... Results: Household storage was the commonest practice (94.4%) towards unfinished medications while throwing away (3.4%), sharing (1.7%) and selling ...

  6. A Chinese EFL Teacher's Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of how an experienced EFL teacher assessed her students in her oral English course at a university in China. Data were collected over one semester through document analysis, classroom observation and recording, interviews, and student journals. Analysis revealed that the teacher assessed her students through…

  7. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in

  8. Examining Progress across Time with Practical Assessments in Ensemble Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Lorrie S.; Green, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the rationale for effective music assessment that tracks individual progress across time and offers examples to illustrate assessment of a range of music-learning goals. Gauging progress across time helps students become more mastery-oriented, while showing more effort and positive attitudes. As instruction and assessment…

  9. Improving Formative Assessment Practice with Educational Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Vendlinski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a web-based assessment design tool, the ADDS, that provides teachers both a structure and the resources required to develop and use quality assessments. The tool is applicable across subject domains. The heart of the ADDS is an assessment design workspace that allows teachers to decide the attributes of an assessment, as well as the context and type of responses the students will generate, as part of their assessment design process. While the tool is very flexible and allows the above steps to be done in any order (or skipped entirely, our goal was to streamline and scaffold the process for teachers by organizing all the materials for them in one place and to provide resources they could use or reuse to create assessments for their students. The tool allows teachers to deliver the assessments to their students either online or on paper. Initial results from our first teacher study suggest that teachers who used the tool developed assessments that were more cognitively demanding of students and addressed the "big ideas" rather than disassociated facts of a domain.

  10. A Systemic Approach to Culturally Responsive Assessment Practices and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, June

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier paper, Slee and Keenan demonstrated that it was possible for tertiary education institutions to design culturally responsive assessment procedures that complied with standardised assessment policy. The authors' paper described "Growing Our Own," an initiative between Charles Darwin University and Northern Territory Catholic…

  11. The Influence of Surface and Deep Cues on Primary and Secondary School Students' Assessment of Relevance in Web Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-Francois; Ros, Christine; Goumi, Antonine; Macedo-Rouet, Monica; Dinet, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated primary and secondary school students' Web menu selection strategies using simulated Web search tasks. It was hypothesized that students' selections of websites depend on their perception and integration of multiple relevance cues. More specifically, students should be able to disentangle superficial cues (e.g.,…

  12. Analytical assessment about the simultaneous quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles in tap water and domestic waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Bäuerlein, Patrick S.; Kooij, Pascal J F

    2015-01-01

    For pharmaceutical applications, the use of inorganic engineered nanoparticles is of growing interest while silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are the most relevant elements. A few methods were developed recently but the validation and the application testing were quite limited. Therefore, a routinely

  13. Analytical assessment about the simultaneous quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles in tap water and domestic waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Kooij, Pascal J F

    2015-03-15

    For pharmaceutical applications, the use of inorganic engineered nanoparticles is of growing interest while silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are the most relevant elements. A few methods were developed recently but the validation and the application testing were quite limited. Therefore, a routinely suitable multi element method for the identification of nanoparticles of different sizes below 100 nm and elemental composition by applying asymmetric flow field flow fraction (AF4) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is developed. A complete validation model of the quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles based on Ag and Au is presented for the most relevant aqueous matrices of tap water and domestic waste water. The samples are originated from locations in the Netherlands and it is of great interest to study the unwanted presence of Ag and Au as nanoparticle residues due to possible health and environmental risks. During method development, instability effects are observed for 60 nm and 70 nm Ag ENPs with different capping agents. These effects are studied more closely in relation to matrix effects. Besides the methodological aspects, the obtained analytical results and relevant performance characteristics (e.g. measuring range, limit of detection, repeatability, reproducibility, trueness, and expanded uncertainty of measurement) are determined and discussed. For the chosen aqueous matrices, the results of the performance characteristics are significantly better for Au ENPs in comparison to Ag ENPs; e.g. repeatability and reproducibility are below 10% for all Au ENPs respectively maximal 27% repeatability for larger Ag ENPs. The method is a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Model-Based Approaches for Teaching and Practicing Personality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Mark A; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Psychological assessment is a complex professional skill. Competence in assessment requires an extensive knowledge of personality, neuropsychology, social behavior, and psychopathology, a background in psychometrics, familiarity with a range of multimethod tools, cognitive flexibility, skepticism, and interpersonal sensitivity. This complexity makes assessment a challenge to teach and learn, particularly as the investment of resources and time in assessment has waned in psychological training programs over the last few decades. In this article, we describe 3 conceptual models that can assist teaching and learning psychological assessments. The transtheoretical model of personality provides a personality systems-based framework for understanding how multimethod assessment data relate to major personality systems and can be combined to describe and explain complex human behavior. The quantitative psychopathology-personality trait model is an empirical model based on the hierarchical organization of individual differences. Application of this model can help students understand diagnostic comorbidity and symptom heterogeneity, focus on more meaningful high-order domains, and identify the most effective assessment tools for addressing a given question. The interpersonal situation model is rooted in interpersonal theory and can help students connect test data to here-and-now interactions with patients. We conclude by demonstrating the utility of these models using a case example.

  15. A state-of-practice survey of policy, plan, and program assessment in Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram F.

    2004-01-01

    Since the introduction of the 1999 Canadian Cabinet Directive on the environmental assessment of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), higher-order environmental assessment has been receiving increased attention in Canada. However, while practices and systems are advancing at the federal level, there has been very little attention given to recent developments in PPP assessment at the provincial level. This paper presents the results of a Canada-wide survey of PPP assessment principles and practices in 10 Canadian provincial EA jurisdictions. The findings indicate that there exists considerable variability in the provisions for and practice of PPP assessment amongst Canadian provinces, with only Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec identifying recent practice experience. Included amongst the main barriers to effective implementation at the provincial level are the lack of legislative requirements for strategic EA, and the limited understanding of the nature and benefits of higher-order impact assessment

  16. Formative assessment practices in Bhutanese secondary schools and its impact on Quality of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utha, Karma

    Using case study approach, the dissertation provides the notions and practices of formative assessment in Bhutanese Secondary Schools. It includes the teachers’ understanding of the practice of student-centered teaching and learning, which is regarded as a precondition for effective formative...... assessment. It also take account of those features of formative assessment which are much more favored by students and teachers in the case study schools....

  17. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    OpenAIRE

    M Mirfakhraei; Z Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; P Cheraghi; J Poorolajal

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...

  18. Comparative Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    screening among female clinical nursing students in Southern Nigeria. ... female clinical nursing students in Delta. State University ... and drastic intervention strategies to save our women from unnecessary death. KEYWORDS. Comparative Assessment; Cervical cancer; Southern Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr. R. U. lbekwe.

  19. Assessing elemental mercury vapor exposure from cultural and religious practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D M; Newby, C A; Leal-Almeraz, T O; Thomas, V M

    2001-08-01

    Use of elemental mercury in certain cultural and religious practices can cause high exposures to mercury vapor. Uses include sprinkling mercury on the floor of a home or car, burning it in a candle, and mixing it with perfume. Some uses can produce indoor air mercury concentrations one or two orders of magnitude above occupational exposure limits. Exposures resulting from other uses, such as infrequent use of a small bead of mercury, could be well below currently recognized risk levels. Metallic mercury is available at almost all of the 15 botanicas visited in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, but botanica personnel often deny having mercury for sale when approached by outsiders to these religious and cultural traditions. Actions by public health authorities have driven the mercury trade underground in some locations. Interviews indicate that mercury users are aware that mercury is hazardous, but are not aware of the inhalation exposure risk. We argue against a crackdown by health authorities because it could drive the practices further underground, because high-risk practices may be rare, and because uninformed government intervention could have unfortunate political and civic side effects for some Caribbean and Latin American immigrant groups. We recommend an outreach and education program involving religious and community leaders, botanica personnel, and other mercury users.

  20. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  1. Assessment and d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners: Considerations and Promising Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general considerations for the overarching assessment process, (b) specific assessment approaches used to assess DMLs, and (c) assessment of language proficiency for diverse language learners. In addition, basic recommendations for the assessment of DMLs are made, including increased availability of assessments in various languages, use of multiple sources of individual and family data, assessment of all languages, and incorporation of a strong assessment component (that includes nondiscrimination practices) into teacher preparation programs.

  2. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Modern Surgical Practice: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, George; Abboudi, Hamid; Khan, Muhammed Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1974 to August 2015), and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015) databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training. PMID:26425732

  3. Teachers' Attitudes toward Assessment of Student Learning and Teacher Assessment Practices in General Educational Institutions: The Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiashvili, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study teachers' attitudes toward assessment of students' learning and their assessment practices in Georgia's general educational institutions. Georgia is a country in the South Caucasus with a population of 4.5 million people, with 2300 general educational institutions and about 559,400 students. The research…

  4. State assessment policy and practice for English language learners a national perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Charlene; Albus, Debra

    2014-01-01

    State Assessment Policy and Practice for English Language Learners presents three significant studies, each examining a different aspect of states' strategies for including English language learners in state assessments. *an Analysis of State Assessment Policies Regarding Accommodations for English Language Learners; *a Survey and Description of Test Translation Practices; and *an Examination of State Practices for Reporting Participation and Performance of English Language Learners in State Assessments. With the rise in population of English language learners and the subsequent stepped-up legislative focus on this student population over the past decade, states have been challenged to include English language learners in state assessment programs. Until now, the little data available on states' policies and practices for meeting this challenge has been embedded in various reports and professional journals and scattered across the Internet. This volume offers, for the first time, a focused examination of stat...

  5. Dementia and driving : A survey of clinical practice in aged care assessment teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.K; Withaar, F.K.; Bashford, G.M

    Current clinical practice in Aged Care Assessment Teams (ACATs) in NSW and ACT regarding assessment of fitness to drive in clients with a diagnosis of dementia was examined. Of 42 ACATs with a geriatrician on staff, 38 (90.5%) responded to a telephone survey. Results showed that assessment of driver

  6. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  7. The relationship between students’ perceptions of portfolio assessment practice and their approaches to learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, M.S.R.; Gijbels, D.; Thurlings, M.C.G.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on students’ learning approaches in the context of a competency-based program on Applied Sciences, with portfolio assessment as its core mode of assessment. The study examines students’ perceptions of these assessment practices and the relationships to their learning approaches.

  8. [Theoretical and practical assessment of Lille general practice and pharmacy students' knowledge about use of inhaler devices for asthma control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veylon, P; Rochoy, M; Gautier, S; Wallaert, B; Berkhout, C

    2018-04-01

    Asthma is a potentially serious chronic respiratory disease impacting patients quality of life. Satisfactory control requires proper use of inhaled devices. This study assesses general medical residents and pharmacy students knowledge about proper use of inhaled asthma devices. We evaluated knowledge of 43 general practice students and 43 pharmacy students in Lille for three inhaler devices (metered-dose inhaler, Turbuhaler ® and Diskus ® ) during individual interviews. Students were assessed on 8 proper use criterias for each device. General practice and pharmacy students are unfamiliar with proper use of inhaler devices. However, pharmacy students get better average scores than general practice students for all devices included in this study: 6.3/8 respected criterias against 5/8 for metered-dose inhaler; 5.3/8 against 3.2/8 for Turbuhaler ® ; and 6/8 against 4.3/8 for Diskus ® . Pharmacy students more frequently perform a demonstration of proper use to patients when a device is first prescribed or when a prescription is renewed; general practice students more frequently ask patients themselves to perform a demonstration of proper use. Introducing trainings workshops for inhaler devices to pharmacy and general practice students appears appropriate in order to promote therapeutic patient education, to increase asthma control and better patients life quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Choosing Assessment Instruments for Bulimia Practice and Outcome Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Katie; Erford, Bradley T.

    2013-01-01

    Six commonly used instruments for assessment of eating disorders were analyzed. Effect size results from Erford et al.'s (2013) meta-analysis for the treatment of bulimia nervosa were used to compare each scale's ability to measure treatment outcomes for bulimia nervosa. Effect size comparisons indicated higher overall effect sizes using the…

  10. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  11. Toward an HRD Auditing Protocol: Assessing HRD Risk Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clardy, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Even though HRD-related programs and activities carry risks that should be monitored and assessed, there is little literature on how auditing applies to the HRD function; the existing literature on the topic defines HRD auditing in widely different ways. The nature of risk for organizational process is discussed, followed by a review of the…

  12. Quality Assurance--Best Practices for Assessing Online Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Educators have long sought to define quality in education. With the proliferation of distance education and online learning powered by the Internet, the tasks required to assess the quality of online programs become even more challenging. To assist educators and institutions in search of quality assurance methods to continuously improve their…

  13. Assessing framing of uncertainties in water management practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isendahl, N.; Dewulf, A.; Brugnach, M.; Francois, G.; Möllenkamp, S.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with uncertainties in water management is an important issue and is one which will only increase in light of global changes, particularly climate change. So far, uncertainties in water management have mostly been assessed from a scientific point of view, and in quantitative terms. In this

  14. The Assessment of School Bullying: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Jennifer L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the conceptual basis for and methods used to assess school bullying, including the core bullying behavior elements of repetition, intentionality, and power differential and instruments needed to foster comparability across studies and to improve the precision of intervention capacity. Common bully self-report procedures…

  15. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good public understanding of tuberculosis (TB), its cause, signs and symptoms, mode of transmissions and treatment is considered to be important for prompt health care seeking, adherence to treatment and reduction of stigma associated with the disease. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude ...

  16. Design Thinking: A Fresh Approach for Transformative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Joy; Dresdow, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Management and professional business education is central to developing human talent that can help organizations be competitive in today's complex business environment. So the question for management educators is how do we know that graduates have the talent that business needs? Learning outcome assessment has been the process used by…

  17. Development of methodology to assess application of practical elimination for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.; Sivekumar, D.; Thambirasa, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is presented as the primary case study for the topic of practical elimination. A decision matrix was created to assess whether practical elimination has been achieved or not. Public acceptance is included as a factor in practical elimination. An evaluation of an underground High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor was performed, where it was determined that a greater than 10 earthquake on the Richter scale is practically eliminated, but can easily be overturned based on public acceptance. A plane crash scenario was also practically eliminated. The gap analysis performed concluded that the developed decision matrix requires reworking. (author)

  18. The P15--A Multinational Assessment Battery for Collecting Data on Health Indicators Relevant to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J.; Linehan, C.; Kerr, M.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Zeilinger, E.; Weber, G.; Walsh, P.; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De-Valk, H.; Haveman, M.; Azema, B.; Buono, S.; Cara, A. C.; Germanavicius, A.; Van Hove, G.; Maatta, T.; Berger, D. M.; Tossebro, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health disparities between adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the general population have been well documented but, to date, no dedicated assessment battery for measuring health disparity has been available. This paper reports on the development and testing of a multinational assessment battery for collecting data on a…

  19. A Method for The Assessing of Reliability Characteristics Relevant to an Assumed Position-Fixing Accuracy in Navigational Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht Cezary

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method which makes it possible to determine reliability characteristics of navigational positioning systems, relevant to an assumed value of permissible error in position fixing. The method allows to calculate: availability , reliability as well as operation continuity of position fixing system for an assumed, determined on the basis of formal requirements - both worldwide and national, position-fixing accuracy. The proposed mathematical model allows to satisfy, by any navigational positioning system, not only requirements as to position-fixing accuracy of a given navigational application (for air , sea or land traffic but also the remaining characteristics associated with technical serviceability of a system.

  20. Can we import quality tools? a feasibility study of European practice assessment in a country with less organised general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestiaux Dominique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality is on the agenda of European general practice (GP. European researchers have, in collaboration, developed tools to assess quality of GPs. In this feasibility study, we tested the European Practice Assessment (EPA in a one-off project in Belgium, where general practice has a low level of GP organisation. Methods A framework for feasibility analysis included describing the recruiting of participants, a brief telephone study survey among non-responders, organisational and logistic problems. Using field notes and focus groups, we studied the participants' opinions. Results In this study, only 36 of 1000 invited practices agreed to participate. Co-ordination, administrative work, practice visits and organisational problems required several days per practice. The researchers further encountered technical problems, for instance when entering the data and uploading to the web-based server. In subsequent qualitative analysis using two focus groups, most participant GPs expressed a positive feeling after the EPA procedure. In the short period of follow-up, only a few GPs reported improvements after the visit. The participant GPs suggested that follow-up and coaching would probably facilitate the implementation of changes. Conclusion This feasibility study shows that prior interest in EPA is low in the GP community. We encountered a number of logistic and organisational problems. It proved attractive to participants, but it can be augmented by coaching of participants in more than a one-off project to identify and achieve targets for quality improvement. In the absence of commitment of the government, a network of universities and one scientific organisation will offer EPA as a service to training practices.