Sample records for relevant antitrust principles

  1. Relevance of federal antitrust statutes to clinical practice.

    Satiani, Bhagwan


    With the advent of Medicare prospective payment systems, health care entities and physicians were forced to decrease expenses by sharing services and to increase revenue by attempting to jointly negotiate better reimbursement from third- party payers. Both activities have raised the specter of prosecution under antitrust laws that have been with us for more than a century but are poorly understood by practicing physicians. Recent monopolistic activities in the health care arena have prompted the Federal Trade Commission to file actions under specific acts of Congress, eg, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Clayton Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, Robinson-Patman Act, and Celler-Kefauver Act. Inasmuch as it is likely that specialties such as vascular surgery as a business will undergo substantial transformation, physicians need to be aware of the severe civil and criminal sanctions imposed if they are found guilty; fines that are several times actual damages; activities that raise antitrust issues including utilization review, medical staff privileges for competing specialties, participating provider agreements, and predatory pricing; and affirmative defenses and relief available in terms of specific exemptions. As health care providers react, innovate, and adjust to stay solvent, their business strategies will surely continue to be scrutinized for antitrust behavior by federal and state officials. The physician must have a basic understanding of the groundrules that govern any contemplated business strategy so that common pitfalls may be averted.

  2. Environmental protection and antitrust laws. Principles of the law on competition in the area of environment-protection-related corporate communication in the Single European Market. Umweltschutz und Wettbewerbsrecht. Wettbewerbsrechtliche Prinzipien umweltbezogener Unternehmenskommunikation im europaeischen Binnenmarkt

    Federhoff-Rink, G.


    The idea of environment protection has become a dominating motif in advertising. As yet there are no guiding principles in antitrust law which might provide some orientation in assessing environment-protection-related advertising. The purpose of the present book is to systematise this environmental advertising by creating case groups distinguished by legally relevant characteristics and set up principles of antitrust law for these case groups. The author presents a holistic communicational approach new to antitrust law which for the first time permits incorporating environmental sponsoring in this sphere of law. The informational duties on which this work centers are in harmony with the specific information principle of European environmental policies and promote the convergence of different prevailing trends in international commercial law. (orig.)

  3. Hydrotectonics; principles and relevance

    Kopf, R.W.


    Hydrotectonics combines the principles of hydraulics and rock mechanics. The hypothesis assumes that: (1) no faults are truly planar, (2) opposing noncongruent wavy wallrock surfaces form chambers and bottlenecks along the fault, and (3) most thrusting occurs beneath the water table. These physical constraints permit the following dynamics. Shear displacement accompanying faulting must constantly change the volume of each chamber. Addition of ground water liquefies dry fault breccia to a heavy incompressible viscous muddy breccia I call fault slurry. When the volume of a chamber along a thrust fault decreases faster than its fault slurry can escape laterally, overpressurized slurry is hydraulically injected into the base of near-vertical fractures in the otherwise impervious overriding plate. Breccia pipes commonly form where such fissures intersect. Alternating decrease and increase in volume of the chamber subjects this injection slurry to reversible surges that not only raft and abrade huge clasts sporadically spalled from the walls of the conduit but also act as a forceful hydraulic ram which periodically widens the conduit and extends its top. If the pipe perforates a petroleum reservoir, leaking hydrocarbons float to its top. Sudden faulting may generate a powerful water hammer that can be amplified at some distal narrow ends of the anastomosing plumbing system, where the shock may produce shatter cones. If vented on the Earth's surface, the muddy breccia, now called extrusion slurry, forms a mud volcano. This hypothesis suggests that many highly disturbed features presently attributed to such catastrophic processes as subsurface explosions or meteorite impacts are due to the rheology of tectonic slurry in an intermittently reactivated pressure-relief tube rooted in a powerful reciprocating hydrotectonic pump activated by a long-lived deep-seated thrust fault.

  4. Experimental economics in antitrust

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.


    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  5. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Mario Siragusa


    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  6. 75 FR 16178 - Antitrust Division


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint... Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11-M...

  7. Antitrust Policy and Environmental Protection

    Shigeru Matsumoto; Hajime Sugeta


    We examine the effects of antitrust policy (the prohibition of a input price discrimination) when an emission tax is used for environmental protection. We show that antitrust policy reduces pollution emission and improves social welfare. Therefore, antitrust policy contributes to environmental protection.

  8. Essays in antitrust economics

    Verouden, V.C.H.M.


    Competition law - or antitrust law, as it is called in the United States - is a field of law to which economic concepts, such as "restriction of competition" and "anti-competitive effect", are of central importance. This thesis analyses a number of such concepts, both from an economic and a legal pe

  9. Antitrust in Open Economies

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Horn


    textabstractWe examine antitrust rules in a two county general equilibrium trade model, contrasting national and multilateral (cooperative) determination of competition policy, exploring the properties of the policy equilibrium. It is not imperfect competition, but variation in competitive stance be

  10. 78 FR 17431 - Antitrust Division


    ... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 117). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  11. 77 FR 54611 - Antitrust Division


    ... on June 8, 2012 (77 FR 34067). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division... Section 6(b) of the Act on June 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  12. The Principle of Proportionality and Discretion of EU Antitrust Commitment:argument on Alrosa%论欧盟反垄断承诺的比例原则与自由裁量权

    周显志; 朱伟光


    承诺制度作为欧盟反垄断执法的一个重要工具,主要的优势体现比一般裁决更快地恢复市场竞争以及节约执法成本。而这种便捷的背后也带来一定的局限性,不用实际去发现侵权行为和通过“谈判和解”的方式可能会降低反垄断执法的威慑力,同时也赋予了欧盟委员会广泛的自由裁量权,使得执法产生任意性和范围的模糊性等问题。通过构建自由裁量权的合理性内核,在内容上考虑“比例性原则”以及“损害原则”的影响,使得救济的选择具有合理性和必要性,完善了承诺制度的架构。%Commitment as an important tool of the EU antitrust enforcement, the main advantages are considered speedier than formal sanctions (prohibition or infringement decisions) in restoring normal competitive market conditions and with lower enforcement cost.There are several limitations in the commitment decision, not only without actually to discover the antitrust behaviour and by“negotiating” way may reduce the deterrent effect, but also gives the Commission with extensive discretion, which may cause the ambiguity and arbitrariness.In order to construct discretion of commitment, it should consider the effect of “principle of proportionality” and “principle of harm”, and that lead to the remedy with more rationality and necessity, so it could perfect the commitment system.

  13. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.


    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any industrial...

  14. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance.

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James


    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: understanding how morality works, and how humans manage and improve morality, as objectively based on the brain and social sciences. This new meta-ethics will simultaneously equip neuroethics for evaluating and revising older cultural ideologies and ethical theories, and direct neuroethics towards scientifically valid views of encultured humans intelligently managing moralities. Bypassing absolutism, cultural essentialisms, and unrealistic ethical philosophies, neuroethics arrives at a small set of principles about proper human flourishing that are more culturally inclusive and cosmopolitan in spirit. This cosmopolitanism in turn suggests augmentations to traditional medical ethics in the form of four principled guidelines for international consideration: empowerment, non-obsolescence, self-creativity, and citizenship.

  15. 78 FR 17430 - Antitrust Division


    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 4, 2003 (68 FR 16552). The last notification was filed with... Section 6(b) of the Act on March 23, 2012 (77 FR 17095). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  16. Joint Research and Development under US Antitrust and EU Competition Law

    Lundqvist, Björn

    made over this time to the relevant legal acts and guidelines. In doing to, the author picks up on the slow shift that has taken place in both the antitrust laws of the USA and the Competition Rules of the EU. The book concludes by discussing the necessity for a stringent attitude towards the antitrust...... establishment, and how this can be developed by reviving the concept of the ‘innovation market’....

  17. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.


    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. An Analysis of the Definition of Relevant Markets in Internet Antitrust-A Case Study of“Qihoo 360 Litigation Against Tencent”%互联网反垄断中相关市场界定解析--以“奇虎360诉腾讯案”为视角



    本文以“奇虎360诉腾讯案”为切入点,论述了互联网行业具有创新迅速、传播速度快、市场双边性、产品低费用甚至免费等特征。这导致了传统反垄断中对相关市场的界定方法用于互联网相关市场界定时存在很多缺陷以致无法适用,而我国互联网反垄断实务也面临一些困境,对此提出了解决方法,即从互联网相关市场包括互联网相关产品市场、互联网相关地域市场、互联网相关时间市场三个维度加以考虑,只有在结合互联网市场特性及互联网产品特性的基础上,才能准确界定互联网相关市场,进而指导我国的互联网反垄断实务,以期保持互联网市场竞争公平、自由、有序地进行。%The Internet industry is characteristic of fast innovation and spread, bilateral market, and low-cost and even free products. Such features make the definition of the relevant markets in traditional antitrust inapplicable to the Internet antitrust. On the other hand, the practice of China’s Internet antitrust also faces difficulties. Based on the case of“Qihoo 360 litigation against Tencent”, the author suggests that Internet-related markets should include product market, geographic market and time market, and by combining the features of the Internet-related market and its products, we can accurately define the Internet-related markets so as to guide China’s Internet antitrust practice and to ensure a fair, free and orderly market competition.

  19. 14 CFR 303.05 - Applications requesting antitrust immunity.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications requesting antitrust immunity... Applications requesting antitrust immunity. (a) Each application must state explicitly whether or not the applicant seeks antitrust immunity under the provisions of section 414 of the Act. If antitrust immunity is...

  20. [Basic principles of ultrasonography and its relevance for internal medicine].

    Bleck, J S


    This article gives an overview of the technical possibilities and clinical applications of modern ultrasound. B-mode and Doppler imaging are already essential in daily routine. Advanced technology, such as harmonic imaging, improves image quality. Tissue harmonic imaging provides better resolution by reducing noise, whereas the introduction of contrast agents increases the perceptibility of focal lesions, e.g., liver tumors. Meanwhile the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is comparable with CT imaging. Other tools, e.g., elastography, ameliorate the detection of liver fibrosis and tumors. Currently, application of three-dimensional and four-dimensional imaging is of low clinical relevance. Panoramic imaging provides images close to CT or MRI.

  1. Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems

    Ashok Natarajan


    Full Text Available Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is the quest for a unifying reality that transcends all limitations, distinctions and differences; an inner oneness that unites rather than divides us; a faith in and quest for perfection in all its myriad forms; and a power accessible to human beings to overcome impossible obstacles and achieve the inconceivable. It is founded on the principles of absolute freedom, equality and unity. In the modern era, faith in spirit is embodied in the realization of the intrinsic value, extraordinary endowments and unmanifest potentials of the human being. We find expressions of it in the idealism and power released by revolutionary social change. We revere its power in great individuals. The aspiration for perfection in any form or field of endeavor is spiritual. So also we recognize expressions of spirit in the movements of the masses. Spirituality is not confined to pursuit of the otherworldly or unattainable. It is a living power for the transformation of human consciousness and the solution to the compelling challenges confronting humanity.

  2. Credit Suisse , Regulatory Immunity, and the Shrinking Scope of Antitrust

    Keith Sharfman


    Credit Suisse has important implications for antitrust practice. The decision’s effect is to narrow the scope of antitrust law and to invite efforts by regulated industries to narrow it still further.

  3. US Antitrust Move has Google fighting on Two Fronts

    Petit, Nicolas


    Google may soon be fighting antitrust battle on two fronts. The European Commission has been looking for two years into wether the search giant abused local competition law. Now the Federal Trade Commission is starting its own antitrust inquiry.

  4. Revised antitrust guidelines. Forming physician network joint ventures.

    Anderson, K R


    What do physician executives need to know about antitrust guidelines? This article presents an overview of the revised "Statements of Antitrust Enforcement Policy in the Health Care Area," released in late 1996. Antitrust concepts and implicated federal statutes are described, and implications for forming physician network joint ventures are explored. Requirements of the revised standards used by the agencies to determine a permissible integration are addressed, as well as the factors considered in antitrust scrutiny of physician ventures.

  5. 14 CFR 303.06 - Review of antitrust immunity.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of antitrust immunity. 303.06... antitrust immunity. The Assistant Secretary may initiate a proceeding to review any antitrust immunity... Assistant Secretary may terminate or modify such immunity if the Assistant Secretary finds after notice and...

  6. Mergers, Strategic Investments and Antitrust Policy

    D. Deneffe (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter)


    textabstractEstablished firms can diversify into new markets in two distinct modes: through internal development or through conglomerate merger. Building on a dynamic three-stage bargaining model with variable threats, this paper shows that a lenient antitrust position toward horizontal mergers can

  7. Mergers, strategic investments and antitrust policy

    P.P. Wakker; D. Deneffe


    Established firms can diversify into new markets in two distinct modes: through internal development or through conglomerate merger. Building on a dynamic three-stage bargaining model with variable threats, this paper shows that a lenient antitrust position toward horizontal mergers can induce estab

  8. Reputational penalties to firms in antitrust investigations

    Broek, van den S.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Vries, de A.


    We estimate the impact of legal penalties imposed on Dutch listed firms targeted by competition authorities from 1998 to 2008 on a firm's stock market value. On average, firms lose 2.3 percent of their market values when an antitrust investigation is uncovered. This corresponds to a total value loss

  9. Mergers, strategic investments and antitrust policy

    Wakker, P.P.; Deneffe, D.


    Established firms can diversify into new markets in two distinct modes: through internal development or through conglomerate merger. Building on a dynamic three-stage bargaining model with variable threats, this paper shows that a lenient antitrust position toward horizontal mergers can induce

  10. Mergers, Strategic Investments and Antitrust Policy

    D. Deneffe (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter)


    textabstractEstablished firms can diversify into new markets in two distinct modes: through internal development or through conglomerate merger. Building on a dynamic three-stage bargaining model with variable threats, this paper shows that a lenient antitrust position toward horizontal mergers can

  11. Reputational penalties to firms in antitrust investigations

    Broek, van den S.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Vries, de A.


    We estimate the impact of legal penalties imposed on Dutch listed firms targeted by competition authorities from 1998 to 2008 on a firm's stock market value. On average, firms lose 2.3 percent of their market values when an antitrust investigation is uncovered. This corresponds to a total value loss

  12. Confidence in Anti-Trust Laws


    Cooperation between Chinese and U.S. anti-monopoly enforcers is helping China improve its laws to encourage free competition china and the United States signed a memorandum of understanding regarding cooperation in antitrust and anti-monopoly investigations in Beijing on July 27. China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) and State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) signed the document with the U.S. Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

  13. Special report on antitrust. Part One: Antitrust constraints on the creation and operation of joint ventures.

    Enders, R J


    In a few areas of the country the phrase "health care joint venture" is still almost unknown. In most areas, however, such ventures are becoming common, and in many parts of the country there is truly a plethora of joint venture activity in the industry. The antitrust treatment of the formation and operation of these affiliations is therefore an area of increased concern for industry executives. This first of a two-part series for the Newsletter will describe the general framework for an antitrust evaluation of a joint venture. Next month's article will discuss specific situations.

  14. Neuroscience and leadership : awareness, relevance and applications of neuroscience principles within leadership development in Germany

    Dürrbeck, Klaus


    This bachelor’s thesis aimed to elaborate the current importance-level of neuroscience within leadership development as well as its future potential. Thereby awareness of leaders and human resource executives, general relevance for organisational success, and current applications of neuroscience principles within development programmes were identified. Additionally, existent and emergent triggers and forces that impede leadership or organisational success were investigated, in order to examin...

  15. 48 CFR 245.7310-8 - Antitrust clearance.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust clearance. 245.7310-8 Section 245.7310-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Antitrust clearance. When property with an acquisition cost of $3 million or more is to be sold, include...

  16. The overcharge as a measure for antitrust damages

    Han, M.A.; Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.


    Victims of antitrust violations can recover damages in court. Yet, the quantification of antitrust damages and to whom they accrue is often complex. An illegal price increase somewhere in the chain of production percolates through to the other layers in a ripple of partial pass-ons. The resulting

  17. Brazilian industry of natural gas: criteria for definition of relevant markets concerning the defense of competition; Industria brasileira do gas natural: criterios de definicao dos mercados relevantes para efeito de defesa da concorrencia

    Mano, Gustavo; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade de Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)


    A key point in the examination of the legality of antitrust practices is the delimitation of the relevant markets where the economic relations object of the analysis take place. This is the basis for the evaluation of the market power of the agents involved and the possible harm to competition they may cause. This work offers a study of the criteria for the determination of the relevant market in the scope of the natural gas industry in Brazil. It aims at identifying the performance of the agencies taking part in the Brazilian Antitrust System (SBDC) with regards to the examination of the related antitrust practices. These agencies work in connection with the National Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels Regulatory Agency (ANP), which is responsible for issuing technical reports on the subjects related to its area of competence. The analysis presented here has the main goal of verifying if the most important technical, operational and legal aspects are being adequately considered by the SBDC and ANP in the definition of the relevant markets as a basis for the judgment of the antitrust practices, and if they are coherent with the principles for fostering economic competition. The results points out that, despite the successful cooperation between the SBDC and the ANP, there are the used definition of the relevant markets for the natural gas industry still needs refinement. (author)

  18. Joint ventures e a política antitruste brasileira Joint ventures and Brazilian antitrust policy

    Ana Paula Avellar


    Full Text Available As políticas de defesa da concorrência integram atualmente o conjunto fundamental de instituições necessárias à promoção do crescimento e a busca das sociedades por arranjos mais eficientes. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma análise da política antitruste brasileira concentrando-se no tratamento dado pelas autoridades à constituição de joint ventures. Na realização dessa tarefa, foram feitas revisões teóricas, constatações acerca dos procedimentos de autoridades internacionais sobre o assunto e um estudo empírico abordando casos julgados no Brasil entre os anos de 2002 e 2010. O resultado encontrado revela a inexistência de normatização específica para o tratamento das joint ventures no Brasil, culminando, assim, em uma relativa discricionariedade por parte dos órgãos do SBDC na análise desses atos.The antitrust policy is an essential part of the required institutions that support economic growth and the seeking for more efficient arrangements. This paper aims to examine the Brazilian antitrust policy, paying special attention to way that the authorities deal with the joint ventures. In order to reach this goal, we review the theoretical contributions, discuss the procedures adopted by international antitrust authorities and, more importantly, scrutinize the cases of joint ventures judged by the Brazilian watchdog along period 2002-2010. We conclude that there are not specific norms to be applied by the Brazilian antitrust commissionaires when they are judging joint ventures, allowing them to act with a relatively degree of discretion.

  19. Judicial Review of Antitrust Decisions: Q&A

    Roberto Giovagnoli


    Full Text Available The RIA/IAR asked several experts to give their opinion on the Italian system of judicial review of antitrust decisions and its compatibility with art. 6 of the ECHR following a set of common questions.


    Merzlova, N B; Serova, I A; Yagodina, A Yu


    A retrospective survey of the prevalence of TORCH infections among pregnant women was performed in the perinatal center, M. A. Tverye Military Sanitary Unit Nine (Perm), in June 2010 to December 2013. The survey covered 2060 women: they were all examined for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Toxoplasma. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in 28.68% (591/2060); 98.62% were found to have antibodies to herpes simplex; antibodies to cytomegalovirus were identified in 87.13% (1795/2060). Acute maternal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed by seroconversion or determination of IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, in the presence of a low avidity index and a four-fold increase in antibody titers, by simultaneously studying paired serum samples obtained at a 2-week interval. To confirm fetal infection, amniotic fluid PCR examination should be performed after 18 weeks' gestation. No consensus of opinion as to the principles of treatment for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women makes relevant the long-term results of antibacterial and antiprotozoal treatment cycles varying in duration and intensity. The prevention of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women ensures the principle of a mother's personal responsibility for infection safety of a newborn infant, which is informationally provided in health and safety fundamentals course and pregravid preparation schools.

  1. On the relevance of the maximum entropy principle in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Auletta, Gennaro; Rondoni, Lamberto; Vulpiani, Angelo


    At first glance, the maximum entropy principle (MEP) apparently allows us to derive, or justify in a simple way, fundamental results of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Because of this, a school of thought considers the MEP as a powerful and elegant way to make predictions in physics and other disciplines, rather than a useful technical tool like others in statistical physics. From this point of view the MEP appears as an alternative and more general predictive method than the traditional ones of statistical physics. Actually, careful inspection shows that such a success is due to a series of fortunate facts that characterize the physics of equilibrium systems, but which are absent in situations not described by Hamiltonian dynamics, or generically in nonequilibrium phenomena. Here we discuss several important examples in non equilibrium statistical mechanics, in which the MEP leads to incorrect predictions, proving that it does not have a predictive nature. We conclude that, in these paradigmatic examples, an approach that uses a detailed analysis of the relevant aspects of the dynamics cannot be avoided.

  2. The Effect of Antitrust Policy on Consumer Welfare: What Crandall and Winston Overlook

    Werden, Gregory J.


    For related information, please see: Brief How to Block Cartel Formation and Price-Fixing Robert W. Crandall and Clifford Winston Does Antitrust Policy Improve Consumer Welfare - Assessing the Evidence Jonathan B. Baker The Case for Antitrust Enforcement


    Mundy, C; Kuo, I W


    successfully applied to studying the complex problems put forth by atmospheric chemists. To date, the majority of the molecular models of atmospherically relevant interfaces have been comprised of two genres of molecular models. The first is based on empirical interaction potentials. The use of an empirical interaction potential suffers from at least two shortcomings. First, empirical potentials are usually fit to reproduce bulk thermodynamic states, or gas phase spectroscopic data. Thus, without the explicit inclusion of charge transfer, it is not at all obvious that empirical potentials can faithfully reproduce the structure at a solid-vapor, or liquid-vapor interface where charge rearrangement is known to occur (see section 5). One solution is the empirical inclusion of polarization effects. These models are certainly an improvement, but still cannot offer insight into charge transfer processes and are usually difficult to parameterize. The other shortcoming of empirical models is that, in general, they cannot describe bond-making/breaking events, i.e. chemistry. In order to address chemistry one has to consider an ab initio (to be referred to as first-principles throughout the remaining text) approach to molecular modeling that explicitly treats the electronic degrees of freedom. First-principles modeling also give a direct link to spectroscopic data and chemistry, but at a large computational cost. The bottle-neck associated with first-principles modeling is usually determined by the level of electronic structure theory that one chooses to study a particular problem. High-level first-principles approaches, such as MP2, provide accurate representation of the electronic degrees of freedom but are only computationally tractable when applied to small system sizes (i.e. 10s of atoms). Nevertheless, this type of modeling has been extremely useful in deducing reaction mechanisms of atmospherically relevant chemistry that will be discussed in this review (see section 4). However

  4. Concetto di mercato e antitrust (The concept of the market and antitrust

    P. Sabbatini


    Full Text Available In order for the concept of the market to play a significant and non-contradictory role in economic (and antitrust analysis, two conditions must be fulfilled. First, the characteristics of demand must be such as to demarcate a market unequivocally. Second, the competition in a specific market must have limited interaction with the rest of the economy. In general, these conditions cannot be met. First, the non-constancy of the elasticity of the demand function means that the size of the market depends on its structure and on the behaviour of its agents. Second, given differentiated products, the competitive relations between them will be heterogeneous, giving rise to as many market segments as there are individual products. Third, supply-side substitutability, i.e. the possibility of using a given technique to produce several products (not all in the same market ensures that intra-industry economic dynamics prevail over intra-market ones. Finally, multi-market contacts between firms generate overall strategic conduct, making analysis of any particular market irrelevant.  JEL Codes: K21, L40Keywords: Competition, Market, Antitrust, Elasticity of demand, Supply-side substitutability

  5. Going once, going twice, reported! Cartel activity and the effectiveness of antitrust policies in experimental auctions

    Hinloopen, J.; Onderstal, S.


    We experimentally examine the effectiveness of antitrust policies against bidding rings in the English auction (EN) and the first-price sealed-bid auction (FP). We consider both traditional antitrust policy (without a leniency program) and modern antitrust policy (with a leniency program). In EN, ne

  6. Going once, going twice, reported! Cartel activity and the effectiveness of antitrust policies in experimental auctions

    Hinloopen, J.; Onderstal, S.


    We experimentally examine the effectiveness of antitrust policies against bidding rings in the English auction (EN) and the first-price sealed-bid auction (FP). We consider both traditional antitrust policy (without a leniency program) and modern antitrust policy (with a leniency program). In EN,

  7. Going once, going twice, reported! Cartel activity and the effectiveness of antitrust policies in experimental auctions

    Hinloopen, Jeroen; Onderstal, Sander

    We experimentally examine the effectiveness of antitrust policies against bidding rings in the English auction (EN) and the first-price sealed-bid auction (FP). We consider both traditional antitrust policy (without a leniency program) and modern antitrust policy (with a leniency program). In EN,

  8. 32 CFR 644.542 - Application of anti-trust laws.


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Application of anti-trust laws. 644.542 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.542 Application of anti-trust laws. The Federal... tend to create or maintain a situation inconsistent with the anti-trust laws. Prior to obligating...

  9. Playing by the rules. How Intel avoids antitrust litigation.

    Yoffie, D B; Kwak, M


    Microsoft and Intel are both obvious targets for antitrust litigation; both wield considerable control in their respective segments of the computer industry. But while Mircrosoft has been mired in court for years now--its name and business practices dragged through the mud, and its very future as a single company thrown into doubt--Intel has avoided a prolonged, high-profile antitrust case. Intel's success is not a matter of luck. The company's antitrust compliance program, refined over many years, has been an integral element in the chip maker's business strategy. In this article, the authors suggest that Intel's approach to compliance provides a valuable model for any enterprise that may come under regulators' scrutiny. They describe how Intel created extremely conservative antitrust compliance standards and then instituted a series of unique training events that had active support from then--CEO Andy Grove and others in senior management. First, live training -- not just instructional pamphlets or videos -- was given to all affected employees. Those classes were followed by customized training programs for different parts of the company. Then, to drive antitrust awareness deeper into the company's memory, Intel carried out random audits of employees' files and conducted mock depositions. "It's fascinating to see," Grove says. "A memo is introduced into evidence and you shrug. You fully understand how that memo could be written. Moreover, you could have written it yourself. And then you see that memo turned into a tool and a weapon against you, in front of your eyes." Intel recognizes that no matter how cautious it is, it will always face extraordinary scrutiny as a market leader. But "since antitrust is embedded in everything we do," Grove says, "we can control our destiny."

  10. Economic Liberalization and Antitrust in México Economic Liberalization and Antitrust in México

    Mark D. Williams


    Full Text Available Mexico recently adopted antitrust legislarion modeled after that in the European Union and the United States. The law established an enforcement agency, the Federal Competition Commission. and gave it the fundamental task of preserving economic reforms. Accordingly, the agency initiated a vigorous program of traditional antitrust enforcement, including merger oversight and investigations of hoth horizontal and vertical business activities.The theoretical framework proposed in this paper suggests that dedicating resources to traditional antitrust enforcement may not be an appropriate policy for a liberalizing economy. Instead. the agency should devote its resources to competition advocacy - especially during Mexico's transition to a more open economy - and limit its enforcement activities to nambiguously anticompetitive horizonral restraints on competition. Traditional antitrust enforcement, especially against business activities with ambiguous anticompetitive effect, may simply encourage producer interest groups to lobby other government agencies for protection. This protection will be counterproductive to the goals of liberalization and may often be more anticompetitive than the cure.Qualitative evidence suggests that the Federal Competition Commission has allocated its resources toward its competition advocacy role by challenging government-generated barriers to entry, growth and exit. These resources are expected to have greater returns in terms of economic reform than do traditional antitrust enforcement efforts, We conclude that conventional antitrust enforcement should he relegated to mature developed economies alld that competition advocary he emphasized for economies in transition. Mexico recently adopted antitrust legislarion modeled after that in the European Union and the United States. The law established an enforcement agency, the Federal Competition Commission. and gave it the fundamental task of preserving economic reforms

  11. Incorporating sustainable development principles in the governance of Dutch domestic tourism. The relevance of boundary judgments

    Bressers, H.; Dinica, V.


    survey revealed that among such 'insiders' the support for sustainable tourism governance and policies was generally much larger than the positions their organizations take in practice until now. Large majorities prove in favor of some form of national coordination and of the application of national policy instruments to guide subnational policy and planning, though most prefer rather weak instruments. We investigate what backgrounds explain to what extent such opinions are held. On the one hand we discern the growth and protection orientations. These are linked to the concern for environmental and nature impacts of tourism and the desire to capture a share of international tourism growth. These orientations have a clear link with the nature of the organizations the respondents are part of. On the other hand we investigate the relation with the perception of the domain of 'sustainable tourism'. What policy subfields are regarded as relevant for 'sustainable tourism'? Interpretation of what sustainable tourism is all about is an aspect of problem perception that in principle can frame a lot of other relevant perceptions and opinions. On the issue of these so-called 'boundary judgments' we see substantial differences among the respondents too. Divergent boundary judgments can impede any attempt to develop more coordinated governance and more coherent policies. The two most important dimensions (or 'factors') among the boundary judgments are again one that loads predominantly on growth related aspects and one that loads predominantly on protection related aspects. While there are correlations between the boundary judgments and the orientations, they are far from identical. Both orientations and boundary judgments seem to contribute to the explanation of opinions on governance of the tourism sector and instruments for sustainable tourism. This provides an interesting extra opportunity to influence the debate. While there is a

  12. The relevance of Rawls' principle of justice for research on cognitively impaired patients.

    Maio, Giovanni


    An ethical conflict arises when we must perform research in the interest of future patients, but that this may occasionally injure the interests of today's patients. In the case of cognitively impaired persons, the question arises whether it is compatible with humane healthcare not only to treat, but also to use these patients for research purposes. Some bioethicists and theologians have formulated a general duty of solidarity, also pertaining to cognitively impaired persons, as a justification for research on these persons. If one examines this thesis from the theory of justice according to John Rawls, it is revealed that such a duty of solidarity cannot necessarily be extrapolated from Rawls' conception of justice. This is at least true of Rawls' difference principle, because according to the difference principle only those measures are justifiable which serve the interest of the respective least well off. Those measures which would engender additional injury for the least well off could not be balanced by any utility according to Rawls. However, John Rawls' difference principle is subordinate to the first principle, which is that each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the same liberty for others. These "primary goods" are determined by the freedom and integrity of the person. This integrity of decisionally impaired persons would be in danger if one would abstain from research and thus forego the increase in knowledge related to their disease. Thus one could conclude, at least from Rawls' first principle, that society must take on a duty to guarantee the degrees of freedom for cognitively impaired persons and thus also support the efforts for their healing.

  13. The leadership principles of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and their relevance to surgery.

    Brunicardi, F Charles; Cotton, Ronald T; Cole, George W; Martinez, George


    In order to face the challenges in healthcare this century, it is essential that surgeons understand modern leadership principles. One of the greatest leaders in history was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who provides a shining example of level-5 leadership for us to study. The study of leadership principles of great leaders can provide us with practical methods of conflict resolution as well as inspiration to keep us engaged and focused. As leaders of the medical community, we face numerous challenges, including discovering and implementing new treatments for disease, providing care for the indigent, overcoming educational challenges such as incorporating the ACGME Core Competencies into our surgical training and promoting diversity in education. Achieving these goals is often hindered by the environment in which we labor-nearly 50 million are uninsured, the rising cost of medical care is currently at 16% of the GNP, and reimbursement rates are falling-which makes the practice of surgery a significant challenge. Effective leadership will be paramount in achieving these goals. In this editorial, which summarizes a presentation given to the Surgical Section of the annual National Medical Association meeting, five important leadership principles that are important for surgeons have been selected and related to the outstanding leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  14. Monopoly, monopsony, and market definition: an antitrust perspective on market concentration among health insurers.

    Hyman, David A; Kovacic, William E


    James Robinson uses the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) to compute the concentration of commercial health insurance markets in most of the states during the past four years. The HHI is the analytical foundation for the federal antitrust merger guidelines, so we consider his findings from an antitrust perspective. Market concentration provides an important benchmark for antitrust analysis, but it does not, standing alone, indicate the presence of problematic (anticompetitive) behavior or a problem that antitrust law can solve. Even if it did, there are major problems in treating individual states as discrete insurance markets. Unless the market is correctly defined, any analysis of market concentration is thoroughly unreliable.

  15. Antitrust and affiliations among healthcare providers: the need for a level playing field.

    Heightchew, A


    Under pressure to remain competitive in the rapidly changing healthcare industry, policy leaders and healthcare administrators face the challenge of resolving antitrust matters arising from the creation of innovative healthcare provider affiliations. Although guidance from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is available, development of new affiliations is hindered due to contradictory rulings and ambiguous guidelines. Provider associations are further disadvantaged by a federal act granting insurance companies antitrust exemption, which enables insurance companies to affiliate more easily. Current antitrust regulations create unequal market powers, resulting in the development of inefficient systems. Softening antitrust laws in favor of provider-sponsored healthcare affiliations will provide for the flexibility necessary for effective healthcare reform.

  16. Incorporating health care quality into health antitrust law

    Schneider Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antitrust authorities treat price as a proxy for hospital quality since health care quality is difficult to observe. As the ability to measure quality improved, more research became necessary to investigate the relationship between hospital market power and patient outcomes. This paper examines the impact of hospital competition on the quality of care as measured by the risk-adjusted mortality rates with the hospital as the unit of analysis. The study separately examines the effect of competition on non-profit hospitals. Methods We use California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD data from 1997 through 2002. Empirical model is a cross-sectional study of 373 hospitals. Regression analysis is used to estimate the relationship between Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG risk-adjusted mortality rates and hospital competition. Results Regression results show lower risk-adjusted mortality rates in the presence of a more competitive environment. This result holds for all alternative hospital market definitions. Non-profit hospitals do not have better patient outcomes than investor-owned hospitals. However, they tend to provide better quality in less competitive environments. CABG volume did not have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Conclusion Quality should be incorporated into the antitrust analysis. When mergers lead to higher prices and lower quality, thus lower social welfare, the antitrust challenge of hospital mergers is warranted. The impact of lower hospital competition on quality of care delivered by non-profit hospitals is ambiguous.

  17. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    Meeks, J.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Coll. of Law


    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.

  18. Study on Co-doped ZnO comparatively by first-principles calculations and relevant experiments

    Su, Y. L.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Zhou, N.; Ma, C. Y.; Liu, X. Z.; Zhao, J. J.


    Co-doped ZnO was studied using first-principles methods with comparison to experimental results taken from epitaxial Zn1-xCoxO (x 0.05) films. Density of Co2+ ions was determined using absorption spectra for the first time, and then a definite correlation between metallic Co clusters and the magnetism of the ZnCoO films was proved and the average number of Co atoms in the metallic Co clusters was estimated to be less than 200 using a superparamagnetic model. First-principles calculations of ZnCoO alloys and the relevant problems were discussed by comparing the electronic structures with absorption spectra and the results calculated by Tanabe-Sugano theory. U correction was proved to be necessary for calculating the band-gap energy of ZnCoO alloys, but other optical properties related to Co2+ ions are incorrect and the conclusion for magnetic properties is ambiguous due to uncertainty of the calculated highly localized states, which are in pressing for solution in study of material properties relevant to electronic structure.

  19. Principles of multilevel analysis and its relevance to studies of antimicrobial resistance.

    Vellinga, Akke; Bennett, Kathleen; Murphy, Andrew W; Cormican, Martin


    When studying antimicrobial resistance it is clear that individuals do not exist in isolation and are often clustered into groups. Data within groups are generally not independent, but standard statistical approaches assume independence of observations. When data are clustered (e.g. students in schools, patients in general practices, etc.) multilevel analysis can be used. The overall idea of multilevel analysis is that the clustering is taken into account in the analysis and provides additional information on the interactions between individuals and groups. The lowest level is often the individual and additional levels are formed by clustering in groups (the higher levels). This article introduces the principles behind multilevel modelling. The approach is to provide readers with sufficient information to understand outcomes in which this statistical technique is used, without expecting the reader to be able to perform such an analysis. As multilevel modelling can be seen as an extension of linear regression analysis, this is the starting point of the article. Other concepts and terms are introduced throughout, resulting in the explanation of the accompanying article on antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in Irish general practice (Vellinga A, Tansey S, Hanahoe B et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012; 67: 2523-30).

  20. A modified OSCE assessing the assimilation and application of ethical principles relevant to Obstetric and Gynaecological practice

    Dr Hugo van Woerden


    Full Text Available Objective. To develop and evaluate a modified OSCE assessing the assimilation and application of a range of ethical principles relevant to Obstetric and Gynecological practice. Setting. Candidates for an SpR training rotation Methods. Twenty six candidates working in Obstetrics and Gynecology were presented with four questions covering a range of relevant ethical scenarios. Their responses were assessed using a marking schedule. The marking schedule was evaluated against a checklist developed for assessing postgraduate medical examinations. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating Kappa values for each question. The items in the marking schedule were also assessed to determine the level of agreement between the two examiners. To assess the contribution of each question to the total score, the question to total score correlations were calculated. The discriminatory capacity of each question was also assessed. Results. The development of the examination met almost all of the criteria in the checklist for developing a postgraduate examination. Inter-rater reliability was reasonable (4 weighted Kappas ranged from 0.53 - 0.75. There was a high level of agreement between examiners as to whether a candidate had answered an item on the marking schedule correctly. The degree of discrimination of items in the marking schedule was consistent with clinical opinion on the importance of questions. Conclusion. This modified OSCE examination demonstrates the feasibility of testing ethical principles relevant to practice in Obstetrics and Gynecology in candidates for postgraduate posts. It meets most of the criteria laid down in a checklist developed to assess postgraduate medical examinations

  1. Professional Sports Market Structure and Antitrust Issues%职业体育市场结构及其反垄断问题研究



    In view of the monopoly situation of professional sports market, it is necessary to explicitly incorporate professional sports to antitrust adjustment range, clear the basic principles and exemption scale of professional sports antitrust and accelerate professional sports management system reform.%  针对我国职业体育市场的垄断态势,有必要将职业体育运动明确纳入反垄断法调整范围,明确职业体育反垄断法的基本原则和豁免尺度,加快职业体育管理体制改革。

  2. 45 CFR 30.3 - Antitrust, fraud, exception in the account of an accountable official, and interagency claims...


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust, fraud, exception in the account of an... AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION General Provisions § 30.3 Antitrust, fraud... antitrust violations or fraud. (1) The standards in this part relating to compromise, suspension, and...

  3. 10 CFR 1015.103 - Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency, transportation account audit, acquisition contract, and...


    ... General § 1015.103 Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency, transportation account audit, acquisition contract... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antitrust, fraud, tax, interagency, transportation account audit, acquisition contract, and financial assistance instrument claims excluded. 1015.103 Section...

  4. Federal antitrust jurisdiction in peer review cases: the Pinhas decision.

    Busey, R C


    In Summit Health Ltd. v. Pinhas, the United States Supreme Court by a narrow majority found that the exclusion of an ophthalmologist from a hospital in Los Angeles had a sufficient effect on interstate commerce to establish federal jurisdiction under the Sherman Act. In resolving a split among the federal circuit courts of appeal, the Court applied the broad jurisdictional test from McLain v. Real Estate Board of New Orleans, Inc. to peer review proceedings. Despite many ambiguities in the majority opinion by Justice Stevens and a scathing dissent by Justice Scalia, the effect of Pinhas will be to increase the suits in federal court on antitrust grounds brought by aggrieved medical staff members and applicants denied appointments or privileges, and to decrease, if not eliminate, the likelihood of preliminary dismissal on jurisdictional grounds. This, in turn, should serve to emphasize the importance of complying with the Health Care Quality Improvement Act in order to obtain immunity from damages under federal antitrust and state laws.

  5. Interpreting the 1996 federal antitrust guidelines for physician joint venture networks.

    Hirshfeld, E


    The Statements of Antitrust Enforcement Policy in Health Care, issued by the FTC and the DOJ, dramatically change how the agencies evaluate physician joint venture networks. This article analyzes the Statements, providing useful guidance to the health lawyer.

  6. Patent Law, Antitrust Enforcement, and Public Access to Pharmaceuticals and Medical Technologies

    Sigman, Laura J.


    Patent and antitrust laws impact public access to pharmaceuticals and medical technologies. Two instances—one involving Roche’s new class of HIV/AIDS drugs, the other an antitrust action brought against Boston Scientific Corporation for violations of an anticompetitive agreement pertaining to cardiac treatment technology—illustrate the salient effects that medical products can have on public welfare. This paper provides a summary of pat...

  7. Antitrust analysis of supermarkets: global concerns playing out in local markets

    Cotterill, Ronald W.


    This paper reviews the basic components of antitrust analysis for the supermarket industry, including definition of product and geographic markets and the measurement of market power. The analysis of prices and profits in a market structure context remains important, especially in countries such as Australia with very high supermarket concentration. Firm and brand level New Empirical Industrial Organisation models of demand and oligopoly pricing also provide insights for evaluating antitrust ...

  8. Joint ventures e a política antitruste brasileira

    Ana Paula Avellar


    Full Text Available As políticas de defesa da concorrência integram atualmente o conjunto fundamental de instituições necessárias à promoção do crescimento e a busca das sociedades por arranjos mais eficientes. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma análise da política antitruste brasileira concentrando-se no tratamento dado pelas autoridades à constituição de joint ventures. Na realização dessa tarefa, foram feitas revisões teóricas, constatações acerca dos procedimentos de autoridades internacionais sobre o assunto e um estudo empírico abordando casos julgados no Brasil entre os anos de 2002 e 2010. O resultado encontrado revela a inexistência de normatização específica para o tratamento das joint ventures no Brasil, culminando, assim, em uma relativa discricionariedade por parte dos órgãos do SBDC na análise desses atos.

  9. Kwanzaa Park: Discerning Principles of Kwanzaa through Participatory Action Research as a Basis for Culturally Relevant Teaching

    Hamer, Lynne; Chen, Wenting; Plasman, Kellie; Sheth, Susan; Yamazaki, Kasumi


    This article reports on the use of participatory action research (PAR) in a graduate teacher education research course. It presents data on how the Principles of Kwanzaa are exemplified in community activities in an African American community in Toledo, Ohio. Using a case study approach, the PAR focused on two questions: (1) In what ways do…

  10. McCormack v. National Collegiate Athletic Association: College Athletics Sanctions from an Antitrust and Civil Rights Perspective.

    Bhirdo, Kelly W.; And Others


    As a penalty for violations, the NCAA cancelled SMU's football program for 1987 and limited the 1988 season. An alumnus filed a class action alleging antitrust violations of price-fixing and group boycott. Issues of antitrust standing, violation and state action, and the court's handling of these issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  11. "Law v. National Collegiate Athletic Association": A Guide To How Courts Will Treat Future Antitrust Challenges to NCAA Regulations.

    Leduc, Marc R.


    Examines the application of antitrust law to National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rules and regulations through an analysis of the Tenth Circuit's decision in "Law v. National Collegiate Athletic Association." Suggests that the "Law" decision provides a useful framework for the analysis of future antitrust challenges to NCAA rules and…

  12. Relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4-7 years old children: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Asokan, Sharath; Surendran, Sharmila; Asokan, Sureetha; Nuvvula, Sivakumar


    According to Jean Piaget, children between 4 and 7 years of age are under the intuitive sub-stage of preoperational stage. Children possess specific characteristics based on their age. These characteristic cognitive principles have not been assessed in a dental setting. Research on the cognitive development of the child and its application to dental health care can enable pediatric dentists to better understand, approach and deliver improved quality of care to children. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of Piaget's cognitive principles among preoperational children. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 children, aged 4-7 years. Various characteristics, specific for this age group, such as egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using three tangible experiments and two interview questions. A comparison of the prevalence of each character was carried out among the children based on their age. The prevalence of egocentrism based on the three mountain experiment was 65% and the personal interview showed a prevalence of 58%. Centration was appreciated in 83% of the study sample. The beaker experiment and the interview question revealed a lack of conservation in 89% and 59% of the children, respectively. There was a gradual and uniform reduction in the prevalence of the characters with an increase in age. All the three features assessed were observed in most of the children between 4 and 7 years of age as described by Piaget and most of his principles still appear valid today.

  13. Recent developments in antitrust: challenges to medical autonomy.

    Miller, R D


    Once exemptions from antitrust scrutiny were removed, economic arguments have proved effective in dissolving the hegemony formerly held by psychiatrists over the provision of mental health services. A growing number of courts, legislatures, and insurance companies have been persuaded by psychologists that they can provide at least comparable services at lower costs than psychiatrists. The fact that psychotherapy is less obviously a "medical" procedure than surgery or other physical treatments has facilitated the establishment of the psychologists' position. After these gains, there are indications that other mental health providers will follow the paths established by psychologists. Cost-containment efforts in the mental health care industry, particularly through health maintenance organizations, have already led to increased utilization of nondoctoral providers for initial screening services, and psychiatrists have even filed countersuits alleging restraint of their trade through the exclusive use of lower-cost providers (State Medical Society of Wisconsin v. Schweiker et al., 1982). With the clear message from many courts and legislatures that profession will no longer serve to distinguish among mental health providers, it appears that the validity of psychiatrists' assertions that independent practice by nonmedical mental health professionals will result in lower quality of care for patients will be tested in the marketplace, with peer review and tort litigation serving as the barometer by which that quality will be measured. And, as other nonmedical professionals establish their credentials through licensure and recognition by consumers, we can expect that they will also seek recognition of their capacities to provide (and be reimbursed for) professional services through the courts. With this greater access to consumers of mental health care will also come, of course, greater public scrutiny and greater risk of malpractice liability.

  14. Mercantilism, Corporations, and Liberty: The Fallacies of ‘Lochnerian’ Antitrust

    James Rolph Edwards


    Full Text Available Progressive legal theorist Daniel Crane has argued that libertarians who believe that monopoly results from government intervention should accept antitrust law because the monopoly problem is a result of state government passage of General Incorporation Acts after the Civil War. The resulting corporate consolidation and control of industry necessitated federal antitrust law as a corrective. Crane has all of this wrong. State permission for incorporation was an ancient tool of mercantile grants of monopoly still in practice by state legislatures in the early 19th century, and the General Incorporation Acts were a major expression of a successful Jacksonian antimonopoly policy.

  15. Relevance of Piaget′s cognitive principles among 4-7 years old children: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Sharath Asokan


    Full Text Available Background: According to Jean Piaget, children between 4 and 7 years of age are under the intuitive sub-stage of preoperational stage. Children possess specific characteristics based on their age. These characteristic cognitive principles have not been assessed in a dental setting. Research on the cognitive development of the child and its application to dental health care can enable pediatric dentists to better understand, approach and deliver improved quality of care to children. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of Piaget′s cognitive principles among preoperational children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 children, aged 4-7 years. Various characteristics, specific for this age group, such as egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using three tangible experiments and two interview questions. A comparison of the prevalence of each character was carried out among the children based on their age. Results: The prevalence of egocentrism based on the three mountain experiment was 65% and the personal interview showed a prevalence of 58%. Centration was appreciated in 83% of the study sample. The beaker experiment and the interview question revealed a lack of conservation in 89% and 59% of the children, respectively. There was a gradual and uniform reduction in the prevalence of the characters with an increase in age. Conclusion: All the three features assessed were observed in most of the children between 4 and 7 years of age as described by Piaget and most of his principles still appear valid today.

  16. Equitable Principles and Relevant Circumstances Rule of Maritime Delimitation%论海洋划界中的衡平原则及相关情况规则



    The legal concept of“equity” came from domestic law,which was driven by the international judicial practice from the discourse system of common law to the field of maritime demarcation. The justices have practiced and developed the idea of equity,to develop the idea of equity from the equitable principle to determined equitable principle and relevant circum-stances rule. At present,the equitable principle to determined equitable principle and relevant circumstances rule, including many practical connotations, such as justice, circumstances, just delimitation procedure and method,is becoming a general customary international law. A right understanding and appropriate employment of this rule makes a great support China ’ s basic claim for the delimitation of the East China Sea.%“衡平”这个法律概念源于国内法,经国际司法实践的推动从普通法的话语体系进入到海洋划界领域。大法官们实践并发展了衡平理念,努力使衡平理念向衡平原则再向确定的衡平原则及相关情况规则演进。当前的衡平原则及相关情况规则包含了确保结果公正、考虑相关情况、遵循公平划界程序和划界方法等实践内涵,正在成为一般国际习惯法。我国应正确理解和适用该规则以支持我国在东海划界中的基本主张。

  17. Private regulation to appropriate value from design innovations : Implications for anti-trust policy

    Gemser, G; Jacobs, D


    Co-operative ventures among rivals are looked upon in general with suspicion by antitrust authorities. In this paper, we position ourselves in the school of thought that evaluates collusive behavior among rivals with the Schumpeterian concept of dynamic competition in mind rather than the concept of

  18. 76 FR 21894 - Proposed Statement of Antitrust Enforcement Policy Regarding Accountable Care Organizations...


    ... 83-87, 110-11. \\16\\ See, e.g., Christine A. Varney, Assistant Attorney Gen., Antitrust Div., U.S. Dep... may approve ACOs that meet certain eligibility criteria, including (1) A formal legal structure that... structure that includes clinical and administrative processes; (3) processes to promote...

  19. A dose of competition : EU antitrust law in the pharmaceuticals sector

    Sauter, W.; Hancher, Leigh


    In the pharmaceuticals sector there is an inherent tension between intellectual property rights and antitrust. This paper examines this tension over the past 10 years since modernisation of EU competition law. It looks at three types of problems: (i) restrictions on parallel imports; (ii) abuse of a

  20. Making inpatient medication reconciliation patient centered, clinically relevant and implementable: a consensus statement on key principles and necessary first steps.

    Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Halasyamani, Lakshmi; Greene, Jan; LaCivita, Cynthia; Stucky, Erin; Benjamin, Bona; Reid, William; Griffin, Frances A; Vaida, Allen J; Williams, Mark V


    Medication errors and adverse events caused by them are common during and after a hospitalization. The impact of these events on patient welfare and the financial burden, both to the patient and the healthcare system, are significant. In 2005, The Joint Commission put forth medication reconciliation as National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) No. 8 in an effort to minimize adverse events caused during these types of care transitions. However, the meaningful and systematic implementation of medication reconciliation, as expressed through NPSG No. 8, proved to be extraordinarily difficult for healthcare institutions around the country. Given the importance of accurate and complete medication reconciliation for patient safety occurring across the continuum of care, the Society of Hospital Medicine convened a stakeholder conference in 2009 to begin to identify and address: (1) barriers to implementation; (2) opportunities to identify best practices surrounding medication reconciliation; (3) the role of partnerships among traditional healthcare sites and nonclinical and other community-based organizations; and (4) metrics for measuring the processes involved in medication reconciliation and their impact on preventing harm to patients. The focus of the conference was oriented toward medication reconciliation for a hospitalized patient population; however, many of the themes and concepts derived would also apply to other care settings. This paper highlights the key domains needing to be addressed and suggests first steps toward doing so. An overarching principle derived at the conference is that medication reconciliation should not be viewed as an accreditation function. It must, first and foremost, be recognized as an important element of patient safety. From this principle, the participants identified ten key areas requiring further attention in order to move medication reconciliation toward this focus. 1 There is need for a uniformly acceptable and accepted definition of

  1. Chirality as a tool in nucleic acid recognition: principles and relevance in biotechnology and in medicinal chemistry.

    Corradini, Roberto; Sforza, Stefano; Tedeschi, Tullia; Marchelli, Rosangela


    The understanding of the interaction of chiral species with DNA or RNA is very important for the development of new tools in biology and of new drugs. Several cases in which chirality is a crucial point in determining the DNA binding mode are reviewed and discussed, with the aim of illustrating how chirality can be considered as a tool for improving the understanding of mechanisms and the effectiveness of nucleic acid recognition. The review is divided into two parts: the former describes examples of chiral species interacting with DNA: intercalators, metal complexes, and groove binders; the latter part is dedicated to chirality in DNA analogs, with discussion of phosphate stereochemistry and chirality of ribose substitutes, in particular of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) for which a number of works have been published recently dealing with the effect of chirality in DNA recognition. The discussion is intended to show how enantiomeric recognition originates at the molecular level, by exploiting the enormous progresses recently achieved in the field of structural characterization of complexes formed by nucleic acid with their ligands by crystallographic and spectroscopic methods. Examples of application of the DNA binding molecules described and the role of chirality in DNA recognition relevant for biotechnology or medicinal chemistry are reported.

  2. Obstacles and Interpretations pertinent to Theoretical Clarifications for Application of the Antitrust Law in Banking Industry%障碍与释疑:反垄断法适用于银行业的理论澄清



    法律适用的明晰是开展法律规制实践的必要前提。虽然反垄断法的适用障碍表现出法律效力的“自我否定”倾向,但是这种制度设计源于对行业发展规律和合理规则方法的尊重。伴随市场经济的发展和管制行业的开放浪潮,反垄断法适用障碍具有主客观两方面的消弭倾向,其适用范围不断扩张。市场化进程的推进使得作为垄断性行业的银行业逐渐回归市场竞争的发展本质,“新型”的反垄断规制和“传统”的金融规制也会因此产生此消彼长的态势转变。《反垄断法》适用于银行业的实然逻辑在于既有法律规则范畴下的解释合法性、银行业市场发展演变的行业合理性以及我国反垄断规制发展脉络下的可期待性。%The application of law should be specific, which is the necessary premise for implementation of legal rules. Although there are applicable obstacles in the antitrust law which tend to be“self-denial” of the legal effect, this systemic design aims to respect development principles of the industry and reasonable plan methods. With development of the market economy and open waves for supervisory industries, applicable obstacles in the antitrust law tend to disperse both subjectively and objectively with expanded scope of appli-cation. The market-oriented process gradually drives the banking industry of monopoly back to the nature of market competition. The “innovated” antitrust regulations and the “traditional” financial regulations will be transformed alternatively. The actual logic for the Antitrust Law to be applied in the banking industry lies in the reasonableness of interpretations in the present context of legal rules, the reasonableness of market evolve-ment of the banking industry and the expected path for development of antitrust rules in our country.


    Sage, William M


    This Article argues that recent calls for antitrust enforcement to protect health insurers from hospital and physician consolidation are incomplete. The principal obstacle to effective competition in health care is not that one or the other party has too much bargaining power, but that they have been buying and selling the wrong things. Vigorous antitrust enforcement will benefit health care consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. Because of regulation, what pass for products in health care are typically small process steps and isolated components that can be assigned a billing code, even if they do little to help patients. Instead of further entrenching weakly competitive parties engaged in artificial commerce, antitrust enforcers and regulators should work together to promote the sale of fully assembled products and services that can be warranted to consumers for performance and safety. As better products emerge through innovation and market entry, competition may finally succeed at lowering medical costs, increasing access to treatment, and improving quality of care.

  4. Physician Practice Consolidation Driven By Small Acquisitions, So Antitrust Agencies Have Few Tools To Intervene.

    Capps, Cory; Dranove, David; Ody, Christopher


    The growing concentration of physician markets throughout the United States has been raising antitrust concerns, yet the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission have challenged only a small number of mergers and acquisitions in this field. Using proprietary claims data from states collectively containing more than 12 percent of the US population, we found that 22 percent of physician markets were highly concentrated in 2013, according to federal merger guidelines. Most of the increases in physician practice size and market concentration resulted from numerous small transactions, rather than a few large transactions. Among highly concentrated markets that had increases large enough to raise antitrust concerns, only 28 percent experienced any individual acquisition that would have been presumed to be anticompetitive under federal merger guidelines. Furthermore, most acquisitions were below the dollar thresholds that would have required the parties to report the transaction to antitrust authorities. Under present mechanisms, federal authorities have only limited ability to counteract consolidation in most US physician markets. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Competição, colusão e antitruste: estimação da conduta competitiva de companhias aéreas

    Frederico Araujo Turolla


    Full Text Available A política antitruste tem sido cada vez mais considerada como relevante mecanismo de promoção do bem-estar econômico em mercados oligopolísticos recentemente liberalizados. O objetivo do presente trabalho é o de promover, por meio de modelo estrutural empírico, uma investigação de um suposto comportamento de coordenação de preços por parte das companhias aéreas na Ponte Aérea Rio de Janeiro - São Paulo. A metodologia utiliza um parâmetro de conduta, relacionado com a abordagem da Nova Organização Industrial Empírica, e assim concentra-se nos efeitos das práticas colusivas, tendo por isso a vantagem de não depender de evidências de conluio, como a existência de comunicação prévia entre as empresas envolvidas. Os resultados obtidos com a modelagem empírica utilizando-se um estimador em duas etapas (Two-Step Estimator indicam que não há bases para se rejeitar a hipótese de que as empresas mantiveram uma conduta não-cooperativa no mercado, ao contrário do que recentemente decidiram as autoridades de defesa da concorrência brasileiras.Antitrust policy has been increasingly considered as relevant mechanism of economic welfare promotion in recently liberalized oligopolistic markets. The purpose of this paper is to develop a structural model, in order to investigate alleged price coordination by the airlines on the air shuttle route Rio de Janeiro - São Paulo. By making use of a conduct parameter, based on the New Empirical Industrial Organization approach, it was possible to focus on the effects of the formation of an alleged cartel instead of relying on evidence of collusion such as previous communication between the involved companies. Results achieved using a Two-Step Estimator indicated no basis for rejecting the hypothesis that firms kept non-cooperative conduct in the market, contrary to recent decision by the Brazilian antitrust authorities.

  6. Relevance of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area to the Bering Strait Region: a Policy Analysis Using Resilience-Based Governance Principles

    Kevin Hillmer-Pegram


    Full Text Available The Bering Strait, separating the North American and Asian continents, is a productive social-ecological marine system that is vulnerable to increasing maritime traffic. In other parts of the world, the International Maritime Organization (IMO, an agency of the United Nations, has designated similar marine systems as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA in an effort to protect vulnerable resources from international shipping. We present information about the 14 existing PSSAs around the world and the political process by which designation is achieved. We examine specific characteristics of the Bering Strait system that are relevant to a PSSA application; these include vulnerable resources such as marine mammals and their contribution to the food and cultural security of indigenous communities, threats to these resources from shipping activities, and the viable mitigation options to reduce these threats. We then use five criteria derived from empirical research on resilience-based governance to analyze whether a PSSA designation would promote the resilience of marine mammal populations and indigenous communities to increased maritime activities. Despite the elusiveness of a definitive answer, we conclude that although the designation is not a perfect fit from a theoretical standpoint, it still holds the potential to benefit marine mammals and indigenous communities in terms of resilience. We conclude by identifying critical challenges and trade-offs that practitioners would need to negotiate when attempting to apply theoretical governance principles via real-world policy tools.


    Cristoforo Osti


    Full Text Available The note deals with the Pfizer case, where the pharmaceutical company was condemned for an abuse of dominant position relating to otherwise lawful patent practices which, in the Authority's representation, had delayed without merit entry by generic producers. The note takes this opportunity to comment on the system of judicial review of the Italian Competition Authority's antitrust decisions, comparing it with the equivalent system at the EU level. The note also reviews more in-depth the judgment with reference to both those areas where the Court decided to take a specific position and in those where it omitted doing so.

  8. Antitrust and hospital mergers: does the nonprofit form affect competitive substance?

    Greaney, Thomas L


    Following a string of government losses in cases challenging hospital mergers in federal court, the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice issued their report on competition in health care seeking to set the record straight on a number of issues that underlie the judiciary's resolution of these cases. One such issue is the import of nonprofit status for applying antitrust law. This essay describes antitrust's role in addressing the consolidation in the hospital sector and the subtle influence that the social function of the nonprofit hospital has had in merger litigation. Noting that the political and social context in which these institutions operate is never far from the surface, it takes issue with the proposal to cabin merger doctrine so as to deny the significance of nonprofit status in merger analysis. Given the dynamic change in the regulatory climate and heterogeneity of local health care markets, it advises courts not to accept the FTC's preemptive standard regarding the significance of hospitals' nonprofit status and keep open the possibility of fashioning new presumptive rules tailored to more complete economic accounts of nonprofit firm behavior.

  9. A Few Thoughts about ACO Antitrust Issues from a Local Enforcement Perspective.

    Foote, Kathleen E; Varanini, Emilio E


    Accountable care organizations (ACOs), joint ventures of commercial insurers and various groups of medical providers such as physicians, specialists, and hospitals whose development in California has been quickened by the Affordable Care Act, carry with them both promise and pitfalls. On the positive side of the ledger, ACOs may improve the quality of medical care even as they lower the costs of that care. On the negative side of the ledger, ACOs may lead to a gain in market power for their participations, allowing those participants to increase the prices they charge to commercial insurers. It is thus a key question for antitrust enforcers to figure out how to separate the sheep from the goats. This article, representing our personal views as state antitrust enforcers in the California attorney general's office, offers our reflection on a number of ACO articles and studies in this special issue through the prism of this key question and sets out a number of additional issues that we believe warrant study in conjunction with ACOs.

  10. Impact of the antitrust laws on the commercialization of solar heating and cooling

    Gross, J.


    Many energy industry observers and solar equipment producers view the commercialization of solar technologies as an opportunity to undermine the dominance now enjoyed by energy companies and electric utilities. Whether their hopes will be realized depends on Congress' posture towards interenergy diversification (which is currently permissive), DOE's spending practices (which have, in the past, been relatively insensitive to competitive consequences), and ultimately, the Supreme Court's willingness to aggressively enforce the antitrust laws (which is not unlikely, given recent holdings). Notwithstanding the legislative and administrative branches' tacit compliance with entrenched firms' involvement in the various solar energy submarkets, injured business persons and consumers (as well as the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission) have the opportunity to force the controversy onto the judiciary by bringing suit under the antitrust laws against companies allegedly displaying anti-competitive market practices. The interchangeability between end uses of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources creates opportunities and motives for market manipulation. Consequently, the potential of energy firms for facilitating solar technology development (due to technological knowledge, managerial expertise and capital resources) must be weighed against the possibility that their involvement will, in the long run, retard development. 356 references.

  11. Research summary on market power transmission among sides of two-sided market and antitrust policy in internet-based economy%互联网市场力边间传递效应及反垄断研究评述——基于双边市场视角



    In the case of the unilateral or bilateral monopoly,the Internet and other industries which have significant two-sided market characteristics recur to the cross-network externality and the incline price structure.The market power transmitted among sides forced the hypothetical monopolist test method and the demand alternative transfer rate method in the standard market situation to encounter unprecedented challenges.From four perspectives of the bilateral market theory basis,platform competition strategy design, relevant market definition in bilateral market and market force transmitted effect between edge,market power transmission between edge and antitrust research literatures were combed.It was found that theoretical research mostly concentrated platform vendor pricing in the situation of a given platform,and price structure design based on user types.Main application research literatures made prospect analysis of antitrust methods under standard market,which were applied to bilateral market.In fact,some improvement study of the standard methods also did not start from the feedback mechanism of bilateral market to explore a feasible way suitable for bilateral market characteristics.However,most of the literatures focused on the criticism on the limitations of SSNIP way,or just proposed applicability defects of the traditional principles and technologies of the relevant market definition in the bilateral market. Even if exploratory research was made on the principles of the relevant market definition,but assumptions were too harsh to achieve.Finally,the paper made newly-developing expectation of future research in this field,and presented several breakthrough points for key research.%具有显著双边市场特征的互联网产业,借助交叉网络外部性与倾斜的价格结构,使得市场力在边与边之间进行传递,标准市场情形下的相关市场界定方法遇到前所未有的挑战.从双边市场理论、平台竞争策略、双边市场中

  12. An inquiry into the causes for the multiple goals of the United States Antitrust Law from a historical perspective

    Han Tie


    It is not the case as Robert Bork claims that the U.S.antitrust law had only one goal-maximization of consumer welfare of efficiency-at the very beginning and should have been kept that way for its later development.Partly because of the fighting among different interest groups as well as spokesmen of different regions at the 51 st Congress,the Sherman Antitrust Act came out as a legislation with multiple goals,which were also taking shape under the influence of the Republican idea of balance of power,the liberal belief in property rights,the freedom of contract of classic economics,and the price theory of neoclassic economics.In more than a hundred years after that,the U.S.antitrust law has shifted the center of its goals as a result of the change of regulatory regimes with different emphases such as market function,economic stabilization,social concern,and economic efficiency during different periods.From a historical perspective,it is beyond dispute that the U.S.antitrust law has had multiple goals instead of only one.

  13. European Union Antitrust Enforcement against Cartels – Priorities in the Context of Globalisation of Business and Economic Crisis

    Iordache Lucia


    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and EU member states’ efforts to overcome the difficulties of the economic crisis, realising the full potential of the Single Market is the main component of a credible plan for higher and sustainable growth in the EU. Competition policy is the central pillar of the Single Market. A strong antitrust enforcement, especially fighting cartels and preventing the creation of new ones, is at the core of open and fair pan-European markets, higher productivity and growth across Europe. This article summarizes the activities of the European Commission for the investigation and sanctioning of companies involved in cartels, focusing on the effectiveness of preventive policy of the Commission in antitrust enforcement, reflected in particular by the evolution of the fines imposed in cartel cases. The analysis outlines how antitrust policy contributes to strengthening the single market and the EU economic growth and examines the challenges for the implementation of antitrust policy caused by the changes in the dynamics and complexity of the economic environment, at the national and international level.

  14. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.


    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... tariff structure modifies in a relatively non-uniform fashion the relationship between most...

  15. A regra-matriz de incidência antitruste para condutas anticoncorrenciais Content and logical structure of the article 20 of statute 8.884/94 (antitrust law

    Marcel Medon Santos


    Full Text Available Característica marcante do direitoda concorrência éa interdisciplinaridade. Nas análises de condutas lesivas à ordem econômica, existe a necessidade de aplicação do direito sobre um suporte fático geralmente composto por fatos econômicos. Por essa razão, a evolução doutrinária e jurisprudencial da matéria aponta um aprofundamento da utilização da ciência econômica na identificação jurídica das condutas anticoncorrenciais. No entanto, no atual estágio de evolução dos estudos da matéria no Brasil, verifica-se pouca clareza a respeito dos papéis e dos níveis de atuação de cada disciplina. Este artigo procurará facilitar essa visualização, dissecando a estrutura lógica da norma jurídica de direito concorrencial para repressão a condutas lesivas à ordem econômica, identificando os critérios que a compõem e permitindo, com isso, a localização dos termos que viabilizam a utilização do instrumental econômico na tarefa de dizer o direito nos casos de condutas anticoncorrenciais.A striking feature of antitrust law is its interdisciplinarity. The analysis of anticompetitive conducts generally requires the implementation of law on a factual support composed of economic facts. Therefore, the development of doctrine and case law indicates a deepening of the use of economic science in the legal identification of anticompetitive conducts. However, in the current stage of the studies in Brazil, there is little clarity regarding the roles of the law and the economics in this task. This article seeks to make this viewing easier, dissecting the logical structure of the brazilian antitrust legal standard for anticompetitive conduct, identifying the criteria that compose it, and allowing thereby the location of the terms that enable the use of economic instruments and legal prudence in the analysis of anticompetitive conducts.

  16. United States, Europe and Poland Different Stages of Antitrust Tying War in the New Economy

    Mariusz SWORA


    Full Text Available Microsoft’s case has led to heated debates, both in Europe and the United States of America, on the abuse of the dominant position and on the prohibition of tying. This discussion, both in Europe and the United States, is not finished. In this article the author presents legal implications of tying products in Europe and Poland and confronts them with the American approach to tying. In Poland, a country with a fast developing economy, with the growing level of foreign investments, discussion on monopolist practices under the conditions of a fast technological development1 has not really commenced yet. The problems of innovation and development of New Economy undertakings has gained new impetus following Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is a matter of time when the anti-trust law begins to show interest in them. There are some indications that this has already taken place. In the first part of this article the author briefly presents the discussion related to Microsoft III case in the United States insofar as it pertains to New Economy issues. The second and third parts address legal and political aspects of the Microsoft case in the European Union. In the fourth part legal aspects related to tying practices in Poland are presented. The article aims to show that instrumental and mechanical treatment of tying practices used by firms having the market power under conditions of technological progress is not proper. The problem of antitrust analysis of such practices is universal, as universal as these practices are. However, the problem is solved differently in the United States and in Europe and the reasons for such a different approach are rooted in the legal system and policy enforcement. Microsoft antitrust is global. After US and European cases, Korean competition authority has found Microsoft guilty of tying practices2. Regarding Microsoft problems with tying it is necessary to ask the question whether tying practices are

  17. Financial Integration and Tax Efficiency –Premises of Antitrust Policy and Economic Growth

    Mihai Mărginean


    Full Text Available The aims of this paper is to highlight the relationship between financial integration, taxation and anti-monopoly policy.We will focus on the arguments that come to strengthen that the effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy depends on effective measures in the area of taxation and hence the effects of taxation. Basically, in our analysis, we built a research that stressed the importance of interplay between the variables involved and the objective of economic growth. Noting that the public income and expeenditures (item that showing the importance of administration sector in the economy, depends on effective antitrust policy. For this analysis, we used data between 2008 and 2014 from the Competition Council and Eurostat.

  18. Alcuni recenti orientamenti interpretativi in tema di intersection fra PI e Antitrust

    Gustavo Ghidini


    Full Text Available Recent decisions of the European Court of Justice (Astrazeneca and Italian Antitrust Authority (Pfizer suggest that even the mere acquisition – as distinguished from the exercise – of a patent (as any other IPR may amount to a misuse if the achievement thereof runs in contrast with the rules governing its entitlement; and, if the patent owner enjoys a dominant position, such patent misuse may translate into an abuse of said position under art. 102 TFEU. Cases of this type must be clearly distinguished from those where the patent has been legitimately/regularly obtained, and its holder exercises the ‘institutionally excluding’ related power against unauthorized third parties. In such cases, antitrust law comes in not to enforce a properly ‘abusive’ conduct, but to correct an objective market situation which has grown ‘excessively’ foreclosing competition – and this, thanks to the very success of the patent. A situation, and a legal solution, which bears a strong analogy of rationale with the one envisaged by art. 2597 of Italian civil code. Thus, that of ‘abuse’ is a general normative tool that is used both to adjudicate anti-competitive torts (as in the first case and to regulate an objective ‘close to monopoly’ situation occurred without any wrongdoing by the patent holder.The distinction is confirmed by the consequences. On one side, as in Astrazeneca and Pfizer, the patent holders are sanctioned (and their patent or CCP is subject to annulment; no compensation whatever of the patentee is thinkable. On the other side, in the case of the regular acquisition and intrinsically legitimate exercise of the IPR competition law imposes a duty to license it on FRAND terms: i.e., with compensation of the patent holder, fully retains his entitlement. Here, self-evidently, the patent holder has behaved lawfully -otherwise a compensation would be unthinkable! The ‘abuse’ may properly occur ex post, i.e. only if the holder

  19. 50 Años de política antitrust comunitaria

    Fernando Diez Estella


    Full Text Available Este artículo se realiza, al cumplir 50 años del Tratado de Roma el balance de la que comenzó siendo la Comunidad Económica y que hoy es la Unión Europea, a partir del análisis de la política de defensa de la competencia o política «antitrust» comunitaria. Bajo este marco retomaron temas como los fines del derecho comunitario de la competencia, el proceso de modernización la relación entre el derecho interno y la legislación comunitaria. Por otra parte, reconsiderando los acuerdos, decisiones y prácticas concertadas entre empresas, los tipos de convenios, efectos, excepciones y procedimientos, así como otros temas de interés relacionados con la competencia de las empresas en el marco de la Legislación de la Unión Europea. Política antitrus, competencia,

  20. The new development of U. S. antitrust policy on patent pool and its impacts on China%美国专利池反垄断政策的新发展及其对我国的影响



    以飞利浦CD—R专利池案的最终裁决以及美国司法部和联邦贸易委员会联合发布的《反垄断执法与知识产权:促进创新与竞争》报告为标志,美国针对专利池的反垄断政策近年来开始由相对宽松变得更为宽容,甚至走向纵容,不仅摒弃了国际公认的“公平、合理、非歧视”的专利许可原则,对专利费率不再加以限制,而且允许专利池进行强制性一揽子许可,在专利池反垄断审查中仅采“合理原则”而排除适用“当然违法原则”。此外,美国对于专利池中非必要专利的认定标准也发生了变化。受此影响,作为国际专利池的主要许可对象,我国企业将更难抵御专利池的专利费盘剥和强制性一揽子许可,在美国发起专利池反垄断诉讼的难度将进一步增大。这一影响在我国无锡多媒体诉DVD3C专利池一案在美国屡遭驳回的裁决结果中已初现端倪,我国加快建立和完善符合本国利益的专利池反垄断制度显得更为紧迫。%In recent years, the antitrust policy on patent pool of the United States is becoming looser ever than before, when the policy has become more tolerant since 1995. The United States not only abandon the internationally recognized principle of "fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory" (FRAND), and impose no restrictions on licensing royalty rates of patent pool, but also a- gree compulsory package licensing and only apply "rule of reason" and exclude "per se role" in the antitrust review of patent pooh. In addition, the U.S. courts have changed the identification rule of "non - essential patent" in the pool. Affected by a- bove sitution, as the major international patent lx~ol licensees, Chinese enterprises will be more difficult to resist the patent pool royalty exploitation and compulsory package licensing. The difficulty for filing an antitrust lawsuit in U.S. will also be ine~ase. The

  1. A economia das firmas cooperadas e a análise antitruste*

    Luiz A. Esteves


    Full Text Available Resumo A literatura econômica tem despendido décadas de esforço analítico para fornecer evidências teóricas e empíricas acerca das diferenças de comportamento entre as firmas gerenciadas pelo capital (firmas capitalistas convencionais e firmas gerenciadas pelo trabalho (inclui as cooperativas e associações de profissionais, principalmente no que diz respeito aos seus objetivos. As firmas capitalistas convencionais objetivam a maximização dos lucros, enquanto que as firmas cooperadas objetivam a estabilidade do emprego e do produto. A política antitruste tem replicado o mesmo tratamento despendido às firmas capitalistas convencionais para os casos envolvendo as firmas cooperadas. Tal decisão pode aumentar a probabilidade de ocorrências de erros do tipo I e do tipo II. Esse problema se torna menor quando os casos envolvem "falsas cooperativas". Em termos de política pública, a conclusão do presente artigo é de que uma concentração ou coordenação entre cooperados de fato ou profissionais não é, per se, condição necessária e suficiente para causar dano concorrencial. As especificidades destes tipos de organizações demandam análise específica e a aplicação da regra da razão. Finalmente, o artigo fornece uma proposta de filtro para distinção entre firmas cooperadas de fato e de cartéis disfarçados de cooperativas.

  2. Principles of nanomagnetism

    Guimarães, Alberto P


    This is the first monograph on nanomagnetism. It emphasizes general principles and mechanisms relevant to the understanding of the intriguing properties of nanomagnetic objects including thin films, nanoparticles, nanowires, nanodisks and nanorings.

  3. Brief Review on the Relevance Theory

    龚腾龙; 阿勒腾


    Relevance theory has had an impact on the study in various disciplines including linguistics,literature and so on. This paper gives a brief review of the relevance theory and two principles of relevance.

  4. Regionalism as a Principle for Curriculum Relevance.

    Blunt, R. J. S.


    Examines the rhetoric of a curriculum development proposal at the University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa) which uses the concept of regionalism as a principal for curriculum development. The regionalist approach is then examined in light of two different approaches to the function of the university. It is concluded that postmodern universities…

  5. Regionalism as a Principle for Curriculum Relevance.

    Blunt, R. J. S.


    Examines the rhetoric of a curriculum development proposal at the University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa) which uses the concept of regionalism as a principal for curriculum development. The regionalist approach is then examined in light of two different approaches to the function of the university. It is concluded that postmodern universities…

  6. Ethics Today: Are Our Principles Still Relevant?

    Garnar, Martin


    In 1939 technological advances included the first handheld electric slicing knife, the first mass-produced helicopter, and the first transmission of a picture via a cable system (Science and Technology 2001). That year also saw the first Code of Ethics adopted by the American Library Association (ALA OIF 2010, 311). Can an ethical code first…

  7. Fuzziness and Relevance Theory

    Grace Qiao Zhang


    This paper investigates how the phenomenon of fuzzy language, such as `many' in `Mary has many friends', can be explained by Relevance Theory. It is concluded that fuzzy language use conforms with optimal relevance in that it can achieve the greatest positive effect with the least processing effort. It is the communicators themselves who decide whether or not optimal relevance is achieved, rather than the language form (fuzzy or non-fuzzy) used. People can skillfully adjust the deployment of different language forms or choose appropriate interpretations to suit different situations and communication needs. However, there are two challenges to RT: a. to extend its theory from individual relevance to group relevance; b. to embrace cultural considerations (because when relevance principles and cultural protocols are in conflict, the latter tends to prevail).

  8. Persistent left superior vena cava: review of the literature, clinical implications, and relevance of alterations in thoracic central venous anatomy as pertaining to the general principles of central venous access device placement and venography in cancer patients.

    Povoski, Stephen P; Khabiri, Hooman


    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) represents the most common congenital venous anomaly of the thoracic systemic venous return, occurring in 0.3% to 0.5% of individuals in the general population, and in up to 12% of individuals with other documented congential heart abnormalities. In this regard, there is very little in the literature that specifically addresses the potential importance of the incidental finding of PLSVC to surgeons, interventional radiologists, and other physicians actively involved in central venous access device placement in cancer patients. In the current review, we have attempted to comprehensively evaluate the available literature regarding PLSVC. Additionally, we have discussed the clinical implications and relevance of such congenital aberrancies, as well as of treatment-induced or disease-induced alterations in the anatomy of the thoracic central venous system, as they pertain to the general principles of successful placement of central venous access devices in cancer patients. Specifically regarding PLSVC, it is critical to recognize its presence during attempted central venous access device placement and to fully characterize the pattern of cardiac venous return (i.e., to the right atrium or to the left atrium) in any patient suspected of PLSVC prior to initiation of use of their central venous access device.

  9. Imunidade antitruste às Ações Governamentais no contexto da desregulação do setor de telecomunicações: uma análise a partir do julgamento do caso VU-M pelo CADE

    Deborah Batista Caixeta


    Full Text Available Propósito – O objetivo deste ensaio é examinar a postura adotada pelo CADE com relação às medidas regulatórias adotadas pela ANATEL na fixação do valor de interconexão de rede (VU-M, sob a perspectiva da State Action Doctrine no contexto da desregulação do setor de telecomunicações. Metodologia/abordagem/design – O texto propõe uma abordagem relativa às teorias de desregulação do setor de telecomunicações e o impacto que as decisões da autoridade antitruste de isenção concorrencial possuem neste movimento, a partir da análise do caso VU-M recentemente julgado pelo CADE. Resultados – A concessão de isenções antitruste pelo CADE ainda parece seguir a tradicional aplicação da State Action Doctrine centrada na teoria regulatória do interesse público e, consequentemente, a extrema confiança na atuação da agência acaba dificultando o processo de desregulação, principalmente no setor de telecomunicações, notadamente marcado pela antiga estrutura regulatória oligopolista. Implicações práticas – Busca-se, por meio desta análise crítica, oferecer uma abordagem introdutória que possa ser aplicada posteriormente para rediscutir os limites de aplicação da lei de defesa da concorrência a situações acobertadas por medidas regulatórias setoriais. Originalidade/relevância do texto – O ensaio identifica os elementos que se aplicam na dinâmica de interação entre regulação concorrencial e a regulação setorial, a ponto de permitir que a tradicional estrutura de aplicação das normas de concorrência a estes setores possa ser redesenhada para incorporar os objetivos perseguidos pelo movimento de desregulação, no caso, do setor de telecomunicações.

  10. Antitrust Analysis of Institutional Arrangements for Professional Sports Leagues%职业体育联盟制度安排的反垄断法分析



    The professional sports league originated in Western countries. With the further deepening of the market economy, a number of institutional arrangements for professional sports leagues are inevitable regulated by anti-trust law, therefore, institutional arrangements for professional sports league must consider antitrust issue, and consider the differences of institutional environment of living, trying to avoid the antitrust litigation of professional sports leagues.%职业体育联盟起源于西方发达国家,随着市场经济的进一步深入,职业体育联盟的一些制度安排不可避免的受到反垄断法的规制,所以,职业体育联盟制度安排必须考虑反垄断法问题,考虑职业体育联盟生存的制度环境的差异性,尽量规避职业体育联盟的反垄断诉讼.

  11. Causality Principle

    Chi, Do Minh


    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  12. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Pinsky, Paul F


    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad


    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  14. Teoria da adequação econômica da conduta: significado econômico da conduta em face da tutela penal antitruste

    Luiz da Silva, Ivan


    Essa tese tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento da teoria da adequação econômica da conduta no direito penal econômico. Vale-se de uma abordagem interdisciplinar abrangendo a Economia, o direito econômico e o direito penal. Para alcançar o desiderato a investigação analisou a intervenção do direito penal em face da atividade econômica e, em especial, os fundamentos da tutela penal antitruste, para fins de estabelecer os contornos teóricos necessários à aplicação das premissas fund...

  15. Relevance-driven Pragmatic Inferences



    Relevance theory, an inferential approach to pragmatics, claims that the hearer is expected to pick out the input of op-timal relevance from a mass of alternative inputs produced by the speaker in order to interpret the speaker ’s intentions. The de-gree of the relevance of an input can be assessed in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort. The input of optimal rele-vance is the one yielding the greatest positive cognitive effect and requiring the least processing effort. This paper attempts to as-sess the degrees of the relevance of a mass of alternative inputs produced by an imaginary speaker from the perspective of her cor-responding hearer in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort with a view to justifying the feasibility of the principle of relevance in pragmatic inferences.

  16. Principles of Mobile Communication

    Stüber, Gordon L


    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  17. Principles of mobile communication

    Stüber, Gordon L


    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  18. Variational principles

    Moiseiwitsch, B L


    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha


    Hadrian Simonetti


    Full Text Available In the effort of reconcile protection of competition and intellectual property rights, with particular reference to the pharmaceutical sector, the Pfizer case deals with legitimate patent instrumentally exercised for a purpose other than that for which it was granted. What would be a legitimate administrative measure under Italian Patent Law, combined with other conducts, in the context of a complex strategy designed to artificially delay the entry of new generic drugs competitors, is considered an excluding abuse, violating antitrust rules. If the Italian Competition Authority (ICA explicitly referred to the abuse of regulatory procedure theory applied by the EU Commission in AstraZeneca case and endorsed by ECJ, the Council of State judgment, applying as in the Coop Estense case the broader and disputed category of the “abuse of right”, represents a further development in antitrust enforcement and is expected to bring back as central issue the topic of the judicial review on the exercise of antitrust power and, with it, the recurring fear that the guarantees of defence cannot always be sufficient. The article examines this new frontier of antitrust law, with specific regard to the case of abuse of dominant position by abusing of regulations and administrative measure, showing the different remedies at disposal of the Italian Competition Authority.

  20. Genetic principles.

    Abuelo, D


    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  1. Cosmological principle

    Wesson, P.S.


    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  2. Anti-Trust



    In 1993, China promulgated a law against unfair competition, which has served as a basic package of rules for the nation to maintain the normal order of market competition. Though there are clauses and articles in other existing laws that concern policies for competition, no exclusive law against monopolistic competition has yet been hammered out.

  3. N掺杂Cu_2O薄膜的光学性质及第一性原理分析%Optical properties of N-doped Cu_2O films and relevant analysis with first-principles calculations

    濮春英; 李洪婧; 唐鑫; 张庆瑜


    N-doped Cu_2O films are deposited at different temperatures by sputtering a CuO target in the mixture of Ar and N2.By the analysis of transmission spectra,it is found that the N-doped Cu_2O films are changed into a direct allowed band-gap semiconductor and the optical band gap energy is enlarged to 2.52±0.03 eV for the films deposited at different temperatures.The first-principles calculations indicate that the energy band gap increase by 25%,which is in good agreement with the experimental result.The change from a direct forbidden band-gap transition to a direct allowed band-gap transition can be attributed to the occupation of 2p electrons of N at the top of valence band in the N-doped Cu_2O film.%采用射频磁控溅射技术,在不同温度下制备了N掺杂Cu_2O薄膜.透射光谱分析发现,N掺杂导致Cu_2O成为允许的带隙直接跃迁半导体,并使Cu_2O的光学禁带宽度增加.不同温度下沉积的薄膜光学禁带宽度E_g=2.52±0.03 eV.第一性原理计算表明,N掺杂导致Cu_2O的禁带宽度增加了约25%,主要与价带顶下移和导带底上移有关,与实验报道基本符合.N的2p电子态分布不同于O原子,在价带顶附近具有较大的态密度是N掺杂Cu_2O变成允许的带隙直接跃迁半导体的根本原因.

  4. Governança corporativa na América Latina: a relevância dos princípios da OCDE na integridade dos conselhos e autonomia dos conselheiros Corporate governance in Latin America: the relevance of OECD principles for the board's integrity and directors' independence

    Carlos Henrique Kitagawa


    Full Text Available Os conselhos de administração são caracterizados como um importante elemento da boa governança corporativa. Nesse sentido, este trabalho busca identificar as práticas de governança das empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, OCDE, para essa região (Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile. Dentre os sete princípios por ela recomendados para a América Latina, este trabalho tem como foco apenas o quinto princípio, que trata das "Responsabilidades do Conselho de Administração", mais especificadamente das recomendações com respeito à "Integridade dos Conselhos e Autonomia dos Conselheiros". O principal objetivo é de verificar o posicionamento das empresas em relação às responsabilidades e a supervisão dos administradores como forma de garantir o controle e os resultados esperados pelos acionistas. Para atingir esse objetivo, formulou-se um questionário que expressa as principais recomendações de governança da OCDE para a América Latina e confrontou-se com as legislações desses quatro países e com as práticas societárias das empresas da amostra, de modo a identificar procedimentos adicionais em relação aos exigidos pela legislação. Os resultados evidenciam que o México é o país com maior índice de atendimento às recomendações da OCDE, seguido do Brasil, Argentina e Chile. Os principais pontos fracos, de modo geral, são a ausência de comitês específicos, compostos, no mínimo, por maioria de conselheiros independentes, e proibições de práticas como reuniões prévias ou instruções de voto dadas por acionistas controladores a conselheiros.Boards of directors are characterized as important elements for good corporate governance. In this regard, the present study aims to associate governance practices of Latin American companies to the principles recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, for

  5. Gamescape Principles

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas


    This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framewo...... as to understand how learners posses or can develop broader critical media literacies and visual digital literacies in education.......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...

  6. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven


    , socio-cognitive and affective relevance. It then shows, at the hand of examples, why relevance is important from a user perspective in the extra-lexicographical pre- and post-consultation phases and in the intra-lexicographical consultation phase. It defines an additional type of subjective relevance...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  7. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  8. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Ni, W.-T.


    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  9. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar


    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  10. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana


    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  11. Deep learning relevance

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper


    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared......What if Information Retrieval (IR) systems did not just retrieve relevant information that is stored in their indices, but could also "understand" it and synthesise it into a single document? We present a preliminary study that makes a first step towards answering this question. Given a query, we...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  12. Perceptions of document relevance

    Peter eBruza


    Full Text Available This article presents a study of how humans perceive the relevance of documents.Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc., however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact.We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine.The order of the judgement was controlled.For those judgements exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives.Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance.

  13. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min


    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  14. Principles of project management


    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  15. Making Science Relevant

    Eick, Charles; Deutsch, Bill; Fuller, Jennifer; Scott, Fletcher


    Science teachers are always looking for ways to demonstrate the relevance of science to students. By connecting science learning to important societal issues, teachers can motivate students to both enjoy and engage in relevant science (Bennet, Lubben, and Hogarth 2007). To develop that connection, teachers can help students take an active role in…

  16. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    Plumb, Robert C.


    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  17. Why Art Education Lacks Social Relevance: A Contextual Analysis.

    Bersson, Robert


    This article examines why both the individual-centered and discipline-centered approaches to art education lack social relevance. Maintains that the lack of a social orientation in these two approaches is due to our social context and our capitalistic system. Proposes that democratic principles serve as the basis of a socially relevant,…

  18. Lubrication Chemistry Viewed from DFT-Based Concepts and Electronic Structural Principles

    Jin Yuansheng; Yang He; Li Shenghua


    Abstract: Fundamental molecular issues in lubrication chemistry were reviewed under categories of solution chemistry, contact chemistry and tribochemistry. By introducing the Density Functional Theory(DFT)-derived chemical reactivity parameters (chemical potential, electronegativity, hardness, softness and Fukui function) and related electronic structural principles (electronegativity equalization principle, hard-soft acid-base principle, and maximum hardness principle), their relevancy to lu...

  19. Criticisms of Relevance Theory

    尚静; 孟晔; 焦丽芳


    This paper briefly introduces first the notion of Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory. Then, the motivation of S & W putting forward their RT is also mentioned. Secondly, the paper gives some details about the methodology of RT, in which ostensive-inferential communication, context and optimal relevance are highlighted. Thirdly, the paper focuses on the criticisms of RT from different areas of research on human language and communication. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion on the great importance of RT in pragmatics.

  20. Probing Feasibility of Antitrust Law to China's Petroleum Industry%我国石油行业适用反垄断法的可行性探讨

    丁国峰; 刘红


    石油行业易利用手中的资源垄断权和行业管制权实施排除、限制竞争行为,石油业的反垄断呼声日益高涨。反垄断法的合理适用有利于改善石油业的管理体制,推动石油业的产业化、市场化经营,促进石油业的安全、高效、自由发展,强化对石油消费者利益的保护,以及实现石油业对我国整体社会福利的提升等方面都具有重要作用。因此,应突破石油业垄断行为规制的困境,明确界定我国石油行业适用反垄断法的具体范围与环节。%The Petroleuma industry is apt to take advantage of its rights of resources monopoly and industry control to eliminate or restrict competition, so antitrust in the oil industry is growing louder and louder. Reasonable application of the antitrust laws to the oil industry has several advantages: first, it can improve the management system of the oil industry second, it can promote the industrialization, and market-oriented operation of the oil industry. Then, it can promote the safe, efficient and free development of this industry, and strengthen the protection of the interests of oil consumers. At last, it also helps to realize the role the oil industry in improving China's overall social welfare. Therefore, we should break the plight of the regulation of monopolistic behavior in the oil industry, and clearly define the specific scope and aspects in the application of the Antitrust Law in China's oil industry.

  1. Biomechanics principles and practices

    Peterson, Donald R


    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  2. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

    Busch, Paul; Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka


    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and...

  3. Fusion research principles

    Dolan, Thomas James


    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  4. Database principles programming performance

    O'Neil, Patrick


    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  5. Principles of private law

    Andraško, Richard


    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  6. The Limits to Relevance

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.


    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.


    Morar Ioan Dan


    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  8. 77 FR 38831 - Antitrust Division


    ...--Bluetooth Sig, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 30, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Bluetooth SIG, Inc. has... the Delaware non-stock, non-profit standards development organization is Bluetooth SIG, Inc.,...

  9. 76 FR 63659 - Antitrust Division


    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Network Centric Operations Industry Consortium, Inc. Notice... Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Network Centric Operations... Analyses, Alexandria, VA; Center for Netcentric Product Research, East Hartford, CT; Vector Planning...

  10. 75 FR 70031 - Antitrust Division


    ... the Federal Trade Commission disclosing (1) the identities of the parties to the venture and (2) the.... Pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act, the identities of the parties to the venture are: American Airlines... branding program based upon distinctive trademarks to create high customer awareness of, demand for, and...

  11. The Relevance of Literature.

    Dunham, L. L.


    The "legacy" of the humanities is discussed in terms of relevance, involvement, and other philosophical considerations. Reasons for studying foreign literature in language classes are developed in the article. Comment is also made on attitudes and ideas culled from the writings of Clifton Fadiman, Jean Paul Sartre, and James Baldwin. (RL)

  12. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan


    . We prove that computation of this model is NP-hard. For RESCU, we propose an approximative solution that shows high accuracy with respect to our relevance model. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real world data show that RESCU successfully reduces the result to manageable sizes. It reliably...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  13. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Ma, Lia


    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  14. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan;


    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace c...

  15. Principles of snow hydrology

    DeWalle, David R; Rango, Albert


    ... Hydrology describes the factors that control the accumulation, melting, and runoff of water from seasonal snowpacks over the surface of the earth. The book addresses not only the basic principles governing snow in the hydrologic cycle, but also the latest applications of remote sensing, and principles applicable to modelling streamflow from snowmelt across lar...

  16. Great Principles of Computing

    Denning, Peter J.


    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  17. Basic principle of superconductivity

    De Cao, Tian


    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  18. Dynamic sealing principles

    Zuk, J.


    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  19. Variational principles in physics

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis


    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  20. Equivalence principles exotica



    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  1. Software citation principles

    Arfon M. Smith


    Full Text Available Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.

  2. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Mobile Learning

    Tanya Elias


    Full Text Available The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile devices. The problems and opportunities of mobile learning are discussed as is the need for educators to focus on content design issues rather than on searching for the next new technology.

  3. Signal Enhancement as Minimization of Relevant Information Loss

    Geiger, Bernhard C


    We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the relevant information is concentrated on a lower-dimensional subspace of the input space.

  4. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Matthias Blüher


    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Korrek, volledig, relevant

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus


    as detrimental to the status of a dictionary as a container of linguistic knowledge. This paper shows that, from a lexicographic perspective, such a distinction is not relevant. What is important is that definitions should contain information that is relevant to and needed by the target users of that specific......In explanatory dictionaries, both general language dictionaries and dictionaries dealing with languages for special purposes, the lexicographic definition is an important item to present the meaning of a given lemma. Due to a strong linguistic bias, resulting from an approach prevalent in the early...... phases of the development of theoretical lexicography, a distinction is often made between encyclopaedic information and semantic information in dictionary definitions, and dictionaries had often been criticized when their definitions were dominated by an encyclopaedic approach. This used to be seen...

  6. Information Needs/Relevance

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.


    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  7. The relevance of universal jurisdiction in the complementarity regime

    Kvarme, Sigbjørn


    This study examines the relevance universal jurisdiction can have in the ICC complementarity regime. It argues that universal jurisdiction is an underdeveloped principle for exercising jurisdiction, and that the shortcomings of the principle therefore provide it to be exercised with restraint. However, this study also argues that there is a place for universal jurisdiction in those situations where the jurisdiction of the ICC leaves an impunity gap.

  8. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime


    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  9. Principles of dynamics

    Hill, Rodney


    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  10. Biomedical engineering principles

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N


    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  11. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    Garland, DJ


    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  12. Developing principles of growth

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  13. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine.

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco


    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease.

  14. The nullum crimen sine iure principle in contemporary International Law

    Hector Olásolo Alonso


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution and current content of the nullum crimen sine iure principle in international law. It analyses the development of the nullum crimen principle from its definition as a principle of justice at the end of Second World War, to its current definition as an individual right imposing a limitation upon States’ sovereignty. The article also explains that, nowadays, the nullum cri- men principle requires for the relevant conduct to be a crime at the time of its com- mission, according to any of the sources of criminal law in the relevant national or international legal system. No written law is necessarily required. As a result, accessibility and foreseability are the main elements of the nullum crimen principle in current international law.

  15. Bateman's principle and immunity

    Jens Rolff


    .... This alternative is based on Bateman's principle, that males gain fitness by increasing their mating success whilst females increase fitness through longevity because their reproductive effort is much higher...

  16. The Symmetry Principle

    Joe Rosen


    Full Text Available Abstract: The symmetry principle is described in this paper. The full details are given in the book: J. Rosen, Symmetry in Science: An Introduction to the General Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.

  17. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Kires, Marian


    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  18. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Kires, Marian


    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Principles Scientifiques, Principes Philosophiques

    Gilles-Gaston Granger


    Full Text Available A principle is a starting point of departure as well as a rule. In science principles are either alleged evident rules or generalizations of already accepted laws, or formal determinations for objects in a given domain. Thus two problems arise: first, does their nature have a conventional character? and sencond, what kind of truth is to be assigned to them. In philosophy principles are taken as a method of thinking as well as fundamental experiences. Even though they are points of departure, their true meaning is known only after a philosophical job is done. Thus, paradoxically enough, we can say that in both science and philosophy a principle is at the same time in the begining and in the end.

  20. Heisenberg's observability principle

    Wolff, JE


    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper ‘Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations’ marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be ‘founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable’. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpr...

  1. Electrical and electronic principles

    Knight, S A


    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  2. Electrical and electronic principles

    Knight, SA


    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  3. Ternary optical computer principle

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天


    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.



    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  5. Microwave system engineering principles

    Raff, Samuel J


    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  6. Microprocessors principles and applications

    Debenham, Michael J


    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  7. Generalized uncertainty principles

    Machluf, Ronny


    The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reason...

  8. Chronobiology: relevance for tuberculosis.

    Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Azeredo Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy


    Despite the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this disease remains one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several risk factors are well-known, such poverty, HIV infection, and poor nutrition, among others. However, some issues that may influence tuberculosis warrant further investigation. In particular, the chronobiological aspects related to tuberculosis have garnered limited attention. In general, the interface between tuberculosis and chronobiology is manifested in four ways: variations in vitamin D bioavailability, winter conditions, associated infections, and circannual oscillations of lymphocytes activity. Moreover, tuberculosis is related to the following chronobiological factors: seasonality, latitude, photoperiod and radiation. Despite the relevance of these topics, the relationship between them has been weakly reviewed. This review aims to synthesize the studies regarding the association between tuberculosis and chronobiology, as well as urge critical discussion and highlight its applicability to health policies for tuberculosis.

  9. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.


    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... at the nursing home. Relevant cost principles are set forth in the Office of Management and...


    Elena ANGHEL


    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  11. A Principle of Intentionality

    Turner, Charles K.


    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  12. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  13. Principles of musical acoustics

    Hartmann, William M


    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  14. On Figures of speech, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    于永丽; 朱丽萍


    To accomplish the communication efficiently and successfully, the people usually follow some certain principle in conversation. Grice named this principle as the cooperative principle. The politeness principle that Leech has developed can explain some phenomenon from a different perspective that the cooperative principle cannot. Nowadays, the use of the figures of speech is becoming more and more often. What we should pay attention to is the fact that the use of the figures of speech violates the cooperative principle, while following the politeness principle to a certain extent. And this paper aims to discuss the relationship among them, to provide some information for the readers.

  15. Mechanical engineering principles

    Bird, John


    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  16. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Misery, Laurent


    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental.

  17. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    Bird, J O


    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  18. Principles of quantum electronics

    Marcuse, Dietrich


    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  19. Principles of engineering geology

    Attewell, P.B.; Farmer, I.W.


    This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application to design. The combination of rigorous and detailed discussion of theory and well-illustrated examples made the book an indispensable reference source and ideal course book for both geologists and civil engineers.

  20. Principles of statistics

    Bulmer, M G


    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  1. Application of Relevance Translation Theory in Humor Translation



    This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.

  2. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  3. Principles of Proper Validation

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul


    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  4. On Weak Markov's Principle

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm


    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  5. The traveltime holographic principle

    Huang, Y.


    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  6. Principles of Protocol Design

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  7. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P


    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  8. Geoethics and its principles

    Szabó Štefan


    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing belong to the activities with a mostly negative impact on the environment. GAIA hypothesis should help us to understand the basic mechanisms of planetary homeostasis, influenced by human activities. Principles of the geoethics should help to respect the limits of disturbances and loading capacity of ecosystems, which have the essential importance for our survival.

  9. Principles of economics textbooks

    Madsen, Poul Thøis


    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  10. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M


    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  11. Politeness Principle and Intercultural Communication



    There are many potential problems in intercultural communications. Politeness principle is very important in helping improving intercultural communications. But different cultures have various standard of politeness principle. This essay discusses the very different points of view on politeness principle between Chinese people and westerners, and studies how the context and settings affect the practice of politeness principle. At the ending of the essay, the guiding significance of politeness principle is p...




    Full Text Available The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principles cannot be applied to bankruptcy procedures (accounting principle on accrual basis, principle of business continuity, independence principle, intangibility principle and the principle of substance over form, some are available only in certain situations (method consistency principle and the prudence principle and others do not apply to bankruptcy (the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; noncompensation principle and the principle of threshold significance.

  13. Principles of photonics

    Liu, Jia-Ming


    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  14. Principles of geodynamics

    Scheidegger, Adrian E


    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  15. Principles of Fourier analysis

    Howell, Kenneth B


    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  16. Principles of systems science

    Mobus, George E


    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  17. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher


    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  18. Principles of harmonic analysis

    Deitmar, Anton


    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  19. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher


    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  20. Principles of mathematical modeling

    Dym, Clive


    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  1. Examining Different Regions of Relevance: From Highly Relevant to Not Relevant.

    Spink, Amanda; Greisdorf, Howard; Bateman, Judy


    Proposes a useful concept of relevance as a relationship and an effect on the movement of a user through the iterative stages of their information seeking process, and that users' relevance judgments can be plotted on a Three-Dimensional Spatial Model of Relevance Level, Degree and Time. Discusses implications for the development of information…

  2. Computational principles of memory.

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila


    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory.

  3. Principles of artificial intelligence

    Nilsson, Nils J


    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  4. A correspondence principle

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.


    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  5. The Principle of Proportionality

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper


    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  6. The Principle of Proportionality

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper


    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  7. Principles of electrical safety

    Sutherland, Peter E


    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  8. On Rayleigh's Principle

    Andersen, Kurt Munk


    Rayleigh's principle expresses that the smallest eigenvalue of a regular Sturm-Liouville problem with regular boundary conditions is the minimum value of a certain functional, the so called Rayleigh's quotient, and that this value is attained at the corresponding eigenfunctions only. This can...... be proved by means of more advanced methods. However, it turns out that there is an elementary proof, which is presented in the report....


    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter


    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....


    Eduard IONESCU


    Full Text Available Change management process needs to define certain principles and apply them effectively in order to achieve the best possible results. Understanding how certain members of the organization react to change will greatly influence how they will cope with the implementation of change, how their work will be productive during and after the implementation of change and that will be the result the end of the process.


    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter


    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  12. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D


    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.


    Sonja Jovanovac


    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  14. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    J Verschuuren


    . Principles can become rules over time, when directly applicable in concrete cases. The nine functions are following: 1. principles can enhance the normative power of statutory rules; 2. principles can help to fill in open or unclear statutory rules; 3. principles can increase legal certainty and enhance the legitimacy of decision-making; 4. principles form the basis for new statutory rules; 5. principles give guidance to self-regulation; 6. principles create flexibility in the law; 7. principles help to implement international obligations; 8. principles stimulate the integration of environmental considerations into other policy fields; 9. principles are necessary to pursue an ideal. Principles thus influence the meaning of a rule but, at the same time, the application of a rule in a concrete case gives the relevant principle a clearer meaning than the principle has on its own. This goes for rules in various legal documents, such as acts and regulations, as well as transnational regulations, and self regulatory rules. Principles thus are dynamic beacons in a wild ocean of ever changing concrete environmental rules. Although the underlying ideal of sustainable development has a rather anthropocentric character, the danger of influencing environmental legal principles (and through principles legal rules and policies as well in a highly anthropocentric way is small. Firstly, because man is an inseparable part of nature and is very much dependent on balanced and intact ecosystems, especially when future generations are considered as well. Secondly, there is a moral relationship between man and nature. Natural objects have an inherent value: not destroying these objects contributes to the virtue of man. The ecological aspects of the ideal of sustainable development can be sufficiently advanced in decision-making processes by governmental authorities and courts, because most principles that rule environmental decision-making processes create enough room to take into account the

  15. Urban Principles for Ecological Landscape Design and Maintenance: Scientific Fundamentals

    Steward T. A. Pickett


    Full Text Available Urban ecology is a rapidly developing scientific discipline with great relevance to sustainable city design and management. Though several frameworks have been proposed in the last 10 years, urban ecology, as yet, has no complete, mature theory. There are, however, general principles emerging that may facilitate the development of such a theory. In the meantime, these principles can serve as useful guides for ecological landscape design and maintenance. This paper aims to use the principles to conceptually frame a series of papers to follow in this special issue. The main ecological principles concerning cities are that: 1 Cities are ecosystems; 2 Cities are spatially heterogeneous; 3 Cities are dynamic; 4 Human and natural processes interact in cities; and 5 Ecological processes are still at work and are important in cities. The first three principles address the structure of cities and the change in structure through time. The remaining two principles focus on ecological processes in cities. We briefly summarize each of these principles and their roots in the ecological and design fields. Each principle points to ecological functions that can be translated into ecosystem services. Application of these principles to ecological landscape design and maintenance is discussed.

  16. 一保险法损失补偿原则:法理基础与规则体系--兼论中国《保险法》相关条款之完善%The Theory Basis and Rules of the Principle of Indemnity and the Modification of Relevant Terms in the Insurance Law



    The insurer gives the insured insurance payment imploded by all members of the danger community. This reflects the core functions of the property insurance. In principle and system, the indemnity of insurer is the behavior of performing the insurance contract, which is different from compensating losses in the civil law. In the cooperative mechanism, the actual loss is limited in lawful relationship by the insurable interest, and the insurance value and the insurance amount is the maximum obligations of the insurance payment in law and contract. In the rule system, the excess insurance, double insurance, insurance concurrence and subrogation are all derived from the principle of indemnity. These concepts, theory and rules build the insurance indemnity system, which plays the fundamental role in insurance law.%保险损失补偿是保险人用集中起来的资金对危险共同体成员因保险事故所遭受的损失予以补偿,体现了财产保险制度的核心职能。在称谓与内涵上,保险人对被保险人损失的补偿是履行保险合同的保险金给付行为,在原理与制度上与民法的损害赔偿不同;在协同机制上,保险利益将实际损失限定在合法的利害关系内,保险价值与保险金额是保险人给付义务在法律与合同上的最大值;在规则体系上,超额保险、重复保险、保险竞合、保险代位等均由损失补偿原则所派生。这些概念、原理、制度共同构筑了损失补偿原则的法理基础与规则体系,确保了损失补偿原则在保险法中发挥奠基性的作用。

  17. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...... relevant, and not-relevant judgments, and that most criteria can have either a positive or negative contribution to the relevance of a document. The criteria most frequently mentioned by study participants were content, followed by criteria characterizing the full text document. These findings may have...... implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...

  18. Leech's Politeness Principle



    Leech thinks that people sometimes disobey Grice's Cooperative Principle in order to express themselves politely in interaction.Therefore he postulates the Politeness Principle and believes that it should be obeyed in communication.This paper analyzes his

  19. Goal relevance as a quantitative model of human task relevance.

    Tanner, James; Itti, Laurent


    The concept of relevance is used ubiquitously in everyday life. However, a general quantitative definition of relevance has been lacking, especially as pertains to quantifying the relevance of sensory observations to one's goals. We propose a theoretical definition for the information value of data observations with respect to a goal, which we call "goal relevance." We consider the probability distribution of an agent's subjective beliefs over how a goal can be achieved. When new data are observed, its goal relevance is measured as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between belief distributions before and after the observation. Theoretical predictions about the relevance of different obstacles in simulated environments agreed with the majority response of 38 human participants in 83.5% of trials, beating multiple machine-learning models. Our new definition of goal relevance is general, quantitative, explicit, and allows one to put a number onto the previously elusive notion of relevance of observations to a goal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Coulet, B


    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively.

  1. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    Bernt Lie


    Full Text Available Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show that the mechanistic approach and the population balance approach lead to identical models. However, common additional assumptions used for activity-based models lead to model properties that may deviate considerably from the correct one.

  2. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi


    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  3. Principles of thermodynamics

    Kaufman, Myron


    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  4. RFID design principles

    Lehpamer, Harvey


    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  5. Principles of speech coding

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo


    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  6. Process Principle of Information

    张高锋; 任君


    Ⅰ.IntroductionInformation structure is the organization modelof given and New information in the course ofinformation transmission.A discourse contains avariety of information and not all the informationlisted in the discourse is necessary and useful to us.When we decode a discourse,usually,we do not needto read every word in the discourse or text but skimor scan the discourse or text to search what we thinkis important or useful to us in the discourse as quicklyas possible.Ⅱ.Process Principles of Informati...

  7. Principles of copula theory

    Durante, Fabrizio


    Principles of Copula Theory explores the state of the art on copulas and provides you with the foundation to use copulas in a variety of applications. Throughout the book, historical remarks and further readings highlight active research in the field, including new results, streamlined presentations, and new proofs of old results.After covering the essentials of copula theory, the book addresses the issue of modeling dependence among components of a random vector using copulas. It then presents copulas from the point of view of measure theory, compares methods for the approximation of copulas,

  8. Principles of fluorescence techniques


    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  9. Principles of lithography

    Levinson, Harry J


    The publication of Principles of Lithography, Third Edition just five years after the previous edition is evidence of the quickly changing and exciting nature of lithography as applied to the production of integrated circuits and other micro- and nanoscale devices. This text is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography, but also covers several subjects in depth, making it useful to the experienced lithographer as well. Topics directly related to manufacturing tools are addressed, including overlay, the stages of exposure, tools, and light sources. This updated edi

  10. Principles of meteoritics

    Krinov, E L


    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  11. Protective relay principles

    Sleva, Anthony F


    This title lets you improve failure detection and optimize protection. In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer's personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions. With invaluable insights from an experienced expert, ""Protective Relay Principles"" focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures.This book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier

  12. Principles of Liquid Chromatography

    Bakalyar, Stephen R.

    This article reviews the basic principles of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The introductory section provides an overview of the HPLC technique, placing it in historical context and discussing the elementary facts of the separation mechanism. The next section discusses the nature of resolution, describing the two principal aspects, zone center separation and zone spreading. The third section takes a detailed look at how HPLC is used in practice to achieve a separation. It discusses the three key variables that need to be adjusted: retention, efficiency, and selectivity. A fourth section is concerned with various relationships of practical importance: flow rate, temperature, and pressure. A final section discusses future trends in HPLC.

  13. Developing principles of growth

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    Although it has been widely recognized that the growth of women-owned businesses is central to wealth creation, innovation and economic development; limited attention has been devoted to understanding small business growth from a female perspective.This research seeks to develop an understanding...... of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises...

  14. Principles of smile design

    Bhuvaneswaran Mohan


    Full Text Available An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile.

  15. Principles of smile design.

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan


    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile.

  16. Principles of chemical kinetics

    House, James E


    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  17. Principles of compilers

    Su, Yunlin


    ""Principles of Compilers: A New Approach to Compilers Including the Algebraic Method"" introduces the ideas of the compilation from the natural intelligence of human beings by comparing similarities and differences between the compilations of natural languages and programming languages. The notation is created to list the source language, target languages, and compiler language, vividly illustrating the multilevel procedure of the compilation in the process. The book thoroughly explains the LL(1) and LR(1) parsing methods to help readers to understand the how and why. It not only covers estab

  18. Principles of quantum chemistry

    George, David V


    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  19. Academic Principles: A Brief Introduction

    Association of American Universities, 2013


    For many decades certain core principles have guided the conduct of teaching, research, and scholarship at American universities, as well as the ways in which these institutions are governed. There is ample evidence that these principles have strongly contributed to the quality of American universities. The principles have also made these…

  20. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  1. Euphemism and the Politeness Principle



    In linguistic communication, euphemism is a lubricant, whereas the politeness principle is a norm of moderating lin⁃guistic behavior. This paper aims to analyze the euphemism and the politeness principle, showing the relationship between euphe⁃mism and the politeness principle. In order to help people know how to behave in the daily communication and make their talk more effective.

  2. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  3. Plastic variational principle based on the least work consumption principle

    唐松花; 罗迎社; 周筑宝; 王智超


    Plastic variational principles are foundation to solve the boundary-value problems of plastic mechanics with the variational method(or energy method) and finite element method.The most convenient way of establishing different kinds of variational principles is to set up the extreme principle related to the studied problem.Based on a general new extreme principle-the Least work consumption principle,the variational principles of the rigid-plastic and rigid-viscoplastic material were derived.In comparison with existing methods,the method in this paper is more clear and direct,and the physical meaning is clear-cut.This method can offer a new way for establishing other kinds of variational principles.

  4. The Aristotelian definition of motion and the principle of inertia

    McLaughlin, Thomas J.


    Aristotelian definition of motion and from within the framework of Thomistic natural philosophy. The argument considers relevant principles of Special and General Relativity as well as principles, such as energy and fields, which were unknown to Newton but later became part of what we now call Newtonian physics.

  5. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    Stojić Jasmina


    Full Text Available The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying the model of Nature, certain solutions imitating systems and laws of flora and fauna are given that will insure the necessary savings of non-renewable energy during the building construction and their later energy consumption.

  6. Small Neutrino Masses: Another Anthropic principle aspect?

    Sivaram, C; O, Kiren


    This year's Physics Nobel prize for the discovery of neutrino oscillations which resolved the problem of the missing solar neutrinos and the atmospheric muon neutrinos implies that at least one of the three neutrino species has a tiny mass. The neutrino oscillations measure the mass difference squared, and the individual neutrino masses have yet to be accurately ascertained. Particle theory has so far not given a predictive picture for neutrino masses. Here we propose that the anthropic principle may be relevant, as it is frequently invoked to understand other aspects of the universe, including the precise values of fine structure constant or nuclear coupling constant or even the proton-electron mass ratio.

  7. Genetics in ocular inflammation--basic principles.

    Wallace, G R; Niemczyk, E


    The ability to identify individuals at risk of ocular disease, or to determine the potential severity of disease or response to therapy is the current focus of much research. These studies are being led by genetic analysis of individuals to determine associations with alterations in gens that may explain manifestations of particular diseases. In this review we consider the basic principles behind genetic studies in general and of ocular disease in particular. We address the methodologies being utilised, and the results derived so far. The potential and pitfalls of such studies are relevant to the concept of personalised medicine and better defined clinical trials.

  8. The base rate principle and the fairness principle in social judgment.

    Cao, Jack; Banaji, Mahzarin R


    Meet Jonathan and Elizabeth. One person is a doctor and the other is a nurse. Who is the doctor? When nothing else is known, the base rate principle favors Jonathan to be the doctor and the fairness principle favors both individuals equally. However, when individuating facts reveal who is actually the doctor, base rates and fairness become irrelevant, as the facts make the correct answer clear. In three experiments, explicit and implicit beliefs were measured before and after individuating facts were learned. These facts were either stereotypic (e.g., Jonathan is the doctor, Elizabeth is the nurse) or counterstereotypic (e.g., Elizabeth is the doctor, Jonathan is the nurse). Results showed that before individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs followed the fairness principle, whereas implicit beliefs followed the base rate principle. After individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs correctly aligned with stereotypic and counterstereotypic facts. Implicit beliefs, however, were immune to counterstereotypic facts and continued to follow the base rate principle. Having established the robustness and generality of these results, a fourth experiment verified that gender stereotypes played a causal role: when both individuals were male, explicit and implicit beliefs alike correctly converged with individuating facts. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that explicit beliefs uphold fairness and incorporate obvious and relevant facts, but implicit beliefs uphold base rates and appear relatively impervious to counterstereotypic facts.

  9. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.


    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to


    Elena ANGHEL


    Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?

  11. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)


    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  12. The Exhaustive Lexicalisation Principle

    Antonio Fábregas


    Full Text Available In this article I revisit the well-known empirical problem of manner of motion verbs with directional complements in Spanish. I present some data that, to my mind, had not received due attention in previous studies and I show that some manner of motion verbs actually allow directionals with the preposition a, while all of them allow them with prepositions like hacia or hasta. I argue that this pattern is due to a principle that states that every syntactic feature must be identified by lexical insertion, the Exhaustive Lexicalisation Principle. The crucial problem with directional complements is that the Spanish preposition a is locative, in contrast with English to, and, therefore, unable to identify the Path feature. Some verbs license the directional with a because they can lexicalise Path altogether with the verb; all verbs can combine with hasta or hacia because these prepositions lexicalise Path. When neither the verb nor the preposition lexicalise the Path, the construction is ungrammatical.

  13. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J


    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  14. [Principles of callus distraction].

    Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C


    Callus distraction is based on the principle of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and large bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial deviation and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes principles of callus distraction, potential complications and their management.

  15. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    Landé, Alfred


    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  16. Politeness Principle and Intercultural Communication



    There are many potential problems in intercultural communications.Politeness principle is very important in helping improving intercultural communications.But different cultures have various standard of politeness principle.This essay discusses the very different points of view on politeness principle between Chinese people and westerners,and studies how the context and settings affect the practice of politeness principle.At the ending of the essay,the guiding significance of politeness principle is pointed out.And it also points out seeking common understanding of various cultures.In some aspects,this paper is useful for effective intercultural communications.

  17. On the maximum entropy principle in non-extensive thermostatistics

    Naudts, Jan


    It is possible to derive the maximum entropy principle from thermodynamic stability requirements. Using as a starting point the equilibrium probability distribution, currently used in non-extensive thermostatistics, it turns out that the relevant entropy function is Renyi's alpha-entropy, and not Tsallis' entropy.

  18. MBA theory and application of business and management principles

    Davim, J


    This book focuses on the relevant subjects in the curriculum of an MBA program. Covering many different fields within business, this book is ideal for readers who want to prepare for a Master of Business Administration degree. It provides discussions and exchanges of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications in the business area.

  19. Modern Endodontic Principles. Part 8: The Future of Endodontics.

    Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison


    Although the principles of endodontics have remained unchanged for many decades, root canal treatment has been subject to major changes in the past few years. This paper outlines the cutting-edge advances including the materials and techniques used. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article provides an overview of bioactive materials and insight into regenerative endodontics, vital pulp therapy and intentional replantation.

  20. Quality in Higher Education: The Contribution of Edward Demings Principles

    Redmond, Richard; Curtis, Elizabeth; Noone, Tom; Keenan, Paul


    Purpose--There can be little doubt about the importance and relevance of quality for any service industry. One of the most influential contributors to service quality developments was W. Edwards Deming (1900-1993). An important component of Demings philosophy is reflected in his 14-principles for transforming a service as they indicate what…

  1. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.


    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in 's

  2. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.


    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in 's

  3. Gandhian Principles in Social Work Practice: Ethics Revisited.

    Walz, Tom; Ritchie, Heather


    Argues that the thought of Mahatma Gandhi, as revealed in his social activism, is relevant to social work ethics and a resource for its ethical enrichment. Proposes that principles such as seeking truth through service to others, individual self-development, nonviolent social action, and material simplicity could enhance the current National…




    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  5. 反垄断视角下低碳技术领域的“疑似垄断行为”分析%Analysis of the Suspected Monopolistic Behavior for Low Carbon Technology under the Perspective of Antitrust

    胡允银; 邓艺; 高玉梅


      Among all of the efforts combating climate change, technology innovation and technology transfer are the foundation and key support to cope with climate change. This article first discusses low carbon technology market, and then from the different perspectives of European Union law and the United States law, provides an overview on patented carbon sequestration technologies, Smart Grid standard setting, and patent pools such as the Eco Patent Commons and Green X-change. This research shows that most of the collaboration on low carbon technology occurred to date should be shielded from antitrust.%  应对气候变化的诸多努力之中,技术创新和技术转让是应对气候变化的基础和支撑。首先探讨了低碳技术市场力量,然后从欧盟法律和美国法律的不同视角对碳捕获技术许可、发展中的智能电网标准设定、生态专利共享池、绿色交换池等疑似垄断行为进行反垄断分析。研究指出,当前应对气候变化领域中的低碳专利技术合作大部分不应当受到反垄断谴责。

  6. Principles of Bioenergetics

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O


    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  7. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique


    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  8. Neuronavigation. Principles. Surgical technique.

    Ivanov, Marcel; Ciurea, Alexandru Vlad


    Neuronavigation and stereotaxy are techniques designed to help neurosurgeons precisely localize different intracerebral pathological processes by using a set of preoperative images (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET, SPECT etc.). The development of computer assisted surgery was possible only after a significant technological progress, especially in the area of informatics and imagistics. The main indications of neuronavigation are represented by the targeting of small and deep intracerebral lesions and choosing the best way to treat them, in order to preserve the neurological function. Stereotaxis also allows lesioning or stimulation of basal ganglia for the treatment of movement disorders. These techniques can bring an important amount of confort both to the patient and to the neurosurgeon. Neuronavigation was introduced in Romania around 2003, in four neurosurgical centers. We present our five-years experience in neuronavigation and describe the main principles and surgical techniques.

  9. Polydimensional Supersymmetric Principles

    Pezzaglia, W M


    Systems of equations are invariant under "polydimensional transformations" which reshuffle the geometry such that what is a line or a plane is dependent upon the frame of reference. This leads us to propose an extension of Clifford calculus in which each geometric element (vector, bivector) has its own coordinate. A new classical action principle is proposed in which particles take paths which minimize the distance traveled plus area swept out by the spin. This leads to a solution of the 50 year old conundrum of `what is the correct Lagrangian' in which to derive the Papapetrou equations of motion for spinning particles in curved space (including torsion). Based on talk given at: 5th International Conference on Clifford Algebras and their Applications in Mathematical Physics, Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, Mexico, June 27-July 4, 1999.

  10. Mirror Principle, 1

    Lian Bong H; Yau, S T


    We propose and study the following Mirror Principle: certain sequences of multiplicative equivariant characteristic classes on Kontsevich's stable map moduli spaces can be computed in terms of certain hypergeometric type classes. As applications, we compute the equivariant Euler classes of obstruction bundles induced by any concavex bundles -- including any direct sum of line bundles -- on $\\P^n$. This includes proving the formula of Candelas-de la Ossa-Green-Parkes hence completing the program of Candelas et al, Kontesevich, Manin, and Givental, to compute rigorously the instanton prepotential function for the quintic in $\\P^4$. We derive, among many other examples, the multiple cover formula for Gromov-Witten invariants of $\\P^1$, computed earlier by Morrison-Aspinwall and by Manin in different approaches. We also prove a formula for enumerating Euler classes which arise in the so-called local mirror symmetry for some noncompact Calabi-Yau manifolds. At the end we interprete an infinite dimensional transfor...

  11. Principles of modern physics

    Saxena, A K


    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  12. Principles of Lasers

    Svelto, Orazio


    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  13. Principles & practice of physics

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J


    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  14. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan


    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  15. Principles of rockbolting design

    Charlie C. Li


    Full Text Available This article introduces the principles of underground rockbolting design. The items discussed include underground loading conditions, natural pressure zone around an underground opening, design methodologies, selection of rockbolt types, determination of bolt length and spacing, factor of safety, and compatibility between support elements. Different types of rockbolting used in engineering practise are also presented. The traditional principle of selecting strong rockbolts is valid only in conditions of low in situ stresses in the rock mass. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are preferred in the case of high in situ stresses. A natural pressure arch is formed in the rock at a certain distance behind the tunnel wall. Rockbolts should be long enough to reach the natural pressure arch when the failure zone is small. The bolt length should be at least 1 m beyond the failure zone. In the case of a vast failure zone, tightly spaced short rockbolts are installed to establish an artificial pressure arch within the failure zone and long cables are anchored on the natural pressure arch. In this case, the rockbolts are usually less than 3 m long in mine drifts, but can be up to 7 m in large-scale rock caverns. Bolt spacing is more important than bolt length in the case of establishing an artificial pressure arch. In addition to the factor of safety, the maximum allowable displacement in the tunnel and the ultimate displacement capacity of rockbolts must be also taken into account in the design. Finally, rockbolts should be compatible with other support elements in the same support system in terms of displacement and energy absorption capacities.

  16. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan


    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  17. Lexicography and the Relevance Criterion

    This will be done within the framework of the function theory .... work and made accessible through a rhyming system for the characters as well as a complex .... lexicographically relevant user characteristics — an open list to which new charac-.

  18. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Wearing, Catherine J


    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication.

  19. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment.

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D


    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments.

  20. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S


    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. Analysis of Humor in The Big Bang Theory Based on the Conversational Relevance

    XU Yang


    Humor is the life buoy in waves of life. Pragmatics and humor are closely linked. Relevance is one of the important topics of Pragmatics. This paper takes the lines from The Big Bang Theory as a case study and analyzes the humorous effect from the perspective of Principle of Relevance and Conversational Relevance, hoping to help people deepen the appreciation and un⁃derstanding of humor.

  2. The value relevance of direct cash flows under international financial reporting standards

    Clacher, I.; de Ricquebourg, AD; Hodgson, A.


    This study examines if there has been a change in the value relevance of direct cash flow components since the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Australia. Our results show that for both industrial and extractive firms direct cash flow statements are value relevant under Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (AGAAP) and remain so after the adoption of IFRS. In addition, for industrial firms there is a significant increase in the value relevance of...

  3. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M


    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  4. Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles.

    Kemp, Charles; Regier, Terry


    Languages vary in their systems of kinship categories, but the scope of possible variation appears to be constrained. Previous accounts of kin classification have often emphasized constraints that are specific to the domain of kinship and are not derived from general principles. Here, we propose an account that is founded on two domain-general principles: Good systems of categories are simple, and they enable informative communication. We show computationally that kin classification systems in the world's languages achieve a near-optimal trade-off between these two competing principles. We also show that our account explains several specific constraints on kin classification proposed previously. Because the principles of simplicity and informativeness are also relevant to other semantic domains, the trade-off between them may provide a domain-general foundation for variation in category systems across languages.

  5. Principle extremum of full action

    Solomon I. Khmelnik


    Full Text Available A new variational principle extremum of full action is proposed, which extends the Lagrange formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that this principle is applicable in electrical engineering, electrodynamics, mechanics and hydrodynamics, taking into account the friction forces. The proposed variational principle may be considered as a new formalism used as an universal method of physical equations derivation, and also as a method for solving these equations.

  6. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  7. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Huffman, Harry


    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  8. Basic principles of stability.

    Egan, William; Schofield, Timothy


    An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least squares regression analysis should be employed to model potency decay. The use of such tools provides incentive to properly design vaccine stability studies, while holding stability measurements to specification presents a disincentive for collecting valuable data. The laws of kinetics such as Arrhenius behavior help practitioners design effective accelerated stability programs, which can be utilized to manage stability after a process change. Design of stability studies should be carefully considered, with an eye to minimizing the variability of the stability parameter. In the case of measuring the degradation rate, testing at the beginning and the end of the study improves the precision of this estimate. Additional design considerations such as bracketing and matrixing improve the efficiency of stability evaluation of vaccines.

  9. The iceberg principles

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni


    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  10. Principles of rock mechanics

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.


    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  11. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Bersoff, Donald N.


    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  12. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    Ellis, Rod


    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  13. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  14. Principles and Criteria for Design

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis


    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  15. Principles for Classroom Comprehension Assessment.

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Pearson, P. David


    Principles that should guide reading comprehension assessment include acknowledging the complexity of reading, focusing on orchestrating rather than isolating skills, regarding reading as a dynamic process, developing techniques that encourage student-teacher interactions, and using a variety of reading comprehension measures. The principles are…

  16. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  17. Principles and Criteria for Design

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis


    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...


    Kozlov, Aleksandr


    The article presents a set of principles, which can guide the design of lean supply chains. The author divides design principles into 3 main categories. The first two sets describe internal production processes while the 3-rd set relates to the entire supply chain.

  19. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.


    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact, legislator

  20. Precautionary principle in international law.

    Saladin, C


    The deregulatory nature of trade rules frequently brings them into conflict with the precautionary principle. These rules dominate debate over the content and legal status of the precautionary principle at the international level. The World Trade Organization (WTO), because of its power in settling disputes, is a key player. Many States are concerned to define the precautionary principle consistent with WTO rules, which generally means defining it as simply a component of risk analysis. At the same time, many States, especially environmental and public health policymakers, see the principle as the legal basis for preserving domestic and public health measures in the face of deregulatory pressures from the WTO. The precautionary principle has begun to acquire greater content and to move into the operative articles of legally binding international agreements. It is important to continue this trend.

  1. Principles of European Contract Law

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  2. Principles of European Contract Law

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  3. Optic eikonal,Fermat's principle and the least action principle

    TAN KangBo; LIANG ChangHong; SHI XiaoWei


    A generalized refractive index in the form of optic eikonal is defined through com-paring frame definitions of left-handed and right-handed sets and indicates the sign of the refractive index covered by the quadratic form of the eikonal equation.Fer-mat's principle is generalized,and the general refractive law is derived directly.Under this definition,the comparison between Fermat's principle and the least ac-tion principle is made through employing path integral and analogizing Broglie's theory.

  4. An introduction to heat transfer principles and calculations

    Ede, A J; Ower, E


    An Introduction to Heat Transfer Principles and Calculations is an introductory text to the principles and calculations of heat transfer. The theory underlying heat transfer is described, and the principal results and formulae are presented. Available techniques for obtaining rapid, approximate solutions to complicated problems are also considered. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a brief account of some of the concepts, methods, nomenclature, and other relevant information about heat transfer. The reader is then introduced to radiation, conduction, convection, and boiling

  5. An Analysis of the Economy Principle Applied in Cyber Language



    With the development of network technology,cyber language,a new social dialect,is widely used in our life.The author analyzes how the economy principle is applied in cyber language from three aspects—word-formation,syntax and non-linguistic symbol.And the author collects,summarizes and analyzes the relevant language materials to prove the economy principle’s real existence in chat room and the reason why the economy principle is applied widely in cyber space.

  6. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael


    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can displa

  7. Global versus Local -- Mach's Principle versus the Equivalence Principle

    Singleton, Douglas


    The equivalence principle is the conceptual basis for general relativity. In contrast Mach's principle, although said to have been influential on Einstein in his formulation of general relativity, has not been shown to be central to the structure of general relativity. In this essay we suggest that the quantum effects of Hawking and Unruh radiation are a manifestation of a {\\it thermal} Mach's principle, where the local thermodynamic properties of the system are determined by the non-local structure of the quantum fields which determine the vacuum of a given spacetime. By comparing Hawking and Unruh temperatures for the same local acceleration we find a violation of the Einstein elevator version of the equivalence principle, which vanishes in the limit that the horizon is approached.

  8. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    Gibson, Paul


    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  9. Identifying internet marketing principles relevant to generic marketers / Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye

    Bevan-Dye, Ayesha Lian


    To deliver the type of marketing graduate that meets industry demand necessitates that marketing curricula content be continuously updated to keep pace with the dynamic marketing environment. One of the major trends influencing the twenty-first century marketing environment is the advent of the Internet and substantial growth in Internet usage and Internet-based commerce. Not only is the Internet driving major marketing environmental change, it is also emerging as a new marketing tool of sign...

  10. Risk management: Core principles and practices, and their relevance to wildland fire

    Matthew P. Thompson; Donald G. MacGregor; Dave Calkin


    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture faces a future of increasing complexity and risk, pressing financial issues, and the inescapable possibility of loss of human life. These issues are perhaps most acute for wildland fire management, the highest risk activity in which the Forest Service engages. Risk management (RM) has long been put forth as an...

  11. Least Action Principle in Gait

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu; Luo, Donglin


    We apply the laws of human gait vertical ground reaction force and discover the existence of the phenomenon of least action principle in gait. Using a capacitive mat transducer system, we obtain the variations of human gait vertical ground reaction force and establish a structure equation for the resultant of such a force. Defining the deviation of vertical force as an action function, we observe from our gait optimization analysis the least action principle at half of the stride time. We develop an evaluation index of mechanical energy consumption based upon the least action principle in gait. We conclude that these observations can be employed to enhance the accountability of gait evaluation.

  12. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)


    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a

  13. Comparison of bone density measurement techniques: DXA and Archimedes' principle.

    Keenan, M J; Hegsted, M; Jones, K L; Delany, J P; Kime, J C; Melancon, L E; Tulley, R T; Hong, K D


    The standard method for determination of density (g/cm3) of bones from small animals has been the application of Archimedes' principle. A recent development has been software for the determination of "density" (g/cm2) of small animal bones with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared Archimedes' principle and DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) in the measurement of the densities of whole and hollowed femurs of 5- to 6-month-old retired female breeder rats. In an attempt to ensure detectable treatment differences, rats were used from a low-vitamin D Holtzman and a supplemental-vitamin D Sprague-Dawley colony. Whole femur densities were higher for supplemental-vitamin D colony rats than for low vitamin D rats using both techniques (Archimedes' principle, p Archimedes' principle than for DXA. Other variables such as femur ash weight and calcium content were also highly correlated to densities with both techniques. Hollowed femur density values were higher than whole femur values with Archimedes' principle but lower with DXA. Colony effects for hollowed femur densities were diminished with Archimedes' principle (p < 0.03) and eliminated with DXA (p < 0.53). Investigation of whole bones is more biologically relevant, and both techniques were effective in detecting differences between whole femurs from low-vitamin D and supplemental-vitamin D colony rats.

  14. To what extent do Gestalt grouping principles influence tactile perception?

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles


    Since their formulation by the Gestalt movement more than a century ago, the principles of perceptual grouping have primarily been investigated in the visual modality and, to a lesser extent, in the auditory modality. The present review addresses the question of whether the same grouping principles also affect the perception of tactile stimuli. Although, to date, only a few studies have explicitly investigated the existence of Gestalt grouping principles in the tactile modality, we argue that many more studies have indirectly provided evidence relevant to this topic. Reviewing this body of research, we argue that similar principles to those reported previously in visual and auditory studies also govern the perceptual grouping of tactile stimuli. In particular, we highlight evidence showing that the principles of proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, and closure affect tactile perception in both unimodal and crossmodal settings. We also highlight that the grouping of tactile stimuli is often affected by visual and auditory information that happen to be presented simultaneously. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and applied benefits that might pertain to the further study of Gestalt principles operating in both unisensory and multisensory tactile perception.

  15. Maximum entropy principle and texture formation

    Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier


    The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.

  16. Principles of a reversible programming language

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert


    The principles of reversible programming languages are explicated and illustrated with reference to the design of a high-level imperative language, Janus. The fundamental properties for such languages include backward as well as forward determinism and reversible updates of data. The unique design...... features of the language include explicit post-condition assertions, direct access to an inverse semantics and the possibility of clean (i.e., garbage-free) computation of injective functions. We suggest the clean simulation of reversible Turing machines as a criterion for computing strength of reversible...... languages, and demonstrate this for Janus. We show the practicality of the language by implementation of a reversible fast Fourier transform. Our results indicate that the reversible programming paradigm has fundamental properties that are relevant to many different areas of computer science....

  17. The working principle of magnetic resonance therapy

    Brizhik, Larissa; Fermi, Enrico


    In this paper we describe briefly the basic aspects of magnetic resonance therapy, registered as TMR therapy. Clinical studies have shown that application of this therapy significantly accelerates wound healing and, in particular, healing of the diabetic foot disease. To understand the working principle of this therapy, we analyze relevant to it biological effects produced by magnetic fields. Based on these data, we show that there is a hierarchy of the possible physical mechanisms, which can produce such effects. The mutual interplay between the mechanisms can lead to a synergetic outcome delayed in time, which can affect the physiological state of the organism. In particular, we show that soliton mediated charge transport during the redox processes in living organisms is sensitive to magnetic fields, so that such fields can facilitate redox processes in particular, and can stimulate the healing effect of the organism in general. This and other non-thermal resonant mechanisms of the biological effects of mag...

  18. Binding Principles A and B



    This paper focuses on the discussion of how Binding Principle A and Binding Principe B help with the interpretation of reference in English and Chinese. They are supposedly universal across languages.

  19. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    McWeeny, Roy


    Focusing on main principles of quantum mechanics and their immediate consequences, this graduate student-oriented volume develops the subject as a fundamental discipline, opening with review of origins of Schrödinger's equations and vector spaces.

  20. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.


    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  1. Economy Principle in English Advertisements

    Pan Hong


    Languages evolve unceasingly according to the economy principle: to exchange the maximal amount of information through the minimal language codes expenditure.This paper analyzes economy in advertisements,especially the concise wording which saves layout,time and energy.

  2. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the applicable subpart of part 31 shall, subject to the general principles in 49.201, (a) be used in...

  3. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Koelsch, Stefan


    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Uncertainty Relation from Holography Principle

    Chen, Jia-Zhong; Jia, Duoje


    We propose that the information and entropy of an isolated system are two sides of one coin in the sense that they can convert into each other by measurement and evolution of the system while the sum of them is identically conserved. The holographic principle is reformulated in the way that this conserved sum is bounded by a quarter of the area A of system boundary. Uncertainty relation is derived from the holographic principle.

  5. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Mateus Domingues da Silva


    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  6. Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis

    Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith


    It is possible to enhance our understanding of what has happened on a computer system by using forensic techniques that do not require prediction of the nature of the attack, the skill of the attacker, or the details of the system resources or objects affected. These techniques address five fundamental principles of computer forensics. These principles include recording data about the entire operating system, particularly user space events and environments, and interpreting events at differen...

  7. Teaching the Principles of Economics

    N. Gregory Mankiw


    In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.

  8. Grice's cooperative principle in the psychoanalytic setting.

    Ephratt, Michal


    Grice's "cooperative principle," including conversational implicatures and maxims, is commonplace in current pragmatics (a subfield of linguistics), and is generally applied in conversational analysis. The author examines the unique contribution of Grice's principle in considering the psychotherapeutic setting and its discourse. Such an investigation is called for chiefly because of the central role of speech in psychoanalytic practice (the "talking cure"). Symptoms and transference, which are characterized as forms of expression that are fundamentally deceptive, must be equivocal and indirect, and must breach all four of Grice's categories and maxims: truth (Quality), relation (Relevance), Manner (be clear), and Quantity. Therapeutic practice, according to Freud's "fundamental rule of psychoanalysis," encourages the parties (analysand and analyst) to breach each and every one of Grice's maxims. Using case reports drawn from the literature, the author shows that these breachings are essential for therapeutic progress. They serve as a unique and important ground for revealing inner (psychic) contents, and demarcating real self from illusive self, which in turn constitutes leverage for integrating these contents with the self.

  9. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    A. J. Durston


    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  10. Dialogical Principles for Qualitative Inquiry: A Nonfoundational Path

    Marlei Pozzebon PhD


    Full Text Available Leaving the thesis proposal defense room, the PhD business student had an important assignment to accomplish before being authorized to set a date for defending her thesis: to better justify the validity of her qualitative inquiry framed by a critical interpretive standpoint. Knowing that the generation, analysis, and interpretation of empirical materials are processes always conducted within some understanding of what constitutes legitimate inquiry and valid knowledge, she drew inspiration from ethnographical, confessional, critical, and post-modern work to propose a set of dialogical principles for conducting and evaluating a nonfoundational type of research inquiry. This manuscript revisits this venture a number of years later, reflecting on what has changed and what is still missing. We argue that there is a space and an occasion in the research methods literature for proposing dialogical principles for nonfoundational research, principles that are particularly relevant for qualitative researchers struggling in business schools worldwide.

  11. Iron diffusion from first principles calculations

    Wann, E.; Ammann, M. W.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Lord, O. T.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.


    The cores of Earth and other terrestrial planets are made up largely of iron1 and it is therefore very important to understand iron's physical properties. Chemical diffusion is one such property and is central to many processes, such as crystal growth, and viscosity. Debate still surrounds the explanation for the seismologically observed anisotropy of the inner core2, and hypotheses include convection3, anisotropic growth4 and dendritic growth5, all of which depend on diffusion. In addition to this, the main deformation mechanism at the inner-outer core boundary is believed to be diffusion creep6. It is clear, therefore, that to gain a comprehensive understanding of the core, a thorough understanding of diffusion is necessary. The extremely high pressures and temperatures of the Earth's core make experiments at these conditions a challenge. Low-temperature and low-pressure experimental data must be extrapolated across a very wide gap to reach the relevant conditions, resulting in very poorly constrained values for diffusivity and viscosity. In addition to these dangers of extrapolation, preliminary results show that magnetisation plays a major role in the activation energies for diffusion at low pressures therefore creating a break down in homologous scaling to high pressures. First principles calculations provide a means of investigating diffusivity at core conditions, have already been shown to be in very good agreement with experiments7, and will certainly provide a better estimate for diffusivity than extrapolation. Here, we present first principles simulations of self-diffusion in solid iron for the FCC, BCC and HCP structures at core conditions in addition to low-temperature and low-pressure calculations relevant to experimental data. 1. Birch, F. Density and composition of mantle and core. Journal of Geophysical Research 69, 4377-4388 (1964). 2. Irving, J. C. E. & Deuss, A. Hemispherical structure in inner core velocity anisotropy. Journal of Geophysical

  12. Situating relevance: exploring individual relevance assessments in context

    Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson


    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the challenges encountered whilst researching and writing a thesis that explores individual understandings of relevance and topic. It is based upon a discussion paper and presentation prepared as part of the Doctoral Workshop held during the ISIC 2000 Conference in Borås, Sweden. The focus of this paper is the doing of qualitative research. To provide a framework for this discussion, the key assumptions that have shaped the author's thesis are presented in the first section of this paper. The paper then focuses on some of the dilemmas of qualitative research encountered during the research and writing of this thesis, giving particular attention to the notion of context and the writing of qualitative research. Forthcoming results from the thesis are mentioned in the closing section. A Thesis Summary is also provided at the end of this paper.

  13. Measuring Questions: Relevance and its Relation to Entropy

    Knuth, Kevin H.


    The Boolean lattice of logical statements induces the free distributive lattice of questions. Inclusion on this lattice is based on whether one question answers another. Generalizing the zeta function of the question lattice leads to a valuation called relevance or bearing, which is a measure of the degree to which one question answers another. Richard Cox conjectured that this degree can be expressed as a generalized entropy. With the assistance of yet another important result from Janos Acz6l, I show that this is indeed the case; and that the resulting inquiry calculus is a natural generalization of information theory. This approach provides a new perspective of the Principle of Maximum Entropy.



    limitations of the rules need to be put right since achievement of the very goals of ... Works to bring the market back into play have been done since the last decade of the ... dominance. Accordingly, “no person may carry on trade which gives .... Research Centre, Ottawa, 2007, at 45[hereinafter, Stewart, Clarke & Joekes].

  15. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama


    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  16. Confinement of the antitrust control of abuse in the energy sector. At the same time comment to OLG Duesseldorf from 19th October, 2011. Reference VI-3 Kart 1/11 (V) - GAG Ahrensburg; Grenzen der kartellrechtlichen Missbrauchskontrolle im Energiebereich. Zugleich Anmerkung zu OLG Duesseldorf v. 19.10.2011. Az. VI-3 Kart 1/11 (V) - GAG Ahrensburg

    Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)


    Up to the amendment of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) 2005 the legislator permitted parallel applicability of the Energy Economy law as well as the Restriction of Competition (GWB) to energy situations. Based on the GWB, especially in procedures by competition authorities key decisions on the reliable behaviour of operators of power distribution systems and natural gas distribution systems were disposed. This approach was restricted by the amendment of the EnWG 2005 with the introduction of paragraph 111 EnWG. In compliance with this, this restriction was implemented in paragraph 130 sect. 3 GWB. From now on, paragraph 111 Sect. 1 and 2 EnWG exclude the antitrust control of abuse according to the paragraphs 19, 20 and 29 GWB. With this, the competence of the cartel authorities are excluded in favour of the regulatory legal prescriptions of the EnWG.

  17. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    Zeng, Li


    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  18. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    Gonzalo, Julio A


    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  19. Principles of neural information processing

    Seelen, Werner v


    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  20. The strong maximum principle revisited

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  1. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir


    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  2. How Insensitive: Principles, Facts and Normative Grounds in Cohen’s Critique of Rawls

    Daniel Kofman


    Full Text Available Cohen’s hostility to Rawls’ justification of the Difference Principle by social facts spawned Cohen’s general thesis that ultimate principles of justice and morality are fact-insensitive, but explain how any fact-sensitive principle is grounded in facts. When facts F ground principle P, reformulating this relation as conditional “If F, then P” is trivial and thus explanatorily impotent. Explanatory, hence justificatory, force derives either from subsumption under more general principles, or precisely exhibiting value in light of relevant (actual or hypothetical facts. In examples where no subsumption occurs, actual facts trivially become hypothetical facts, an empty formalism. Indeed, Rawls’ grounding of principles of justice in “conditions of life” can easily be reformulated as a conditional principle “sensitive” only to hypothetical such conditions, and thus formally fact-insensitive, for all Cohen’s ire against Rawls’s grounding.Moreover, any plausible “ultimate fact-insensitive principle” must be intricately qualified, which tacit ceteris paribus clauses mask. Each qualification implies prioritisation of one principle over another in conceivable circumstances, and wherever the now qualified principle is given scope, that too implies prioritisation over competing principles in typical circumstances. Any principle is thus sensitive to conceivable circumstances of application, as recognised by more sophisticated intuitionisms. Non-trivial ultimate principles – luck egalitarianism, act utilitarianism, etc. - require defense, which inevitably involves showing how they best interpret and respond to facts about human needs, goals, and capacities in predictable circumstances. Finally, the substantive debate between Rawls and Cohen about which facts are relevant to the DP is only obscured by the doctrine of fact-insensitivity.

  3. Autocatalytic, bistable, oscillatory networks of biologically relevant organic reactions

    Semenov, Sergey N.; Kraft, Lewis J.; Ainla, Alar; Zhao, Mengxia; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Campbell, Victoria E.; Kang, Kyungtae; Fox, Jerome M.; Whitesides, George M.


    Networks of organic chemical reactions are important in life and probably played a central part in its origin. Network dynamics regulate cell division, circadian rhythms, nerve impulses and chemotaxis, and guide the development of organisms. Although out-of-equilibrium networks of chemical reactions have the potential to display emergent network dynamics such as spontaneous pattern formation, bistability and periodic oscillations, the principles that enable networks of organic reactions to develop complex behaviours are incompletely understood. Here we describe a network of biologically relevant organic reactions (amide formation, thiolate-thioester exchange, thiolate-disulfide interchange and conjugate addition) that displays bistability and oscillations in the concentrations of organic thiols and amides. Oscillations arise from the interaction between three subcomponents of the network: an autocatalytic cycle that generates thiols and amides from thioesters and dialkyl disulfides; a trigger that controls autocatalytic growth; and inhibitory processes that remove activating thiol species that are produced during the autocatalytic cycle. In contrast to previous studies that have demonstrated oscillations and bistability using highly evolved biomolecules (enzymes and DNA) or inorganic molecules of questionable biochemical relevance (for example, those used in Belousov-Zhabotinskii-type reactions), the organic molecules we use are relevant to metabolism and similar to those that might have existed on the early Earth. By using small organic molecules to build a network of organic reactions with autocatalytic, bistable and oscillatory behaviour, we identify principles that explain the ways in which dynamic networks relevant to life could have developed. Modifications of this network will clarify the influence of molecular structure on the dynamics of reaction networks, and may enable the design of biomimetic networks and of synthetic self-regulating and evolving

  4. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    Whitaker, Stephen


    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  5. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard


    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  6. Cooling towers principles and practice

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D


    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  7. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    Kim, Sangtae


    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  8. Teaching Spreadsheets: Curriculum Design Principles

    Tort, Francoise


    EuSpRIG concerns direct researchers to revisit spreadsheet education, taking into account error auditing tools, checklists, and good practices. This paper aims at elaborating principles to design a spreadsheet curriculum. It mainly focuses on two important issues. Firstly, it is necessary to establish the spreadsheet invariants to be taught, especially those concerning errors and good practices. Secondly, it is important to take into account the learners' ICT experience, and to encourage them to attitudes that foster self-learning. We suggest key principles for spreadsheet teaching, and we illustrate them with teaching guidelines.

  9. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas


    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  10. Uncertainty principle in larmor clock

    QIAO Chuan; REN Zhong-Zhou


    It is well known that the spin operators of a quantum particle must obey uncertainty relations.We use the uncertainty principle to study the Larmor clock.To avoid breaking the uncertainty principle,Larmor time can be defined as the ratio of the phase difference between a spin-up particle and a spin-down particle to the corresponding Larmor frequency.The connection between the dwell time and the Larmor time has also been confirmed.Moreover,the results show that the behavior of the Larmor time depends on the height and width of the barrier.

  11. Principles and applications of tribology

    Moore, Desmond F


    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  12. Fiber optics principles and practices

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul


    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  13. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  14. 32 CFR 776.19 - Principles.


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 776.19 Section 776.19 National... Professional Conduct § 776.19 Principles. The Rules of this subpart are based on the following principles... exists, this subpart should be interpreted consistent with these general principles. (a)...

  15. 32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 Section 203.6 National... Cost principles. (a) Non-profit contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB Circular A-122...) For-profit contractors and subcontractors must comply with the cost principles in the FAR (48 CFR...

  16. 7 CFR 3015.111 - Cost principles.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles. 3015.111 Section 3015.111... § 3015.111 Cost principles. (a) The cost principles prescribed by subpart T of this part require prior... approvals required by the cost principles are in § 3015.196. Procedures for prior approvals required by...

  17. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy

    Oliver, R.; Kersten, H.; Vinkka-Puhakka, H.; Alpaslan, G.; Bearn, D.; Cema, I.; Delap, E.; Dummer, P.; Goulet, J.P.; Gugushe, T.; Jeniati, E.; Jerolimov, V.; Kotsanos, N.; Krifka, S.; Levy, G.; Neway, M.; Ogawa, T.; Saag, M.; Sidlauskas, A.; Skaleric, U.; Vervoorn, M.; White, D.


    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and horiz

  18. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spanning...

  19. Aesthetic Principles for Instructional Design

    Parrish, Patrick E.


    This article offers principles that contribute to developing the aesthetics of instructional design. Rather than describing merely the surface qualities of things and events, the concept of aesthetics as applied here pertains to heightened, integral experience. Aesthetic experiences are those that are immersive, infused with meaning, and felt as…

  20. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård


    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...... of variability in design processes and manufacturing processes with product performance and unit costs....

  1. Comments on field equivalence principles

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  2. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Mickey, Charles D.


    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  3. Principles of modern radar systems

    Carpentier, Michel H


    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  4. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    Kisch, Horst


    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  5. Socialist Principles of Appropriative Justice

    V. van der Weerden (Victor)


    textabstractDuring the last quarter of the twentieth century, many analytical Marxists contributed to the revival of the debate concerning the relationship between Marxism and morality. One such attempt made by Ziyad Husami (1978) was to derive a ‘socialist principle of justice’ from Marx’s

  6. Square principles in Pmax extensions

    Caicedo, Andres; Sargsyan, Grigor; Schindler, Ralf; Steel, John; Zeman, Martin


    By forcing with Pmax over strong models of determinacy, we obtain models where different square principles at omega_2 and omega_3 fail. In particular, we obtain a model of 2^{aleph_0}=2^{aleph_1}=aleph_2 + square(omega_2) fails + square(omega_3) fails.

  7. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee


    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  8. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.


    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  9. Principles of the Antarctic Treaty

    Candidi, M.

    The operation of any base or expedition to Antarctica is regulated by the mutual agreement among nations in the “Antarctic Treaty”. This treaty deals with the major aspects of life in Antarctica and its main principles and provisions are described in what follows.

  10. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  11. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P


    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  12. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Mariusz P. Da̧browski


    Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  13. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W


    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  14. Parsing with Principles and Probabilities

    Fordham, A; Fordham, Andrew; Crocker, Matthew


    This paper is an attempt to bring together two approaches to language analysis. The possible use of probabilistic information in principle-based grammars and parsers is considered, including discussion on some theoretical and computational problems that arise. Finally a partial implementation of these ideas is presented, along with some preliminary results from testing on a small set of sentences.

  15. The common European flexicurity principles

    Mailand, Mikkel


    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  16. Precaution, law and principles of good administration.

    Fisher, E


    The precautionary principle is a legal principle concerned with the process of how decisions are made. In implementing and interpreting it regard must be had to the surrounding legal culture and in particular the principles of good administration in operation. Highlighting those principles emphasises that within a particular jurisdiction there is often very little agreement over their nature. Within the European Union contradictory principles are the product of: assumptions about risk problem-solving, the ambiguous nature of European administration, a concern with accountability in the face of recent food controversies, and the impact of international trade rules. These contradictory principles present a number of challenges for implementing the precautionary principle.

  17. The Application of Cooperation Principle and Politeness Principle in Oral Teaching



    The pragmatic principle that people should comply with in communicative activities are the principles of cooperation and politeness principle. The principles of cooperation play a regulatory role in communication while politeness principle actually has a greater binding. In teaching, teachers should always teach basing on language and make students understand the Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle in pragmatics in order to improve oral communication skills.

  18. De IPR-bepalingen in de ALI/UNIDROIT Principles of transnational civil procedure. : Een bruikbaar model voor harmonisatie?

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)


    textabstractIn deze bijdrage worden de nog weinig onderzochte bepalingen van de ALI/UNIDROIT Principles of transnational civil procedure bekeken die relevant zijn voor het internationaal privaatrecht. Deze Principles worden afgezet tegen bestaande internationale en Nederlandse IPR-regels. Voorts wor

  19. Chemical thermodynamics: principles and applications

    Ott, J. Bevan; Boerio-Goates, Juliana [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)


    Chemical Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications presents a thorough development of the principles of thermodynamics--an old science to which the authors include the most modem applications, along with those of importance in developing the science and those of historical interest. The text is written in an informal but rigorous style, including anecdotes about some of the great thermodynamicists (with some of whom the authors have had a personal relationship), and focuses on 'real' systems in the discussion and figures, in contrast to the generic examples that are often used in other textbooks. The book provides a basic review of thermodynamic principles, equations, and applications of broad interest. It covers the development of thermodynamics as one of the pre-eminent examples of an exact science. A discussion of the standard state that emphasizes its significance and usefulness is also included, as well as a more rigorous and indepth treatment of thermodynamics. Outlines the development of the principles of thermodynamics, including the most modem applications along with those of importance in developing the science and those of historical interest . Provides a basic review of thermodynamic principles, equations, and applications of broad interest. Treats thermodynamics as one of the preeminent examples of an exact science. Provides a more rigorous and indepth treatment of thermodynamics and discussion of a wider variety of applications than are found in more broadly based physical chemistry undergraduate textbooks. Includes examples in the text and exercises and problems at the end of each chapter to assist the student in learning the subject. (Author)

  20. Making Economics Relevant: A Project for Measuring Price Discrimination in Supermarkets

    Steel, William F.


    This note describes a supermarket discrimination study which involves students in a controversial question of concern to them and their community, requiring the application of economic principles to achieve a basic understanding of the meaning and implications of the problem and thus providing students with "relevant" economics education. (JH)

  1. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Hyman, Ludmila


    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hippocrates' First Aphorism: Reflections on Ageless Principles for the Practice of Medicine.

    Loscalzo, Joseph


    Hippocrates' first aphorism presents a structurally simple but conceptually complex series of observations on the art and science of medicine. Its principles are timeless, relevant to physicians in antiquity as well as in the current era. This article analyzes Hippocrates' aphorism in light of Galen's and others' commentaries on it and interprets the principles espoused by Hippocrates in light of the perennial challenges of the practice of medicine.

  3. Application of legal principles and medical ethics: multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction.

    Cheong, M A; Tay, S K


    In the management of complex medical cases such as a multifetal pregnancy, knowledge of the ethical and legal implications is important, alongside having competent medical skills. This article reviews these principles and applies them to scenarios of multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction. Such a discussion is not solely theoretical, but is also relevant to clinical practice. The importance of topics such as bioethical principles and informed consent are also herein addressed.

  4. Ultima Ratio as a Constitutional Principle

    Kaarlo Tuori


    Full Text Available The paper argues the criminal law notion of ultima ratio is an instance of a broader constitutional law principle of proportionality. However, ultima ratio is not the only principle relevant in a constitutional assessment of criminalization. The role of ultima ratio is to impose limitations on criminalization. But constitutional doctrines also exist which call for criminalization and might even be seen as establishing a criminalization obligation. The paper examines three constitutional counter weights to ultima ratio. The first of these is discussed in the context of state constitutions. This is the cluster of the interrelated constitutional doctrines of the horizontal effect of fundamental rights and the protective duty of the state, as well as the understanding of collective security as a basic right. These doctrines are analysed in the light of the praxis of the German Constitutional Court and the Finnish Constitutional Law Committee. The two other constitutional counterweights are discussed at the level of the transnational, European constitution. These are the principles of precaution and effectiveness. Este artículo defiende que el concepto de ultima ratio es una instancia más amplia del principio de proporcionalidad dentro del derecho constitucional. Sin embargo, el ultima ratio no es el único principio relevante en la valoración constitucional de la criminalización. El papel del ultima ratio es imponer límites a la criminalización. Pero también existen doctrinas constitucionales que exigen la criminalización e incluso dan pie a entender que obligan a establecer una pena. El documento examina tres contrapesos constitucionales al ultima ratio. En primer lugar, se analiza en el contexto de las constituciones estatales. Este es el conjunto de las doctrinas constitucionales interrelacionadas entre el efecto horizontal de los derechos fundamentales y el deber de protección del Estado, así como la asunción de la seguridad colectiva

  5. First principles studies on anatase surfaces

    Selcuk, Sencer

    behavior is essential for further improving the technologically relevant features of this material. We used first principles simulations to study the dynamical behavior of excess electrons near the anatase (101) and (001) surfaces, and their interfaces with water. Excess electrons prefer localizing on the (101) surface, also triggering water dissociation on this surface, while they strongly avoid the (001) surface.

  6. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    Dredge, Dianne


    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  7. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G


    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao


    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data.

  9. On the Principles in Chinese Website Translation: a Functionalist Approach%On the Principles in Chinese Website Translation: a Functionalist Approach



    Based on the relevant research of the website translation in China and the author's translation practice, the present article focuses on the study of the application and guidance of the functional theories in wehsite translation and proposes five basic principles in website translation.

  10. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R


    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  11. Principles of European Company Law

    Werlauff, Erik


    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  12. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    Thaller, L. H.


    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  13. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    Frank, A I


    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  14. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    Li, Chunfei


    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  15. [Genetics and the precautionary principle].

    Rosa, J


    It is very important to follow the Precautionary Principles with regard to genetics because of its fast development and of its impact in the public imaginer. In that regard gene grafts, OGM or recombinant drugs are pre-eminently be suspected to transmit human or animal viruses and/or to induce severe allergies. Pharmaceutical Industry has conducted large reflexions on such problems and are using drastic rules to prevent them. By contrast, academic research laboratories are handicapped by the problem of fund seeking. At the genetic disease level and mainly because the fast development of Predictive Medicine, patient and family councelling requires a great lot of reflexion and carefulness. Memorization of the presence of abnormal genes in the history of families also constitutes an important problem. We believe that, to be in accordance with the Precautionary Principles, an important work of formation and information is required.

  16. Optimization principles of dendritic structure

    Borst Alexander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendrites are the most conspicuous feature of neurons. However, the principles determining their structure are poorly understood. By employing cable theory and, for the first time, graph theory, we describe dendritic anatomy solely on the basis of optimizing synaptic efficacy with minimal resources. Results We show that dendritic branching topology can be well described by minimizing the path length from the neuron's dendritic root to each of its synaptic inputs while constraining the total length of wiring. Tapering of diameter toward the dendrite tip – a feature of many neurons – optimizes charge transfer from all dendritic synapses to the dendritic root while housekeeping the amount of dendrite volume. As an example, we show how dendrites of fly neurons can be closely reconstructed based on these two principles alone.

  17. The cosmological principle and honeycombs

    Criado, C [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Alamo, N [Departamento de Algebra, Geometria y Topologia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)


    We present the possibility that the gravitational growth of primordial density fluctuations leads to what can be considered a weak version of the cosmological principle. The large-scale mass distribution associated with this principle must have the geometrical structure known as a regular honeycomb. We give the most important parameters that characterize the honeycombs associated with the closed, open, and flat Friedmann-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker models. These parameters can be used to determine by means of observations which is the appropriate honeycomb. For each of these honeycombs, and for a nearly flat universe, we have calculated the probability that a randomly placed observer could detect the honeycomb as a function of the density parameters {omega}{sub 0} and {omega}{sub {lambda}}{sub 0}.

  18. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    VanSickle, Ronald L.


    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  19. Science and the struggle for relevance

    Hessels, L.K.


    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic resea

  20. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D


    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  1. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    VanSickle, Ronald L.


    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  2. Science and the struggle for relevance

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863


    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  3. Graphics and visualization principles & algorithms

    Theoharis, T; Platis, Nikolaos; Patrikalakis, Nicholas M


    Computer and engineering collections strong in applied graphics and analysis of visual data via computer will find Graphics & Visualization: Principles and Algorithms makes an excellent classroom text as well as supplemental reading. It integrates coverage of computer graphics and other visualization topics, from shadow geneeration and particle tracing to spatial subdivision and vector data visualization, and it provides a thorough review of literature from multiple experts, making for a comprehensive review essential to any advanced computer study.-California Bookw

  4. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

    Robinson, Peter K


    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed.

  5. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    Jenkins, J


    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  6. Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Pal, Soumik


    We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes' principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known results about sphere packing.

  7. Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Chen, Zhen-Qing; Pal, Soumik


    We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes’ principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known ...

  8. Design Principles for Responsive Web

    Aryal, Chandra Shekhar


    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis project was to study the responsive design paradigms and development approaches for creating web pages that are optimised for adaptive web design. The additional goals were to analyse the design principles and implement prototype to find out whether it is feasible to achieve responsive design for various screen resolution of devices. The theoretical part of the thesis work explains more details of primary development approaches and design consideratio...

  9. Geolocation Techniques Principles and Applications

    Gentile, Camillo; Raulefs, Ronald; Teolis, Carole


    Geolocation Techniques: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of geolocation technologies and techniques, from radio-frequency based to inertial based. The focus of this book is to provide an overview on the different types of infra-structure supported by most commercial localization systems as well as on the most popular computational techniques which these systems employ. This book can serve as a reference for scholarly activities such as teaching, self-learning, or research.

  10. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    Hansen, Eric W


    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  11. Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications

    Robinson, Peter K.


    Enzymes are biological catalysts (also known as biocatalysts) that speed up biochemical reactions in living organisms, and which can be extracted from cells and then used to catalyse a wide range of commercially important processes. This chapter covers the basic principles of enzymology, such as classification, structure, kinetics and inhibition, and also provides an overview of industrial applications. In addition, techniques for the purification of enzymes are discussed. PMID:26504249

  12. Molecular fluorescence principles and applications

    Valeur, Bernard


    This second edition of the well-established bestseller is completely updated and revised with approximately 30 % additional material, including two new chapters on applications, which has seen the most significant developments. The comprehensive overview written at an introductory level covers fundamental aspects, principles of instrumentation and practical applications, while providing many valuable tips. For photochemists and photophysicists, physical chemists, molecular physicists, biophysicists, biochemists and biologists, lecturers and students of chemistry, physic

  13. Principles of digital image synthesis

    Glassner, Andrew S


    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  14. Principles of nanoscience: an overview.

    Behari, Jitendra


    The scientific basis of nanotechnology as envisaged from the first principles is compared to bulk behavior. Development of nanoparticles having controllable physical and electronic properties has opened up possibility of designing artificial solids. Top down and bottom up approaches are emphasized. The role of nanoparticle (quantum dots) application in nanophotonics (photovoltaic cell), and drug delivery vehicle is discussed. Fundamentals of DNA structure as the prime site in bionanotechnological manipulations is also discussed. A summary of presently available devices and applications are presented.

  15. Politeness Principle and Business Correspondence



    With the development of the process of global economy, the international economic cooperation and exchanges are increasing. It is impossible that we meet al our trading partners face to face, a courteous and descent business letter can help to build a favorable business image for the company and do business better. This paper aims to analyze the politeness principle make people understand the importance of politeness in business letters better.

  16. In Defense of Four Principles Approach in Medical Ethics

    S Dabbagh


    Full Text Available "nPrinciplism, in general and Four Principles Approach in particular is largely discussed in current medical ethics. Accord­ing to principlism, the ethical relationship between physician and patient has to be categorized based on some princi­ples, the prin­ciples which are general, action-guiding and could help both the patient and the physician to arrange their ethical behav­ior. Four Principles Approach which is a principlistic view, has formulated the princi­ples which have to be considered in medi­cal ethics in the light of Rossian ethical framework as follows: respect for auton­omy, nonmalefi­cience, beneficence and jus­tice. Ethical Particularism, on the other hand, strongly criticizes princi­plism and repudi­ates the very idea of generalizabil­ity in the realm of ethics. According to particularists, the way in which a mor­ally relevant feature like fidelity and justice be­have in different ethical occasions is fully con­text-dependent so that they can­not be patternable in advance. It follows from this that fidelity, for instance, is not a good-making feature, generally speak­ing."nIn this paper, firstly, the Rossian ethics is discussed in order to make Four Principles Approach intelligible. Sec­ondly, the main particularists' argument against principlism is formulated. Finally, Particularists' argument is evalu­ated and its plau­si­bility is discussed.

  17. 论互联网行业相关市场界定--以3Q之争为例%The Discussion of Definition of Relevant Market in Internet Industry---Take 3Q's Dispute as An Example



    The dispute between Tencent and Qihoo is referred to as"the first antitrust case in Internet industry."The defi-nition of the relevant market in the case is the starting point to j udge whether Tencent should be accused for abuse of market dominance.The specificity of the Internet industry,with Tencent and Qihoo company as representatives,determines the method defined in the relevant market dominance is different from traditional methods.From the j udgment of 3 Q's dispute made by Guangdong Provincial People's Court,we can conclude the shortage of traditional alternatives analysis method in the definition of the relevant market in the Internet industry.It is necessary for us to innovate the method of defining the relevant market.%腾讯-360案被称作“互联网行业反垄断第一案”,对该案相关市场的界定是判断腾讯公司是否构成滥用市场支配地位的起点。以腾讯公司、360公司为代表的互联网行业自身特殊性决定了该行业相关市场界定的方法不同于传统方法。透过广东省高院对3Q之争做出的判决,可以发掘传统替代分析法在互联网行业相关市场界定中的不足,借助双边市场特性创新互联网行业相关市场界定的思路和方法是极其必要的。

  18. Cognitive Principles in Metonymic Headlines

    Elena S. Milkevich


    Full Text Available The article focuses on metonymy as a linguistic device. Traditionally metonymy is considered within the domain of stylistics. However, methods of cognitive linguistics help to penetrate into the essence of language phenomena and explain their nature as part f more general process of human cognition. Cognitive linguistics puts forward the hypothesis that the use of metonymy is governed by cognitive principles. They are based on our experience, perception and culture. The article presents a study of metonymy in political headlines and analyses the application of cognitive principles to metonymy. We analyse the cases of metonymy presented by proper nouns geographical names such as names of countries, capital, continents. We come to the conclusion that the concept «COUNTRY» is the metonymic vehicle in three types of models: most frequent types of metonymy are: «COUNTRY FOR ITS GOVERNMENT», «COUNTRY FOR EVENT» and «COUNTRY FOR ACTION». The concept «COUNTRY» can also be the target in metonymy types «CAPITAL FOR COUNTRY» and «CONTINENT FOR COUNTRIES». The leading cognitive principles in such types of metonymic relationships are: based on human experience «CONCRETE OVER ABSTRACT», «INERACTIONAL OVER NON-INTERACTIONAL»; based on perceptual selectivity «DOMINANT OVER LESS DOMINANT», «MORE OVER LESS»; based on cultural preference «CENTRAL OVER PERIPHERAL», «MORE IMPORTANT OVER LESS IMPORTANT».

  19. Analytical SAR-GMTI principles

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Majumder, Uttam K.; Barnes, Christopher; Sobota, David; Minardi, Michael


    This paper provides analytical principles to relate the signature of a moving target to parameters in a SAR system. Our objective is to establish analytical tools that could predict the shift and smearing of a moving target in a subaperture SAR image. Hence, a user could identify the system parameters such as the coherent processing interval for a subaperture that is suitable to localize the signature of a moving target for detection, tracking and geolocating the moving target. The paper begins by outlining two well-known SAR data collection methods to detect moving targets. One uses a scanning beam in the azimuth domain with a relatively high PRF to separate the moving targets and the stationary background (clutter); this is also known as Doppler Beam Sharpening. The other scheme uses two receivers along the track to null the clutter and, thus, provide GMTI. We also present results on implementing our SAR-GMTI analytical principles for the anticipated shift and smearing of a moving target in a simulated code. The code would provide a tool for the user to change the SAR system and moving target parameters, and predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image for a scene that is composed of both stationary and moving targets. Hence, the SAR simulation and imaging code could be used to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the above analytical principles to predict the properties of a moving target signature in a subaperture SAR image.

  20. European and Czech principles of contract law

    Balážová, Júlia


    8 Summary European and Czech Principles of Contract Law This thesis is focused on principles of contract law. In the first instance, it explains the theoretical conception of principles of law and adverts to their status in the Czech legal system. The second Chapter of the thesis dissertates about basic principles of the Czech private law starting with the principle of freedom of contract, ends with the principles of good faith and fair dealing. The main part of the thesis deals with the Euro...

  1. The "War on Terror" and the Principle of Distinction in International Humanitarian Law

    Noëlle Quénivet


    Full Text Available New security threats, which have surfaced in the past few years, are seriously jeopardizing the relevance and implementation of international humanitarian law. This paper investigates the impact of the war on terror on the principle of distinction in international humanitarian law, examining in particular whether the practices of some States, notably the US, have led to the emergence of new rules in relation to the principle of distinction. For this it looks at the principle from two separate, yet correlated, perspectives: a targeting and a detention perspective.

  2. Justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry

    Chernysh Iryna V.


    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study and justification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis policy of the state in the tourist industry. The article justifies and proves expediency of the use of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry. The article marks out the scientific problem of identification of principles and functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry by scientists, provides the composition and specifies the characteristics of principles of the anti-crisis state policy, and justifies functions of the anti-crisis state policy in the tourist industry; proves the necessity of identification of principles and functions when developing conceptual grounds of the anti-crisis state policy and establishes their interrelation and interdependence during realisation of the relevant concept.

  3. Bariatric Endocrinology: Principles of Medical Practice

    J. Michael Gonzalez-Campoy


    Full Text Available Obesity, is a chronic, biological, preventable, and treatable disease. The accumulation of fat mass causes physical changes (adiposity, metabolic and hormonal changes due to adipose tissue dysfunction (adiposopathy, and psychological changes. Bariatric endocrinology was conceived from the need to address the neuro-endocrinological derangements that are associated with adiposopathy, and from the need to broaden the scope of the management of its complications. In addition to the well-established metabolic complications of overweight and obesity, adiposopathy leads to hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, dysregulation of gut peptides including GLP-1 and ghrelin, the development of an inflammatory milieu, and the strong risk of vascular disease. Therapy for adiposopathy hinges on effectively lowering the ratio of orexigenic to anorexigenic signals reaching the the hypothalamus and other relevant brain regions, favoring a lower caloric intake. Adiposopathy, overweight and obesity should be treated indefinitely with the specific aims to reduce fat mass for the adiposity complications, and to normalize adipose tissue function for the adiposopathic complications. This paper defines the principles of medical practice in bariatric endocrinology—the treatment of overweight and obesity as means to treat adiposopathy and its accompanying metabolic and hormonal derangements.

  4. Cholangiocarcinoma:principles and current trends

    George N Zografos; Athanasios Farfaras; Flora Zagouri; Dimosthenis Chrysikos; Kostas Karaliotas


    BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal cancer ofthebiliaryepithelium,originatingfromtheliver(intrahepatic), at the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts (hilar) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts. It is a rare malignancy associated with poor prognosis. DATA SOURCES: WesearchedthePubMed/MEDLINEdatabase for relevant articles published from 1989 to 2008. The search terms used were related to "cholangiocarcinoma" and its"treatment". Although no language restrictions were imposed initially, for the full-text review and final analysis, our resources only permitted the review of articles published in English. This review deals with the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, the principles and the current trends. RESULTS:  The risks and prognostic factors, symptoms and differential diagnosis are thoroughly discussed. In addition, the tools of preoperative diagnosis such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, digital image analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are reviewed. Moreover, the treatment of CCA is discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The only curative treatment available is surgical management. Unfortunately, many patients present with unresectable tumors, the majority of whom die within a year of diagnosis. Surgical treatment involves major resections of the liver, pancreas and bile duct, with considerable mortality and morbidity. However, in selected cases and where indicated, appropriate management with aggressive surgery may achieve a good outcome with a prolonged survival expectancy.

  5. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.


    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  6. Intelligent computer systems in engineering design principles and applications

    Sunnersjo, Staffan


    This introductory book discusses how to plan and build useful, reliable, maintainable and cost efficient computer systems for automated engineering design. The book takes a user perspective and seeks to bridge the gap between texts on principles of computer science and the user manuals for commercial design automation software. The approach taken is top-down, following the path from definition of the design task and clarification of the relevant design knowledge to the development of an operational system well adapted for its purpose. This introductory text for the practicing engineer working in industry covers most vital aspects of planning such a system. Experiences from applications of automated design systems in practice are reviewed based on a large number of real, industrial cases. The principles behind the most popular methods in design automation are presented with sufficient rigour to give the user confidence in applying them on real industrial problems. This book is also suited for a half semester c...

  7. Characteristics of Basel Principles and Standards in Banking

    Branimir Kalaš


    Full Text Available International banking devotes considerable attention to the minimum supervisory standards, which banks have meet in order to get and therefore retains the license to do business. Today, banking organizations have to ensure three fundamental principles like security, stability and profit. Security and stability in banks is relevant, because only in this way they can gain the customer trust and confidence. The subject of this paper is importance and implementation of Basel standards in banking. First, it's presented history of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and basic principles for effective banking. Second, authors reflect three main Basel standards like Basel I, Basel II and Basel III and determine difference between them by using equations and tables.

  8. General principles in the interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Blood, Casey


    The three major theoretical principles of quantum mechanics relevant to its interpretation are: (T1), linearity; (T2), invariance under certain groups; and (T3) the orthogonality and isolation of the different branches of the state vector. These three imply the particle-like properties of mass, energy, momentum, spin, charge, and locality are actually properties of the state vector; and this in turn implies there is no evidence for the existence of particles. Experimentally there is no evidence for collapse (E1) and theoretically linearity prohibits collapse. One also has the experimentally verified probability law (E2), which is found to rule out the many-worlds interpretation. The failure of these three major interpretation, particles, collapse, and many-worlds, apparently implies an acceptable interpretation must be based on perception. Rather than being a separate principle, probability follows in this interpretation from a weak assumption on perception plus the combinatorics when an experiment is run man...

  9. The quantum beat principles and applications of atomic clocks

    Major, F


    This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...

  10. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    Szabo, Sandor


    rapid vascular changes (e.g. increased VP and blood flow), followed by cellular events (e.g. infiltration by acute and chronic inflammatory cells). Thus, PG and histamine, by increasing VP create a perivascular edema that dilutes and delays toxic agents reaching the subepithelial capillaries. Otherwise, damaging chemicals may induce severe early vascular injury resulting in blood flow stasis, hypoxia, and necrosis of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this complex response, increased mucus and/or bicarbonate secretion seem to cause luminal dilution of gastrotoxic chemicals that is further reinforced by a perivascular, histodilutional component. This mechanistic explanation would encompass the protective actions of diverse agents as PG, small doses of histamine, motility stimulants, and dilute irritants (i.e. "adaptive cytoprotection"). Thus, although markedly increased VP is pathologic, slight increase in VP seems to be protective, that is, a key element in the complex pathophysiologic response during acute gastroprotection. Over the years, "gastroprotection" was also applied to accelerated healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers without reduction of acid secretion. The likely main mechanism here is the binding of angiogenic growth factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) to the heparin-like structures of sucralfate and sofalcone. Thus, despite intensive research of the last 30 years, gastroprotection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers and preventing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence "gastric cytoprotection" research is still relevant.

  11. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators



    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  12. Who believes in the Taylor Principle?

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke


    The Livingston survey data are used to investigate whether economists’ forecasts are consistent with the Taylor principle. Consistency with the Taylor principle is strong for academics and Federal Reserve economists, and less strong for private-sector economists.......The Livingston survey data are used to investigate whether economists’ forecasts are consistent with the Taylor principle. Consistency with the Taylor principle is strong for academics and Federal Reserve economists, and less strong for private-sector economists....

  13. Onsager principle as a tool for approximation

    Masao Doi


    Onsager principle is the variational principle proposed by Onsager in his celebrated paper on the reciprocal relation. The principle has been shown to be useful in deriving many evolution equations in soft matter physics. Here the principle is shown to be useful in solving such equations approximately. Two examples are discussed: the diffusion dynamics and gel dynamics. Both examples show that the present method is novel and gives new results which capture the essential dynamics in the system.

  14. Who believes in the Taylor Principle?

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke


    The Livingston survey data are used to investigate whether economists’ forecasts are consistent with the Taylor principle. Consistency with the Taylor principle is strong for academics and Federal Reserve economists, and less strong for private-sector economists.......The Livingston survey data are used to investigate whether economists’ forecasts are consistent with the Taylor principle. Consistency with the Taylor principle is strong for academics and Federal Reserve economists, and less strong for private-sector economists....

  15. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  16. Review on Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser


    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some "thought" experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in understanding recent PLANCK observations on the cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta.

  17. Ethnography: principles, practice and potential.

    Draper, Jan


    Ethnography is a methodology that is gaining popularity in nursing and healthcare research. It is concerned with studying people in their cultural context and how their behaviour, either as individuals or as part of a group, is influenced by this cultural context. Ethnography is a form of social research and has much in common with other forms of qualitative enquiry. While classical ethnography was characteristically concerned with describing 'other' cultures, contemporary ethnography has focused on settings nearer to home. This article outlines some of the underlying principles and practice of ethnography, and its potential for nursing and healthcare practice.

  18. Slurry flow principles and practice

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard


    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  19. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    Kreith, Frank


    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  20. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    Slade, Paul G


    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  1. Dye laser principles with applications

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul


    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  2. Chemosensors Principles, Strategies, and Applications

    Wang, Binghe


    A thorough, accessible, and general overview of chemosensors Providing a comprehensive overview of chemosensors?organic molecules designed to bind and sense small molecules or metal ions?and their applications, Chemosensors: Principles, Strategies, and Applications is an accessible one-stop resource for analysts, clinicians, and graduate students studying advanced chemistry and chemosensing. Chemosensors function on a molecular level, generating a signal upon binding. The book reviews their synthesis, design, and applications for detecting biological and organic molecules as well as metal i

  3. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    Mason, Warren P


    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l-Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plat

  4. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I


    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  5. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    Lange, Oskar


    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  6. Dynamic Programming Foundations and Principles

    Sniedovich, Moshe


    Focusing on the modeling and solution of deterministic multistage decision problems, this book looks at dynamic programming as a problem-solving optimization method. With over 400 useful references, this edition discusses the dynamic programming analysis of a problem, illustrates the rationale behind this analysis, and clarifies the theoretical grounds that justify the rationale. It also explains the meaning and role of the concept of state in dynamic programming, examines the purpose and function of the principle of optimality, and outlines solution strategies for problems defiant of conventi

  7. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    Yazdani, M.


    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  8. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel


    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  9. Physical Consequences of Mathematical Principles

    Comay E.


    Full Text Available Physical consequences are derived from the following mathematical structures: the variational principle, Wigner’s classifications of the irreducible representations of the Poincar ́ e group and the duality invariance of the homogeneous Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the validity domain of special relativity. Hierarchical re- lations between physical theories are used. Some new results are pointed out together with their comparison with experimental data. It is also predicted that a genuine Higgs particle will not be detected.

  10. Nanofabrication principles, capabilities and limits

    Cui, Zheng


    This second edition of Nanofabrication is one of the most comprehensive introductions on nanofabrication technologies and processes. A practical guide and reference, this book introduces readers to all of the developed technologies that are capable of making structures below 100nm. The principle of each technology is introduced and illustrated with minimum mathematics involved. Also analyzed are the capabilities of each technology in making sub-100nm structures, and the limits of preventing a technology from going further down the dimensional scale. This book provides readers with a toolkit that will help with any of their nanofabrication challenges.

  11. Information security principles and practice

    Stamp, Mark


    Now updated-your expert guide to twenty-first century information security Information security is a rapidly evolving field. As businesses and consumers become increasingly dependent on complex multinational information systems, it is more imperative than ever to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data. Featuring a wide array of new information on the most current security issues, this fully updated and revised edition of Information Security: Principles and Practice provides the skills and knowledge readers need to tackle any information security challenge. Taking a pract

  12. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten


    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  13. Principles of modern digital design

    Lala, Parag K


    A major objective of this book is to fill the gap between traditional logic design principles and logic design/optimization techniques used in practice. Over the last two decades several techniques for computer-aided design and optimization of logic circuits have been developed. However, underlying theories of these techniques are inadequately covered or not covered at all in undergraduate text books. This book covers not only the ""classical"" material found in current text books but also selected materials that modern logic designers need to be familiar with.

  14. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    Mihas, Pavlos


    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  15. 29 CFR 1604.1 - General principles.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 1604.1 Section 1604.1 Labor Regulations... OF SEX § 1604.1 General principles. (a) References to “employer” or “employers” in this part 1604 state principles that are applicable not only to employers but also to labor organizations and...

  16. 33 CFR 385.9 - Implementation principles.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation principles. 385.9... Responsibilities § 385.9 Implementation principles. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management... with this part, and based on the following principles: (a) Individual projects shall be...

  17. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed...

  18. 7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guiding principles. 3430.31 Section 3430.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance application review...

  19. 20 CFR 401.140 - General principles.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 401.140 Section 401.140... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.140 General principles. When no law... follow FOIA principles to resolve that question. We do this to insure uniform treatment in all...

  20. 29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General principles. The following general principles will be observed in granting or denying requests for...

  1. 24 CFR 3282.402 - General principles.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 3282.402... and Remedial Actions § 3282.402 General principles. (a) Nothing in this subpart or in these... manufactured home manufacturers to provide remedial actions under this subpart is limited by the principle...

  2. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    Campbell, J. Arthur


    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  3. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.


    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  4. Cooperative Principle in Oral English Teaching

    Zhou, Mai


    The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…

  5. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.6 General principles. The following general principles apply to all environmental marketing claims, including, but not limited to, those described in § 260.7. In addition, § 260.7... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 260.6 Section...

  6. Franck-Condon principle for heavy-quark hadron decays

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J; General, Ignacio G; Wang, Ping


    The Franck-Condon principle governing molecular electronic transitions is utilized to study heavy-quark hadron decays. This provides a direct assessment of the wavefunction of the parent hadron if the momentum distribution of the open-flavor decay products is measured. Model-independent results include an experimental distinction between quarkonium and exotica (hybrids, tetraquarks...), an off-plane correlator signature for tetraquarks and a direct probe of the sea quark orbital wavefunction relevant in the discussion of 3S_1 or 3P_0 decay mechanisms.

  7. Testing the principle of equivalence by supernova neutrinos

    Guzzo, M M; Tomás, R


    We study the possible impact of the neutrino oscillation which could be induced by a tiny violation of equivalence principle (VEP) for neutrinos emitted from supernova driven by gravitational collapse. Due to the absence of any significant indication of neutrino oscillation in the SN1987A data, we obtain sever bounds on relevant VEP parameters \\delta \\gamma\\lsim O(10^{-31}) for massless or degenerated neutrinos and \\delta \\gamma \\lsim O(10^{-16})\\times [\\Delta m^2/10^{-5} eV^2] for massive neutrinos.

  8. Application of Relevance theory to translation



    Within the framework of relevance theory, translation is regarded as a relevance-seeking communication. It involves three participant relationships:the source speaker, the translator and the target hearers. The translator is supposed to create a context that the target hearer can infer the intention of the source speaker. Comparing translation theories which fail to pay attention to the relevance between the source speakers and the target hearers, Relevance Theory is a relatively overall account of translation. For one thing, some points concerning the Relevance Theory are capable of facilitating the researches to the present translation field. For another, the information of the original text will be understood and comprehended accurately and promptly on the basis of the relevant theory.

  9. Control principles of complex systems

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László


    A reflection of our ultimate understanding of a complex system is our ability to control its behavior. Typically, control has multiple prerequisites: it requires an accurate map of the network that governs the interactions between the system's components, a quantitative description of the dynamical laws that govern the temporal behavior of each component, and an ability to influence the state and temporal behavior of a selected subset of the components. With deep roots in dynamical systems and control theory, notions of control and controllability have taken a new life recently in the study of complex networks, inspiring several fundamental questions: What are the control principles of complex systems? How do networks organize themselves to balance control with functionality? To address these questions here recent advances on the controllability and the control of complex networks are reviewed, exploring the intricate interplay between the network topology and dynamical laws. The pertinent mathematical results are matched with empirical findings and applications. Uncovering the control principles of complex systems can help us explore and ultimately understand the fundamental laws that govern their behavior.

  10. Implications of Relevance Theory to English Reading



    Reading is a style of communication between reader and writer while relevance theory is a new approach to communi⁃cation. Based on relevance theory, we can paraphrase reading as followings: reading comprehension is a process of communica⁃tion between reader and writer; a process of making inference from the ostensive-inference communication; a process of seeking optimal relevance on the part of the reader.

  11. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen


    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  12. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Howard Greisdorf


    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  13. Precautionary Principle and Mars Sample Return

    Arnould, Jacques

    Many space missions have today as an aim the exploration and the knowledge of the planet Mars; consequently, the return of Martian samples seems one of the next possible stages, at the horizon of about fifteen years. Devoted in the search of traces of life, passed or presents, such a mission presents a true stake not only from the scientific point of view but also from the ethical. Right now, the COSPAR specified the precautions to be taken to avoid or, at the very least, to limit the risk of contamination of the terrestrial biosphere by pathogenic the hitherto unknown ones. Are these recommendations sufficient? Do they concern only the scientific prudence or take truly counts of the good of humanity and the life on Earth? In the final analysis, is the incurred risk, even weak, to endanger this life worth the sorrow of it? Hitherto confined with the scientific circles of astronomy and astrobiology, this questioning could move the public opinion and this one would undoubtedly call some with the principle of precaution. In what this recourse would be relevant? The precaution aims indeed the hypothetical risks, not yet confirmed scientifically, but of which the possibility can be identified starting from empirical and scientific knowledge; such is well the case. But is it for as much possible to apply this principle to the case of the Martian samples, insofar as the objective of such a mission remains for the strictly scientific moment? Is it possible to manage the risks in the same manner when it is a question of appropriation and exploitation of the natural resources and energy (GMO, nuclear energy, etc.) and when it acts, in the case of Mars, that only search of the knowledge? How to manage the fundamental difference between the risks voluntarily taken and arbitrarily imposed, clarified and keep silent? The case of the return of the samples leads to the borders of the contemporary interrogations on the stakes and the benefits of science, on the share of risk

  14. Internal symmetry in protein structures: prevalence, functional relevance and evolution.

    Balaji, Santhanam


    Symmetry has been found at various levels of biological organization in the protein structural universe. Numerous evolutionary studies have proposed connections between internal symmetry within protein tertiary structures, quaternary associations and protein functions. Recent computational methods, such as SymD and CE-Symm, facilitate a large-scale detection of internal symmetry in protein structures. Based on the results from these methods, about 20% of SCOP folds, superfamilies and families are estimated to have structures with internal symmetry (Figure 1d). All-β and membrane proteins fold classes contain a relatively high number of unique instances of internal symmetry. In addition to the axis of symmetry, anecdotal evidence suggests that, the region of connection or contact between symmetric units could coincide with functionally relevant sites within a fold. General principles that underlie protein internal symmetry and their connections to protein structural integrity and functions remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning with Uncertainty - Gaussian Processes and Relevance Vector Machines

    Candela, Joaquin Quinonero


    This thesis is concerned with Gaussian Processes (GPs) and Relevance Vector Machines (RVMs), both of which are particular instances of probabilistic linear models. We look at both models from a Bayesian perspective, and are forced to adopt an approximate Bayesian treatment to learning for two...... family of approximations to Gaussian Processes, Reduced Rank Gaussian Processes (RRGPs), which take the form of nite extended linear models; we show that GPs are in general equivalent to in nite extended linear models. We also show that RRGPs result in degenerate GPs, which suffer, like RVMs...... reasons. The first reason is the analytical intractability of the full Bayesian treatment and the fact that we in principle do not want to resort to sampling methods. The second reason, which incidentally justifies our not wanting to sample, is that we are interested in computationally efficient models...

  16. Making the history of psychology clinically and philosophically relevant.

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika


    The author discusses ways to make the history of psychology course relevant for a clinical psychology doctoral program within a multidenominational Protestant theological seminary. She uses a personalist orientation to emphasize the need to integrate psychology, philosophy, and theology. She differentiates among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, impersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of experience. She illustrates the rich multidisciplinary historical roots of contemporary psychology by tracing the the history of the term psychology and examining its meanings in the existential psychology of Søren Kierkegaard and in the 19th-century novel. She includes brief histories of the "new psychology" and of the unconscious. She describes how she uses the field of psychotheological integration to illustrate principles of historiography and summarizes resources used to supplement traditional textbooks.

  17. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    ZHANG Ming-Jiang; ZHAO Hong-Xia; FANG Jian-Hui; MA Shan-Jun; LU Kai


    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  18. Design principles for data- and change-oriented organisational analysis in workplace health promotion.

    Inauen, A; Jenny, G J; Bauer, G F


    This article focuses on organizational analysis in workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. It shows how this analysis can be designed such that it provides rational data relevant to the further context-specific and goal-oriented planning of WHP and equally supports individual and organizational change processes implied by WHP. Design principles for organizational analysis were developed on the basis of a narrative review of the guiding principles of WHP interventions and organizational change as well as the scientific principles of data collection. Further, the practical experience of WHP consultants who routinely conduct organizational analysis was considered. This resulted in a framework with data-oriented and change-oriented design principles, addressing the following elements of organizational analysis in WHP: planning the overall procedure, data content, data-collection methods and information processing. Overall, the data-oriented design principles aim to produce valid, reliable and representative data, whereas the change-oriented design principles aim to promote motivation, coherence and a capacity for self-analysis. We expect that the simultaneous consideration of data- and change-oriented design principles for organizational analysis will strongly support the WHP process. We finally illustrate the applicability of the design principles to health promotion within a WHP case study.

  19. [The precautionary principle and its legal implications in the area of food safety].

    Belvèze, H


    The concept of the 'precautionary principle' is not independent of the general principles of risk assessment and cannot be used as a justification for circumventing the legal obligations established at international level by World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements. On the contrary, the principle, which allows policy-makers to act without waiting until all the relevant scientific information is available, is included in the discipline established by the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and confirmed by jurisprudence. Sanitary measures adopted provisionally in a context of scientific uncertainty should nevertheless endeavour to comply with the general principles of risk management established by the SPS Agreement, i.e. they should be appropriate, non-discriminatory, consistent and not more trade-restrictive than required. The Codex Alimentarius has been working for several years to develop a set of principles for the application of risk assessment, including the precautionary principle when information is insufficient or incomplete. These principles will serve as a guide first for the work of the Codex and subsequently for governments. The European Union has made provision for the application of the precautionary principle, in accordance with circumstances, in Community food legislation, while remaining in compliance with the legal obligations stemming from the SPS Agreement.

  20. On the principles of quantum mechanics

    Sakai, E


    We propose five principles as the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: principle of space and time, Galilean principle of relativity, Hamilton's principle, wave principle, and probability principle. We deductively establish quantum mechanics on the basis of them. Then we adopt the following four guide lines. First, we do not premise the relations between dynamical variables in classical mechanics. Second, since energy and momentum are quantitatively defined in classical mechanics, we define them in quantum mechanics so that the corresponding conservation laws are satisfied in a coupling system of a quantum particle and a classical particle. Third, we define Planck's constant as a proportionality constant between energy and frequency due to one of Einstein-de Broglie formulas. Fourth, we define mass as a proportionality constant between momentum and velocity. We have succeeded to obtain the canonical commutation relations and the Schroedinger equation for a particle in an external field in the definiti...