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Sample records for relevant adriamycin concentrations

  1. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  2. Continuous-infusion adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.S.; Chawla, S.P.; Ewer, M.S.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

  3. Adriamycin nephrosis and contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.; Golman, K.; Hemmingsen, L.; Larsen, S.; Skaarup, P.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Centralsygehuset, Nykoebing Falster; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1990-01-01

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT and sodium) were followed for 9 days after intravenous injection of either diatrizoate, iohexol, or saline in 27 Wistar rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin 42 days before. Another 9 rats exposed to neither Adriamycin nor contrast media served as controls. None of the contrast media caused further increased albuminuria of significance, whereas both induced significantly increased excretion of all 5 tubular components. The excretion of NAG and sodium was significantly higher following diatrizoate than following iohexol. From 24 h post injection there was no significantly greater excretion of any of the components after either diatrizoate or iohexol than after saline among the rats given Adriamycin. At the end of day 9 after contrast medium injection neither serum sodium, potassium, glucose, urea, creatinine, nor albumin revealed any contrast media related changes. Kidney histology showed quantitatively larger lesions in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and contrast media than in kidneys exposed to Adriamycin and saline. There were no differences between the two contrast media groups. It is thus concluded, that both high osmolar ionic and low osmolar non-ionic contrast media cause temporary tubular dysfunction but no further glomerular dysfunction in rats with nephrosis induced by Adriamycin. The histologic findings indicate that both media may worsen non-reversible renal lesions. (orig.)

  4. Adriamycin resistance and radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, J.A.; Harris, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Mammalian cells (V79) in culture developed resistance to Adriamycin during continuous exposure to low levels of drug. This resistance was accompanied by change in x-ray survival properties which, in turn, depended upon the isolation of subpopulations from resistant sub lines. These changes in x-ray survival properties were characterized by reduced D/sub Q/ values and a decrease in the D/sub O/. However, these changes were not observed together in the same cell sub line. Adriamycin-resistant cells did not appear to be radiation damage repair deficient. Other phenotypic changes (cell morphology, DNA content and chromosome number) suggested mutational events coincident with the development of Adriamycin resistance

  5. Lisinopril Protects Against the Adriamycin Nephropathy and Reverses the Renalase Reduction: Potential Role of Renalase in Adriamycin Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxun Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the potential role of renalase in adriamycin nephropathy and the effect of lisinopril on the regulation of renalase. Methods: Adriamycin nephropathy was induced in male Wistar rats (n=12 by a single injection of adriamycin at 2 mg/kg body weight. Rats were then randomly assigned to a model group or a treatment group, to which were administered distilled water or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, respectively, for 12 weeks. Six normal rats served as controls. At the end of study, physiological parameters and systolic blood pressure were measured. Glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury were assessed by histopathology Renalase protein expression in kidney was quantified by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The serum concentration and urinary excretion of renalase were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In model group rats, proteinuria and systolic blood pressure were elevated. Increased serum renalase concentration was observed; however, renalase protein expression in the kidney was significantly decreased. Compared with the model group, decreased proteinuria, lower systolic blood pressure, and fewer morphologic lesions were detected in the treatment group. Although levels of serum renalase were similar, accumulation of renalase in urine and kidney tissue increased notably in the treatment group compared with the model group. Conclusions: This study suggests that renalase may be involved in the process of adriamycin-induced renal injuries. Lisinopril may attenuate adriamycin-induced kidney injury by controlling blood pressure, which may be partially attributed to the renalase expression and secretion.

  6. Lycopene Usage as a Treatment for Kidney Dysfunctions Induced by Adriamycin in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Adriamycin is chemically synthesized antibiotic anthracycline and due to the successful action of it as a chemotherapy agent, several strategies have been tried to prevent or attenuate the side effects of adriamycin. Lycopene, a carotenoid naturally occurring in tomatoes, has attracted considerable attention as an antioxidant. Rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, ravaged and injected with vehicles, lycopene group, received lycopene (5 mg/kg body weight/day by gavages) and injected intra peritoneum (ip) with 0.5 ml of vehicle for 7 weeks. Adriamycin group injected with adriamycin (4 doses of ip 4 mg/kg body weight at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks) or adriamycin and lycopene group received both lycopen and adriamycin dosage. In adriamycin groups, plasma creatinine, urea and malondialdeyde (MDA) levels were increased significantly, total proteins level was decreased and serum nitric oxide (NO) level was increased significantly. Moreover, blood level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) were reduced significantly. Furthermore, renal MDA and NO concentrations were increased significantly and levels of GSH, SOD, CAT and GSHPx were reduced significantly. Protracted treatment of adriamycin-treated rats with lycopene resulted in a significant modulation in all plasma, serum, blood and renal tested parameters. These results have suggested that lycopene modulated the kidney damage induced by the adriamycin nephrotoxicant in male rats. The mechanisms of lycopene overcome against adriamycin-induced toxicity were proved to be due to inhibition of lipid per oxidation (LP) and GSH depletion. The present study demonstrated a beneficial effect of lycopene treatment against adriamycin-induced kidney disorders by reversing the oxidative stress

  7. Positive correlation between decreased cellular uptake, NADPH-glutathione reductase activity and adriamycin resistance in Ehrlich ascites tumor lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheulen, M E; Hoensch, H; Kappus, H; Seeber, S; Schmidt, C G

    1987-01-01

    From a wild type strain of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EATWT) sublines resistant to daunorubicin (EATDNM), etoposide (EATETO), and cisplatinum (EATCIS) have been developed in vivo. Increase in survival and cure rate caused by adriamycin (doxorubicin) have been determined in female NMRI mice which were inoculated i.p. with EAT cells. Adriamycin concentrations causing 50% inhibition of 3H-thymidine (ICT) and 3H-uridine incorporation (ICU) and intracellular adriamycin steady-state concentrations (SSC) were measured in vitro. Adriamycin resistance increased and SSC decreased in the following sequence: EATWT - EATCIS - EATDNM - EATETO. When ICT and ICU were corrected for intracellular adriamycin concentrations in consideration of the different SSC (ICTc, ICUc), ICTc and ICUc still varied up to the 3.2 fold in EATCIS, EATDNM and EATETO in comparison to EATWT. Thus, in addition to different SSC other factors must be responsible for adriamycin resistance. Therefore, enzymes which may play a role in the cytotoxicity related to adriamycin metabolism (NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, NADPH-glutathione reductase, NADP-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) were measured. In contrast to the other parameters determined, NADPH-glutathione reductase was significantly (p less than 0.01) increased up to the 3.2 fold parallel to adriamycin resistance as determined by increase in life span, cure rate, ICTc, and ICUc, respectively. It is concluded that high activities of NADPH-glutathione reductase may contribute to an increase in adriamycin resistance of malignant tumors.

  8. COMBINED INVITRO MODULATION OF ADRIAMYCIN RESISTANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, C; MULDER, NH; TIMMERBOSSCHA, H; PETERS, WHM; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    In a P-glycoprotein-negative cell line, GLC4-Adr90, a 75-fold acquired Adriamycin (Adr) resistance coincided with a reduced cellular Adr level, an increased detoxifying capacity (glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) elevated), and a reduced topoisomerase-II (topo-II) activity

  9. Astragaloside IV liposomes ameliorates adriamycin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The rats were given a single tail intravenous injection of adriamycin (6 mg/kg) within 1 week, and then divided into four groups including normal, model, benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes group. They were all orally administered dosage of benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes once daily for 8 weeks.

  10. Study of the effect of vitamins C and E on the radiation response of multicell spheroids treated with Adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Stroude, E.; Inch, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Treatment with Adriamycin (0.6 μg/ml for 60 min) was not cytotoxic to multicell spheroids. At this concentration, the drug was not a sensitizer of hypoxic cells in V79 multicell spheroids, which were irradiated at 37 0 C in medium equilibrated with a mixture of 5% O 2 :3% CO 2 :92% N 2 . The addition of vitamins C and E did not increase the radiation sensitivity of Adriamycin-treated spheroids. In some experiments, catalase was included in the growth medium to overcome the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide, which is known to be formed in solutions containing vitamin C and also in Adriamycin solutions treated with vitamin C or microsomal preparations. As a result of these experiments, it was found that catalase increased the radiation killing in multicell spheroids

  11. Pharmacokinetics of adriamycin vaginal suppository on uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tsuneo; Kiyozuka, Yasuhiko; Katakami, Yoshiaki

    1986-01-01

    Vaginal suppositories of Adriamycin (ADM, 5 mg), for reducing the capacity for repair from sublethal damage of X-ray-irradiated cells, were prepared using Wipepsol S-55 as the vehicle, and were intravaginally administered to patients with advanced uterine cervical cancer, and their pharmacokinetics and clinical effects were studied. The ADM concentration in the uterine cervical cancer tissues indicated high levels (17 to 566 μg/g), and migration into the cardinal ligament and regional lymph nodes was noted. However, little ADM was detected in serum (0 to 0.14 μg/g), probably because of its molecular weight and excellent tissue absorbance, and no side effects, such as cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression due to consecutive administration were detected. Histologically, the effect obtained when administered alone was limited, administration in combination with radiotherapy being more effective. Accordingly, radiotherapy of advanced uterine cervical cancer with concomitant administration of ADM vaginal suppositories seems to bring about a more powerful antitumoral effect with fewer systemic side effects. (author)

  12. Pharmacokinetics of adriamycin vaginal suppository on uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tsuneo; Kiyozuka, Yasuhiko; Katakami, Yoshiaki

    1986-03-01

    Vaginal suppositories of Adriamycin (ADM, 5 mg), for reducing the capacity for repair from sublethal damage of X-ray-irradiated cells, were prepared using Wipepsol S-55 as the vehicle, and were intravaginally administered to patients with advanced uterine cervical cancer, and their pharmacokinetics and clinical effects were studied. The ADM concentration in the uterine cervical cancer tissues indicated high levels (17 to 566 ..mu..g/g), and migration into the cardinal ligament and regional lymph nodes was noted. However, little ADM was detected in serum (0 to 0.14 ..mu..g/g), probably because of its molecular weight and excellent tissue absorbance, and no side effects, such as cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression due to consecutive administration were detected. Histologically, the effect obtained when administered alone was limited, administration in combination with radiotherapy being more effective. Accordingly, radiotherapy of advanced uterine cervical cancer with concomitant administration of ADM vaginal suppositories seems to bring about a more powerful antitumoral effect with fewer systemic side effects.

  13. Transport of Fluorescently Labeled Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Saturated Granular Media at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the mobility of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in granular media at environmentally relevant concentration of surfactant, which represents a critical knowledge gap in employing ENPs for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. In this study, transpo...

  14. Effects of liposome-adriamycin (L-ADM) and thermotherapy on glioma cells: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng-hua SHI; Jian-ning ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Objective  To observe the effects of liposome-adriamycin (L-ADM) and thermotherapy on proliferation and apoptosis of SWO-38 glioma cells. Methods  The SWO-38 glioma cells were cultivated in vitro. The effects of thermotherapy (43℃), ADM chemotherapy, L-ADM chemotherapy, thermotherapy + ADM chemotherapy, and thermotherapy + L-ADM chemotherapy on the cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed. The working concentration of ADM and L-ADM, and the cell proliferation rate were determined by MTT...

  15. Combination radiation-adriamycin therapy: renoprival growth, functional and structural effects in the immature mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, S.S.; Moskowitz, P.S.; Canty, E.L.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    The normal tissue effects of radiation-adriamycin combination therapy were studied in the renoprival weanling mouse in an attempt to determine whether compensatory renal growth inhibition from radiation and chemotherapy could be associated with structural or functional abnormalities. Weanling BLc/sub Fl/ mice underwent unilateral nephrectomy, then single fraction renal irradiation, LD 1/21 doses of adriamycin in 5 daily doses, or combination therapy with radiation and adriamycin. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 12, and 24 weeks. Compensatory renal growth, body growth, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal morphology by light microscopy were evaluated. Significant compensatory renal growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy exceeded that produced by adriamycin alone and radiation alone, at all time periods (p < 0.005). Body growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy or adriamycin alone significantly exceeded that produced by radiation alone (p < 0.005). Kidney and body growth inhibition from radiation-adriamycin therapy was proportionately severe. Kidney growth inhibition proportionately exceeded body growth inhibition with radiation alone; body growth inhibition proportionately exceeded kidney growth inhibition with adriamycin alone. Comparable azotemia developed by 24 weeks in both the radiation alone (p < .005) and radiation-adriamycin animals (p < 0.005), but not in the adriamycin only animals. Morphologic alterations consisting of increased glomerular density, tubular atrophy, and stromal fibrosis occurred with greater severity in the radiation-adriamycin animals than in the radiation only animals by 24 weeks; no alterations were seen in the adriamycin only animals. Using histologic criteria 750 rad plus adriamycin produced comparable injury as seen with 1000 rad alone, thus adriamycin produced an apparent dose-modifying factor of 1.33

  16. Biological properties of adriamycin bound to biodegradable polymeric carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, C.J.T.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Grootoonk, J.; Grootoonk, J.; Duncan, R.; Hume, I.C.; Bhakoo, M.; Bouma, J.M.W.; Feijen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    Three different conjugates having adriamycin (ADR) bound to the side chain carboxyl groups of high-molecular weight poly (¿--glutamic acid) (PGA) either directly or by interpolation of GlyGly and GlyGlyGlyLeu spacers, respectively, were compared with respect to immunogenicity and cytotoxicity in

  17. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ADRIAMYCIN BOUND TO BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERIC CARRIERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOES, CJT; GROOTOONK, J; DUNCAN, R; HUME, IC; BHAKOO, M; BOUMA, JMW; FEIJEN, J

    Three different conjugates having adriamycin (ADR) bound to the side chain carboxyl groups of high-molecular weight poly(alpha-L-glutamic acid) (PGA) either directly or by interpolation of GlyGly and GlyGlyGlyLeu spacers, respectively, were compared with respect to immunogenicity and cytotoxicity in

  18. Radiologic evaluation of adriamycin induced toxic cardiomyopathy in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Joo; Moon, Young Hee; Kang, Kyung Jin; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1992-01-01

    The cardiomyopathy associated with Adriamycin is frequently fatal and full clinical recovery is uncommon. To evaluate the radiological manifestation and the outcome of Adriamycin induced cardiac toxicity, we retrospectively reviewed the serial chest X-ray films of children treated with Adriamycin. Among 154 children with leukemia, fourteen patients developed clinical and radiologic evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). Six out of 14 (43%) died of CHF within 2 weeks after attack and eight children survived after their acute episodes of CHF, were controlled following digoxin and diuretic therapy. Despite the improving clinical evidence of heart failure, the follow-up chest roentgenograms of these 8 children showed definite cardiomegaly as compared with the pre-treatment chest X-ray. Three children among 8 had minimal cardiomegaly and the remaining five children showed persistent, marked cardiomegaly during the period of 9-25 months of follow up. In summary, when CHF develops during chemotherapy in leukemic children, the possibility of Adriamycin induced cardiac toxicity should be suspected. Our findings showed that persistence of cardiomegaly represented significant cardiomyopathy despite clinical improvement of CHF

  19. Adriamycin-induced oxidative stress is prevented by mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbati, Reza; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mohammadian Roshan, Noema; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseinian, Sara; Karimi, Sareh; Beheshti, Farimah

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress is considered to have a crucial role in induction of nephropathy. Curcuma longa (C. longa) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of N.sativa and C. longa on the oxidative stress induced by Adriamycin (ADR) in rat kidney. The animals were divided into 6 groups: control (CO), ADR, Adriamycin+ Vitamin C (ADR+VIT C), C. longa extract+ Adriamycin (C.LE+ADR), N. sativa extract+ Adriamycin (N.SE+ADR) and C. longa extract+ N. sativa extract + Adriamycin (N.S+C.L+ADR). ADR (5mg/kg) was injected intravenously, whereas VITC (100mg/kg) and extract of C. longa (1000mg/kg) and N. sativa (200mg/kg) were administrated orally. Finally, the renal tissue, urine and blood samples were collected and submitted to measure of redox markers, osmolarity and renal index. The renal content of total thiol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased in Adriamycin group compared to control group. The renal content of total thiol and SOD activity significantly enhanced and MDA concentration reduced in treated-mixed extract of C. longa and N. sativa along with ADR group compared to ADR group. The mixed extract did not restore increased renal index percentage induced by ADR. There also was no significant difference in urine and serum osmolarity between the groups. hydro-alcoholic extracts of N.sativa and C.longa led to an improvement in ADR-induced oxidative stress and mixed administration of the extracts enhanced the aforementioned therapeutic effect.

  20. Effect of Hydroalcholic Extract of Curcuma longa on Adriamycin-Induced Renal Damage in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mohebbati; A.A. Abbasnezhad; A. Khajavi Rad; M. Haghshenas; M.R. Khazdeir

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Adriamycin is one of the anti-cancer medications. Nevertheless, the medication causes renal damage. Curcuma longa has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Curcuma longa on renal damage due to Adriamycin in the rat. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 32 male Wistar rats were studied. Via simple random method, the rats were divided into four groups including control, Adriamycin (5mg/Kg)...

  1. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  2. [Influence of reverse osmosis concentrate on physicochemical parameters of Sini decoction material system and their relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tang-Hui; Zhang, Liu-Hong; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei; Li, Bo; Lu, Ming-Ming

    2014-04-01

    By studying the process of reverse osmosis system for traditional Chinese medicine materials physicochemical parameters affecting the osmotic pressure of its relevance, new compound system reverse osmosis process design methods were explored. Three concentrations materials for high, middle and low were dubbed with Sini decoction as a model drug, and pretreated by 50 thousand relative molecular weight cut-off ultrafiltration membrane. The viscosity, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, TDS, pH value and osmotic pressure of each sample were determined after the reverse osmosis to study the physical and chemical parameters between their respective correlations with the osmotic pressure, and characterized by HPLC chromatograms showing changes before and after the main chemical composition of samples of reverse osmosis. Conductivity-osmotic pressure, salinity-osmotic pressure of the linear correlation coefficient, TDS-osmotic pressure between the three sets of parameters were 0.963 8, 0.932 7, 0.973 7, respectively. Reverse osmosis concentrate and its characteristic spectrum ultrafiltrate HPLC similarity were up to 0. 968 or more, except the low concentrations. There is a significant correlation between the three physicochemical parameters (conductivity, salinity, TDS) and osmotic pressure of each sample system, and there is also significant linear correlation between salinity, conductivity, TDS. The original chemical composition of Sini decoction material concentrate was completely remained after the process of reverse osmosis.

  3. Determination of the relevant market as a criterion of assessment of concentration effects in the practice of antitrust authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Kostecka-Jurczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relevant market is the first and the most important step in antimonopoly proceedings due to the fact that the market position of an enterprise is always determined from the relevant market perspective. In respect of mergers, establishing the relevant market is essential in analysing whether the aim of the concentration is to distort and limit competition on the market. The author of the article focuses on describing methods for determining the relevant market applied by antimonopoly authorities.

  4. Direct toxic effects of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on cardiac myocytes at clinically relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeyuki; Zhang Xiuquan; Kadono, Toshie; Matsuoka, Nobuhiro; Rollins, Douglas; Badger, Troy; Rodesch, Christopher K.; Barry, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Our goal was to determine if clinically relevant concentrations of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (CSE) have direct deleterious effects on ventricular myocytes during simulated ischemia, and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Methods: CSE was prepared with a smoking chamber. Ischemia was simulated by metabolic inhibition (MI) with cyanide (CN) and 0 glucose. Adult rabbit and mouse ventricular myocyte [Ca 2+ ] i was measured by flow cytometry using fluo-3. Mitochondrial [Ca 2+ ] was measured with confocal microscopy, and Rhod-2 fluorescence. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) was detected by TMRM fluorescence and myocyte contracture. Myocyte oxidative stress was quantified by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence with confocal microscopy. Results: CSE 0.1% increased myocyte contracture caused by MI. The nicotine concentration (HPLC) in 0.1% CSE was 15 ng/ml, similar to that in humans after smoking cigarettes. CSE 0.1% increased mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake, and increased the susceptibility of mitochondria to the MPT. CSE 0.1% increased DCF fluorescence in isolated myocytes, and increased [Ca 2+ ] i in paced myocytes exposed to 2.0 mM CN, 0 glucose (P-MI). These effects were inhibited by the superoxide scavenger Tiron. The effect of CSE on [Ca 2+ ] i during P-MI was also prevented by ranolazine. Conclusions: CSE in clinically relevant concentrations increases myocyte [Ca 2+ ] i during simulated ischemia, and increases myocyte susceptibility to the MPT. These effects appear to be mediated at least in part by oxidative radicals in CSE, and likely contribute to the effects of cigarette smoke to increase myocardial infarct size, and to decrease angina threshold

  5. How cyclophosphamide at environmentally relevant concentration influences Daphnia magna life history and its proteome.

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    Małgorzata Grzesiuk

    Full Text Available The waste of commonly used medicines is known to contaminate freshwater ecosystems. Pharmaceuticals can be toxic, mutagenic, or modifying to freshwater organisms even at low concentrations if consider their permanent presence in the environment. Chemotherapeutics used to treat cancer, and in particular alkylating agents, contribute significantly to this form of pollution, the latter introducing cytotoxic and/or mutagenic lesions to the DNA and RNA of organisms which can be disruptive to their cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the alkylating anticancer agent cyclophosphamide (CP on Daphnia magna clones. We evaluated the life history parameters and protein profiles of this crustacean following exposure to environmentally relevant CP concentration of 10 ng L-1. Even at this low concentration, the alkylating agent caused modification of the life history parameters and proteome profile of the Daphnia. These changes were clone-specific and involved growth rate, age at first reproduction, neonate number, and proteins related to cell cycle and redox state regulation. The disturbance caused by pharmaceuticals contaminating freshwater ecosystem is probably weaker and unlikely to be cytotoxic in character due to the high dilution of these substances in the water. However, our results indicate that prolonged exposure of organisms to these toxins may lead to modifications on the organismal and molecular levels with unpredictable significance for the entire ecosystem.

  6. Bumblebees are not deterred by ecologically relevant concentrations of nectar toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Stout, Jane C; Stevenson, Philip C; Wright, Geraldine A

    2014-05-01

    Bees visit flowers to collect nectar and pollen that contain nutrients and simultaneously facilitate plant sexual reproduction. Paradoxically, nectar produced to attract pollinators often contains deterrent or toxic plant compounds associated with herbivore defence. The functional significance of these nectar toxins is not fully understood, but they may have a negative impact on pollinator behaviour and health, and, ultimately, plant pollination. This study investigates whether a generalist bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, can detect naturally occurring concentrations of nectar toxins. Using paired-choice experiments, we identified deterrence thresholds for five compounds found in the nectar of bee-pollinated plants: quinine, caffeine, nicotine, amygdalin and grayanotoxin. The deterrence threshold was determined when bumblebees significantly preferred a sucrose solution over a sucrose solution containing the compound. Bumblebees had the lowest deterrence threshold for the alkaloid quinine (0.01 mmol l(-1)); all other compounds had higher deterrence thresholds, above the natural concentration range in floral nectar. Our data, combined with previous work using honeybees, suggest that generalist bee species have poor acuity for the detection of nectar toxins. The fact that bees do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of these compounds likely indicates that it is difficult for them to learn to associate floral traits with the presence of toxins, thus maintaining this trait in plant populations.

  7. Effects of adriamycin and irradiation on beating of rat heart muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, D.; Brown, S.M.; Yatvin, M.B.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate the mechanisms involved in Adriamycin (ADM) induced cardiotoxicity as well as determining the possible potentiating effect that irradiation has when it is combined with the drug, heart cells from newborn rats were isolated, cultured and treated with Adriamycin. The actions of these two agents separately or in combination on the survival of beating activity and beating frequency are measured. Beating activity could be decreased temporarily either by exposing the cells to 50 krad of γ-irradiation or 0.1 μg of Adriamycin. Following 100 krad of γ-radiation or 1.0 μg Adriamycin, an irreversible cessation of beating occurred. In the case of Adriamycin, cessation was preceded by a temporary sharp increase in beating frequency. Doses of radiation up to 10 krad in combination with Adriamycin were not potentiating. The results indicate that Adriamycin produces its cardiotoxic effects, at least in part, by a direct action on heart muscle cells. It is less likely, however, that damage which occurs in the heart following therapeutic doses of irradiation is the result of such direct action

  8. Effects of tributyltin on metamorphosis and gonadal differentiation of Xenopus laevis at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huahong; Zhu, Pan; Guo, Suzhen

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well known endocrine disruptor, has high teratogenicity to embryos of amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis). An amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) and a complete AMA (CAMA) were conducted for TBT. In AMA, the body weight, the snout-to-vent length and the hind limb length of X. laevis tadpoles were decreased in tributyltin chloride (TBTCl; 12.5-200 ng/L) treatment groups after 7 days exposure. TBT greatly retarded the development of tadpoles, decreased the number of follicle and induced thyroid follicle cell hyperplasia after 19 days exposure. In CAMA, 10 and 100 ng/L TBTCl led to various malformations of gonad, including intersex, segmental aplasia and multiple ovary cavities of X. laevis following exposure from stages 46 to stage 66. The sex ratio was male-biased in TBT treatment groups. These results suggest that TBT delayed the metamorphosis, inhibited the growth of tadpoles and disrupted the gonadal differentiation of X. laevis at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  9. Studies on the effects of adriamycin-derivatives in combination with X-rays on MeWo- and Be11-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, M.; Beuningen, D. van; Streffer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The survival rate of human melanoma cells after X-ray irradiation, treamtment with adriamycin derivatives and combined treatment with X-rays and adriamycin derivatives was measured by means of the colony formation test. After X-ray irradiation the melanoma cells showed a high resistance for cell survival. In all tests the Be11-cells were more resistant than MeWo-cells. On combined exposure especially with higher doses of adriamycin derivatives, both cell lines showed the interesting effect, that with increasing concentration the survival rate decreased whereas the D 0 increased. Aclacinomycin-A (ACM-A) and Pirarubicin reduced recovery processes after X-ray irradiation. Therefore Be11-cells showed a four times higher DMF (dosis modifying factor) after ACM-A-treatment than MeWo-cells. Low ACM-A-concentrations combined with low X-ray doses showed on both cell lines supraadditive effects. The effect of pirarubicin was in most of the tests only additive. Compared with ACM-A, pirarubicin was less cytotoxic, showed a larger therapeutic range, caused a smaller D 0 and D q and had a supraadditive effect in low concentrations on both cell lines. For clinical combined therapy with patients ACM-A is probably better suited than pirarubicin. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suzhen; Qian, Lijuan; Shi, Huahong; Barry, Terence; Cao, Qinzhen; Liu, Junqi

    2010-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been widely used as a biocide in antifouling paints and is a known endocrine disrupting chemical. In this paper, we exposed embryos of Xenopus tropicalis to 50-400ngL(-1) tributyltin chloride. TBT significantly decreased the survival rate, reduced the body length and retarded the development of embryos after 24, 36 and 48h of exposure. These effects of TBT were concentration- and time-dependent. Embryos treated with TBT showed multiple malformations. The most obvious alterations were abnormal eyes, enlarged proctodaeum, narrow fins, and skin hypopigmentation. Enlarged proctodaeum and narrow fins were mainly observed after 36 and 48h of exposure. The loss of eye pigmentation or the absence of external eyes occurred after 24 and 36h of exposure, while extended lenses or edemas of eyes were more commonly observed after 48h of exposure. Additional malformations included: small anterior region of heads, pericardial edemas, enlarged trunks, and bent tails. These results suggested that TBT is very toxic to X. tropicalis embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  11. Adriamycin-radiation combinations: drug induced delayed gastrointestinal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenken, L.L.; Burholt, D.R.; Kovacs, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    The administration of Adriamycin (ADR) results in acute short-term reductions in cell production within the gastrointestinal mucosa. Interactions between ADR doses and radiation appear minimized as the inter-treatment time interval expands to five days. However, as the times between drug administration and abdominal radiation exposure are further lengthened (from 14 to 49 days), a progressively severe defect in post-irradiation mucosal cell production is noted. Although the mucosa appears abnormal histologically and crypt cell cellularity and cell production are normal, the proliferative response following radiation is reduced by as much as 50% if ADR is given 7 weeks prior to the radiation exposure. We postulate that this effect is a manifestation of latent damage to the stem cell compartment within the crypt or that secondary support systems such as mucosal vascularity have been compromised by ADR

  12. Effect of ethanol at clinically relevant concentrations on atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Pásek, Michal; Hořáková, Zuzana; Hošek, Jan; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol intoxication tends to induce arrhythmias, most often the atrial fibrillation. To elucidate arrhythmogenic mechanisms related to alcohol consumption, the effect of ethanol on main components of the ionic membrane current is investigated step by step. Considering limited knowledge, we aimed to examine the effect of clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0.8-80 mM) on acetylcholine-sensitive inward rectifier potassium current I K(Ach). Experiments were performed by the whole-cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat and guinea-pig atrial myocytes, and on expressed human Kir3.1/3.4 channels. Ethanol induced changes of I K(Ach) in the whole range of concentrations applied; the effect was not voltage dependent. The constitutively active component of I K(Ach) was significantly increased by ethanol with the maximum effect (an increase by ∼100 %) between 8 and 20 mM. The changes were comparable in rat and guinea-pig atrial myocytes and also in expressed human Kir3.1/3.4 channels (i.e., structural correlate of I K(Ach)). In the case of the acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach), a dual ethanol effect was apparent with a striking heterogeneity of changes in individual cells. The effect correlated with the current magnitude in control: the current was increased by eth-anol in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The average effect peaked at 20 mM ethanol (an increase of the current by ∼20 %). Observed changes of action potential duration agreed well with the voltage clamp data. Ethanol significantly affected both components of I K(Ach) even in concentrations corresponding to light alcohol consumption.

  13. Early stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song You; Salbu, Brit; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole-Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Petersen, Karina; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Skipperud, Lindis; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal widely used in many military and civil applications. Uranium contamination and the associated potential adverse effects of U on the aquatic environment have been debated during recent years. In order to understand the effect and mode of action (MoA) of U in vivo, juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L waterborne depleted uranyl acetate, respectively, in a static system for 48 h. The U concentrations in the gill and liver were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the resulting biological effects were determined by a combination of analysis of gene expression and micronuclei formation. The hepatic transcriptional level of 12 biomarker genes from four stress–response categories, including oxidative stress (γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), DNA damage and repair (P53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (P21), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene gamma (Gadd45G), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Rad51), apoptosis (Bcl2-associated X protein (BAX), Bcl-x, Caspase 6A,) and protein degradation (Ubiquitin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-rtPCR). The results clearly showed accumulation of U in the gill and liver with increasing concentrations of U in the exposure water. The effects of U on differential hepatic gene expression also occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, although deviations from ideal concentration–response relationships were observed at the highest U concentration (1.0 mg/L). All the genes tested were found to be up-regulated by U while no significant micronuclei formation was identified. The results suggest that U may cause oxidative stress in fish liver at concentrations greater than 0.25 mg/L, giving rise to clear induction of several toxicologically relevant biomarker genes, although no significant

  14. [Antitumor effect of recombinant Xenopus laevis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a vaccine combined with adriamycin on EL4 lymphoma in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ting; Liu, Ting; Jia, Yong-Qian; Liu, Ji-Yan; Wu, Yang; Hu, Bing; Tian, Ling; Yang, Li; Kan, Bing; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2005-09-01

    To explore the antitumor effect of immunotherapy with recombinant Xenopus laevis vascular endothelial growth factor (xVEGF) as a vaccine combined with adriamycin on lymphoma model in mice. EL4 lymphoma model was established in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were randomized into four groups: combination therapy, adriamycin alone, xVEGF alone and normal saline (NS) groups, and then were given relevant treatments. The growth of tumor, the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice, and the potential toxicity of regimens above were observed. Anti-VEGF antibody-producing B cells (APBCs) were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. In addition, microvessel density (MVD) of tumor was detected by immunohistochemistry, and tumor cell apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL staining. The tumor volumes of mice were significantly smaller in combination group than those in other three groups (P < 0.05). Complete regression of tumor was observed in 3 of 10 mice in combination group. Forty-eight days after inoculation of tumor cells, the survival rate of mice was significantly higher in combination group than in NS group (P < 0.01). The anti-VEGF APBC count in combination group or xVEGF group was significantly higher, compared with that in adriamycin group or NS group (P < 0.01). MVD in tumor tissues was significantly lower in combination group than those in other three groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, tumor cell apoptosis was significantly higher in combination group than those in other three groups (P < 0.05). In this experimental study, the use of xVEGF vaccine and adriamycin as a combination of immunotherapy with chemotherapy has sucessfully produced synergistic antitumor effect on lymphoma in mice.

  15. Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Porsch-Hällström, I; Hansen, S H; Olsén, K H

    2015-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30-40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketoconazole inhibits the cellular uptake of anandamide via inhibition of FAAH at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelie Björklund

    Full Text Available The antifungal compound ketoconazole has, in addition to its ability to interfere with fungal ergosterol synthesis, effects upon other enzymes including human CYP3A4, CYP17, lipoxygenase and thromboxane synthetase. In the present study, we have investigated whether ketoconazole affects the cellular uptake and hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide (AEA.The effects of ketoconazole upon endocannabinoid uptake were investigated using HepG2, CaCo2, PC-3 and C6 cell lines. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH activity was measured in HepG2 cell lysates and in intact C6 cells. Ketoconazole inhibited the uptake of AEA by HepG2 cells and CaCo2 cells with IC50 values of 17 and 18 µM, respectively. In contrast, it had modest effects upon AEA uptake in PC-3 cells, which have a low expression of FAAH. In cell-free HepG2 lysates, ketoconazole inhibited FAAH activity with an IC50 value (for the inhibitable component of 34 µM.The present study indicates that ketoconazole can inhibit the cellular uptake of AEA at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, primarily due to its effects upon FAAH. Ketoconazole may be useful as a template for the design of dual-action FAAH/CYP17 inhibitors as a novel strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Altered pairing behaviour and reproductive success in white ibises exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Peter; Jayasena, Nilmini

    2011-06-22

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is the most biologically available and toxic form of mercury, and can act as a powerful teratogen, neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor in vertebrates. However, mechanisms of endocrine impairment and net effects on demography of biota are poorly understood. Here, we report that experimental exposure of an aquatic bird over 3 years to environmentally relevant dietary MeHg concentrations (0.05-0.3 ppm wet weight) resulted in dose-related increases in male-male pairing behaviour (to 55% of males), and decreases in egg productivity (to 30%). Dosed males showed decreased rates of key courtship behaviours, and were approached less by courting females in comparison to control males. Within dosed groups, homosexual males showed a similar reduction when compared with dosed heterosexual males. We found an average 35 per cent decrease in fledgling production in high-dose birds over the study duration. These results are of interest because (i) MeHg exposure is experimentally tied to demographically important reproductive deficits, (ii) these effects were found at low, chronic exposure levels commonly experienced by wildlife, and (iii) effects on reproductive behaviour and sexual preference mediated by endocrine disruption represent a novel and probably under-reported mechanism by which contaminants may influence wild populations of birds.

  18. [Effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hong; Xu, Hui; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2010-01-01

    This study is to observe the protection of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on cardiocytes impaired by adriamycin (ADR) and approach its mechanism of action. Cardiocytes of neonate rat were cultivated for 72 hours and divided into normal control group, model (ADR 2 mg x L(-1)) group, and GSTT (100, 30, and 10 mg x L(-1)) groups. MTT colorimetric method was deployed to detect cardiocyte survival rate, activities of CK, LDH, AST, SOD, MDA and NO were detected, and apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Effect of GSTT on caspase-3 was detected with Western blotting. Compared with control group, contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were increased, and activity of SOD was reduced (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by ADR. Numbers of survival cells were increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.001), contents of CK, LDH, AST, MDA and NO were decreased, and activity of SOD was increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001) by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). Apoptosis of cardiocytes and concentration of caspase-3 can be reduced by GSTT (100 and 30 mg x L(-1)). GSTT can protect cardiocytes impaired by ADR, which are possible involved with its effect of resisting oxygen free radical.

  19. Co-induction of glucose regulated proteins and adriamycin resistance in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.; Hughes, C.; Cai, J.; Bartels, C.; Gessner, T.; Subjeck, J.

    1987-01-01

    Glucose deprivation, anoxia, calcium ionophore A23187 or 2-deoxyglucose all inducers of glucose regulated proteins (grps), also lead to a significant induction of resistance to the drug adriamycin. In the case of anoxia, A23187 and 2-deoxyglucose, the induction of resistance correlates with both the application of the inducing stress and the induction of grps. In the case of glucose deprivation, the onset of resistance correlates with the onset of glucose deprivation and precedes grp induction. Removal of each grp including condition results in the rapid disappearance of this resistance in a manner which correlates with the repression of the grps. This drug resistance can be induced in confluent cells or in actively proliferating cells, although the effect is greater in the more sensitive proliferating cells. Induction of heat shock proteins (hsps) does not appear to lead to any major change in adriamycin resistance. Grp induced cells retain less adriamycin than do controls with the greatest reduction occurring during anoxia, which is also the strongest inducer of grps and resistance. The authors propose that the application of a grp inducing stress leads to a concurrent induction in drug resistance, possibly via the translocation of grps in the cell. Finally, they also observed that adriamycin itself can induce both hsps and grps. It is possible that adriamycin exposure may correspondingly induce auto-resistance

  20. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzi Cortez, Fernando, E-mail: lecotox@unisanta.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Dias Seabra Pereira, Camilo [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 11030-400 Santos, SP (Brazil); Ramos Santos, Aldo Ramos [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Mar, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, 11030-400 Santos, SP (Brazil); Martini, Gisela de Assis [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade Santa Cecilia, 11045-907 Santos, SP (Brazil); Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC{sub 50} = 0.490 mg L{sup -1}) and embryo-larval development (IC{sub 50} = 0.135 mg L{sup -1}) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L{sup -1}) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L{sup -1}, demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  1. Biological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of the pharmaceutical Triclosan in the marine mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi Cortez, Fernando; Dias Seabra Pereira, Camilo; Ramos Santos, Aldo Ramos; Cesar, Augusto; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Martini, Gisela de Assis; Bohrer-Morel, Maria Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan (5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is an antibacterial compound widely employed in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Although this emerging compound has been detected in aquatic environments, scarce information is found on the effects of Triclosan to marine organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a concentration range of Triclosan through fertilization assay (reproductive success), embryo-larval development assay (early life stage) and physiological stress (Neutral Red Retention Time assay - NRRT) (adult stage) in the marine sentinel organism Perna perna. The mean inhibition concentrations for fertilization (IC 50 = 0.490 mg L −1 ) and embryo-larval development (IC 50 = 0.135 mg L −1 ) tests were above environmental relevant concentrations (ng L −1 ) given by previous studies. Differently, significant reduction on NRRT results was found at 12 ng L −1 , demonstrating the current risk of the continuous introduction of Triclosan into aquatic environments, and the need of ecotoxicological studies oriented by the mechanism of action of the compound. - Highlights: ► Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmental relevant concentrations. ► Mechanisms of action oriented assays were more sensitive to detect biological damages. ► Currently there is environmental risks concerned Triclosan in aquatic ecosystems. - Triclosan causes biological adverse effects at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  2. Relevance of air conditioning for 222Radon concentration in shops of the Savona Province, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panatto, Donatella; Ferrari, Paola; Lai, Piero; Gallelli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration was evaluated in shops of the Savona Province, Italy, between summer 2002 and winter 2002-2003. The main characteristics of each shops were recorded through a questionnaire investigating the ventilation rate and factors related to 222 Rn precursors in the soil and the construction materials. The main variables that were related to radon concentration were the following: age of the building, level of the shop above ground, season of the year, wind exposure, active windows, and type of heating system. Shops equipped with individual air heating/conditioning systems exhibited radon concentrations that were three times higher than those of shops heated by centralized furnaces. Our data indicate that the level of pollution in the shops was of medium level, with an expected low impact on the salespersons' health. Only in wintertime, the action level of 200 Bq m -3 for the confined environment was reached in 10 shops equipped with individual air heating/conditioning systems

  3. EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT CONCENTRATIONS OF DIFFERENT NONYLPHENOL FORMULATIONS IN JAPANESE MEDAKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of exposure to p-nonylphenol (NP) from two different sources was compared to equivalent exposures of 17-b-estradiol (E2) and a solvent control (ethanol: EtOH). Japanese medaka were exposed for 4 days to a nominal concentration of 20 ?g/l of either NP-I (Schenectad...

  4. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepke, Troy A.; Snyder, Mark J.; Cherr, Gary N.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), estriol (E 3 ), progesterone (P 4 ) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE 2 )). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC 50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT L.anamesus > OCT > TBT S. p urpuratus >> E 2 > EE 2 > DDD >> BisA > P 4 > E 1 >> E 3 . The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E 2 , OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at

  5. Exosomes decrease sensitivity of breast cancer cells to adriamycin by delivering microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling; Li, Jian; Chen, Wei-Xian; Cai, Yan-Qin; Yu, Dan-Dan; Zhong, Shan-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Tang, Jin-Hai

    2016-04-01

    While adriamycin (adr) offers improvement in survival for breast cancer (BCa) patients, unfortunately, drug resistance is almost inevitable. Mounting evidence suggests that exosomes act as a vehicle for genetic cargo and constantly shuttle biologically active molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs) between heterogeneous populations of tumor cells, engendering a resistance-promoting niche for cancer progression. Our recent study showed that exosomes from docetaxel-resistance BCa cells could modulate chemosensitivity by delivering miRNAs. Herein, we expand on our previous finding and explore the relevance of exosome-mediated miRNA delivery in resistance transmission of adr-resistant BCa sublines. We now demonstrated the selective packing of miRNAs within the exosomes (A/exo) derived from adr-resistant BCa cells. The highly expressed miRNAs in A/exo were significantly increased in recipient fluorescent sensitive cells (GFP-S) after A/exo incorporation. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets showed that the top 30 most abundant miRNAs in A/exo were involved in crucial biological processes. Moreover, A/exo not only loaded miRNAs for its production and release but also carried miRNAs associated with Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, A/exo co-culture assays indicated that miRNA-containing A/exo was able to increase the overall resistance of GFP-S to adr exposure and regulate gene levels in GFP-S. Our results reinforce our earlier reports that adr-resistant BCa cells could manipulate a more deleterious microenvironment and transmit resistance capacity through altering gene expressions in sensitive cells by transferring specific miRNAs contained within exosomes.

  6. Bisphenol A Induces Superfeminization in the Ramshorn Snail (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27°C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20°C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20°C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions. PMID:16818258

  7. Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the Ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 μg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experiment...

  8. Transcriptional Response of the Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus to Low and Environmentally Relevant Ammonia Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Stahl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea to compete for ammonia among marine microorganisms at low ambient concentrations has been in part attributed to their extremely high affinity for ammonia, but as yet there is no mechanistic understanding of supporting metabolism. We examined transcription of selected genes for anabolic functions (CO2 fixation, ammonia transport, and cell wall synthesis) and a central catabolic function (ammonia oxidation) in the thaumarchaeon Nitrosopu...

  9. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  10. Transcriptional Response of the Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus to Low and Environmentally Relevant Ammonia Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea to compete for ammonia among marine microorganisms at low ambient concentrations has been in part attributed to their extremely high affinity for ammonia, but as yet there is no mechanistic understanding of supporting metabolism. We examined transcription of selected genes for anabolic functions (CO2 fixation, ammonia transport, and cell wall synthesis) and a central catabolic function (ammonia oxidation) in the thaumarchaeon Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 growing at two ammonia concentrations, as measured by combined ammonia and ammonium, one well above the Km for ammonia oxidation (∼500 μM) and the other well below the Km (ammonia-replete to ammonia-limiting conditions. Transcript levels for ammonia oxidation, CO2 fixation, and one of the ammonia transport genes were approximately the same at high and low ammonia availability. Transcripts for all analyzed genes decreased with time in the complete absence of ammonia, but with various rates of decay. The new steady-state mRNA levels established are presumably more reflective of the natural physiological state of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and offer a reference for interpreting message abundance patterns in the natural environment. PMID:23995944

  11. Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine on gonadal development of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Martin, Pamela A; Fernie, Kimberly J; Park, Brad J; Mayne, Gregory

    2006-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been suspected of affecting sexual development by inducing aromatase, resulting in the increased conversion of androgens to estrogens. We used snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), a species in which sex is dependent on the production of estrogen through aromatase activity in a temperature-dependent manner, to investigate if environmentally relevant exposures to atrazine affected gonadal development. Eggs were incubated in soil to which atrazine was applied at a typical field application rate (3.1 L/ha), 10-fold this rate (31 L/ha), and a control rate (no atrazine) for the duration of embryonic development. The incubation temperature (25 degrees C) was selected to produce only males. Although some males with testicular oocytes and females were produced in the atrazine-treated groups (3.3-3.7%) but not in the control group, no statistical differences were found among treatments. Furthermore, snapping turtle eggs collected from natural nests in a corn field were incubated at the pivotal temperature (27.5 degrees C) at which both males and females normally would be produced, and some males had oocytes in the testes (15.4%). The presence of low numbers of males with oocytes may be a natural phenomenon, and we have limited evidence to suggest that the presence of normal males with oocytes may represent a feminizing effect of atrazine. Histological examination of the thyroid gland revealed no effect on thyroid morphology.

  12. Radioactive concentrations in foodstuffs and the ingestion dose from Romanian relevant diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements of fresh fruits and vegetables, grains (wheat and bread), milk (cheese), meat and meat products from different areas have been done. High-resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, low-level beta total analysis and radiochemical techniques were used. Many radionuclides, both man-made and natural, have been identified. Only a few of them (the man-made Cs, I and Sr as well as the natural 40 K, 7 Be, etc) were of biological importance. In order to predict the ingestion dose, it had to be studied the general pathway of radionuclides to man, including a transfer model to agricultural products and the processes involved in food chain contamination. Modelling the radionuclide behaviour included retention, radioactive decay, metabolic processes and retention after processing. Relevant aspects related to translocation, agricultural practices and food processing were also considered. The human dose due to radioactive intake could be assessed on the basis of a simplified model for radionuclide ingestion and assimilation, considering local conditions and specific diets. As a result the average diets were determined depending on geographical areas (urban, rural, plain and uphill) and age (children, youngsters and adults). The estimated values for yearly ingestion dose vary from a few mSv to tens of mSv (as in the case of 1986 and 1987). (author)

  13. Effect of α-tocopherol on the cardiotoxicity of adriamycin in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.

    1978-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiomyopathy was studied in a rat model by means of electrocardiograms (ECGs), light microscopy, and determination of heart weight. Pretreatment with D-α-tocopherol (α-T) 24 hours prior to a high dose of ADR diminishes cardiotoxic effects, as judged by ECG changes,

  14. Improved distribution and reduced toxicity of adriamycin bound to albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Harry; Cremers, H.F.M.; Bayon, L.G.; Verrijk, R.; Wesseling, M.M.; Wondergem, J.; Heuff, G.; Kwon, G.S.; Bae, Y.H.; Feijen, Jan; Kim, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR) was formulated in albumin-heparin conjugate microspheres (AHCMS) to improve site-specific delivery and to reduce the toxicity of the drug. The effect of formulating ADR in AHCMS was investigated upon intrahepatic administration to male Wag/Rij rats. After intraveno-portal (i.v.p.)

  15. Ultrastructural alterations of atrial myocardium induced by adriamycin in chronically treated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertenghi-Deliliers, G; Zanon, P L; Pozzoli, E F; Bellini, O; Praga, C

    1978-02-28

    The clinical use of adriamycin (AM) is limited by a possible dose-dependent myocardiopathy. Severe lesions of ventricular myocardium widely described by electron microscopy have been correlated to irreversible congestive heart failure. On the other hand, the atrial contractile elements which differ from the ventricular ones because of the presence of the so-called specific granules have rarely been considered. In the work described in this paper, adriamycin was injected into rabbits and mice according to schedules of chronic toxicity. At the end of the treatment the atrial myocells presented diffuse ultrastructural lesions of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar bundles. These alterations might be caused by the ribonucleoprotein synthesis inhibition, by a direct drug toxicity or by an energetic crisis due to early mitochondrial lesions. Besides, adriamycin produces a decrease of the specific atrial granules that play a hypothetic role in the metabolism of myocardial cells. However, lack of information about the contents and the exact function of atrial granules does not allow us to conclude that their decrease in treated animals has a pathogenetic significance in myocardiopathy induced by adriamycin.

  16. Adriamycin and derivatives interaction with the mitochondrial membrane: O2 consumption and free radicals formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollakis, G.; Goormaghtigh, E.; Delmelle, M.; Lion, Y.; Ruysschaert, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Adriamycin induces the formation of semiquinone free radicals, O(2) and OH. species, in beef heart intact mitochondria, submitochondrial particles and complex I-III containing proteoliposomes. Free radicals were detected by the use of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy with the spin trapping

  17. Role of free radicals in an adriamycin-resistant human small cell lung cancer cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, C.; Mulder, N H; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Zijlstra, J G; de Vries, E G

    1987-01-01

    In two Adriamycin (Adr) resistant sublines (GLC4-Adr1 and GLC4-Adr2) of a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, GLC4, cross-resistance for radiation was found. GLC4-Adr1 has an acquired Adr resistance factor of 44 after culturing without Adr for 20 days and GLC4-Adr2, the same subline cultured

  18. A new class of free radical scavengers reducing adriamycin mitochondrial toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praet, M.; Calderon, P. B.; Pollakis, G.; Roberfroid, M.; Ruysschaert, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Beef heart mitochondria were incubated with ADM and NADH. An adriamycin semiquinone radical was detected using ESR spectroscopy. The semiquinone radical production rate is decreased upon addition of a scavenger (AD 20) in the reaction medium. NMRI mice were treated with AD 20 (70 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min

  19. ADRIAMYCIN-LOADED ALBUMIN-HEPARIN CONJUGATE MICROSPHERES FOR INTRAPERITONEAL CHEMOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CREMERS, HFM; SEYMOUR, LW; LAM, K; LOS, G; KWON, G; BAE, YH; KIM, SW; FEIJEN, J

    1994-01-01

    Adriamycin-loaded albumin-heparin conjugate microspheres (ADR-AHCMS) were evaluated as possible intraperitoneal (i.p.) delivery systems for site-specific cytotoxic action. The biocompatibility of the microspheres after intraperitoneal injection was tested first. 1 day after i.p. administration of

  20. Cork stoppers as an effective sorbent for water treatment: the removal of mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cláudia B; Oliveira, Joana R; Rocha, Luciana S; Tavares, Daniela S; Silva, Carlos M; Silva, Susana P; Hartog, Niels; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, E

    2014-02-01

    The technical feasibility of using stopper-derived cork as an effective biosorbent towards bivalent mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions was evaluated in this study. Only 25 mg/L of cork powder was able to achieve 94 % of mercury removal for an initial mercury concentration of 500 μg/L. It was found that under the conditions tested, the efficiency of mercury removal expressed as equilibrium removal percentage does not depend on the amount of cork or its particle size, but is very sensitive to initial metal concentration, with higher removal efficiencies at higher initial concentrations. Ion exchange was identified as one of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of Hg onto cork in the absence of ionic competition. Under ionic competition, stopper-derived cork showed to be extremely effective and selective for mercury in binary mixtures, while in complex matrices like seawater, moderate inhibition of the sorption process was observed, attributed to a change in mercury speciation. The loadings achieved are similar to the majority of literature values found for other biosorbents and for other metals, suggesting that cork stoppers can be recycled as an effective biosorbent for water treatment. However, the most interesting result is that equilibrium data show a very rare behaviour, with the isotherm presenting an almost square convex shape to the concentration axis, with an infinite slope for an Hg concentration in solution around 25 μg/L.

  1. Cytotoxicity of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Aluminum in Murine Thymocytes and Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Kamalov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of low concentrations of aluminum chloride on thymocytes and lymphocytes acutely dissociated from young mice were studied using flow cytometry with a DNA-binding dye. We demonstrate a rapid and dose-dependent injury in murine thymocytes and lymphocytes resulting from exposure to aluminum, as indicated by an increase in the entry into the cell of the DNA-binding dye, propidium iodine. A 60-minute exposure to 10 μM AlCl3 caused damage of about 5% of thymocytes, while 50% were injured after 10 minutes at 20 μM. Nearly all thymocytes showed evidence of damage at 30 μM AlCl3 after only 5 minutes of incubation. In lymphocytes, injury was observed at 15 μM AlCl3 and less than 50% of cells were injured after a 60-minute exposure to 20 μM. Injury only rarely proceeded to rapid cell death and was associated with cell swelling. These results suggest that aluminum has cytotoxic effects on cells of the immune system.

  2. Myocardial regeneration in adriamycin cardiomyopathy by nuclear expression of GLP1 using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuyuan [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Chen, Jiaxi [The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Medical School, 5235 Harry Hine Blvd., Dallas, TX (United States); Huang, Pintong [Department of Ultrasonography, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Meng, Xing-Li; Clayton, Sandra; Shen, Jin-Song [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Grayburn, Paul A., E-mail: paulgr@baylorhealth.edu [Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 3812 Elm Street, Dallas, TX (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, 621 N. Hall St, Suite H030, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Recently GLP-1 was found to have cardioprotective effects independent of those attributable to tight glycemic control. Methods and results: We employed ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids encoding the GLP-1 gene with a nuclear localizing signal to rat hearts with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. After a single UTMD treatment, overexpression of transgenic GLP-1 was found in nuclei of rat heart cells with evidence that transfected cardiac cells had undergone proliferation. UTMD-GLP-1 gene therapy restored LV mass, fractional shortening index, and LV posterior wall diameter to nearly normal. Nuclear overexpression of GLP-1 by inducing phosphorylation of FoxO1-S256 and translocation of FoxO1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm significantly inactivated FoxO1 and activated the expression of cyclin D1 in nuclei of cardiac muscle cells. Reversal of adriamycin cardiomyopathy appeared to be mediated by dedifferentiation and proliferation of nuclear FoxO1-positive cardiac muscle cells with evidence of embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, SOX2 and c-kit), cardiac early differentiation markers (NKX2.5 and ISL-1) and cellular proliferation markers (BrdU and PHH3) after UTMD with GLP-1 gene therapy. Conclusions: Intranuclear myocardial delivery of the GLP-1gene can reverse established adriamycin cardiomyopathy by stimulating myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • The activation of nuclear FoxO1 in cardiac muscle cells associated with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • Myocardial nuclear GLP-1 stimulates myocardial regeneration and reverses adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • The process of myocardial regeneration associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation.

  3. Myocardial regeneration in adriamycin cardiomyopathy by nuclear expression of GLP1 using ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuyuan; Chen, Jiaxi; Huang, Pintong; Meng, Xing-Li; Clayton, Sandra; Shen, Jin-Song; Grayburn, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently GLP-1 was found to have cardioprotective effects independent of those attributable to tight glycemic control. Methods and results: We employed ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) to deliver piggybac transposon plasmids encoding the GLP-1 gene with a nuclear localizing signal to rat hearts with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. After a single UTMD treatment, overexpression of transgenic GLP-1 was found in nuclei of rat heart cells with evidence that transfected cardiac cells had undergone proliferation. UTMD-GLP-1 gene therapy restored LV mass, fractional shortening index, and LV posterior wall diameter to nearly normal. Nuclear overexpression of GLP-1 by inducing phosphorylation of FoxO1-S256 and translocation of FoxO1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm significantly inactivated FoxO1 and activated the expression of cyclin D1 in nuclei of cardiac muscle cells. Reversal of adriamycin cardiomyopathy appeared to be mediated by dedifferentiation and proliferation of nuclear FoxO1-positive cardiac muscle cells with evidence of embryonic stem cell markers (OCT4, Nanog, SOX2 and c-kit), cardiac early differentiation markers (NKX2.5 and ISL-1) and cellular proliferation markers (BrdU and PHH3) after UTMD with GLP-1 gene therapy. Conclusions: Intranuclear myocardial delivery of the GLP-1gene can reverse established adriamycin cardiomyopathy by stimulating myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • The activation of nuclear FoxO1 in cardiac muscle cells associated with adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • Myocardial nuclear GLP-1 stimulates myocardial regeneration and reverses adriamycin cardiomyopathy. • The process of myocardial regeneration associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation

  4. Relevance of histamine and tryptase concentrations in nasal secretions after nasal challenges with phosphate buffered saline and allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective study, a quantitative determination of histamine and tryptase in nasal secretions after nasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS and allergen challenge was performed in 18 atopic patients who were compared with ten non-allergic healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to determine the normal and pathological concentrations of these important mediators in nasal secretions. The second objective was to test the relevance of these two mast cell secreted mediators after nasal challenge. Results showed that the concentrations of tryptase in almost all samples were under the minimal detection limit (< 0.5 μU/g and only a sigrtificant increase of tryptase (median, 28 μU/g occurred immediately after nasal allergen challenge in the patient group. Histamine concentration significantly increased after every nasal PBS challenge (median, 69 ng/g after first PBS challenge and 165 ng/g after second PBS challenge in the control group, as well as in the patient group after both PBS (median, 69 ng/g and allergen (median, 214 ng/g challenge. On the other hand, a rapid onset of sneezing and increase in nasal airway resistance was experienced only in the patient group after nasal allergen challenge, but did not occur after PBS challenge even though the histamine concentrations significantly increased in both groups. This study suggests that tryptase is a more preferable marker than histamine in quantitative monitoring of mast cell activation especially during the early phase nasal allergic reaction.

  5. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  6. Behavior toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans transferred to the progeny after exposure to sulfamethoxazole at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyang Yu; Lei Jiang; Daqiang Yin

    2011-01-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most common detected antibiotics in the environment. In order to study whether SMX can affect behavior and growth and whether these effects could be transferred to the progeny, Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr, respectively. After exposure, the exposed parent generation (Po) was measured for behavior and growth indicators, which were presented as percentage of controls (POC). Then their corresponding unexposed progeny (F1) was separated and measured for the same indicators. The lowest POC for Po after 96 hr-exposure at 100 mg/L were 37.8%, 12.7%, 45.8% and 70.1% for body bending frequency (BBF), reversal movement (RM), Omega turns (OT) and body length (BL), respectively. And F1 suffered defects with the lowest POC as 55.8%, 24.1%, 48.5% and 60.7% for BBF, RM, OT and BL, respectively. Defects in both Po and F1 showed a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and behavior indicators showed better sensitivity than growth indicator. The observed effects on F1 demonstrated the transferable properties of SMX. Defects of SMX at environmental concentrations suggested that it is necessary to perform further systematical studies on its ecological risk in actual conditions.

  7. Assessment of health status of oysters (Crassostreagigas) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of Ag and Cu in brackish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rementeria, Ane; Mikolaczyk, Mathilde; Peña, Ainhize; Lanceleur, Laurent; Blanc, Gérard; Soto, Manu; Schäfer, Jörg; Zaldibar, Beñat

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have altered estuarine environments leading to increased presence of different pollutants including metals. Although the implementation of new environmental policies has caused a considerable decrease in trace metal concentrations in estuaries around the Bay of Biscay, some elements such as copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) are still present in relatively high concentrations. Oysters have been widely used in environmental biomonitoring programs as sentinel organisms. Oysters Crassostrea gigas from an uncontaminated estuary were exposed to sublethal, environmentally relevant concentrations of Cu (2000 ng Cu/L) and Ag (500 ng Ag/L) during 14 days in brackish water (S = 18). A battery of cell and tissue level (exposure) biomarkers at different levels of biological complexity was applied and integrated into the Integrative Biological Response (IBR) index including: metallothionein contents, intralysosomal metal accumulation, digestive gland atrophy and digestive gland tissue integrity. Condition Index (CI) was incorporated into the IBR index as a complementary parameter that reflects the general physiological condition of oysters (organism level). Results indicated an increase in intralysosomal metal accumulation after 7 and 14 days of exposure to Ag together with an increase in the digestive epithelium atrophy and lipofuscin content after 7 days of exposure to Ag. The responses detected with the aid of biomarkers integrated in the IBR index showed higher toxicity in oysters exposed to Ag, inducing the clear onset of detoxification processes which also occurred, to a lower extent, in Cu-exposed oysters.

  8. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin in serum of multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Zeng, Tianmei; Gao, Shouhong; Xia, Tianyi; Huang, Lifeng; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-08-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant neoplastic serum-cell disorder, has been a serious threat to human health. The determination of 6 commonly used drug concentrations, including thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin, in MM patients was of great clinical interest. Herein, we reported a method for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of the above therapeutics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method with solid phase extraction. Analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge(®) BEH C18 column (2.5μm, 2.1 mm×50mm), with formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at flow rate 0.3mL/min. All analytes showed good correlation coefficients (r>0.996), and LLOQ of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin were 4, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2ng/mL, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions and stability were expressed as variation coefficients within 15% and relative error less than 15%. Dilution effect, carryover and incurred sample reanalysis were investigated according to the 2015 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia guidelines, as US FDA (2013, revision 1) required. The LC-MS/MS based assay described in this article may improve future clinical studies evaluating common therapeutics for MM treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, J.R., E-mail: jlead@mailbox.sc.edu [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States); Baalousha, M., E-mail: mbaalous@mailbox.sc.edu [Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University South Carolina, Columbia 29208, SC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery. The current work presents a validated, fully quantitative sampling technique for TEM that overcomes conventional sample preparation shortcomings, and thus enables the use of TEM for measurement of particle number concentration and their detection in complex media at environmentally realistic concentrations. This sampling method is based on ultracentrifugation of NMs from suspension onto a poly-L-lysine (PLL) functionalized TEM grid, using active deposition (by ultracentrifugation) and retention (by PLL interactions with NM surface) of NMs on the substrate, enabling fully quantitative analysis. Similar analysis with AFM was satisfactory in simple media but the lack of chemical-selectivity of AFM limits its applicability for the detection of NMs in complex environmental samples. The sampling approach was validated using both citrate- and PVP-coated AuNMs in pure water, which demonstrated an even distribution of NM on the TEM grid and high NM recovery (80–100%) at environmentally relevant NM concentrations (ca. 0.20–100 μg L{sup −1}). The applicability of the sampling method to complex environmental samples was demonstrated by the quantification of particle number concentration of AuNMs in EPA soft water (with and without Suwannee River fulvic acid) and lake water. This sample preparation approach is also applicable to other types of NMs with some modifications (e.g. centrifugation

  10. An electron microscopy based method for the detection and quantification of nanomaterial number concentration in environmentally relevant media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.; Lead, J.R.; Baalousha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved detection and characterization of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex environmental media requires the development of novel sampling approaches to improve the detection limit to be close to environmentally realistic concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an indispensable metrological tool in nanotechnology and environmental nanoscience due to its high spatial resolution and analytical capabilities when coupled to spectroscopic techniques. However, these capabilities are hampered by the conventional sample preparation methods, which suffer from low NM recovery. The current work presents a validated, fully quantitative sampling technique for TEM that overcomes conventional sample preparation shortcomings, and thus enables the use of TEM for measurement of particle number concentration and their detection in complex media at environmentally realistic concentrations. This sampling method is based on ultracentrifugation of NMs from suspension onto a poly-L-lysine (PLL) functionalized TEM grid, using active deposition (by ultracentrifugation) and retention (by PLL interactions with NM surface) of NMs on the substrate, enabling fully quantitative analysis. Similar analysis with AFM was satisfactory in simple media but the lack of chemical-selectivity of AFM limits its applicability for the detection of NMs in complex environmental samples. The sampling approach was validated using both citrate- and PVP-coated AuNMs in pure water, which demonstrated an even distribution of NM on the TEM grid and high NM recovery (80–100%) at environmentally relevant NM concentrations (ca. 0.20–100 μg L"−"1). The applicability of the sampling method to complex environmental samples was demonstrated by the quantification of particle number concentration of AuNMs in EPA soft water (with and without Suwannee River fulvic acid) and lake water. This sample preparation approach is also applicable to other types of NMs with some modifications (e.g. centrifugation

  11. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J Tan

    Full Text Available Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA and endothelin receptor B (ETB. Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p. or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p., atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  12. Abnormal notochord branching is associated with foregut malformations in the adriamycin treated mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduk, Piotr; Sato, Hideaki; Puri, Prem; Murphy, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheooesophageal fistula (TOF) are relatively common human congenital malformations of the foregut where the oesophagus does not connect with the stomach and there is an abnormal connection between the stomach and the respiratory tract. They require immediate corrective surgery and have an impact on the future health of the individual. These abnormalities are mimicked by exposure of rat and mouse embryos in utero to the drug adriamycin. The causes of OA/TOF during human development are not known, however a number of mouse mutants where different signalling pathways are directly affected, show similar abnormalities, implicating multiple and complex signalling mechanisms. The similarities in developmental outcome seen in human infants and in the adriamycin treated mouse model underline the potential of this model to unravel the early embryological events and further our understanding of the processes disturbed, leading to such abnormalities. Here we report a systematic study of the foregut and adjacent tissues in embryos treated with adriamycin at E7 and E8 and analysed between E9 and E12, comparing morphology in 3D in 149 specimens. We describe a spectrum of 8 defects, the most common of which is ventral displacement and branching of the notochord (in 94% of embryos at E10) and a close spatial correspondence between the site of notochord branching and defects of the foregut. In addition gene expression analysis shows altered dorso-ventral foregut patterning in the vicinity of notochord branches. This study shows a number of features of the adriamycin mouse model not previously reported, implicates the notochord as a primary site of disturbance in such abnormalities and underlines the importance of the model to further address the mechanistic basis of foregut congenital abnormalities.

  13. The effect of adriamycin exposure on the notochord of mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduk, Piotr; May, Alison; Puri, Prem; Murphy, Paula

    2012-04-01

    The notochord has important structural and signaling properties during vertebrate development with key roles in patterning surrounding tissues, including the foregut. The adriamycin mouse model is an established model of foregut anomalies where exposure of embryos in utero to the drug adriamycin leads to malformations including oesophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. In addition to foregut abnormalities, treatment also causes branching, displacement, and hypertrophy of the notochord. Here, we explore the hypothesis that the notochord may be a primary target of disruption leading to abnormal patterning of the foregut by examining notochord position and structure in early embryos following adriamycin exposure. Treated (n = 46) and control (n = 30) embryos were examined during the crucial period when the notochord normally delaminates away from the foregut endoderm (6-28 somite pairs). Transverse sections were derived from the anterior foregut and analyzed by confocal microscopy following immunodetection of extracellular matrix markers E-cadherin and Laminin. In adriamycin-treated embryos across all stages, the notochord was abnormally displaced ventrally with prolonged attachment to the foregut endoderm. While E-cadherin was normally detected in the foregut endoderm with no expression in the notochord of control embryos, treated embryos up to 24 somites showed ectopic notochordal expression indicating a change in characteristics of the tissue; specifically an increase in intracellular adhesiveness, which may be instrumental in structural changes, affecting mechanical and signaling properties. This is consistent with disruption of the notochord leading to altered signaling to the foregut causing abnormal patterning and congenital foregut malformations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of hyperthermia, radiation and adriamycin combinations on tumor vascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, H.A.; Chmielewski, G.

    1982-01-01

    Pathophysiologic studies of tumor vascular responses to hyperthermia, radiation or adriamycin given alone or in specific combinations have been made in the cervical carcinoma grown in the transparent cheek pouch chamber of the Syrian hamster. A specially designed chamber containing a compartment for flowing water enabled controlled heating of the tumor and pouch to within 0.2 0 C; the desired temperatures were achieved within one minute. Heating at 42 0 C for 30 minutes was followed, at 1, 5 or 24 hours, by a second heating for 30 minutes at 42 0 C. In addition, the same period of heating was preceded or followed, at 1, 5 or 24 hour intervals, by a single exposure to 2000R or a single intravenous injectionof adriamycin given at a rate of 0.45 mg/100 gm body weight. Of the three modalities, heat appeared to have the greatest acute effect on the tumor vascular system. A single dose of heat produced a rapid but transient constriction followed by a prominent dilation of vessels. Two heating periods given at a 1 hour interval caused persistent stasis in the tumor which progressed to coagulation necrosis. Although heating prior to irradiation or adriamycin, in general, increased the vascular responses to these agents, this sequence gave no tumor control. Radiation or adriamycin given prior to heating had relatively little effect on the vascular response to heating and produced no tumor control except when heat was applied shortly after irradiation. These studies indicate that changes in the microvasculature and perfusion in tumors, in response to hyperthermia alone or combined in specific sequences with radiation, can alter the internal environment of the tumor to produce a greater degree of tumor control than can be attributed to direct cell killing by these agents

  15. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF. We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin over a period of 2 weeks (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg. On day 19, rats received intragastric administration daily with either COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CLB or normal saline. Treatment with CLB reduced mortality and attenuated both myocardial atrophy and pulmonary congestion in HF rats. Compared with the HF rats, ventricle to body weight (VW/BW and lung to body weight (LW/BW ratios, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (LV±dp/dtmax were improved in HF+CLB rats. Angiotensin II (ANG II, norepinephrine (NE, COX-2 and glutamate (Glu in the PVN were increased in HF rats. HF rats had higher levels of ANG II and NE in plasma, higher level of ANG II in myocardium, and lower levels of ANP in plasma and myocardium. Treatment with CLB attenuated these HF-induced changes. HF rats had more COX-2-positive neurons and more corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH positive neurons in the PVN than did control rats. Treatment with CLB decreased COX-2-positive neurons and CRH positive neurons in the PVN of HF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PVN COX-2 may be an intermediary step for PVN neuronal activation and excitatory neurotransmitter release, which further contributes to sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuates sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure.

  16. Environmentally relevant concentrations of polyethylene microplastics negatively impact the survival, growth and emergence of sediment-dwelling invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Kumar, Anupama; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-05-01

    Microplastics are a widespread environmental pollutant in aquatic ecosystems and have the potential to eventually sink to the sediment, where they may pose a risk to sediment-dwelling organisms. While the impacts of exposure to microplastics have been widely reported for marine biota, the effects of microplastics on freshwater organisms at environmentally realistic concentrations are largely unknown, especially for benthic organisms. Here we examined the effects of a realistic concentration of polyethylene microplastics in sediment on the growth and emergence of a freshwater organism Chironomus tepperi. We also assessed the influence of microplastic size by exposing C. tepperi larvae to four different size ranges of polyethylene microplastics (1-4, 10-27, 43-54 and 100-126 μm). Exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of microplastics, 500 particles/kg sediment , negatively affected the survival, growth (i.e. body length and head capsule) and emergence of C. tepperi. The observed effects were strongly dependent on microplastic size with exposure to particles in the size range of 10-27 μm inducing more pronounced effects. While growth and survival of C. tepperi were not affected by the larger microplastics (100-126 μm), a significant reduction in the number of emerged adults was observed after exposure to the largest microplastics, with the delayed emergence attributed to exposure to a stressor. While scanning electron microscopy showed a significant reduction in the size of the head capsule and antenna of C. tepperi exposed to microplastics in the 10-27 μm size range, no deformities to the external structure of the antenna and mouth parts in organisms exposed to the same size range of microplastics were observed. These results indicate that environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastics in sediment induce harmful effects on the development and emergence of C. tepperi, with effects greatly dependent on particle size. Copyright

  17. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinshengli@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Matthew, Cory [Institute of Agriculture & Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Cavanagh, Jo [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand); Qiu, Jiangping [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg{sup −1}) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg{sup −1} soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO{sub 2} production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  18. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li; Matthew, Cory; Cavanagh, Jo; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg"−"1) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg"−"1 soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg"−"1 soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO_2 production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  19. Regulation of NF-κB activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsbury, Alison; Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Rattray, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-κB in astrocytes. ► Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional κB-system, measured using luciferase assays. ► Seven flavonoids (100 nM–1 μM) failed to reduce NF-κB activity in astrocytes. ► Four flavonoids (100 nM–1 μM) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-κB activity in astrocytes. ► (−)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-κB signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNFα, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-κB-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative IκBα construct. In addition, TNFα increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-κB activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1–1 μM) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Therefore, we conclude that NF-κB signalling in astrocytes is not a major target for flavonoids.

  20. Regulation of NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes: effects of flavonoids at dietary-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilsbury, Alison [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom); Vauzour, David; Spencer, Jeremy P.E. [Molecular Nutrition Group, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP (United Kingdom); Rattray, Marcus, E-mail: m.a.n.rattray@reading.ac.uk [Reading School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of flavonoids inhibit NF-{kappa}B in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary cultured astrocytes possess a functional {kappa}B-system, measured using luciferase assays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four flavonoids (100 nM-1 {mu}M) failed to reduce TNFa-stimulated NF-{kappa}B activity in astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (-)-Epicatechin did not regulate nuclear translocation of the NF-{kappa}B subunit, p65. -- Abstract: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Sustained activation of nuclear transcription factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Flavonoids have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and we investigated whether flavonoids, at submicromolar concentrations relevant to their bioavailability from the diet, were able to modulate NF-{kappa}B signalling in astrocytes. Using luciferase reporter assays, we found that tumour necrosis factor (TNF{alpha}, 150 ng/ml) increased NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, which was abolished on co-transfection of a dominant-negative I{kappa}B{alpha} construct. In addition, TNF{alpha} increased nuclear localisation of p65 as shown by immunocytochemistry. To investigate potential flavonoid modulation of NF-{kappa}B activity, astrocytes were treated with flavonoids from different classes; flavan-3-ols ((-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin), flavones (luteolin and chrysin), a flavonol (kaempferol) or the flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) at dietary-relevant concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M) for 18 h. None of the flavonoids modulated constitutive or

  1. The progestin norethisterone affects thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis of Xenopus laevis tadpoles at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Claudia; Krüger, Angela; Schöning, Viola; Lutz, Ilka

    2018-04-15

    Previously, levonorgestrel (LNG) has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor of the amphibian thyroid system. In the present study, we investigated whether anti-thyroidal effects are a common property of progestins other than LNG. Premetamorphic Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to norethisterone (NET) and dienogest DIE (each at 0.1-10nM) and LNG (10nM) until completion of metamorphosis. LNG and NET at all concentrations caused a significant developmental retardation whereas DIE did not impair time to metamorphosis. In LNG and 10nM NET exposed animals, tsh mRNA levels increased considerably later than the developmental delay occurred and thyroid histopathology showed no signs of TSH-hyperstimulation. Instead, thyroid glands from these treatments appeared inactive in producing thyroid hormones. Thyroidal transcript levels of dio2 and dio3 were increased by treatments with LNG and NET at 1nM and 10nM, whereas iyd mRNA was reduced by LNG and 10nM NET. Expression of slc5α5 was not changed by any treatment. Effects of DIE differed from those induced by LNG and NET. No developmental delay was measurable; however, tshβ and dio2 mRNAs were increased in pituitary glands of tadpoles exposed to 1.0nM and 10nM DIE. Thyroid histopathology displayed no abnormalities and thyroidal mRNA expression of the genes analyzed (slc5α5, iyd, dio2, dio3) was not changed by DIE. Overall, our results provide evidence that the anti-thyroidal effects already known from LNG are also present in another progestin, namely NET, even at environmentally relevant concentrations. In conclusion we suggest that progestins do not only pose an environmental risk in terms of their impact on reproductive success of aquatic vertebrates, but also with respect to their anti-thyroidal properties affecting amphibian metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Salt at concentrations relevant to meat processing enhances Shiga toxin 2 production in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shaun M; Yue, Wan-Fu; Olsen, Sarena A; Hu, Jia; Means, Warrie J; McCormick, Richard J; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-10-15

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 remains a major food safety concern associated with meat, especially beef products. Shiga toxins (Stx) are key virulence factors produced by E. coli O157:H7 that are responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Stx are heat stable and can be absorbed after oral ingestion. Despite the extensive study of E. coli O157:H7 survival during meat processing, little attention is paid to the production of Stx during meat processing. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of salt, an essential additive to processed meat, at concentrations relevant to meat processing (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, W/V) on Stx2 production and Stx2 prophage induction by E. coli O157:H7 strains. For both E. coli O157:H7 86-24 and EDL933 strains, including 2% salt in LB broth decreased (Pmeat processing enhances Stx production, a process linked to bacterial stress response and lambdoid prophage induction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A Prospective Comparative Study of the Toxicity Profile of 5-Flurouracil, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide Regime VS Adriamycin, Paclitaxel Regime in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Pradeep Sadasivan; Jayakumar, Krishnan Nair Lalithamma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A 5-flurouracil, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide (FAC) and Adriamycin, Paclitaxel (AT) are two popular chemotherapeutic regimens for treatment of breast carcinoma. The most time tested and popular regimen is FAC. It is extensively studied for efficacy and toxicity. But data regarding toxicity profile and efficacy of AT regimen is sparse. Aim To study the toxicity profile, severity of toxicities and clinical response rate of FAC and AT regimens in patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study with 50 patients in each treatment arm. Study duration was 12 months from November 2012 to October 2013. Consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma receiving treatment with either FAC or AT regimen, satisfying inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study after getting informed written consent. Prior to initiation of treatment detailed medical history was taken from all patients. General clinical examination, examination of organ systems and local examination of breast lump were done. After each cycle of chemotherapy and after completion of treatment patients were interviewed and examined for clinical response and toxicities. Toxicities were graded with WHO toxicity grading criteria. All data were entered in a structured proforma. At least 50% reduction in tumour size was taken as adequate clinical response. Statistical Analysis Data was analysed using Chi-square test with help of Excel 2007 and SPSS-16 statistical software. Results Different pattern of toxicities were seen with FAC and AT regimens. Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, hyperpigmentation, photosensitivity and diarrhoea were more common with patients receiving FAC regimen. Leucopenia, peripheral neuropathy, myalgia, arthralgia, vomiting and injection site reactions were more common in AT regimen. Both FAC and AT regimens gave 100% clinical response. Conclusion FAC and AT regimens are equally efficacious but have different

  4. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g

  5. Sequential radiotherapy and adriamycin in the management of bronchogenic carcinoma: the question of additive toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckdeschel, J.C.; Baxter, D.H.; McKneally, M.F.; Killam, D.A.; Lunia, S.L.; Horton, J.

    1979-08-01

    Intrapleural immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were employed in that sequence in 22 patients with Stage III non-oat cell bronchogenic carcinoma confined to the thorax. Seven patients received intrapleural BCG in a pilot study and 15 were randomized between intrapleural BCG and intrapleural saline. Isoniazid was begun on day 14 and irradiation (3000 rad in 10 fractions) to the primary lesion, mediastinum and ipsilateral supraclavicular nodes was started on day 21. One to two weeks following irradiation, CAMP chemotherapy was initiated (Cyclophosphamide 300 mg/M/sup 2/ iv, d. 1,8; Adriamycin 20 mg/M/sup 2/ iv, d. 1,8; Methotrexate 15 mg/M/sup 2/ iv, d. 1,8 and Procarbazine 100 mg/M/sup 2/ p.o., d. 1 to 10). Chemotherapy was given for a total of six months. Two patients expired prior to radiotherapy (1 tumor progression, 1 myocardial infarction) and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Nausea, vomiting, alopecia and fatigue were universal side effects of the chemotherapy. Esophagitis occurred in 9 patients, 7 prior to and 2 after initiation of Adriamycin. In only one case did Adriamycin exacerbate a previous radiation esophagitis. No patient developed clinical radiation pneumonitis, although all had eventual radiation fibrosis. Congestive heart failure occurred in 1 patient with known valvular heart disease and responded to diuretics. Three patients developed localized herpes zoster infections. One patient developed radiation myelitis one year after initiating therapy and six months after completing all chemotherapy. The major side effect was leukopenia with relative platelet sparing. Although significant morbidity was encountered in this primarily older patient population (mean age 64.8 years) recall reactions involving irradiated intrathoracic structures were not a significant clinical problem.

  6. Survival and kinetics of Chinese hamster ovary cell subpopulations induced by Adriamycin and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Mitotic selection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, at 10 min intervals after the initiation of Adriamycin and/or x-ray treatment was used to measure the kinetics and survival of cells which progressed without delay, the ''refractory'' cells, the cells that reached mitosis only after recovery from the treatment-induced delay, the ''recovered'' cells, and the survival of the cells remaining attached to the flask 5 h after treatment. The cell kinetics were determined from the rate at which cells entered mitosis, and the reproductive integrity from the survival of the selected refractory, recovered and remaining (unselected) cells

  7. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2006-01-01

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 μg g -1 dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food

  8. The landsnail Cepaea nemoralis regulates internal Cd levels when fed on Cd-enriched stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) leaves at low, field-relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-01-15

    We studied Cd accumulation in Cepaea nemoralis snails at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the diet (Urtica dioica leaves). Six treatments of U. dioica plants were grown, resulting in leaf Cd concentrations between 0 and 2.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dw. Seven snails per treatment were fed for 38 days. Leaf Cd concentrations did not affect food consumption rates, and consequently Cd intake rates increased with increasing leaf concentrations. No differences were detected among treatments in the final soft tissue Cd concentrations and body burdens in the snails. Regression analyses showed no positive relationship between either snail Cd concentrations or body burdens and total Cd intake. This suggests a regulation of internal Cd concentrations at low food Cd concentrations. Our data suggest that Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in this regulation, in addition to Cd excretion via the faeces. Snail shells were no sinks for Cd. - Cd excretion via the mucus plays a substantial role in the regulation of C. nemoralis soft tissue Cd concentrations at low, but field-relevant Cd concentrations in the food.

  9. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in the uterine vascular bed of pregnant rats with adriamycin-induced nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mariam H; Adeagbo, Ayotunde S; Kadavil, Elizabeth A; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Oriowo, Mabayoje A

    2002-01-01

    This project was designed to study endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the uterine vascular bed during experimentally induced preeclampsia in rats. Uterine vascular beds were isolated from non-pregnant and pregnant rats with or without treatment with adriamycin (ADR) and perfused with physiological solution. Thereafter, vasodilator responses to acetylcholine were recorded. RECORDS: Pregnant ADR-treated rats displayed symptoms of preeclampsia including hypertension and proteinuria. Blood pressure was 110.0 +/- 4.7 mm Hg (n = 5) in control pregnant rats and 136.0 +/- 5.3 mm Hg (n = 5) in ADR-treated pregnant rats, and urinary protein concentrations were 0.35 mg/ml (n = 5) and 13.2 +/- 3.6 mg/ml (n = 9), respectively. Both blood pressure and proteinuria values were significantly (p acetylcholine-induced dose-dependent vasodilator responses in the vascular beds were not significantly different between the pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Although acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) in both groups, the residual response to acetylcholine was not affected by indomethacin, suggesting that prostanoids were not involved in this response. The L-NAME-resistant component, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), was greater in ADR-treated uterine beds than in those of the controls, indicating a significant contribution from EDHF in these vessels. In the presence of an elevated external potassium ion concentration, acetylcholine produced similar vasodilator responses, indicating that the release of nitric oxide was not impaired. These results indicate that endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not impaired in this model of preeclampsia.

  10. Reinduction therapy for adult acute leukemia with adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, L; Shaw, M T; Raab, S O

    1979-08-01

    In an attempt to improve remissions and survivals in previously treated patients with adult acute leukemia, we gave Adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone for induction therapy, followed by 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for maintenance therapy to patients attaining complete remission (CR). The study group consisted of 18 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), ten with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one with acute undifferentiated leukemia. Only one patient had previously received Adriamycin. Overall, there were ten CRs and two partial remissions. The five CRs and one partial remission in patients with AML occurred among those with one prior induction attempt; none of the eight AML patients with more than one prior induction attempt responded. The actuarial median duration of CR was 15 weeks and was similar for AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Responders had a longer median survival (30 weeks) than nonresponders (9 weeks). Thus, although a reasonable number of responses in previously treated patients were obtained with this program, improvements in maintenance therapy are clearly needed.

  11. Effect of abnormal notochord delamination on hindgut development in the Adriamycin mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hideaki; Hajduk, Piotr; Furuta, Shigeyuki; Wakisaka, Munechika; Murphy, Paula; Puri, Prem; Kitagawa, Hiroaki

    2013-11-01

    Adriamycin mouse model (AMM) is a model of VACTERL anomalies. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, sourced by the notochord, is implicated of anorectal malformations. We hypothesized hindgut anomalies observed in the AMM are the result of abnormal effect of the notochord. Time-mated CBA/Ca mice received two intraperitoneal injections of Adriamycin (6 mg/kg) or saline as control on embryonic day (E) 7 and 8. Fetuses were harvested from E9 to E11, stained following whole mount in situ hybridization with labeled RNA probes to detect Shh and Fork head box F1(Foxf1) transcripts. Immunolocalization with endoderm marker Hnf3β was used to visualize morphology. Embryos were scanned by OPT to obtain 3D representations of expressions. In AMM, the notochord was abnormally displaced ventrally with attachment to the hindgut endoderm in 71 % of the specimens. In 32 % of the treated embryos abnormal hindgut ended blindly in a cystic structure, and both of types were remarked in 29 % of treated embryos. Endodermal Shh and mesenchymal Foxf1 genes expression were preserved around the hindgut cystic malformation. The delamination of the developing notochord in the AMM is disrupted, which may influence signaling mechanisms from the notochord to the hindgut resulting in abnormal patterning of the hindgut.

  12. Solanine induced apoptosis and increased chemosensitivity to Adriamycin in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ying-Jie; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Jian-Yong; Chen, Jie-Ru; Wang, Hong; Li, You-Jie

    2018-05-01

    Solanine is an alkaloid and is the main extract of the traditional Chinese herb, Solanum nigrum Linn . It has been reported that Solanine has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effect of Solanine in Jurkat cells and demonstrate the molecular mechanism of antitumor activity of Solanine. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay demonstrated that Solanine inhibited the proliferation of Jurkat cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry revealed that Solanine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in Jurkat cells. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Solanine modulated the mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). Additionally, Bcl-2 and Bax expression was measured using western blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase in the expression of Bax and decrease in the expression of Bcl-2. Solanine increased the chemosensitivity of Jurkat cells to Adriamycin. In summary, the present results indicated that the antitumor activity of Solanine was associated with inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and increasing cytotoxicity of Adriamycin. Therefore, Solanine may have potential as a novel agent for the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  13. Effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuan Nan; Song Liping; Xing Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of eplerenone on serum TNF-α levels in adriamycin induced heart failure male rat models. Methods: Forty male rat models of adriamycin-induced heart failure were prepared with weekly intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin (4/mg/kg) for six weeks. Twenty surviving models were randomly divided into two groups: (1)eplerenone-treated group, n=10, treated with garage of eplerenone 200mg/kg/d for 12 weeks (2) non-treated group n=10. All the surviving models (group (1) n=8, group (2) n=6) were sacrificed after 12 weeks with left ventricular hemodynamic function parameters tested and serum TNF-α levels measured. Ten male rats without adriamycin administration served as controls. Results: Left ventricular hemodynamic parameters in the non-treated group were significantly worse than those in controls (P<0.05). The parameters in the eplerenone treated group were significantly better than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). The serum TNF-α levels in the non-treated group were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). TNF-α levels in the eplerenone group were significantly lower than those in the non-treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Eplerenone could reduce the serum TNF-α levels in the rat models of heart failure. (authors)

  14. New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) ("San Pedro") and their relevance to shamanic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, Olabode; McCombs, Douglas; Trout, Keeper; Daley, Paul; Terry, Martin

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present study is to determine in a procedurally uniform manner the mescaline concentrations in stem tissue of 14 taxa/cultivars of the subgenus Trichocereus of the genus Echinopsis (Cactaceae) and to evaluate the relationship (if any) between mescaline concentration and actual shamanic use of these plants. Columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis, some of which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes by South American shamans in traditional medicine, were selected for analysis because they were vegetative clones of plants of documented geographic origin and/or because they were known to be used by practitioners of shamanism. Mescaline content of the cortical stem chlorenchyma of each cactus was determined by Soxhlet extraction with methanol, followed by acid-base extraction with water and dichloromethane, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). By virtue of the consistent analytical procedures used, comparable alkaloid concentrations were obtained that facilitated the ranking of the various selected species and cultivars of Echinopsis, all of which exhibited positive mescaline contents. The range of mescaline concentrations across the 14 taxa/cultivars spanned two orders of magnitude, from 0.053% to 4.7% by dry weight. The mescaline concentrations reported here largely support the hypothesis that plants with the highest mescaline concentrations - particularly E. pachanoi from Peru - are most associated with documented shamanic use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of nanomolar cadmium concentrations on water plants - comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the effects of the highly toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) on the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum are investigated on the biochemical and biophysical level. The experiments were carried out using environmentally relevant conditions, i.e. light and temperature followed a sinusoidal cycle, a low biomass to water ratio resembled the situation in oligotrophic lakes and a continuous exchange of the defined nutrient solution ensured that metal uptake into the plant...

  16. Adriamycin resistance, heat resistance and radiation response in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, K.; Li, G.

    1985-01-01

    Previous investigators have demonstrated synergistic interaction between hyperthermia and radiation or Adriamycin (ADR), using cell lines that are sensitive to heat or ADR alone. The authors investigated the effect of heat, radiation or ADR on Chinese hamster fibroblasts (HA-1), their heat resistant variants and their ADR resistant variants. Heat for ADR resistance did not confer cross resistance to radiation. Cells resistant to heat did show cross resistance to ADR. While cells selected for ADR resistance were not cross resistant to heat, they did not exhibit drug potentiation by hyperthermia, characteristic of ADR sensitive cells. Cytofluorometric measurement showed decreased ADR uptake in both heat and ADR resistant cells. The possibility of cross resistance between heat and ADR should be considered when designing combined modality trials

  17. Evaluation of adriamycin nephropathy by an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteki, Takaaki; Nagase, Sohji; Yokoyama, Hidekatsu; Ohya, Hiroaki; Akatsuka, Takao; Tada, Mika; Ueda, Atsushi; Hirayama, Aki; koyama, Akio

    2005-01-01

    A rat model for human minimal change nephropathy was obtained by the intravenous injection of adriamycin (ADR) at 5 mg/kg. By using an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 700 MHz, the temporal changes in signal intensities of a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), in the kidneys of rats with ADR nephropathy were investigated. The decay rate of the EPR signal intensity obtained in the kidney is indicative of the renal reducing ability. It was found that the reducing ability in the kidney declined on the 7th day after ADR administration and recovered after the 14th day. Impairment of the reducing ability occurred before the appearance of continuous urinary protein. The in vitro EPR study showed that this impairment of in vivo renal reducing ability is related to impairment of the reducing ability in the mitochondria

  18. Intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation in the prophylactic treatment of recurring bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumio; Kan, Masaharu; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of the recurrence of bladder tumors was attempted in 45 patients by intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation (20 Gy). 30 ml saline solution containing ADM 30mg was instilled into the bladder and then irradiation was performed every day for 10 days. Patients' ages ranged from 36 to 84 years with a mean of 66.5 years; the sex ratio was 3(M) : 1(F). The recurrence rate following therapy was 8.1% after 1 year, 29.4% after 2 years and 29.4% after 3 years. The recurrence rate was low in patients with low grade tumors, those with single tumors and those who received this combination therapy after surgery. Only one patient was obliged to interrupt the therapy due to a bladder irritation. (author)

  19. Influence of environmentally relevant concentrations of vinclozolin on quality, DNA integrity, and antioxidant responses of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazo, Ievgeniia; Linhartova, Pavla; Shaliutina, Anna; Hulak, Martin

    2013-04-25

    The effects of vinclozolin (VIN), an anti-androgenic fungicide, on quality, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, and ATP level of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa were investigated in vitro. Fish spermatozoa were incubated with different concentrations of vinclozolin (0.5, 2, 10, 15, 20 and 50 μg/l) for 2 h. A dose-dependent reduction in spermatozoa motility and velocity was observed at concentrations of 2-50 μg/l. A dramatic increase in DNA fragmentation was recorded at concentrations 10 μg/l and above. After 2 h exposure at higher test concentrations (10-50 μg/l), oxidative stress was apparent, as reflected by significantly higher levels of protein and lipid oxidation and significantly greater superoxide dismutase activity. Intracellular ATP content of spermatozoa decreased with increasing concentrations of VIN. The results demonstrated that VIN can induce reactive oxygen species stress in fish spermatozoa, which could impair the sperm quality, DNA integrity, ATP content, and the antioxidant defense system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peiminine serves as an adriamycin chemosensitizer in gastric cancer by modulating the EGFR/FAK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianqian; Wang, Yunfei; Ma, Lanjing; Ding, Meiling; Li, Tingyu; Nie, Yongzhan; Gu, Zhengyi

    2018-03-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies of the digestive tract. Adriamycin (ADR) has been widely utilized in various chemotherapy regimens for treating GC, yet its long-term application may increase drug resistance resulting in treatment failure. Increasing evidence shows that bioactive natural products can be used as chemotherapeutic sensitizers that can significantly improve chemotherapy sensitivity. Peiminine (PMI) is a biologically active component extracted from Fritillaria walujewii Regel. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to investigate whether peiminine (PMI) alters the chemosensitivity of GC to adriamycin (ADR). GC cells were treated with ADR with or without PMI. MTT assay, flow cytometry and a nude mouse tumor xenograft model of SGC7901 cells were used to evaluate the chemosensitization activity of PMI combined with ADR. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of cyclin D1 and cleaved PARP. The RayBio® Human RTK phosphorylation antibody array kit was used to test the differential protein expression. Compared with the ADR group, PMI combined with ADR significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. The growth curve and tumor weight of the tumor xenografts were significantly decreased in mice treated with the combination of PMI and ADR. However, the organs showed no obvious abnormality after treatment with PMI plus ADR. The expression of cyclin D1 was decreased and the level of cleaved PARP was increased after treatment with PMI and ADR. The expression of p-EGFR and p-FAK was downregulated in cells treated with PMI and ADR, and the validation of p-EGFR and p-FAK was in accordance with the result of the phosphorylation antibody array kit. PMI may serve as a new chemosensitizer by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis to enhance the chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity of ADR in GC.

  1. Lingzhilactones from Ganoderma lingzhi ameliorate adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong-Ming; Wang, Xin-Long; Zhou, Li-Li; Zhou, Feng-Jiao; Li, Rong; Tian, Yuan; Zuo, Zhi-Li; Fang, Ping; Chung, Arthur C K; Hou, Fan-Fan; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-12-24

    Several Ganoderma fungi are well-known for their medical uses to treat cancer, insomnia and kidney disease in East Asia. Triperpenoids and polysaccharides have been considered for a long time to be the major active components of the genus Ganoderma. The present study is to examine the effects of lingzhilactones from G. lingzhi on adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice. A combination of various chromatography led to the isolation of lingzhilactones A-C, their structures were identified by spectroscopic and computational methods. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected with the carboxymethyl-H2-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluoroprobe. The fibrotic markers were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Detection of SEAP was conducted with the chemiluminescent. Urine albumin was measured using an ELISA assay. Histology and immunohistochemical staining was used to assess fibrotic lesions in mice. Three new lingzhilactones A-C (1-3) containing a fused lactone moiety were isolated from G. lingzhi. We found that 2 could inhibit ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner, inhibit mRNA expression of collagen IV, fibronectin, IL-6 and increase expression of Nrf2 in rat tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, we found that 2 could reduce urinary albumin levels, abrogate myofibroblastic activation and inhibit the phosphorylation of Smad3 in adriamycin-induced mice. The in vitro and in vivo results suggested that lingzhilactone B could protect against renal injuries by increasing the activities of antioxidants and inhibiting inflammation. The inhibition of Smad3 phosphorylation suggested that this substance displays in vivo antifibrotic activity by a mechanism that is dependent on disruption of Smad3. These results promote understanding of the traditional usage of G. lingzhi and provide promising findings which may be beneficial for anti-kidney disease drug design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bisphenol A induces superfeminization in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Bachmann, Jean; Oetken, Matthias; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner; Ternes, Thomas A

    2006-04-01

    Previous investigations have shown that bisphenol A (BPA) induces a superfeminization syndrome in the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis at concentrations as low as 1 microg/L. Superfemales are characterized by the formation of additional female organs, enlarged accessory sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct, and a stimulation of egg and clutch production, resulting in increased female mortality. However, these studies were challenged on the basis of incomplete experimentation. Therefore, the objective of the current approach was to bridge several gaps in knowledge by conducting additional experiments. In an initial series of experiments, study results from the reproductive phase of the snails were evaluated in the sub-micrograms per liter range. Before and after the spawning season, superfemale responses were observed [NOEC (no observed effect concentration) 7.9 ng/L, EC10 (effective concentration at 10%) 13.9 ng/L], which were absent during the spawning season. A further experiment investigated the temperature dependence of BPA responses by exposing snails at two temperatures in parallel. The adverse effect of BPA was at least partially masked at 27 degrees C (EC10 998 ng/L) when compared with 20 degrees C (EC10 14.8 ng/L). In M. cornuarietis, BPA acts as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, because effects were completely antagonized by a co-exposure to tamoxifen and Faslodex. Antiandrogenic effects of BPA, such as a significant decrease in penis length at 20 degrees C, were also observed. Competitive receptor displacement experiments indicate the presence of androgen- and estrogen-specific binding sites. The affinity for BPA of the estrogen binding sites in M. cornuarietis is higher than that of the ER in aquatic vertebrates. The results emphasize that prosobranchs are affected by BPA at lower concentrations than are other wildlife groups, and the findings also highlight the importance of exposure conditions.

  3. Studies on uptake and distribution of chemotherapeutic agents to malignant tumors of the head and neck in rabbits, 2. /sup 3/H-Adriamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, R. (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-09-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate incorporation and distribution of chemotherapeutic agents into malignant tumors of the head and neck by microautoradiographic and electron microscopic-autoradiographic observations of VX2 carcinoma transplanted in the lower genial region of rabbits after injection of /sup 3/H-Adriamycin as a tracer. The following findings were obtained. 1. On microautoradiograms, /sup 3/H-Adriamycin was distributed predominantly in the nucleoplasm, rather than in the cytoplasm, of tumor tissues. 2. At the ultrastructural level, /sup 3/H-Adriamycin was localized in the nuclear membrane and nucleoli within the nucleoplasm and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory granules within the cytoplasm. 3. These findings seem to indicate that Adriamycin may inhibit the synthesis of DNA and RNA in the nucleoplasm.

  4. Prediction of Adsorption Equilibrium of VOCs onto Hyper-Cross-Linked Polymeric Resin at Environmentally Relevant Temperatures and Concentrations Using Inverse Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lijuan; Ma, Jiakai; Shi, Qiuyi; Long, Chao

    2017-01-03

    Hyper-cross-linked polymeric resin (HPR) represents a class of predominantly microporous adsorbents and has good adsorption performance toward VOCs. However, adsorption equilibrium of VOCs onto HPR are limited. In this research, a novel method for predicting adsorption capacities of VOCs on HPR at environmentally relevant temperatures and concentrations using inverse gas chromatography data was proposed. Adsorption equilibrium of six VOCs (n-pentane, n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, benzene, 1, 2-dichloroethane) onto HPR in the temperature range of 403-443 K were measured by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Adsorption capacities at environmentally relevant temperatures (293-328 K) and concentrations (P/P s = 0.1-0.7) were predicted using Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation based on Polany's theory. Taking consideration of the swelling properties of HPR, the volume swelling ratio (r) was introduced and r·V micro was used instead of V micro determined by N 2 adsorption data at 77 K as the parameter q 0 (limiting micropore volume) of the DR equation. The results showed that the adsorption capacities of VOCs at environmentally relevant temperatures and concentrations can be predicted effectively using IGC data, the root-mean-square errors between the predicted and experimental data was below 9.63%. The results are meaningful because they allow accurate prediction of adsorption capacities of adsorbents more quickly and conveniently using IGC data.

  5. The efficacy and safety of the targeted drug combined with adriamycin liposome solution for HER-2-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Ping Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of the targeted drug trastuzumab combined with adriamycin liposome solution for HER-2-positive breast cancer. Methods: A total of 112 patients with breast cancer who received chemotherapy in Department of Cardiothoracic Breast Surgery, Guangdong TongJiang Hospital between May 2014 and April 2016 were selected as the research subjects and divided into two groups by random number table, liposome group received trastuzumab + adriamycin liposome chemotherapy, and the control group received trastuzumab + adriamycin chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy as well as 4 weeks and 8 weeks after chemotherapy, serum levels of tumor markers, cytokines and myocardial injury indexes were detected, the electrocardiography was conducted and the degree of myocardial injury was determined. Results: 4 weeks and 8 weeks after chemotherapy, serum CEA, CA15-3, TPS, CTGF, TGF-β, TSGF, VEGF and MK levels of both groups were significantly lower than those before chemotherapy, serum CK-MB and cTnI levels were significantly higher than those before chemotherapy, limb leads QRS amplitudes and chest leads QRS amplitudes were significantly lower than those before chemotherapy, serum CEA, CA15-3, TPS, CTGF, TGF-β, TSGF, VEGF, MK, CK-MB and cTnI levels of liposome group were significantly lower than those of control group, and the limb leads QRS amplitudes and chest lead QRS amplitudes were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Targeted drug combined with adriamycin liposome therapy for HER-2-positive breast cancer can improve the curative effect and reduce the cardiotoxicity.

  6. Treatment of carcinoma of uterine cervix stage III by adriamycin, bleomycin and cisplatinum, neoadjuvant, modified radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, J.C. do; Ribeiro, C.W.; Rezende, Magda C.; Figueiredo, E.; Chu, C.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with untreated carcinoma of the cervix stage III A and IIIB, were submitted to 3 to 5 cycles of a combination of adriamycin (ADR), bleomycin (BLEO) and cisplatinum (CDDP), followed by modified radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy, 6 cycles, of the same association. The surgical aspect is emphasized and the operative sequence is described. A comparative evaluation between the treatment presented and the radiotherapy is done. The survical rate is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, René; Foyet, Angèle F; Essame, Jean-Louis O; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.

  8. Liposomal curcumin alters chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to Adriamycin via regulating microRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siying; Li, Jian; Xu, Hanzi; Zhang, Sijie; Chen, Xiu; Chen, Wei; Yang, Sujin; Zhong, Shanliang; Zhao, Jianhua; Tang, Jinhai

    2017-07-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies, but poor bioavailability and low absorption have limited its clinical use and the mechanisms remain unclear. Also, Adriamycin (Adr) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents in breast cancer; however, the high resistant rate of Adr leads to a poor prognosis. We utilized encapsulation in liposomes as a strategy to improve the bioavailability of curcumin and demonstrated that liposomal curcumin altered chemosensitivity of Adr-resistant MCF-7 human breast cancer (MCF-7/Adr) by MTT assay. The miRNA and mRNA expression profiles of MCF-7/S, MCF-7/Adr and curcumin-treated MCF-7/Adr cells were analyzed by microarray and further confirmed by real-time PCR. We focused on differentially expressed miR-29b-1-5p to explore the involvement of miR-29b-1-5p in the resistance of Adr. Candidate genes of dysregulated miRNAs were identified by prediction algorithms based on gene expression profiles. Networks of KEGG pathways were organized by the selected dysregulated miRNAs. Moreover, protein-protein interaction (PPI) was utilized to map protein interaction networks of curcumin regulated proteins. We first demonstrated liposomal curcumin could rescue part of Adriamycin resistance in breast cancer and further identified 67 differentially expressed microRNAs among MCF-7/S, MCF-7/Adr and curcumin-treated MCF-7/Adr. The results showed that lower expressed miR-29b-1-5p decreased the IC50 of MCF-7/Adr cells and higher expressed miR-29b-1-5p, weaken the effects of liposomal curcumin to Adr-resistance. Besides, we found that 20 target genes (mRNAs) of each dysregulated miRNA were not only predicted by prediction algorithms, but also differentially expressed in the microarray. The results showed that MAPK, mTOR, PI3K-Akt, AMPK, TNF, Ras signaling pathways and several target genes such as PPARG, RRM2, SRSF1and EPAS1, may associate with drug resistance of breast cancer cells to Adr. We determined

  9. Effects of Field-Relevant Concentrations of Clothianidin on Larval Development of the Butterfly Polyommatus icarus (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basley, Kate; Goulson, Dave

    2018-04-03

    Arable field margins are often sown with wildflowers to encourage pollinators and other beneficial or desirable insects such as bees and butterflies. Concern has been raised that these margins may be contaminated with systemic pesticides such as neonicotinoids used on the adjacent crop, and that this may negatively impact beneficial insects. The use of neonicotinoids has been linked to butterfly declines, and species such as the common blue butterfly ( Polyommatus icarus) that feed upon legumes commonly sown in arable field margins, may be exposed to such toxins. Here, we demonstrate that the larval food plants of P. icarus growing in an arable field margin adjacent to a wheat crop treated with the neonicotinoid clothianidin not only contain the pesticide at concentrations comparable to and sometimes higher than those found in foliage of treated crops (range 0.2-48 ppb) but also remain detectable at these levels for up to 21 months after sowing of the crop. Overall, our study demonstrates that nontarget herbivorous organisms in arable field margins are likely to be chronically exposed to neonicotinoids. Under laboratory conditions, exposure to clothianidin at 15 ppb (a field-realistic dose) or above reduced larval growth for the first 9 days of the experiment. Although there was evidence of clothianidin inducing mortality in larvae, with highest survival in control groups, the dose-response relationship was unclear. Our study suggests that larvae of this butterfly exhibit some deleterious sublethal and sometimes lethal impacts of exposure to clothianidin, but many larvae survive to adulthood even when exposed to high doses.

  10. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of atrazine induce non-monotonic acceleration of developmental rate and increased size at metamorphosis in Rhinella arenarum tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Julie C; Sassone, Alina; Hermida, Gladys N; Codugnello, Nadia

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the various studies reporting on the subject, anticipating the impacts of the widely-used herbicide atrazine on anuran tadpoles metamorphosis remains complex as increases or decreases of larval period duration are almost as frequently reported as an absence of effect. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of atrazine (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L) on the timings of metamorphosis and body size at metamorphosis in the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura: bufonidae). None of the atrazine concentrations tested significantly altered survival. Low atrazine concentrations in the range of 1-100μg/L were found to accelerate developmental rate in a non-monotonic U-shaped concentration-response relationship. This observed acceleration of the metamorphic process occurred entirely between stages 25 and 39; treated tadpoles proceeding through metamorphosis as control animals beyond this point. Together with proceeding through metamorphosis at a faster rate, tadpoles exposed to atrazine concentrations in the range of 1-100μg/L furthermore transformed into significantly larger metamorphs than controls, the concentration-response curve taking the form of an inverted U in this case. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.1μg atrazine/L for both size at metamorphosis and timings of metamorphosis. Tadpoles exposed to 100μg/L 17β-estradiol presented the exact same alterations of developmental rate and body size as those treated with 1, 10 and 100μg/L of atrazine. Elements of the experimental design that facilitated the detection of alterations of metamorphosis at low concentrations of atrazine are discussed, together with the ecological significance of those findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on soil nitrification at environmentally relevant concentrations: Lack of classical dose-response relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie; Martins, Jean M F; Le Roux, Xavier; Uzu, Gaëlle; Calas, Aude; Richaume, Agnès

    2017-03-01

    Titanium-dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 -NPs) are increasingly released in agricultural soils through, e.g. biosolids, irrigation or nanoagrochemicals. Soils are submitted to a wide range of concentrations of TiO 2 -NPs depending on the type of exposure. However, most studies have assessed the effects of unrealistically high concentrations, and the dose-response relationships are not well characterized for soil microbial communities. Here, using soil microcosms, we assessed the impact of TiO 2 -NPs at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 500 mg kg -1  dry-soil, on the activity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter and Nitrospira). In addition, aggregation and oxidative potential of TiO 2 -NPs were measured in the spiking suspensions, as they can be important drivers of TiO 2 -NPs toxicity. After 90 days of exposure, non-classical dose-response relationships were observed for nitrifier abundance or activity, making threshold concentrations impossible to compute. Indeed, AOA abundance was reduced by 40% by TiO 2 -NPs whatever the concentration, while Nitrospira was never affected. Moreover, AOB and Nitrobacter abundances were decreased mainly at intermediate concentrations nitrification was reduced by 25% at the lowest (0.05 mg kg -1 ) and the highest (100 and 500 mg kg -1 ) TiO 2 -NPs concentrations. Path analyses indicated that TiO 2 -NPs affected nitrification through an effect on the specific activity of nitrifiers, in addition to indirect effects on nitrifier abundances. Altogether these results point out the need to include very low concentrations of NPs in soil toxicological studies, and the lack of relevance of classical dose-response tests and ecotoxicological dose metrics (EC50, IC50…) for TiO 2 -NPs impact on soil microorganisms.

  12. Characterization in vitro and in vivo of progressively adriamycin-resistant B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, R; Grabowski, D; Schmidt, H; Bell, D; Melia, M

    1987-07-01

    Adriamycin (ADR)-resistant sublines of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma selected by exposure to increasing concentrations of ADR were characterized in vitro for growth properties and in vivo for tumorigenicity and pulmonary metastases. The progressively resistant sublines adapted to grow in the presence of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 microgram/ml ADR in monolayer culture were found to be 5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-fold ADR-resistant, respectively, compared to the parental sensitive cells, using a soft-agar colony assay and continuous ADR treatment for 7 days. The doubling time in monolayer culture of the parent sensitive and progressively ADR-resistant sublines of B16-BL6 melanoma cells was approximately 16-18 h. Although the colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of parental sensitive cells was only 0.5-4%, the 5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-fold ADR-resistant sublines had colony-forming efficiencies of 15, 20, 30, and 77%, respectively. Tumorigenicity in C57BL/6 mice of progressively ADR-resistant sublines was similar to parental sensitive cells following s.c. and i.p. implantation of 10(5)-10(6) tumor cells. Experimental pulmonary metastases were significantly lower in ADR-resistant sublines with progressive resistance. Additionally, unlike the parental sensitive and 5-fold ADR-resistant B16-BL6 cells, the 10-, 20-, and 40-fold ADR-resistant sublines were spontaneously nonmetastatic. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunochemical detection of P-glycoprotein revealed the presence of a Mr 170,000 plasma membrane glycoprotein in the 40-fold ADR-resistant subline and its counterpart maintained for 1 year in ADR-free medium. Results from this study suggest that progressively ADR-resistant B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells selected in vitro demonstrate a marked increase in colony formation in soft agar and a decrease in the ability to produce pulmonary metastases, without alterations in tumorigenicity.

  13. Kinetically directed combination therapy with adriamycin and x-irradiation in a mammary tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweiger, P.G.; Schenken, L.L.; Schiffer, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    In the present studies, the interaction of adriamycin (A) and x-irradiation (X) in T1699 mouse mammary tumors was evaluated. Mitotic indices and thymidine labeling indices were determined at various intervals after A or X alone, and after A + X given in combination. The results with A (1.0 mg/kg) and X(200 R) alone suggest that those quantities of each agent induce a G 2 progression delay of 9 to 12 h. The kinetic results after A + X in combination indicated increased S phase transit time and G 2 progression delay. Recovery kinetics after A + X were used to predict optimum sequence intervals for subsequent A + X fractions. Sequential A + X treatment schedules, up to 4 fractions, were designed and evaluated by regrowth delay measurements. The results indicated that the interaction was additive when A and X were given together in combination. Fractionation of A + X to minimize proliferative recovery between fractions resulted in an enhanced antitumor effect

  14. Cobrotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom Ameliorates Adriamycin Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD becomes a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Adriamycin- (ADR- induced rodent chronic nephropathy is a classic experimental model of human minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome. The present study investigated the effect of cobrotoxin (CTX on ADR-induced nephropathy. Rats were given 6 mg/kg ADR once through the tail vein to replicate ADR nephropathy model. CTX was administered to rats daily by placing a fast dissolving CTX membrane strip under the tongue starting from 5 days prior to ADR administration until the end of experiment. The results showed that CTX ameliorated the symptoms of ADR nephropathy syndrome with reduced body weight loss, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, dyslipidemia, serum electrolyte imbalance, oxidative stress, renal function abnormities, and kidney pathological lesions. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression was elevated after CTX administration in ADR nephropathy model. CTX inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Meanwhile, CTX upregulated the protein level of podocyte-specific nephrin and downregulated the level of fibrosis-related TGF-β. These findings suggest that CTX may be a potential drug for chronic kidney diseases.

  15. Therapeutic potential of regulatory macrophages generated from peritoneal dialysate in adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Changqi; Wang, Xin M; Lee, Vincent W S; Zheng, Guoping; Zhao, Ye; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H

    2018-04-01

    Cell therapy using macrophages requires large amounts of cells, which are difficult to collect from patients. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) discard huge numbers of peritoneal macrophages in dialysate daily. Macrophages can be modulated to become regulatory macrophages, which have shown great promise as a therapeutic strategy in experimental kidney disease and human kidney transplantation. This study aimed to examine the potential of using peritoneal macrophages (PMs) from peritoneal dialysate to treat kidney disease. Monocytes/macrophages accounted for >40% of total peritoneal leukocytes in both patients and mice undergoing PD. PMs from patients and mice undergoing PD were more mature than peripheral monocytes/macrophages, as shown by low expression of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and morphological changes during in vitro culture. PMs from patients and mice undergoing PD displayed normal macrophage function and could be modulated into a regulatory (M2) phenotype. In vivo, adoptive transfer of peritoneal M2 macrophages derived from PD mice effectively protected against kidney injury in mice with adriamycin nephropathy (AN). Importantly, the transfused peritoneal M2 macrophages maintained their M2 phenotype in kidney of AN mice. In conclusion, PMs derived from patients and mice undergoing PD exhibited conventional macrophage features. Peritoneal M2 macrophages derived from PD mice are able to reduce kidney injury in AN, suggesting that peritoneal macrophages from patients undergoing PD may have the potential for clinical therapeutic application.

  16. Pristimerin overcomes adriamycin resistance in breast cancer cells through suppressing Akt signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIE, GUI'E; YU, XINPEI; LIANG, HUICHAO; CHEN, JINGSONG; TANG, XUEWEI; WU, SHAOQING; LIAO, CAN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a major public health problem worldwide. Chemotherapy serves an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, in particular, multi-drug resistance (MDR), is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. Agents that can either enhance the effects of chemotherapeutics or overcome chemoresistance are urgently needed for the treatment of breast cancer. Pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid compound isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, has been shown to possess antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and insecticidal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether pristimerin can override chemoresistance in MCF-7/adriamycin (ADR)-resistant human breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that pristimerin indeed displayed potent cytocidal effect on multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells, and that these effects occurred through the suppression of Akt signaling, which in turn led to the downregulation of antiapoptotic effectors and increased apoptosis. These findings indicate that use of pristimerin may represent a potentially promising approach for the treatment of ADR-resistant breast cancer. PMID:27123073

  17. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide adriamycin and vincristine for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edralin, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Between January, 1988 and January, 1991, 29 patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and vincristine (CAV) chemotherapy and were evaluable after a median follow-up of 7.5 months. Of the 29 patients, 25 had limited disease (LD) and 4 had extensive disease (ED). Three patients had a complete remission (CR), 19 had a partial remission (PR) and 7 were non-responders. All the complete responders are still alive at 8, 10 and 40.8 months. The median survival time (MST) of all the patients was 8.5 months. The patients with LD had an MST of 8.5 months while those with ED had an MST of 5.5 months. The chemotherapy regimen produced a total response rate and median survival comparable to those achieved with other regimens. The complete response rate, however, was low and needed to be improved with other approaches. In partial responders, continuation of chemotherapy beyond the 3 courses given for induction did not improve the CR rate. Drug resistance was a limiting factor to the efficacy of this CAV regimen. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended. (auth.). 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Interaction of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone, and Adriamycin on the induction of acute lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    The acute lethality induced by combinations of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), and Adriamycin (ADR) was investigated in mice. Whole-body irradiation produced acute lethality, with an LD-50/30 of approximately 6.5 Gy. ADR and DHAQ produced LD-50/30's of 14 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. When 10 mg/kg doses were fractionated into 5 x 2 mg/kg daily doses, both drugs were equally or more efficient at producing mortality, 90% by day 30. When 4 Gy radiation was combined with 5 mg/kg ADR or 5 mg/kg DHAQ, a response no greater than that produced by drug alone was obtained. However, when 5 mg/kg ADR was administered concomitantly with 5 mg/kg DHAQ, there was a less-than-additive induction of lethality, resulting in only 21% mortality by day 20. ADR and DHAQ (at doses of 5 mg/kg) were combined but with a 1 day interval between drugs, the protective effect was lost and animals died earlier than after either agent alone. At present, no definite explanation is available for this unusual protective effect of ADR against acute lethality induced by DHAQ

  19. Compromising σ-1 receptors at the endoplasmic reticulum render cytotoxicity to physiologically relevant concentrations of dopamine in a nuclear factor-κB/Bcl-2-dependent mechanism: potential relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2012-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone σ-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is cytoprotective against ER stress-induced apoptosis. The level of Sig-1Rs in the brain was reported to be lower in early parkinsonian patients. Because dopamine (DA) toxicity is well known to be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease, we tested in this study whether a relationship might exist between Sig-1Rs and DA-induced cytotoxicity in a cellular model by using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. DA in physiological concentrations (e.g., lower than 10 μM) does not cause apoptosis. However, the same concentrations of DA cause apoptosis in Sig-1R knockdown CHO cells. In search of a mechanistic explanation, we found that unfolded protein response is not involved. Rather, the level of protective protein Bcl-2 is critically involved in this DA/Sig-1R knockdown-induced apoptosis. Specifically, the DA/Sig-1R knockdown causes a synergistic proteasomal conversion of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p105 to the active form of p50, which is known to down-regulate the transcription of Bcl-2. It is noteworthy that the DA/Sig-1R knockdown-induced apoptosis is blocked by the overexpression of Bcl-2. Our results therefore indicate that DA is involved in the activation of NF-κB and suggest that endogenous Sig-1Rs are tonically inhibiting the proteasomal conversion/activation of NF-κB caused by physiologically relevant concentrations of DA that would otherwise cause apoptosis. Thus, Sig-1Rs and associated ligands may represent new therapeutic targets for the treatment of parkinsonism.

  20. Inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand cleavage and hydroxyl radical formation by aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations: Implications for cancer intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Zhu, Hong; Jia, Zhenquan [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Li, Jianrong [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Misra, Hara P. [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Zhou, Kequan, E-mail: kzhou@wayne.edu [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Li, Yunbo, E-mail: yli@vcom.vt.edu [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2009-12-04

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that the long-term use of aspirin is associated with a decreased incidence of human malignancies, especially colorectal cancer. Since accumulating evidence indicates that peroxynitrite is critically involved in multistage carcinogenesis, this study was undertaken to investigate the ability of aspirin to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage. Peroxynitrite and its generator 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) were used to cause DNA strand breaks in {phi}X-174 plasmid DNA. We demonstrated that the presence of aspirin at concentrations (0.25-2 mM) compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in a significant inhibition of DNA cleavage induced by both peroxynitrite and SIN-1. Moreover, the consumption of oxygen caused by 250 {mu}M SIN-1 was found to be decreased in the presence of aspirin, indicating that aspirin might affect the auto-oxidation of SIN-1. Furthermore, EPR spectroscopy using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap demonstrated the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from authentic peroxynitrite, and that aspirin at 0.25-2 mM potently diminished the radical adduct formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations can inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation. These results may have implications for cancer intervention by aspirin.

  1. Inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand cleavage and hydroxyl radical formation by aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations: Implications for cancer intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Hong; Jia, Zhenquan; Li, Jianrong; Misra, Hara P.; Zhou, Kequan; Li, Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that the long-term use of aspirin is associated with a decreased incidence of human malignancies, especially colorectal cancer. Since accumulating evidence indicates that peroxynitrite is critically involved in multistage carcinogenesis, this study was undertaken to investigate the ability of aspirin to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage. Peroxynitrite and its generator 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) were used to cause DNA strand breaks in φX-174 plasmid DNA. We demonstrated that the presence of aspirin at concentrations (0.25-2 mM) compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in a significant inhibition of DNA cleavage induced by both peroxynitrite and SIN-1. Moreover, the consumption of oxygen caused by 250 μM SIN-1 was found to be decreased in the presence of aspirin, indicating that aspirin might affect the auto-oxidation of SIN-1. Furthermore, EPR spectroscopy using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap demonstrated the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from authentic peroxynitrite, and that aspirin at 0.25-2 mM potently diminished the radical adduct formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations can inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation. These results may have implications for cancer intervention by aspirin.

  2. A single exposure of sediment sulphate-reducing bacteria to oxytetracycline concentrations relevant to aquaculture enduringly disturbed their activity, abundance and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M L; Granados-Chinchilla, F; Rodríguez, C

    2015-08-01

    Although feed medicated with antibiotics is widely used in animal production to prevent and treat bacterial infections, the effect of these drugs on nontarget anaerobic bacteria is unknown. We aimed to clarify whether a single exposure of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from a tilapia pond to oxytetracycline (OTC) concentrations relevant to aquaculture impacts their function, abundance and community structure. To demonstrate changes in SO4(2-) content, SRB abundance, dsrB copy number and SRB diversity, sediment mesocosms were spiked with 5, 25, 50 and 75 mg OTC kg(-1) and examined for 30 days by means of ion chromatography, qPCR, cultivation and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). On day 3, we measured higher SO4(2-) concentrations (ca. two-fold) and a reduction in dsrB copy numbers of approximately 50% in the treatments compared to the controls. After 30 days, a subtle yet measurable enrichment of bacteria from the order Desulfovibrionales occurred in mesocosms receiving ≥ 50 mg OTC kg(-1), notwithstanding that SRB counts decreased two orders of magnitude. OTC was dynamically and reversibly converted into 4-epioxytetracycline and other related compounds in a dose-dependent manner during the experiment. A single exposure to rather high OTC concentrations triggered functional and structural changes in a SRB community that manifested quickly and persisted for a month. This study improves our limited knowledge on the ecotoxicology of antibiotics in anaerobic environments. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. The effect of adriamycin on dentinogenesis and 3H-thymidine incorporation into the enamel organ of the rat incisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adriamycin (5 mg/kg) on 3 H-thymidine incorporation and on dentin formation was studied in rat incisors. Male Sprague Dawley rats received an intravenous injection of adriamycin. Some of these also received a subcutaneous injection of 3 H-thymidine at a dose of 2 mCi/kg one day later. One group of control animals received an intravenous injection of a volume of physiological saline equal to that of the adriamycin dose. Another group received physiological saline, and one hour later was given an additional injection of 3 H-thymidine at a similar dose as above. All the animals were killed 1 h, 1 d, 4 d, 8 d, 16 d, 28 d, and 32 d after 3 H-thymidine treatment. Light microscopy revealed irregular dentin deposits between the mantle and circumpulpal layer of the labial dentin at 16 d. Within these deposits were trapped cells. The latter, through radioautographic labelling, appeared to be cells from the odontoblast layer. Also, the labelling pattern of the enamel organ in both the control and experimental groups indicated that the eruption rate of the tooth was not affected. Serial sectioning and examination of the lingual portion of the incisors at 28 d revealed a lack of dentin formation and a failure in the closure of the apical foramen. Electron microscopic observations showed an irregular and random arrangement of collagen fibers within the deposits of irregular dentin, and the presence of twisted odontoblastic processes. Examination of the lingual surface showed the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers bridging the gap that resulted from the failure in dentin formation. These cells, which were similar to periodontal ligament cells, appeared to have arisen from that area. (author)

  4. Relevance analysis and short-term prediction of PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing based on multi-source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, X. Y.; Huang, H.; Du, W. P.

    2017-02-01

    The PM2.5 problem is proving to be a major public crisis and is of great public-concern requiring an urgent response. Information about, and prediction of PM2.5 from the perspective of atmospheric dynamic theory is still limited due to the complexity of the formation and development of PM2.5. In this paper, we attempted to realize the relevance analysis and short-term prediction of PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, China, using multi-source data mining. A correlation analysis model of PM2.5 to physical data (meteorological data, including regional average rainfall, daily mean temperature, average relative humidity, average wind speed, maximum wind speed, and other pollutant concentration data, including CO, NO2, SO2, PM10) and social media data (microblog data) was proposed, based on the Multivariate Statistical Analysis method. The study found that during these factors, the value of average wind speed, the concentrations of CO, NO2, PM10, and the daily number of microblog entries with key words 'Beijing; Air pollution' show high mathematical correlation with PM2.5 concentrations. The correlation analysis was further studied based on a big data's machine learning model- Back Propagation Neural Network (hereinafter referred to as BPNN) model. It was found that the BPNN method performs better in correlation mining. Finally, an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (hereinafter referred to as ARIMA) Time Series model was applied in this paper to explore the prediction of PM2.5 in the short-term time series. The predicted results were in good agreement with the observed data. This study is useful for helping realize real-time monitoring, analysis and pre-warning of PM2.5 and it also helps to broaden the application of big data and the multi-source data mining methods.

  5. Adriamycin continuous i.v. infusion for the treatment of childhood hepatic malignancies, toxicity and efficacy: a pilot study childrens cancer study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.A.; Feusner, J.; Reaman, G.; Woods, W.

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to increase the number of patients with hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma receiving the benefits of complete surgical excision, a pilot study was undertaken at a few Childrens Cancer Study Group institutions. For this purpose, repeated courses of adriamycin administered as a continuous I.V. infusion either singly or in combination with c-platinum and radiation therapy treatment was selected. The patient population consisted of a total of eleven children with primary hepatic malignancies: six children had hepatoblastoma; all six were under two years of age at diagnosis. Five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were entered to the study. Of the eleven patients, four had previously received adriamycin as an I.V. bolus. A table summarizes the patient's characteristics, the adriamycin dose they received and their responses to therapy

  6. Adriamycin activity's durational governance of different cell death types and zonality in rat liver acinus. Immunohistochemical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrycz Agnieszka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and examine a model of apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes induced by a damaging factor - adriamycin, correlating time after its administration with cell death type, and to investigate the localisation within the liver acinus of hepatocytes dying in these two ways. The results obtained in the present and previous studies were compared in order to make a map of cell death localisation in the liver acinus, showing the effect of time in action and dose of adriamycin. The experiment was performed on 32 female Wistar rats, divided into four groups: I and II - experimental, and III and IV - control. Adriamycin (3 mg/kg b.w. was administered intraperitoneally to rats in groups I and II, and the rats were decapitated after four (group I and eight (group II weeks. Animals in control groups III and IV were given 0.5 mL of 0.9% NaCl solution, and decapitated after four and eight weeks respectively. Sections of the liver were examined with a three-stage immunohistochemical method. This method allowed to examine hepatocytes qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of proteins involved in three types of apoptosis: induced by the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 3, 9, the intrinsic pathway related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (caspase 3, 12, and the extrinsic pathway (caspase 3, 8. One of the inflammatory markers, caspase 1, was also examined. The zonal localisation of all three types of apoptosis was assessed in the liver tissue. More oxidated hepatocytes indicated only signs of the internal mitochondrial pathway, whereas less oxidated hepatocytes induced the internal reticular pathway and the external apoptotic pathway. The period between adriamycin administration and hepatic cell investigation was a main factor of the process. A longer period post insult resulted in a more pronounced effect of the activation of apoptosis. Sections explored eight weeks after treatment with different doses of the drug (3 and 5

  7. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) does not deplete mitochondrial DNA in human T-cell lines at intracellular concentrations exceeding clinically relevant drug exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray, Kirsten M; Park, Yeojin; Babusis, Darius; Callebaut, Christian; Cihlar, Tomas; Ray, Adrian S; Perron, Michel

    2017-04-01

    HIV-infected patients treated with certain nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have experienced adverse effects due to drug-related mitochondrial toxicity. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the NRTI tenofovir (TFV) with an improved safety profile compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Prior in vitro studies have demonstrated that the parent nucleotide TFV has no significant effects on mtDNA synthesis. This study investigated whether clinically relevant TAF and TDF exposures affect mtDNA content in human lymphocytes. First, activated or resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as MT-2 and Jurkat T-cell lines, were continuously treated with ddC for 10 days to establish their susceptibility to mtDNA depletion. PBMCs had low sensitivity to NRTI-mediated mtDNA depletion in vitro. In contrast, ddC treatment of rapidly dividing MT-2 and Jurkat cells resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in mtDNA. Therefore, these two T-cell lines were selected for evaluating TAF and TDF treatment effects. MT-2 and Jurkat cells were pulse-treated with TAF or TDF every 24 h for 10 days to mimic pharmacologically relevant drug exposures. Pulse treatment of cells with 3.3 μM TAF or 1.1 μM TDF for 10 days resulted in 2- to 7-fold greater steady-state intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) levels than those observed clinically in TAF- or TDF-treated patients. At these concentrations, no significant TAF- (106.7% and 84.1% of control; p = 0.77 and 0.12 for MT-2 and Jurkat, respectively) or TDF- (100.6% and 91.0% of control; p = 0.91 and 0.37, respectively) associated reduction in mtDNA content was observed compared with untreated control cells. This study demonstrates that, despite delivering higher intracellular levels of TFV-DP than TDF, TAF does not inhibit mtDNA synthesis in vitro at concentrations exceeding the clinically relevant intracellular drug exposures. Thus, TAF has a low potential for mitochondrial toxicity in

  8. p,p'-DDE Induces Gonadal Intersex in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations: Comparison with o,p'-DDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxian; Wang, Chen; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Guomao; Zhang, Shiyi; Hu, Jianying

    2016-01-05

    Previous studies have reported high body burdens of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in wild fishes worldwide. This study evaluated the adverse effects of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and o,p'-DDT on gonadal development and reproduction by exposing transgenic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from hatch for 100 days. While both p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDT induced intersex in male medaka, the lowest observable effective concentration (LOEC) of o,p'-DDT was 57.7 ng/g ww, about 5-fold lower than that (272 ng/g ww) of p,p'-DDE. Since LOECs of both chemicals were comparable to the body concentrations in wild fish, DDT contamination would likely contribute to the occurrence of intersex observed in wild fish. Exposure to o,p'-DDT resulted in much higher expression of vitellogenin in liver of males than p,p'-DDE, accordant with the higher potency of o,p'-DDT than p,p'-DDE to induce intersex. This phenomenon could be partly explained by the significantly elevated levels of 17β-estradiol in plasma of males exposed to o,p'-DDT, in addition to its estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor. Significantly lower fertilization (p = 0.006) and hatchability (p = 0.019) were observed in the 13 intersex males. This study for the first time demonstrated the induction of intersex and reproductive effects of p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDT at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  9. Beta-defensin-2 protein is a serum biomarker for disease activity in psoriasis and reaches biologically relevant concentrations in lesional skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A M Jansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have extensively documented antimicrobial and chemotactic activities of beta-defensins. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2 is strongly expressed in lesional psoriatic epidermis, and recently we have shown that high beta-defensin genomic copy number is associated with psoriasis susceptibility. It is not known, however, if biologically and pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of hBD-2 protein are present in vivo, which could support an antimicrobial and proinflammatory role of beta-defensins in lesional psoriatic epidermis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that systemic levels of hBD-2 showed a weak but significant correlation with beta defensin copy number in healthy controls but not in psoriasis patients with active disease. In psoriasis patients but not in atopic dermatitis patients, we found high systemic hBD-2 levels that strongly correlated with disease activity as assessed by the PASI score. Our findings suggest that systemic levels in psoriasis are largely determined by secretion from involved skin and not by genomic copy number. Modelling of the in vivo epidermal hBD-2 concentration based on the secretion rate in a reconstructed skin model for psoriatic epidermis provides evidence that epidermal hBD-2 levels in vivo are probably well above the concentrations required for in vitro antimicrobial and chemokine-like effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Serum hBD-2 appears to be a useful surrogate marker for disease activity in psoriasis. The discrepancy between hBD-2 levels in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis could explain the well known differences in infection rate between these two diseases.

  10. The intake of water containing a mix of pollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to defensive response deficit in male C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; de Faria, Denise Braga Gomes; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Chagas, Thales Quintão; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have individually confirmed the toxic effects from different pollutants on mammals. However, effects resulting from the exposure of these animals to multi-pollutant mixes have not been studied so far. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the effect from the chronic exposure (105days) of C57Bl/6J mice to a mix of pollutants on their response to potential predators. In order to do so, the following groups were formed: "control", "Mix 1× [compounds from 15 pollutants identified in surface waters at environmentally relevant concentration (ERC)]", "Mix 10×" and "Mix 25×" (concentrations 10 and 25 times higher than the ERC). From the 100th experimental day on, the animals were subjected to tests in order to investigate whether they showed locomotor, visual, olfactory and auditory changes, since these abilities are essential to their anti-predatory behavior. Next, the animals' behavior towards potential predators (Felis catus and Pantherophis guttatus) was assessed. The herein collected data did not show defensive response from any of the experimental groups to the predatory stimulus provided by P. guttatus. However, the control animals, only, presented anti-predatory behavior when F. catus was introduced in the apparatus, fact that suggests defensive response deficit resulting from the treatments. Thus, the current study is pioneer in showing that the chronic intake of water containing a mix of pollutants (even at low concentrations) leads to behavioral disorders able to affect the survival and population dynamics of mammalian species at ecological level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect and mechanism of Qishen Yiqi Pills on adriamycin- induced cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia-Yi; Xu, Yan-Juan; Bian, Ye-Ping; Shen, Xiang-Bo; Yan, Lei; Zhu, Xin-Yi

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect and probable mechanism of Qishen Yiqi Pills on adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiomyopathy in mice. Sixty-four mice were randomly divided into (1) the ADR group: saline (1 mL/100 g) administered every day by intragavage, ADR (4 mg·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks; (2) the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills I group: ADR (4 mg·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks, and at the beginning of the third week Qishen Yiqi Pills (3.5 mg/100 g) administered by intragavage every day for four weeks; (3) the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group: ADR (4 mg·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks, and at the same time Qishen Yiqi Pills (3.5 mg/100 g) administered by intragavage every day for four weeks; (4) the control group: saline (1 mL/100 g) administered every day by intragavage, saline (1 mL·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks. Six weeks later, cardiac function, myocardial pathology, and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated. 1. The left ventricular diastolic diameter and the left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly increased (P Pills I group and the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group improved. 2. Myocardial morphologic observation showed that the myocardial fibers were disordered, there was cell edema, and gap widening in the ADR group. The degree of myocardial cell injury was reduced in the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills I group and ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group compared with the ADR group. 3. The expression of Bax in the ADR group was significantly up-regulated, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly downregulated in the ADR group compared with the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills I group, the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group, and the control group (P Pills can effectively improve the cardiac function of ADR-induced cardiomyopathy, and the

  12. shRNA-mediated EMMPRIN silencing inhibits human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 cell proliferation and increases chemosensitivity to adriamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Yantao; Peng, Jianjun; Wang, Chunbo

    2015-03-01

    EMMPRIN is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, which plays an important role in tumor progression and confers resistance to some chemotherapeutic drugs. Recent studies have shown that EMMPRIN overexpression indicates poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little was known on the role of EMMPRIN in leukemia. Human leukemia cell line U937 was stably transfected with a EMMPRIN-targeted shRNA-containing vector to investigate the effect of EMMPRIN on cellular functions. EMMPRIN expression was monitored by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by trypan blue exclusion and BrdU labeling, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin on cells was assessed by MTT assay. Knockdown of EMMPRIN gene significantly inhibited cell viability and decreased cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed that the reduced EMMPRIN expression resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, western blotting analysis showed that EMMPRIN knockdown was associated with downregulation of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related molecules including cyclin D1, cyclin E, as well as increase in cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. This study also showed that silencing of EMMPRIN sensitized U937 cells to Adriamycin. EMMPRIN is involved in proliferation, growth, and chemosensitivity of human AML line U937, indicating that EMMPRIN may be a promising therapeutic target for AML.

  13. Clinically Relevant Plasma Concentrations of Colistin in Combination with Imipenem Enhance Pharmacodynamic Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa at Multiple Inocula▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Phillip J.; Forrest, Alan; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Tsuji, Brian T.; Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Paterson, David L.; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of combination antibiotic therapy may be beneficial against rapidly emerging resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate in vitro bacterial killing and resistance emergence with colistin alone and in combination with imipenem against multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. Time-kill studies were conducted over 48 h using 5 clinical isolates and ATCC 27853 at two inocula (∼106 and ∼108 CFU/ml); MDR, non-MDR, and colistin-heteroresistant and -resistant strains were included. Nine colistin-imipenem combinations were investigated. Microbiological response was examined by log changes at 6, 24, and 48 h. Colistin combined with imipenem at clinically relevant concentrations increased the levels of killing of MDR and colistin-heteroresistant isolates at both inocula. Substantial improvements in activity with combinations were observed across 48 h with all colistin concentrations at the low inoculum and with colistin at 4× and 16× MIC (or 4 and 32 mg/liter) at the high inoculum. Combinations were additive or synergistic against imipenem-resistant isolates (MICs, 16 and 32 mg/liter) at the 106-CFU inoculum in 9, 11, and 12 of 18 cases (i.e., 9 combinations across 2 isolates) at 6, 24, and 48 h, respectively, and against the same isolates at the 108-CFU inoculum in 11, 7, and 8 cases, respectively. Against a colistin-resistant strain (MIC, 128 mg/liter), combinations were additive or synergistic in 9 and 8 of 9 cases at 24 h at the 106- and 108-CFU inocula, respectively, and in 5 and 7 cases at 48 h. This systematic study provides important information for optimization of colistin-imipenem combinations targeting both colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant subpopulations. PMID:21876058

  14. Nonproteinogenic D-amino acids at millimolar concentrations are a toxin for anaerobic microorganisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    The delivery of extraterrestrial organics to early Earth provided a potentially important source of carbon and energy for microbial life. Optically active organic compounds of extraterrestrial origin exist in racemic form, yet life on Earth has almost exclusively selected for L- over D-enantiomers of amino acids. Although D-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids are known to inhibit aerobic microorganisms, the role of concentrated nonproteinogenic meteoritic D-amino acids on anaerobic metabolisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets such as Mars is unknown. Here, we test the inhibitory effect of D-enantiomers of two nonproteinogenic amino acids common to carbonaceous chondrites, norvaline and α-aminobutyric acid, on microbial iron reduction. Three pure strains (Geobacter bemidjiensis, Geobacter metallireducens, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus) and an iron-reducing enrichment culture were grown in the presence of 10 mM D-enantiomers of both amino acids. Further tests were conducted to assess the inhibitory effect of these D-amino acids at 1 and 0.1 mM. The presence of 10 mM D-norvaline and D-α-aminobutyric acid inhibited microbial iron reduction by all pure strains and the enrichment. G. bemidjiensis was not inhibited by either amino acid at 0.1 mM, but D-α-aminobutyric acid still inhibited at 1 mM. Calculations using published meteorite accumulation rates to the martian surface indicate D-α-aminobutyric acid may have reached inhibitory concentrations in little over 1000 years during peak infall. These data show that, on a young anoxic planet, the use of one enantiomer over another may render the nonbiological enantiomer an environmental toxin. Processes that generate racemic amino acids in the environment, such as meteoritic infall or impact synthesis, would have been toxic processes and could have been a selection pressure for the evolution of early racemases.

  15. Reduction of proteinuria in adriamycin-induced nephropathy is associated with reduction of renal kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Andrea B.; van Timmeren, Mirjan M.; Schuurs, Theo A.; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; van Goor, Harry; Navis, Gerjan

    Kramer AB, van Timmeren MM, Schuurs TA, Vaidya VS, Bonventre JV, van Goor H, Navis G. Reduction of proteinuria in adriamycin-induced nephropathy is associated with reduction of renal kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) over time. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1136-F1145, 2009. First published February

  16. Osteoclastome-like giant cell thyroid carcinoma controlled by intensive radiation and adriamycin, in a patient with meningioma and multiple myeloma treated by radiation and cytoxan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizel-Schwartz, M.

    1981-01-01

    The eighth cases of osteoclastome-like giant cell carcinoma of the thyroid, and the first one to be treated with adriamycin in addition to surgery and radiation, is reported. This rare variant of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma appeared in a patient operated on for meningioma and treated for multiple myeloma with cranial radiation and chronic administration of cytoxan

  17. Sequence-dependent toxicity profile in modified FAMTX (fluorouracil-adriamycin-methotrexate) chemotherapy with lenograstim support for advanced gastric cancer: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, A. M.; Taal, B. G.; Swart, M.; Boot, H.; Craanen, M.; Gerritsen, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    For advanced irresectible gastric cancer, sequential high-dose methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (both on day 1) combined with adriamycin on day 15 (FAMTX regimen), cycled every 28 days, is a fairly effective but toxic treatment, with a high incidence of neutropenic fever, dose reductions and dose

  18. The mixture of "ecstasy" and its metabolites impairs mitochondrial fusion/fission equilibrium and trafficking in hippocampal neurons, at in vivo relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Daniel José; Serrat, Romàn; Mirra, Serena; Quevedo, Martí; de Barreda, Elena Goméz; Àvila, Jesús; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lourdes Bastos, Maria de; Capela, João Paulo; Soriano, Eduardo; Carvalho, Félix

    2014-06-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is a potentially neurotoxic recreational drug of abuse. Though the mechanisms involved are still not completely understood, formation of reactive metabolites and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to MDMA-related neurotoxicity. Neuronal mitochondrial trafficking, and their targeting to synapses, is essential for proper neuronal function and survival, rendering neurons particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction. Indeed, MDMA-associated disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis and ATP depletion have been described in neurons, thus suggesting possible MDMA interference on mitochondrial dynamics. In this study, we performed real-time functional experiments of mitochondrial trafficking to explore the role of in situ mitochondrial dysfunction in MDMA's neurotoxic actions. We show that the mixture of MDMA and six of its major in vivo metabolites, each compound at 10μM, impaired mitochondrial trafficking and increased the fragmentation of axonal mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, the overexpression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) or dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) K38A constructs almost completely rescued the trafficking deficits caused by this mixture. Finally, in hippocampal neurons overexpressing a Mfn2 mutant, Mfn2 R94Q, with impaired fusion and transport properties, it was confirmed that a dysregulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion events greatly contributed to the reported trafficking phenotype. In conclusion, our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the mixture of MDMA and its metabolites, at concentrations relevant to the in vivo scenario, impaired mitochondrial trafficking and increased mitochondrial fragmentation in hippocampal neurons, thus providing a new insight in the context of "ecstasy"-induced neuronal injury.

  19. Environmentally relevant concentrations of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate exposure alter larval growth and locomotion in medaka fish via multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Kai; Chiang, Li-Fen; Tan, Shi-Wei; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2018-06-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used plasticizer, with evidence of ubiquitous human exposure and widespread occurrence in the aquatic environment. It is an emerging environmental pollutant with regulatory priority; however, most studies have focused on the toxicity of DEHP related to endocrine disruption and reproduction in mammals. The ecotoxicological impact of phthalates (e.g., DEHP) on early life stages of fish under environmentally relevant concentrations of chronic exposure remains unclear. In this study, 7-day post-hatching fry of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) underwent 21-day continuous exposure to DEHP solutions at 20, 100 and 200 μg/L to assess the effects on fish development and locomotion and related toxic mechanisms. Larval mortality was low with DEHP (20-200 μg/L) within 21 days, but such exposure significantly reduced fish body weight and length and altered swimming behavior. At 21 days, DEHP exposure resulted in specific patterns of larval locomotion (e.g., increased maximum velocity and absolute turn angle) and dose-dependently increased the mRNA expression of acetylcholinesterase (ache) but did not alter AChE activity. Transcriptional expression of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor and retinoid X receptor genes was significantly suppressed with 21-day DEHP exposure (20-200 μg/L), with marginal alteration in reactive oxygen species levels and antioxidant activities within the dosing period. As well, DEHP altered the mRNA expression of p53-regulated apoptosis pathways, such as upregulated p53, p21 and bcl-2 and downregulated caspase-3 expression, with increased enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in larvae. Our results suggest that toxic mechanisms of waterborne DEHP altered fish growth and locomotion likely via a combined effect of oxidative stress, neurotoxicity and apoptosis pathways. Copyright © 2018

  20. Exosomes from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells transmit drug resistance partly by delivering miR-222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-Dan; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Lv, Meng-Meng; Chen, Wei-Xian; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Su-Jin; Shen, Hongyu; Zhong, Shan-Liang; Tang, Jin-Hai; Zhao, Jian-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer (BCa) is one of the major deadly cancers in women. However, treatment of BCa is still hindered by the acquired-drug resistance. It is increasingly reported that exosomes take part in the development, metastasis, and drug resistance of BCa. However, the specific role of exosomes in drug resistance of BCa is poorly understood. In this study, we investigate whether exosomes transmit drug resistance through delivering miR-222. We established an adriamycin-resistant variant of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cell line (MCF-7/Adr) from a drug-sensitive variant (MCF-7/S). Exosomes were isolated from cell supernatant by ultracentrifugation. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and apoptosis assay. Individual miR-222 molecules in BCa cells were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Then, FISH was combined with locked nucleic acid probes and enzyme-labeled fluorescence (LNA-ELF-FISH). Individual miR-222 could be detected as bright photostable fluorescent spots and then the quantity of miR-222 per cell could be counted. Stained exosomes were taken in by the receipt cells. MCF-7/S acquired drug resistance after co-culture with exosomes from MCF-7/Adr (A/exo) but did not after co-culture with exosomes from MCF-7/S (S/exo). The quantity of miR-222 in A/exo-treated MCF-7/S was significantly greater than in S/exo-treated MCF-7/S. MCF-7/S transfected with miR-222 mimics acquired adriamycin resistance while MCF-7/S transfected with miR-222 inhibitors lost resistance. In conclusion, exosomes are effective in transmitting drug resistance and the delivery of miR-222 via exosomes may be a mechanism.

  1. Clinical relevance of the discrepancy in phenylalanine concentrations analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry compared with ion-exchange chromatography in phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Use of DBS analyzed using MS/MS to monitor blood phe concentrations in individuals with PKU yields significantly lower phe levels compared to plasma phe levels analyzed using IEC. Optimization of current testing methodologies for measuring phe in DBS, along with patient education regarding the appropriate technique for spotting blood on filter paper is needed to improve the accuracy of using DBS to measure phe concentrations in PKU management.

  2. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements, including zinc (Zn and germanium (Ge, are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302 from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM concentrations (95% confidence interval were 3.14 (3.08–3.20 mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6 μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1 μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001, while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001 and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095. Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002, Ge (p = 0.002, and Pb (p = 0.001. The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001, while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001. Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05. GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L, 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L, and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001. Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  3. SPIN1, negatively regulated by miR-148/152, enhances Adriamycin resistance via upregulating drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Ya-Wen; Gao, Peng

    2018-05-09

    Spindlin1 (SPIN1), a protein highly expressed in several human cancers, has been correlated with tumorigenesis and development. Alterations of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are major determinants of chemoresistance in tumor cells. However, whether the metabolizing enzymes and transporters are under the control of SPIN1 in breast cancer chemoresistance has not yet been defined. SPIN1 expression in breast cancer cells and tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Chemosensitivity assays in vitro and in vivo were performed to determine the effect of SPIN1 on Adriamycin resistance. Downstream effectors of SPIN1 were screened by microarray and confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Luciferase assay and Western blot were used to identify miRNAs regulating SPIN1. We showed that SPIN1 was significantly elevated in drug-resistant breast cancer cell lines and tissues, compared with the chemosensitive ones. SPIN1 enhanced Adriamycin resistance of breast cancer cells in vitro, and downregulation of SPIN1 by miRNA could decrease Adriamycin resistance in vivo. Mechanistically, drug metabolizing enzymes and transporter CYP2C8, UGT2B4, UGT2B17 and ABCB4 were proven to be downstream effectors of SPIN1. Notably, SPIN1 was identified as a direct target of the miR-148/152 family (miR-148a-3p, miR-148b-3p and miR-152-3p). As expected, miR-148a-3p, miR-148b-3p or miR-152-3p could increase Adriamycin sensitivity in breast cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, high expression of SPIN1 or low expression of the miR-148/152 family predicted poorer survival in breast cancer patients. Our results establish that SPIN1, negatively regulated by the miR-148/152 family, enhances Adriamycin resistance in breast cancer via upregulating the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter.

  4. Influence of docosahexaenoic acid in vitro on intracellular adriamycin concentration in lymphocytes and human adriamycin-sensitive and -resistant small-cell lung cancer cell lines, and on cytotoxicity in the tumor cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J G; de Vries, E G; Muskiet, F A; Martini, I A; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, N H

    1987-01-01

    An increase in the therapeutic effects of cancer chemotherapeutic agents and circumvention of drug resistance in cancer cells might result from an increase in the intracellular drug level. Alteration of the lipid domain of the cell membrane can result in a higher intracellular drug level. This

  5. Combined modality therapy of diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weick, J.K.; Antunez, A.; Kraus, T.A.; Fabian, C.J.; Dixon, D.

    1983-01-01

    The combination of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) alternating with total body irradiation (TBI) has been shown earlier to be effective therapy in patients with malignant lymphoma who have received prior chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. A limited institutional pilot study was therefore done by the Southwest Oncology Group between October 1977, and November 1978 to test the benefit of this program in previously untreated persons with Stages 3 and 4 diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eleven evaluable patients with the following histologies were treated: 7 poorly differentiated, 2 with histiocytic, 1 with mixed lymphoma and 1 with well-differentiated morphology. Responses were seen in 8/11 patients (6 CR and 2 PR); 5 persons are currently alive and 6 are dead. The median duration of remission is 15 months and the median survival for all patients is 48 months. The therapy was well tolerated with a mean nadir leukocyte count of 3020 x 10 9 /μl (range 1.2 to 5.5) and a mean nadir platelet count of 188 x 10 9 /μl (range 016 to 270). As delivered, this program is capable of producing durable remissions and needs to be verified in a larger series of patients

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of interleukin-2 activated killer cells against adriamycin resistant mouse B16-BL6 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S C; Chikkala, N F; Lewis, I; Grabowski, D R; Finke, J H; Ganapathi, R

    1992-01-01

    Development of multidrug-resistance (MDR) remains a major cause of failure in the treatment of cancer with chemotherapeutic agents. In our efforts to explore alternative treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tumors we have examined the sensitivity of MDR tumor cell lines to lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells. Adriamycin (ADM) resistant B16-BL6 melanoma, L1210 and P388 leukemic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to lysis by LAK cells in vitro. While ADM-resistant B16-BL6 and L1210 sublines were found to exhibit at least 2-fold greater susceptibility to lysis by LAK cells, sensitivity of ADM-resistant P388 cell was similar to that of parental cells. Since ADM-resistant B16-BL6 cells were efficiently lysed by LAK cells in vitro, the efficacy of therapy with LAK cells against the ADM-resistant B16-BL6 subline in vivo was evaluated. Compared to mice bearing parental B16-BL6 tumor cells, the adoptive transfer of LAK cells and rIL2 significantly reduced formation of experimental metastases (P less than 0.009) and extended median survival time (P less than 0.001) of mice bearing ADM-resistant B16-BL6 tumor cells. Results suggest that immunotherapy with LAK cells and rIL2 may be a useful modality in the treatment of cancers with the MDR phenotype.

  7. [Improvement and the mechanism of cardiac function by knockdown of ADAM10 in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoou; Xie, Lili; He, Bing; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Objective To study the role of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase10 (ADAM10) in shedding neural cadherin (N-cadherin) and develop an approach to interfere the process of ventricular remodeling in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy (ACM) rats. Methods In a rat model of ACM, the effects of intraperitoneal injection of the lentiviral RNAi vector of ADAM10 on the morphology of cardiomyocytes and contractile function were observed by HE staining and color Doppler echocardiography. The expressions of N-cadherin and C-terminal fragment 1 (CTF1) were detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results In the in vivo experiment, a large amount of fluorescence was seen in the isolated primary cardiomyocytes, which indicated that the transfection in the rat model was successful. In the treatment group, the morphology of cardiomyocytes and function of the heart were evidently improved, N-cadherin protein expression was remarkably up-regulated and CTF1 protein was obviously down-regulated compared with the model group. Conclusion Knock-down of ADAM10 increases N-cadherin expression and decreases CTF1 expression, thus improves cardiac function in the rat model of ACM.

  8. Environmentally relevant pyrethroid mixtures: A study on the correlation of blood and brain concentrations of a mixture of pyrethroid insecticides to motor activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael F; Ross, David G; Starr, James M; Scollon, Edward J; Wolansky, Marcelo J; Crofton, Kevin M; DeVito, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Human exposure to multiple pyrethroid insecticides may occur because of their broad use on crops and for residential pest control. To address the potential health risk from co-exposure to pyrethroids, it is important to understand their disposition and toxicity in target organs such as the brain, and surrogates such as the blood when administered as a mixture. The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between blood and brain concentrations of pyrethroids and neurobehavioral effects in the rat following an acute oral administration of the pyrethroids as a mixture. Male Long-Evans rats were administered a mixture of β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate and cis- and trans-permethrin in corn oil at seven dose levels. The pyrethroid with the highest percentage in the dosing solution was trans-permethrin (31% of total mixture dose) while deltamethrin and esfenvalerate had the lowest percentage (3%). Motor activity of the rats was then monitored for 1h. At 3.5h post-dosing, the animals were euthanized and blood and brain were collected. These tissues were extracted and analyzed for parent pyrethroid using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were the predominate pyrethroids detected in blood and brain, respectively, at all dosage levels. The relationship of total pyrethroid concentration between blood and brain was linear (r=0.93). The pyrethroids with the lowest fraction in blood were trans-permethrin and β-cyfluthrin and in brain were deltamethrin and esfenvalerate. The relationship between motor activity of the treated rats and summed pyrethroid blood and brain concentration was described using a sigmoidal Emax model with the Effective Concentration50 being more sensitive for brain than blood. The data suggests summed pyrethroid rat blood concentration could be used as a surrogate for brain concentration as an aid to study the neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids administered as a mixture under the conditions

  9. Gas-phase naphthalene concentration data recovery in ambient air and its relevance as a tracer of sources of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Navazo, Marino; de Blas, Maite; Durana, Nieves; Alonso, Lucio; Iza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Despite the toxicity of naphthalene and the fact that it is a precursor of atmospheric photooxidants and secondary aerosol, studies on ambient gas-phase naphthalene are generally scarce. Moreover, as far as we are concerned, this is the first published one using long-term hourly ambient gas-phase naphthalene concentrations. In this work, it has been also demonstrated the usefulness of ambient gas-phase naphthalene to identify major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in complex scenarios. Initially, in order to identify main benzene emission sources, hourly ambient measurements of 60 VOC were taken during a complete year together with meteorological data in an urban/industrial area. Later, due to the observed co-linearity of some of the emissions, a procedure was developed to recover naphthalene concentration data from recorded chromatograms to use it as a tracer of the combustion and distillation of petroleum products. The characteristic retention time of this compound was determined comparing previous GC-MS and GC-FID simultaneous analysis by means of relative retention times, and its concentration was calculated by using relative response factors. The obtained naphthalene concentrations correlated fairly well with ethene (r = 0.86) and benzene (r = 0.92). Besides, the analysis of daily time series showed that these compounds followed a similar pattern, very different from that of other VOC, with minimum concentrations at day-time. This, together with the results from the assessment of the meteorological dependence pointed out a coke oven as the major naphthalene and benzene emitting sources in the study area.

  10. An alkaline comet assay study on the antimalarial drug atovaquone in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a study based on clinically relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinter, Domagoj; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Atovaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone, is an anti-parasite drug, selectively targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of malaria parasite. It is used for both the treatment and prevention of malaria, usually in a fixed combination with proguanil. Although atovaquone has not often been associated with severe adverse reactions in the recommended dosages and has a relatively favorable side effect profile, the present study was undertaken to evaluate its cytogenotoxic potential towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Two different concentrations of atovaquone found in plasma when used in fixed-dose combination with proguanile hydrochloride were used with and without S9 metabolic activation: 2950 ng ml(-1) used for prophylactic treatment and 11 800 ng ml(-1) used in treatment of malaria. The results showed that lymphocyte viability was not affected after the treatment, suggesting that atovaquone was not cytotoxic in the given concentrations. With the alkaline comet assay we demonstrated that in human peripheral blood lymphocytes no significant changes in comet parameters occurred after the treatment. There were no differences in tested parameters with the addition of S9 metabolic activation, indicating that atovaquone either has no metabolite or it is not toxic in the given concentrations. Since no effects were observed after the treatment, it is to be concluded that atovaquone is safe from the aspect of genototoxicity in the recommended dosages. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑ 21 PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g −1 with a median value of 1092 ng g −1 , while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day −1 (median 12 ng day −1 ). - Highlights: • PBDEs were investigated in dust of A/C filters in occupational settings in Thessaloniki, Greece. • BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. • High levels of PBDEs were found in a newspaper building, internet cafes and electronic shops. • PBDEs were attributable to the extensive presence and/or usage of electronic devices. • Exposure of employees to PBDEs via indoor dust ingestion was estimated at 12 ng day −1 . - PBDEs were for the first time measured in dust from central A/C filters in workplaces of Greece and their concentrations were used to estimate the non-dietary human exposure

  12. At clinically relevant concentrations the anaesthetic/amnesic thiopental but not the anticonvulsant phenobarbital interferes with hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Sotiriou, Evangelos; Kotzadimitriou, Dimitrios; Drimala, Panagiota

    2007-01-01

    Background Many sedative agents, including anesthetics, produce explicit memory impairment by largely unknown mechanisms. Sharp-wave ripple (SPW-R) complexes are network activity thought to represent the neuronal substrate for information transfer from the hippocampal to neocortical circuits, contributing to the explicit memory consolidation. In this study we examined and compared the actions of two barbiturates with distinct amnesic actions, the general anesthetic thiopental and the anticonvulsant phenobarbital, on in vitro SPW-R activity. Results Using an in vitro model of SPW-R activity we found that thiopental (50–200 μM) significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the incidence of SPW-R events (it increased the inter-event period by 70–430 %). At the concentration of 25 μM, which clinically produces mild sedation and explicit memory impairment, thiopental significantly reduced the quantity of ripple oscillation (it reduced the number of ripples and the duration of ripple episodes by 20 ± 5%, n = 12, P Phenobarbital significantly accelerated SPWs at 50 and 100 μM whereas it reduced their rate at 200 and 400 μM. Furthermore, it significantly prolonged SPWs, reduced their synchrony and reduced the quantity of ripples only at the clinically very high concentration of 400 μM, reported to affect memory. Conclusion We hypothesize that thiopental, by interfering with SPW-R activity, through enhancement of the GABAA receptor-mediated transmission, affects memory processes which involve hippocampal circuit activation. The quantity but not the frequency of ripple oscillation was affected by the drug. PMID:17672909

  13. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  15. At clinically relevant concentrations the anaesthetic/amnesic thiopental but not the anticonvulsant phenobarbital interferes with hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Evangelos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sedative agents, including anesthetics, produce explicit memory impairment by largely unknown mechanisms. Sharp-wave ripple (SPW-R complexes are network activity thought to represent the neuronal substrate for information transfer from the hippocampal to neocortical circuits, contributing to the explicit memory consolidation. In this study we examined and compared the actions of two barbiturates with distinct amnesic actions, the general anesthetic thiopental and the anticonvulsant phenobarbital, on in vitro SPW-R activity. Results Using an in vitro model of SPW-R activity we found that thiopental (50–200 μM significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the incidence of SPW-R events (it increased the inter-event period by 70–430 %. At the concentration of 25 μM, which clinically produces mild sedation and explicit memory impairment, thiopental significantly reduced the quantity of ripple oscillation (it reduced the number of ripples and the duration of ripple episodes by 20 ± 5%, n = 12, P P P Conclusion We hypothesize that thiopental, by interfering with SPW-R activity, through enhancement of the GABAA receptor-mediated transmission, affects memory processes which involve hippocampal circuit activation. The quantity but not the frequency of ripple oscillation was affected by the drug.

  16. Perfluoroalkylsulfonic and carboxylic acids in earthworms (Eisenia fetida): Accumulation and effects results from spiked soils at PFAS concentrations bracketing environmental relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Deb, Sanjit K; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Wang, Degeng; Anderson, Todd A

    2018-05-01

    Effects of perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in soils contaminated with these compounds at 0.1, 1, 10, 1,000, and 100,000 μg kg -1 dry weight, covering concentration levels found in background, biosolid-amended, and facility-surrounding soils, were investigated. Earthworms were exposed to spiked soil for 21 days. Concentrations of these compounds in earthworms after 21-d exposure ranged from below detection to 127 mg kg -1 wet weight with the rank order of PFNA > PFHxS > PFHpA > PFBS; no mortality of earthworms was observed in all treatments including controls, except PFBS at 1,000 μg kg -1 and all PFASs at 100,000 μg kg -1 . The highest weight loss (29%) was observed for earthworms exposed to PFNA at 100,000 μg kg -1 , which was significantly different from all other treatments except PFHpA at 100,000 μg kg -1 . These results are expected to fill some data gaps in toxicity of PFASs in terrestrial environments and provide helpful information on the potential for trophic transport of PFASs from soil to higher organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of an environmentally relevant concentration of diuron on oyster genitors during gametogenesis: responses of early molecular and cellular markers and physiological impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcha, F; Barranger, A; Bachère, E; Berthelin, C Heude; Piquemal, D; Alonso, P; Sallan, R Rondon; Dimastrogiovanni, G; Porte, C; Menard, D; Szczybelski, A; Benabdelmouna, A; Auffret, M; Rouxel, J; Burgeot, T

    2016-04-01

    Genitors of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas were submitted during gametogenesis to a short pulse exposure to the herbicide diuron at a realistic environmental concentration. Histological analysis showed no effect of diuron on gametogenesis course, sex ratio and reproductive effort. A non-significant increase in testosterone and progesterone levels was observed in genitors exposed to the herbicide. At cell level, diuron exposure was shown to modulate the phagocytic activity of circulating hemocytes. The results of a transcriptional analysis showed that diuron affected the expression of genes belonging to functions known to play a major role during oyster gametogenesis such as gene transcription regulation, DNA replication and repair, DNA methylation and cytokinesis. Taking into account the results we previously obtained on the same genitors, this study showed a negative effect of diuron on oyster reproduction by inducing both structural and functional modifications of the DNA.

  18. Cytogenetic and oxidative status of human lymphocytes after exposure to clinically relevant concentrations of antimalarial drugs atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinter, Domagoj; Gajski, Goran; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Atovaquone (ATO) and proguanil hydrochloride (PROG) is the fixed combination for the prevention and treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. As safe and effective antimalarial drugs are needed in both the treatment and the prophylaxis of malaria, this study was performed to investigate their possible cyto/genotoxic potential towards human lymphocytes and the possible mechanism responsible for it. Two different concentrations of ATO and PROG were used with and without S9 metabolic activation. The concentrations used were those found in human plasma when a fixed-dose combination of ATO and PROG was used: 2950/130 ng/mL after prophylactic treatment and 11 800/520 ng/mL after treatment of malaria, respectively. Possible cellular and DNA-damaging effects were evaluated by cell viability and alkaline comet assays, while oxidative stress potential was evaluated by formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay, in addition to measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione levels. According to our results, the ATO/PROG combination displayed only weak cyto/genotoxic potential towards human lymphocytes with no impact on oxidative stress parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is not implicated in their mechanism of action towards human lymphocytes. Given that the key portion of the damaging effects was induced after S9 metabolic activation, it is to presume that the principal metabolite of PROG, cycloguanil, had the greatest impact. The obtained results indicate that the ATO/PROG combination is relatively safe for the consumption from the aspect of cyto/genotoxicity, especially if used for prophylactic treatment. Nevertheless, further cytogenetic research and regular patient monitoring are needed to minimize the risk of adverse events especially among frequent travellers. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Functionalized graphene oxide mediated adriamycin delivery and miR-21 gene silencing to overcome tumor multidrug resistance in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhi

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR is a major impediment to successful cancer chemotherapy. Co-delivery of novel MDR-reversing agents and anticancer drugs to cancer cells holds great promise for cancer treatment. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of MDR in breast cancer, and it is emerging as a novel and promising MDR-reversing target. In this study, a multifunctional nanocomplex, composed of polyethylenimine (PEI/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonates (PSS/graphene oxide (GO and termed PPG, was prepared using the layer-by-layer assembly method to evaluate the reversal effects of PPG as a carrier for adriamycin (ADR along with miR-21 targeted siRNA (anti-miR-21 in cancer drug resistance. ADR was firstly loaded onto the PPG surface (PPGADR by physical mixing and anti-miR-21 was sequentially loaded onto PPGADR through electric absorption to form (anti-miR-21PPGADR. Cell experiments showed that PPG significantly enhanced the accumulation of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells (an ADR resistant breast cancer cell line and exhibited much higher cytotoxicity than free ADR, suggesting that PPG could effectively reverse ADR resistance of MCF-7/ADR. Furthermore, the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of PPG could be correlated with effective silencing of miR-21 and with increased accumulation of ADR in drug-resistant tumor cells. The endocytosis study confirmed that PPG could effectively carry drug molecules into cells via the caveolae and clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathways. These results suggest that this PPG could be a potential and efficient non-viral vector for reversing MDR, and the strategy of combining anticancer drugs with miRNA therapy to overcome MDR could be an attractive approach in cancer treatment.

  20. Timed sequential chemotherapy of cytoxan-refractory multiple myeloma with cytoxan and adriamycin based on induced tumor proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J E; Humphrey, R L; Burke, P J

    1981-03-01

    Malignant plasma cell proliferation and induced humoral stimulatory activity (HSA) occur in vivo at a predictable time following drug administration. Sequential sera from 11 patients with poor-risk multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing treatment with Cytoxan (CY) 2400 mq/sq m were assayed for their in vitro effects on malignant bone marrow plasma cell tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) incorporation. Peak HSA was detected day 9 following CY. Sequential changes in marrow malignant plasma cell 3HTdR-labeling indices (LI) paralleled changes in serum activity, with peak LI occurring at the time of peak HS. An in vitro model of chemotherapy demonstrated that malignant plasma cell proliferation was enhanced by HSA, as determined by 3HTdR incorporation assay, 3HTdR LI, and tumor cells counts, and that stimulated plasma cells were more sensitive to cytotoxic effects of adriamycin (ADR) than were cells cultured in autologous pretreatment serum. Based on these studies, we designed a clinical trial to treat 12 CY-refractory poor-risk patients with MM in which ADR (60 mg/sq m) was administered at the time of peak HSA and residual tumor cell LI (day 9) following initial CY, 2400 mg/m (CY1ADR9). Eight of 12 (67%) responded to timed sequential chemotherapy with a greater than 50% decrement in monoclonal protein marker and a median survival projected to be greater than 8 mo duration (range 4-21+ mo). These clinical results using timed sequential CY1ADR9 compare favorably with results obtained using ADR in nonsequential chemotherapeutic regimens.

  1. Molecular environment of stable iodine and radioiodine (129I) in natural organic matter: Evidence inferred from NMR and binding experiments at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Yeager, Chris M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2012-11-01

    129I is a major by-product of nuclear fission and had become one of the major radiation risk drivers at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 129I is present at elevated levels in the surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area and was found to be bound predominantly to soil organic matter (SOM). Naturally bound 127I and 129I to sequentially extracted humic acids (HAs), fulvic acids (FAs) and a water extractable colloid (WEC) were measured in a 129I-contaminated wetland surface soil located on the SRS. WEC is a predominantly colloidal organic fraction obtained from soil re-suspension experiments to mimic the fraction that may be released during groundwater exfiltration, storm water or surface runoff events. For the first time, NMR techniques were applied to infer the molecular environment of naturally occurring stable iodine and radioiodine binding to SOM. Iodine uptake partitioning coefficients (Kd) by these SOM samples at ambient iodine concentrations were also measured and related to quantitative structural analyses by 13C DPMAS NMR and solution state 1H NMR on the eight humic acid fractions. By assessing the molecular environment of iodine, it was found that it was closely associated with the aromatic regions containing esterified products of phenolic and formic acids or other aliphatic carboxylic acids, amide functionalities, quinone-like structures activated by electron-donating groups (e.g., NH2), or a hemicellulose-lignin-like complex with phenyl-glycosidic linkages. However, FAs and WEC contained much greater concentrations of 127I or 129I than HAs. The contrasting radioiodine contents among the three different types of SOM (HAs, FAs and WEC) suggest that the iodine binding environment cannot be explained solely by the difference in the amount of their reactive binding sites. Instead, indirect evidence indicates that the macro-molecular conformation, such as the hydrophobic aliphatic periphery hindering the active aromatic cores and the hydrophilic

  2. Long-term exposure to gold nanoparticles accelerates larval metamorphosis without affecting mass in wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Peter P; Thompson, Lucas B; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Sitton, Andrea J

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles are environmental contaminants of emerging concern. Exposure to engineered nanoparticles has been shown to have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms. The authors synthesized gold nanoparticles (18.1 ± 3.5 nm) and tested their effects on time to and weight at metamorphosis in wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) tadpoles, a species known to be sensitive to environmental stressors. Continuous exposure to all concentrations of gold nanoparticles (0.05 pM, 0.5 pM, and 5 pM in particles) for up to 55 d significantly reduced time to metamorphosis by as much as an average of 3 d (p metamorphosis. The approximately 18-nm gold nanoparticles used were metastable in dechlorinated tap water, resulting in a change in surface charge and aggregation over time, leading to negatively charged aggregates that were on the order of 60 nm to 110 nm. Nanoparticle aggregation could exacerbate the effect on time to metamorphosis. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first report on the effect of engineered nanoparticles of any kind on life-history variables in an amphibian, a taxonomic group that has been declining globally for at least 25 yr. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2304-2310. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Stabilisation goals for concentrations of climate-relevant gaseous emissions: Effects and emission pathways. Final report; Stabilisierungsziele fuer Treibhausgaskonzentrationen: Eine Abschaetzung der Auswirkungen und der Emissionspfade. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onigkeit, J.; Alcamo, J.; Kaspar, F.; Roesch, T.

    2000-04-01

    Two different stabilisation goals were assumed, i.e. 550 ppm and 450 ppm of carbon dioxide. First, the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions were calculated that are permissible to reach these goals. Secondly, the global and regional environmental effects of these concentration goals were assessed. In this, carbon dioxide, nitric oxides and methane emissions from power generation, industry and agriculture were considered. Apart from an investigation of the global reduction strategies required, a key was developed for sharing the global reduction loads between Annex B countries and non-Annex B countries. To reach a stable concentration of 550 ppm carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions per annum may increase slightly until 2030 but must be lowered to the 1990 level by 2100. In the case of 450 ppm, the 1990 level must even be halved by 2100. The consequences of climate change for agriculture, natural vegetation, availability of water, and sea levels were investigated in consideration of regional variations in carbon dioxide emissions and emission reduction measures. In spite of extensive emission control, the area of reduced agricultural productivity will grow rapidly in both cases, and natural vegetation will be endangered, although with strong regional variations. [German] Ausgehend von zwei langfristigen Klimaschutzzielen (Stabilisierung der atmosphaerischen CO{sub 2}-Konzentration bei 550 ppm und bei 450 ppm) wurde mit Hilfe des IMAGE 2.1 Modells: (1) Eine Berechnung der globalen anthropogenen Treibhausgasemissionen durchgefuehrt, die zwischen 1990 und 2100 erlaubt sind, um diese Konzentrationsziele zu erreichen. (2) Wurde eine Abschaetzung der globalen und regionalen Umweltauswirkungen durch den Klimawandel durchgefuehrt, der mit diesen Konzentrationszielen einhergeht. Bei der Analyse wurden CO{sub 2}-, N{sub 2}O- und CH{sub 4} Emissionen aus dem Energie/Industrie- und dem landwirtschaftlichen Sektor

  4. Evaluation of the secondary cardiotoxicity to use adriamycin in patients with breast cancer with nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia P, S.

    2003-01-01

    The number of surviving of cancer is increased highly with the current regimes of chemotherapy. For the year 2010 in U.S. it is considered that one of each 250 adults can be a survivor of wicked illness and many of these survivors will have been exposed to regimes with anthracycline. The anthracyclines concern to the group of antibiotics and they are effective point for hematological neoplasms as solid tumors. Although the relationship dose answer, among the regimes with anthracycline as well as the remission and the period free of illness is very established one, the latent risk of cardiotoxicity limits the use of these agents. Results: 30 patients were recruited with diagnostic of invader breast cancer tried with chemotherapy to base anthracycline in the understood period of may to december of the 2000. The medium of age it was of 48 years with a range of 27-80 years. The clinical stage that prevailed it was the EC IIB that represents a 36% in second place the EC IIIA with a 20%, EC IIA with 16% the EC IIIB and the unclassifiable ones represented 10% with 3 patients and finally the clinical stage IV with 8%, the most frequent localization was the left side.The received chemotherapy outline it was with the base of doxorubicin in its modality neo or patient adjutant, 5 patients also received taxanes like treatment adjutant. Prevailed the continuous infusion in 24 hours in 50%. The medium of accumulated dose of adriamycin was 274 mg/m 2 . With a left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF pretreatment of 62% (medium) determined by VRI and a medium of 69% by SPECT. The LVEF pos treatment had one medium of 57% for VRI and by SPECT a medium of 60%. They received concomitant radiotherapy with chemotherapy in modality pre operation 53.3% (16 patients), and 40% radiotherapy post operation, 2 patients didn't receive radiotherapy. In relation to the heart toxicity any patient present electrocardiographic alterations, neither arrhythmias neither clinical data of heart congestive

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate adriamycin-induced nephropathy by diminishing oxidative stress and inflammation via downregulation of the NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Hwan; Jung, Kyong-Jin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Joo-Young; Sung, Eon-Gi; Bae, Young Chul; Park, Yong Hoon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanism mitigating progress of chronic nephropathy by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Rats were divided into normal control (Normal), adriamycin (ADR)+vehicle (CON), and ADR+MSC (MSC) groups. Nephropathy was induced by ADR (4 mg/kg) and MSCs (2 × 10 6 ) were injected. Rats were euthanized 1 or 6 weeks after ADR injection. NF-kB, MAPKs, inflammation, oxidative stress, profibrotic molecules, and nephrin expression were evaluated. Electron and light microscopy were used for structural analysis. MSCs were co-cultured with renal tubular epithelial cells or splenocytes to evaluate relation with oxidative stress and inflammatory molecules RESULTS: Adriamycin treatment upregulated inflammation, oxidative stress, and profibrotic molecules; this was mitigated by MSCs. Glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis were observed in ADR-treated groups, and were more prominent in the CON group than in the MSC group. Fusion of foot processes and loss of slit diaphragms were also more prominent in the CON group than in the MSC group. In vitro, MSCs reduced oxidative stress related molecules, inflammatory cytokines, and NF-kB transcription. MSC- or ADR-induced regulation of NF-kB transcriptional activity was confirmed by a luciferase reporter assay. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate ADR-induced nephropathy by diminishing oxidative stress and inflammation via downregulation of NF-kB. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Cellular recovery kinetic studies relevant to combined-modality research and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The relevance of cellular recovery kinetics to combined-modality therapy is evaluated within the framework of an idealized experimental flow chart and published adriamycin data. Within this context, limitations for both experimental design and data interpretations are discussed. The effects of adriamycin have been documented extensively at the molecular and cellular level and its interactions with x-irradiation have been studied, both in vitro and in vivo. The limited in vivo results suggest that the end results of a given protocol correlate with cellular recovery kinetics; however, definitive experiments simply have not been done. For example, no one has used single-dose drug and irradiation data to predict the outcome and then confirm or refute the prediction even in a relatively simple 2-dose drug + 2-dose drug + 2-dose x-ray protocol. Thus, at this time, the extent of the correlations between cellular recovery kinetics and clinical response for either normal or malignant tissues is not known and the possible relevance of such studies cannot be discounted

  7. The growth of hemopoietic precursor cells (CFU-C) of adriamycin-treated or whole-body-irradiated dogs with or without bleomycin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkamer, A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the cytostatic drug bleomycin (BLM) on the growth of canine hemopoietic stem-cells in vitro was tested in order to detect a stem-cell deficiency after in vivo-treatment with adriamycin (ADM) or whole-body-irradiation. Stem-cells damaged by irradiation or cytostatics are suppressed by bleomycin-induced strand-breaks in vitro. After stem-cell recovery the increased sensitivity towards bleomycin can no longer be detected. After whole-body-irradiation and cytostatical treatment the stem-cells who remained intact have to compensate the quantitative change of the stem-cells by increased proliferation. The proliferating cells show a particular bleomycin-sensitivity. Especially after irradiation a long persistence of the bleomycin-sensitivity can be reckoned on. (orig./MG) [de

  8. [Combination of adriamycin and cis-diammine-dichloro-platinum (II) in the treatment of advanced, therapy-resistant, ovarian carcinoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, F; Stoller, U; Tschopp, L; Sonntag, R W; Brunner, K W

    1978-06-02

    Adriamycin (doxorubicin, Adriblastin) and cis-diammine-dichloro-platinum (II) (DDP, NSC 119 875) were used in the treatment of 18 patients with ovarian carcinoma, usually after intensive pre-treatment, both in a dosage of 50 mg/m2 once every 4 weeks. Forced diuresis was initiated at the same time. On average three such treatments were given. Six patients showed partial remission defined as decrease of tumour mass by more than 50% or as almost complete disappearance of ascites during more than two months without concomitant diuretic treatment. The remission time was 2+, 3, 3+, 3.5, 7+, and 9+ months. In all patients severe gastrointestinal toxicity occurred, however the myelosuppressive action was only moderate. Nephrotoxicity was negligible. Combined chemotherapy with Adriblastin and DDP thus seems effective even in intensively pretreated patients with ovarian carcinoma.

  9. In vitro killing of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, J M; Borsos, S; Blondeau, L D; Blondeau, B J

    2012-03-23

    Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used to treat infections in companion animals. Enrofloxacin's antimicrobial spectrum includes Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria and demonstrates concentration-dependent bacteriocidal activity. In dogs and cats, enrofloxacin is partially metabolized to ciprofloxacin and both active agents circulate simultaneously in treated animals at ratios of approximately 60-70% enrofloxacin to 30-40% ciprofloxacin. We were interested in determining the killing of companion animal isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin combined using clinically relevant drug concentrations and ratios. For E. coli isolates exposed to 2.1 and 4.1μg/ml of enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin at 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 ratios, a 1.7-2.5log(10) reduction (94-99% kill) was seen following 20min of drug exposure; 0.89-1.7log(10) (92-99% kill) of S. pseudintermedius following 180min of drug exposure; 0.85-3.4log(10) (98-99% kill) of P. aeruginosa following 15min of drug exposure. Killing of S. pseudintermedius was enhanced in the presence of enrofloxacin whereas killing of P. aeruginosa was enhanced in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Antagonism was not seen when enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were used in kill assays. The unique feature of partial metabolism of enrofloxacin to ciprofloxacin expands the spectrum of enhanced killing of common companion animal pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathologic Response Rates of Gemcitabine/Cisplatin versus Methotrexate/Vinblastine/Adriamycin/Cisplatin Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Muscle Invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin C. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare pathologic outcomes after treatment with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC versus methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin (MVAC in the neoadjuvant setting. Methods. Data was retrospectively collected on 178 patients with T2-T4 bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy between 2003 and 2011. Outcomes of interest included those with complete response (pT0 and any response (≤pT1. Odds ratios were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to those who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there were more patients with complete response (28% versus 9%, OR 3.11 (95% CI: 1.45–6.64, P=0.03 and any response (52% versus 25%, OR 3.23 (95% CI: 1.21–8.64, P=0.01. Seventy-two patients received GC (n=41 or MVAC (n=31. CR was achieved in 29% and 22% of GC and MVAC patients, respectively (multivariate OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.10–1.58. Any response (≤pT1 was achieved in 56% of GC and 45% of MVAC patients (multivariate OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.12–1.71. Conclusions. We observed similar pathologic response rates for GC and MVAC neoadjuvant chemotherapy in this cohort of patients with muscle invasive urothelial cancer (MIBC. Our findings support the use of GC as an alternative regimen in the neoadjuvant setting.

  11. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP3-04: Probing the Dose Enhancement Due to a Clinically-Relevant Concentration of Gold Nanoparticles and Yb-169 Gamma Rays Using PRESAGE Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Alqathami, M; Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reynoso, F [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To probe physical evidences of the dose enhancement due to a low/clinically-relevant concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and Yb-169 gamma rays using PRESAGE dosimeters. Methods: A PRESAGE cuvette was placed at approximately 2 mm above the plane containing three novel Yb-169 brachytherapy seeds (3.2, 3.2, and 5.3 mCi each). Two types of PRESAGE dosimeters were used – plain PRESAGEs (controls) and PRESAGEs loaded with 0.02 wt. % of GNPs (GNP-PRESAGEs). Each PRESAGE dosimeter was irradiated with different time durations (0 to 24 hours) to deliver 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24 Gy of dose. For a reference/comparison, both types of PRESAGEs were also irradiated using 250 kVp x-rays with/without Er-filter to deliver 0, 3, 10, and 30 Gy of dose. Er-filter was used to emulate Yb-169 spectrum using 250 kVp x-rays. The absorption spectra of PRESAGEs were measured using a UV spectrophotometer and used to determine the corresponding optical densities (ODs). Results: GNP-PRESAGEs exposed to Yb-169 sources showed ∼65% increase in ODs compared with controls. When exposed to Er-filtered and unfiltered 250 kVp x-rays, they produced smaller increases in ODs, ∼41% and ∼37%, respectively. There was a linear relationship between ODs and delivered doses with a goodness-of-fit (R2) greater than 0.99. Conclusion: A notable increase in the ODs (∼65%) was observed for GNP-PRESAGEs irradiated by Yb-169 gamma rays. Considering the observed OD increases, it was highly likely that Yb-169 gamma rays were more effective than both Er-filtered and unfiltered 250 kVp x-rays, in terms of producing the dose enhancement. Due to several unknown factors (e.g., possible difference in the dose response of GNP-PRESAGEs vs. PRESAGEs), however, a further investigations is necessary to establish the feasibility of quantifying the exact amount of macroscopic or microscopic/local GNP-mediated dose enhancement using PRESAGE or similar volumetric dosimeters. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12

  12. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  13. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  14. Renal F4/80+ CD11c+ mononuclear phagocytes display phenotypic and functional characteristics of macrophages in health and in adriamycin nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Xin Maggie; Lu, Junyu; Lee, Vincent W S; Ye, Qianling; Nguyen, Hanh; Zheng, Guoping; Zhao, Ye; Alexander, Stephen I; Harris, David C H

    2015-02-01

    Conventional markers of macrophages (Mфs) and dendritic cells (DCs) lack specificity and often overlap, leading to confusion and controversy regarding the precise function of these cells in kidney and other diseases. This study aimed to identify the phenotype and function of renal mononuclear phagocytes (rMPs) expressing key markers of both Mфs and DCs. F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells accounted for 45% of total rMPs in normal kidneys and in those from mice with Adriamycin nephropathy (AN). Despite expression of the DC marker CD11c, these double-positive rMPs displayed the features of Mфs, including Mф-like morphology, high expression of CD68, CD204, and CD206, and high phagocytic ability but low antigen-presenting ability. F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells were found in the cortex but not in the medulla of the kidney. In AN, F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells displayed an M1 Mф phenotype with high expression of inflammatory mediators and costimulatory factors. Adoptive transfer of F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells separated from diseased kidney aggravated renal injury in AN mice. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of common progenitors revealed that kidney F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells were derived predominantly from monocytes, but not from pre-DCs. In conclusion, renal F4/80(+)CD11c(+) cells are a major subset of rMPs and display Mф-like phenotypic and functional characteristics in health and in AN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Co-administration of dexamethasone increases severity and accelerates onset day of neutropenia in bladder cancer patients on methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin chemotherapy: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shingo; Suga, Yukio; Hara, Yusuke; Izumi, Kouji; Maeda, Yuji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Ishizaki, Junko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Mizokami, Atsushi; Sai, Yoshimichi

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer patients receiving methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin (MVAC) chemotherapy are co-administered with dexamethasone as an anti-emetic. We examined whether or not dexamethasone affects the severity and onset day of MVAC-induced severe neutropenia. This was a retrospective study of bladder cancer patients treated with MVAC chemotherapy with or without dexamethasone as an antiemetic at Kanazawa University Hospital during January 2005 - December 2009. Patients were categorized into three groups; no dexamethasone use (Dex (-)), dexamethasone on day 2 (Dex 1 day), and dexamethasone on days 2, 3 and 4 (Dex multiday). We evaluated the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia and the day of onset of first severe neutropenic episode during the first course of MVAC chemotherapy. Logistic regression was used to investigate whether co-administration of dexamethasone was a risk factor for severe neutropenia. Episodes of grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 3 out of 6 (50.0%), 11 out of 12 (91.7%) and 6 out of 6 (100%) patients in the Dex (-), Dex 1 day, and Dex multiday groups, respectively. The appearance day of first severe neutropenia in the Dex multiday group (13.2 ± 1.0) was significantly accelerated compared to the Dex (-) group (17.7 ± 2.1). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that dexamethasone is a risk factor for severe neutropenia (OR 17.0; 95%CI: 1.3-223.1). Co-administration of dexamethasone for anti-emesis brings forward the first appearance of neutropenia, and increases the severity of neutropenia, in bladder cancer patients receiving MVAC chemotherapy.

  16. Randomized trial comparing adriamycin vincristine (av) cyclophosphamide methotrexate 5-Fluorouracil prednisone (cmfp) hybrid versus av-cmfp monthly alternated in metastatic breast-cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, C; Bianco, A; Perez, J; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Rabinovich, M; Alvarez, L; Rodriguez, R; Cuevas, M; Hannois, A; Lacava, J

    1993-03-01

    194 metastatic breast cancer patients with no prior chemotherapy for advanced disease were randomized to one of two alternating schedules, fulfilling the requisites of Goldie and Coldman's hypothesis to evaluate if the earlier alternation of two non-cross resistant regimens is superior in terms of response (R), duration of R (DR), and survival (SV). arm A: Adriamycin (A) 60 mg/m2 IV day (d) 1 and vincristine (V) 1.4 mg/m2 IV d 1 and 8 monthly alternated with cyclophosphamide (C) 100 mg/m2 p.o. d 1-14; methotrexate (M) 30 mg/m2 IV d 1 and 8; 5-fluorouracil (F) 600 mg/m2 IV d 1 and 8 and prednisone (Pr) 40 mg/m2 p.o. d 1-14. Arm B (hybrid): A 60 mg/m2 IV d 1; V 1.4 mg/m2 IV d 1; C 100 mg/m2 p.o. d 8-14; M 30 mg/m2 IV d 8; F 600 mg/m2 IV d 8 and Pr 40 mg/m2 p.o. d 8-14. 87 and 89 patients are evaluable for R. Arm A: R= 59% (51/87); median DR= 13 months (m); median SV= 25 m. Arm B: R= 69% (61/89); median DR= 15 m.; median SV= 29 m. Myelosuppression was slightly more marked in arm B. Three patients had toxic-related deaths (arm A: 1; arm B: 2). a trend favoring an earlier alternation and higher dose intensity (DI) was found regarding to R, DR and SV. However, differences were not statistically significant.

  17. Up-regulation of visfatin expression in subjects with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism is partially relevant to a nonlinear regulation mechanism between visfatin and tri-iodothyronine with various concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Zhang, Tian-ou; Xiao, Wen-hua; Chang, Cui-qing; Ai, Hua

    2012-03-01

    Visfatin, a visceral fat-derived adipocytokine, plays a significant physiological function in lipid metabolism. However, the precise function of visfatin and its regulation by thyroid hormones are still unknown. This study observed the plasma visfatin concentrations in subjects with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in vivo, and investigated the possible regulation mechanism between visfatin and tri-iodothyronine (T3) in vitro as a further interpretation. The experiment in vivo included clinical subjects (57 patients with thyroid dysfunction and 29 euthyroid healthy volunteers) and an animal model (24 Wistar rats). All subjects were divided into hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and euthyroidism groups, with plasma thyroid hormones, thyrotropin, visfatin and triglyceride concentrations determined. Visfatin mRNA expression in visceral fat and liver of rats was detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The experiment in vitro studied 3T3-L1 cells and visfatin mRNA expression under nine different T3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100 nmol/L) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Clinical subjects and animal models showed elevated plasma visfatin concentrations in the hyperthyroidism group (20.466 ng/ml (15.263, 26.795 ng/ml) and (1209.164±165.292) ng/L) and hypothyroidism group (12.457 ng/ml (11.115, 15.454 ng/ml) and (1205.425±109.200) ng/L) compared to euthyroidism group (6.891 ng/ml (5.888, 8.803 ng/ml) and (926.650±54.002) ng/L, Phyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups increased about 3.33-fold and 1.98-fold compared to the euthyroidism group (P0.05) and correlation (r=0.121, P=0.572) was found in the liver. T3 induced a remarkable increase of visfatin mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells at low concentrations (0-0.5 nmol/L T3) followed by a sharp decrease at higher concentrations (0.5-100 nmol/L T3), with an inflection point at 0.5 nmol/L T3. Elevated circulating visfatin levels in subjects with

  18. Purified deoxynivalenol or feed restriction reduces mortality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with experimental bacterial coldwater disease but biologically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol do not impair the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerse, I A; Hooft, J M; Bureau, D P; Hayes, M A; Lumsden, J S

    2015-09-01

    Diets containing deoxynivalenol (DON) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) for 4 weeks followed by experimental infection (intraperitoneal) with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (4.1 × 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] mL(-1) ). Mortality of rainbow trout fed either 6.4 mg kg(-1) DON or trout pair-fed the control diet was significantly reduced (P trout fed the control diet to apparent satiation (trout were fed one of three experimental diets; a control diet, a diet produced with corn naturally contaminated with DON (3.3 mg kg(-1) DON) or a diet containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ); however, these fish were not experimentally infected. The presence of DON resulted in significant reduction (P trout fed diets containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 35 day post-exposure compared with controls. The antimicrobial activity of DON was examined by subjecting F. psychrophilum in vitro to serial dilutions of the chemical. Complete inhibition occurred at a concentration of 75 mg L(-1) DON, but no effect was observed below this concentration (0-30 mg L(-1) ). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Probe for intracellular concentrations of drugs: delayed fluorescence from acridine orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardman, P.; Dennis, M.F.; White, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop fluorescent probes that will indicate effective concentrations of therapeutic agents, or endogenous protectors, at important cellular sites. Acridine orange associates with nucleic acids and emits a 'delayed' fluorescence signal. This signal is quenched by oxidants such as oxygen, nitroaryl radiosensitizers, adriamycin and mitomycin-c, and reductants such as thiols, ascorbate and other radioprotectors. The quenching of the acridine orange delayed fluorescence reflects the effective concentration of these therapeutically-important oxidants and reductants near DNA. The relative concentration of basic radiosensitizers such as pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) near the DNA is greater than that of misonidazole. Thiols quench the delayed fluorescence signal according to the degree of ionization of the thiol function; this may model the reactivity of thiols with guanine radical sites in DNA. Ascorbate and aminopyrine do not quench the delayed fluorescence from cells stained with acridine orange as these compounds are taken up by cells very inefficiently

  20. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  1. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  2. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (pMexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin DMexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Possibility of Predicting Serotonin Transporter Occupancy From the In Vitro Inhibition Constant for Serotonin Transporter, the Clinically Relevant Plasma Concentration of Unbound Drugs, and Their Profiles for Substrates of Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Masahiro; Chiba, Koji; Watanabe, Takao; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    Accurate prediction of target occupancy facilitates central nervous system drug development. In this review, we discuss the predictability of serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy in human brain estimated from in vitro K i values for human SERT and plasma concentrations of unbound drug (C u,plasma ), as well as the impact of drug transporters in the blood-brain barrier. First, the geometric means of in vitro K i values were compared with the means of in vivo K i values (K i,u,plasma ) which were calculated as C u,plasma values at 50% occupancy of SERT obtained from previous clinical positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies for 6 selective serotonin transporter reuptake inhibitors and 3 serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. The in vitro K i values for 7 drugs were comparable to their in vivo K i,u,plasma values within 3-fold difference. SERT occupancy was overestimated for 5 drugs (P-glycoprotein substrates) and underestimated for 2 drugs (presumably uptake transporter substrates, although no evidence exists as yet). In conclusion, prediction of human SERT occupancy from in vitro K i values and C u,plasma was successful for drugs that are not transporter substrates and will become possible in future even for transporter substrates, once the transporter activities will be accurately estimated from in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  5. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  6. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  7. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  8. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  10. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  11. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  12. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  13. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  14. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  15. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  16. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  17. Cardiotoxicity of combined administration of adriamycin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in rats. With special reference to 125I-MIBG cardioautoradiography and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Nozomi; Yamazaki, Junichi; Serizawa, Isao; Misaizu, Tadashi; Sato, Masanori.

    1995-01-01

    We studied whether adriamycin (ADM)-induced myocardial damage in rats is advanced when recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is administered. Rats were divided into three groups: ADM group, ADM+G-CSF group and vehicle-treated control group. ADM (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for the first 2 days in each cycle and 10 days administration of G-CSF (50lμg/kg, s.c.) was started two days after the second administration of ADM in each cycle. The administration cycle was repeated 3 times. One day after the last administration, following parameters were analyzed: hematological examination including peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, electrocardiogram (ECG) and histopathological findings. At 4 hr after an intravenous administration of 125 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 125 I-MIBG), accumulation of 125 I-MIBG in some organs and findings of autoradiography (ARG) of the heart was examined. ECG revealed an extended ventricular activation (VAT) time in the ADM and ADM+G-CSF groups. In the histopathological analysis, vacuolar degeneration of the myocardium was observed in both the ADM and ADM+G-CSF groups. The severity of the change was equivalent in those groups. The accumulation of 125 I-MIBG in the heart was lower in both the ADM and ADM+G-CSF groups than in the control group. The same tendency was observed in ARG, but the difference between the ADM group and the ADM+G-CSF group was not significant. These results suggest that administration of G-CSF in the standard clinical dosage does not aggravate ADM-induced myocardial damage. However, because this disorder may be more clearly manifested by treatment with higher doses of ADM, it is necessary to conduct further studies on the methods of administration. (author)

  18. Efficacy of ginger for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin-cyclophosphamide regimen: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamlikitkul, Lucksamon; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Akewanlop, Charuwan; Ithimakin, Suthinee; Techawathanawanna, Sirisopa; Korphaisarn, Krittiya; Chantharasamee, Jomjit; Danchaivijitr, Pongwut; Soparattanapaisarn, Nopadol

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of ginger for reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC) regimens. We enrolled breast cancer patients receiving AC who experienced moderate to severe nausea or vomiting during the first chemotherapy cycle. Subjects were randomized to receive a 500-mg ginger capsule or placebo twice a day for 5 days starting on the first day of the second AC cycle and were switched to the other treatment in the third cycle. All participants also received ondansetron and dexamethasone for CINV prophylaxis. Nausea severity was recorded once a day during the first 5 days of each cycle. The primary outcome was reduction in nausea score. Thirty-four subjects (68 cycles of AC) were enrolled. Mean (range) maximum nausea score in the first AC cycle was 58 (40-90). Thirty-three subjects (97 %) received the same AC doses in the second as in the third cycle. Mean (±standard error) maximum nausea scores in patients receiving ginger and placebo were 35.36 (±4.43) and 32.17 (±3.71), respectively. The difference in mean maximum nausea scores was 3 (95 % confidence interval, -3 to 9; P = 0.3). There were no significant differences between ginger and placebo in terms of vomiting incidence and severity, rescue medication use, chemotherapy compliance, and adverse events. Ginger (500 mg) twice daily was safe, but conferred no additional benefit in terms of reducing nausea severity in breast cancer patients receiving AC and ondansetron and dexamethasone for CINV prophylaxis.

  19. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  20. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  1. On relevant boundary perturbations of unitary minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.; Roggenkamp, D.; Schomerus, V.

    2000-01-01

    We consider unitary Virasoro minimal models on the disk with Cardy boundary conditions and discuss deformations by certain relevant boundary operators, analogous to tachyon condensation in string theory. Concentrating on the least relevant boundary field, we can perform a perturbative analysis of renormalization group fixed points. We find that the systems always flow towards stable fixed points which admit no further (non-trivial) relevant perturbations. The new conformal boundary conditions are in general given by superpositions of 'pure' Cardy boundary conditions

  2. Four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (NSABP-B27 with concomitant trastuzumab as neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk, early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hikmat Abdel-Razeq,1,2 Salwa S Saadeh,1 Mahmoud Abu-Nasser,1 Hazem Abdulelah,1 Lina Marie,1 Murad Salam,1 Basel Al-Haj Ali,1 Mohammad Ibrahim,1 Dalia Rimawi3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan; 2School of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Office of Scientific Affairs and Research, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan Background: The majority of breast cancer patients in Jordan are diagnosed at a young age and present with metastatic or locally advanced disease. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B27 (NSABP-B27 (four cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide [AC] followed by four cycles of docetaxel is a standard neoadjuvant regimen in our institution. In this study, we report the efficacy of adding trastuzumab to docetaxel in this regimen for high-risk human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-positive early-stage disease. Patients and methods: Consecutive HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with this regimen were included. Treatment was given at standard doses and schedules as reported in NSABP-B27. Trastuzumab was given with docetaxel and then continued for 1 year. Results: A total of 121 patients (mean age 45.4 years were included. The majority had high-risk features including large tumor size, positive axillary lymph nodes, and grade III disease. Three patients did not complete the planned cycles of AC due to a lack of response. Eight (6.6% patients missed at least one cycle of docetaxel. Following neoadjuvant therapy, 119 patients underwent surgery, of whom 59 (49.6% patients achieved pathological complete response. The response was higher in node-negative patients (64.0 vs 45.7%; P=0.03 and in hormone receptor-negative disease patients (69.7 vs 41.9%; P=0.018. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 21.5% of the patients. The median disease-free survival (DFS for the whole group was not

  3. Evaluation of the secondary cardiotoxicity to use adriamycin in patients with breast cancer with nuclear medicine studies; Evaluacion de la cardiotoxicidad secundaria al empleo de adriamicina en pacientes con cancer de mama con estudios de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia P, S

    2003-07-01

    The number of surviving of cancer is increased highly with the current regimes of chemotherapy. For the year 2010 in U.S. it is considered that one of each 250 adults can be a survivor of wicked illness and many of these survivors will have been exposed to regimes with anthracycline. The anthracyclines concern to the group of antibiotics and they are effective point for hematological neoplasms as solid tumors. Although the relationship dose answer, among the regimes with anthracycline as well as the remission and the period free of illness is very established one, the latent risk of cardiotoxicity limits the use of these agents. Results: 30 patients were recruited with diagnostic of invader breast cancer tried with chemotherapy to base anthracycline in the understood period of may to december of the 2000. The medium of age it was of 48 years with a range of 27-80 years. The clinical stage that prevailed it was the EC IIB that represents a 36% in second place the EC IIIA with a 20%, EC IIA with 16% the EC IIIB and the unclassifiable ones represented 10% with 3 patients and finally the clinical stage IV with 8%, the most frequent localization was the left side.The received chemotherapy outline it was with the base of doxorubicin in its modality neo or patient adjutant, 5 patients also received taxanes like treatment adjutant. Prevailed the continuous infusion in 24 hours in 50%. The medium of accumulated dose of adriamycin was 274 mg/m{sup 2}. With a left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF pretreatment of 62% (medium) determined by VRI and a medium of 69% by SPECT. The LVEF pos treatment had one medium of 57% for VRI and by SPECT a medium of 60%. They received concomitant radiotherapy with chemotherapy in modality pre operation 53.3% (16 patients), and 40% radiotherapy post operation, 2 patients didn't receive radiotherapy. In relation to the heart toxicity any patient present electrocardiographic alterations, neither arrhythmias neither clinical data of heart

  4. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  5. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  7. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  9. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  10. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  11. Familial Resemblance for Serum Metabolite Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, H.H.M.; Beekman, M.; Pool, R.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Vaarhorst, A.A.M.; de Craen, A.J.; Willemsen, G.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of

  12. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  13. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  14. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  15. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  16. The relevance of "non-relevant metabolites" from plant protection products (PPPs) for drinking water: the German view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Hermann H

    2010-03-01

    evaluation of a "non-relevant metabolite", its HRIV is either set as 1.0 microg/l (HRIV(a)) or as 3.0 microg/l (HRIV(b)) for lifelong exposure. In case a HRIV would be exceeded, UBA recommends to keep on a precautionary action value (PAV) of 10 microg/l for each "non-relevant metabolite". The HRIV(b) is similar to the maximal value derived by application of the TTC-concept for Cramer Class III (4.5 microg/l). The HRIV(a) and the PAV are similar to values in the EU-guidance document for assessing "non-relevant metabolites" in ground water, with the important difference that the drinking water PAV is not intended to be tolerated for permanent exposure. Drinking water containing "non-relevant metabolites" below the respective HRIVs can also be considered as being sufficiently protective against toxicologically relevant oxidative transformation products which may be formed from "non-relevant metabolites" during drinking water treatment with ozone. However, even drinking water where one or several "non-relevant metabolites" are detected above substance-specific HRIVs is suited for human consumption without health risks. Only in special cases (relatively high "non-relevant metabolite" - concentrations), it could be indicated to examine the finished water for transformation products after treatment with ozone if there are no further treatment steps to eliminate or degrade polar compounds. UBA's "non-relevant metabolite-Recommendation" from April 2008 was positively picked up in 2009 by four important stakeholders in the domain of drinking water management as part of a voluntary cooperation agreement. The aim of such cooperation is to limit the transport of "non-relevant metabolites" into the drinking water to the functionally (and agriculturally) unavoidable extent and insofar to meet special precautionary demands. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables

  19. The synthesis and characterization of polypeptide-adriamycin conjugates and its complexes with adriamycin. Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeswijk, W.A.R.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Stoffer, T.; Eenink, M.J.D.; Potman, W.; Feijen, Jan

    1985-01-01

    Poly(α-l-glutamic acid) (PGA) was grafted with amino acid and oligopeptide spacers up to 5 amino acids with the use of N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole and 2,3-dihydro-1,2-benz-isothiazole-3-on-1, 1-dioxide (saccharin) as an additive, and these polypeptides were characterized. The antitumor antibiotic

  20. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  1. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  2. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  3. Science and the struggle for relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  4. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  5. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  6. Nostalgia's place among self-relevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-24

    How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal. Nostalgia most resembles pride and self-compassion, and least resembles embarrassment and shame. Our research pioneered the integration of nostalgia among self-relevant emotions.

  7. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.; van der Kooij, M.M.E.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking water and the water cycle. For only 10 contaminants, statutory guideline values ...

  8. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  9. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  10. Inoculating Relevance Feedback Against Poison Pills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, Mostafa; Azarbonyad, Hosein; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Marx, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Relevance Feedback is a common approach for enriching queries, given a set of explicitly or implicitly judged documents to improve the performance of the retrieval. Although it has been shown that on average, the overall performance of retrieval will be improved after relevance feedback, for some

  11. Relevant cost information for order acceptance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .

  12. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  13. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  14. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  15. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  16. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  17. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenicspeciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no singletechnique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complexe...

  18. Comparison of extraction techniques for isolation of steroid oestrogens in environmentally relevant concentrations from sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadílek, Jan; Spálovská, P.; Vrana, B.; Vávrová, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Šimek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 11 (2016), s. 1022-1037 ISSN 0306-7319 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : microwave - assisted extraction * estrogens * sediment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2016

  19. Effects of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Bisphenol A on the Fathead Minnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a wide-spread environmental contaminant of concern due, in part, to possible effects on the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, including activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). There is a reasonable amount of toxicological information fo...

  20. Metformin exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations causes potential endocrine disruption in adult male fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste. PPCPs th...

  1. EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT CONCENTRATIONS OF DIFFERENT NONYLPHENOL FORMULATIONS IN JAPANESE MEDAKA. (R827098)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time course of exposure to p-nonylphenol (NP) from two different sources was compared to equalivent exposures of 17--estradiol (E2) and a solvent control (ethanol; EtOH). Japanese medaka were exposed for 4 days to a nomina...

  2. Effect of ethanol at clinically relevant concentrations on atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bébarová, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pásek, Michal; Hořáková, Z.; Hošek, J.; Šimurdová, M.; Šimurda, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 389, č. 10 (2016), s. 1049-1058 ISSN 0028-1298 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : arrhythmias * atrial cardiomyocyte * inward rectifier potasssium current * ethanol * rat atrial cell model Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.558, year: 2016

  3. Concentrations of undeclared allergens in food products can reach levels that are relevant for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg, M. Q. I.; Knulst, A. C.; Kruizinga, A. G.; Van Duijn, G.; Houben, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Food products can become contaminated with food allergens due to cross-contact. Precautionary 'may contain' labelling may alert to the possible presence of an allergen, but guidance for such labelling is lacking. As a result, allergy information on the packaging may not be reliable and allergic

  4. Detecting the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds on amphibian development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs have been hypothesized to contribute to the observed global decline of amphibian populations. Thyroid hormone (TH) disruption is one of the possible mechanisms for effects of xenobiotics on amphibian development. In addition to the important functions

  5. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  6. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  7. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  8. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  9. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  10. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  11. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2010-01-01

    that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have...... reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also...... be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers...

  12. Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating Environmental and Social Issues in Science Education. ... However, the new contextualised concept of learning and teaching was applied only to one of them. A post-test was ...

  13. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  14. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  15. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  16. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  17. Relevant Scatterers Characterization in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Houda; Datcu, Mihai

    2006-11-01

    Recognizing scenes in a single look meter resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, requires the capability to identify relevant signal signatures in condition of variable image acquisition geometry, arbitrary objects poses and configurations. Among the methods to detect relevant scatterers in SAR images, we can mention the internal coherence. The SAR spectrum splitted in azimuth generates a series of images which preserve high coherence only for particular object scattering. The detection of relevant scatterers can be done by correlation study or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) methods. The present article deals with the state of the art for SAR internal correlation analysis and proposes further extensions using elements of inference based on information theory applied to complex valued signals. The set of azimuth looks images is analyzed using mutual information measures and an equivalent channel capacity is derived. The localization of the "target" requires analysis in a small image window, thus resulting in imprecise estimation of the second order statistics of the signal. For a better precision, a Hausdorff measure is introduced. The method is applied to detect and characterize relevant objects in urban areas.

  18. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  19. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  20. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  1. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  2. Inferring feature relevances from metric learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights...

  3. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  4. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  5. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  6. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  7. Bradford's Law and Its Relevance to Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.; Hay-Gibson, Naomi V.

    2009-01-01

    Bradford's Law has been the subject of much discussion and analysis in library and information science since its formulation in the 1930s and remains frequently debated to this day. It has been applied to various practices within the discipline, especially with regard to collection development, but its relevance to researchers and the potential it…

  8. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for moral education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that

  9. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...

  10. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  11. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  12. Making Chemistry Relevant to the Engineering Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Slappey, Charles; Bartley, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide, externally funded project to increase performance in, enthusiasm for, and retention within STEM disciplines, we developed an interdisciplinary, team-taught first-year seminar course. The construction and delivery of this course was designed to show the relevance of selected general chemistry topics such as matter and…

  13. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  14. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  15. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  16. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  17. Attention-driven auditory cortex short-term plasticity helps segregate relevant sounds from noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Hämäläinen, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Huang, Samantha; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko; Vasios, Christos E.; Belliveau, John W.

    2011-01-01

    How can we concentrate on relevant sounds in noisy environments? A “gain model” suggests that auditory attention simply amplifies relevant and suppresses irrelevant afferent inputs. However, it is unclear whether this suffices when attended and ignored features overlap to stimulate the same neuronal receptive fields. A “tuning model” suggests that, in addition to gain, attention modulates feature selectivity of auditory neurons. We recorded magnetoencephalography, EEG, and functional MRI (fMR...

  18. Concentration - dose - risk computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frujinoiu, C.; Preda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Generally, the society is less willing in promoting remedial actions in case of low level chronic exposure situations. Radon in dwellings and workplaces is a case connected to chronic exposure. Apart from radon, the solely source on which the international community agreed for setting action levels, there are other numerous sources technically modified by man that can generate chronic exposure. Even if the nuclear installations are the most relevant, we are surrounded by 'man-made radioactivity' such as: mining industry, coal-fired power plants and fertilizer industry. The operating of an installation even within 'normal limits' could generate chronic exposure due to accumulation of the pollutants after a definite time. This asymptotic proclivity to a constant level define a steady-state concentration that represents a characteristic of the source's presence in the environment. The paper presents a methodology and a code package that derives sequentially the steady-state concentration, doses, detriments, as well as the costs of the effects of installation operation in a given environment. (authors)

  19. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  20. [Incidence and follow-up characteristics of neurologically relevant psychogenic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Schellberg, D; Reister, G; Schepank, H

    1993-06-01

    The author reports on the prevalence and stability of the course of neurologically relevant psychogenic symptoms as well as their dependence on age and sex. Altogether 240 probands from the Mannheim Cohort Study on the epidemiology of psychogenic disorders were examined for psychogenic impairment over a 10-year period during three investigation periods. On the whole, seven neurologically relevant groups of symptoms (headache, lumbar and cervical vertebral complaints, non-systematic vertigo, functional hyperkinesia, functional paresis, sleep disturbances, concentration disturbances) differ clearly in frequency, characteristics of the course and clinical relevance.

  1. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  2. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and

  3. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  4. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  5. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  6. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  7. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  8. Industrialisation et concentration urbaine

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal , Abdelhak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the determinants of the urban concentration and their effect at different levels of development. The empirical analysis focuses on the developing countries over the period 1950-2000 grouped by level of per capita income. The results confirm the existence of specific trajectories of urbanization rate and urban primacy which differs meaningfully according to the stage of development considered. Certain factors encourage urbanization and its concentration in ...

  9. Solar concentrators. Concentradores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Valdes, A.; Lopez, S.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents different types of geometries used in concentrators. Some comments are made on the theoretical and experimental analysis necessary to evaluate the geometries and on the type of laboratory equipment needed to obtain experimental data. At the end of the report a description of how to build parabolic trough mirrors is made. The experience gained by the authors, who have been working in this subject for the past five years, is summarized, showing some of the problems related with such concentrators.

  10. Concentration factors for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  11. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  12. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  13. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: jugaiotti@gmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei-Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  14. Relevance of intracellular polarity to accuracy of eukaryotic chemotaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo; Nagamatsu, Akihiro; Akuzawa, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic chemotaxis is usually mediated by intracellular signals that tend to localize at the front or back of the cell. Such intracellular polarities frequently require no extracellular guidance cues, indicating that spontaneous polarization occurs in the signal network. Spontaneous polarization activity is considered relevant to the persistent motions in random cell migrations and chemotaxis. In this study, we propose a theoretical model that connects spontaneous intracellular polarity and motile ability in a chemoattractant solution. We demonstrate that the intracellular polarity can enhance the accuracy of chemotaxis. Chemotactic accuracy should also depend on chemoattractant concentration through the concentration-dependent correlation time in the polarity direction. Both the polarity correlation time and the chemotactic accuracy depend on the degree of responsiveness to the chemical gradient. We show that optimally accurate chemotaxis occurs at an intermediate responsiveness of intracellular polarity. Experimentally, we find that the persistence time of randomly migrating Dictyostelium cells depends on the chemoattractant concentration, as predicted by our theory. At the optimum responsiveness, this ameboid cell can enhance its chemotactic accuracy tenfold. (paper)

  15. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    OpenAIRE

    Golz Martin; Wollner Sebastian; Sommer David; Schnieder Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Automatic relevance determination (ARD) was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE) recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC) and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD) averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ) was used as ARD...

  16. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  17. Trade Off Relevance Dan Reliability: Isu Ifrs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudah, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Financial reports containing qualitative characteristic that are useful for usernya.For a long time believed to be the existence of trade off between characteristic of qualitative relevance and reliability. Trade off due to the fact that the use of the method of measurement historical cost and fair value. Trade off occur because of the interests of for the purpose of the preparation of reports on finance. Accountability for the purpose of the measurement of the cost of historical still reliab...

  18. Hydrogen interaction with fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an outline of the work carried out at JRC Ispra in the Tritium-materials Interaction Laboratory, on the interaction of gaseous hydrogen with several materials of interest in the field of fusion technology. Experimental work is reported and a concise review of relevant theoretical and numerical supporting activity is given as well. A period of about seven years is covered since 1982. Current work and possible future extensions are also briefly mentioned. 11 figs., 18 refs

  19. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  20. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  1. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrifying Biofilm Relevant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, biological monochloramine removal (i.e., cometabolism) by a pure culture ammonia–oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea, and a nitrifying mixed–culture have been shown to increase monochloramine demand. Although important, these previous suspended culture batch kinetic experiments were not representative of drinking water distribution systems where bacteria grow predominantly as biofilm attached to pipe walls or sediments and physiological differences may exist between suspension and biofilm growth. Therefore, the current research was an important next step in extending the previous results to investigate monochloramine cometabolism by biofilm grown in annular reactors under drinking water relevant conditions. Estimated monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (25–40% of the observed monochloramine loss). These results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in drinking water relevant nitrifying biofilm; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in distribution systems. Investigate whether or not nitrifying biofilm can biologically transform monochloramine under drinking water relevant conditions.

  2. Selection of relevant dietary indicators for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S

    2002-05-01

    To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.

  3. The value relevance of environmental emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Lydia Nelwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether environmental performance has value relevance by investigating the relations between environmental emissions and stock prices for the U.S. public companies. The previous studies argued that the conjectured relations between accounting performance measures and environmental performance do not have a strong theoretical basis, and the modeling of relations between market per-formance measures and environmental performance do not adequately consider the relevance of accounting performance to market value. Therefore, this study examines whether publicly reported environmental emissions provide incremental information to accounting earnings in pricing companies stocks. It is done among the complete set of industries covered by Toxics Release Inventory (TRI reporting for the period 2007 to 2010. Using Ohlson model but modified to include different types of emis-sions, it is found that ground emissions (underground injection and land emissions are value relevant but other emission types (air and water and transferred-out emis-sions appear to not provide incremental information in the valuation model. The result in this study raise concerns that different types of emissions are assessed differently by the market, confirming that studies should not aggregate such measures.

  4. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  5. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  6. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  7. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  8. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  9. Fluid mechanics relevant to flow through pretreatment of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigates fluid mechanical properties of cellulosic feedstocks relevant to flow through (FT) pretreatment for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass. The results inform identifying conditions for which FT pretreatment can be implemented in a practical context. Measurements of pressure drop across packed beds, viscous compaction and water absorption are reported for milled and not milled sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass and poplar, and important factors impacting viscous flow are deduced. Using biomass knife-milled to pass through a 2mm sieve, the observed pressure drop was highest for bagasse, intermediate for switchgrass and lowest for poplar. The highest pressure drop was associated with the presence of more fine particles, greater viscous compaction and the degree of water absorption. Using bagasse without particle size reduction, the instability of the reactor during pretreatment above 140kg/m(3) sets an upper bound on the allowable concentration for continuous stable flow. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Toward the Relevance of Platelet Subpopulations for Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Handtke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Circulating platelets consist of subpopulations with different age, maturation state and size. In this review, we address the association between platelet size and platelet function and summarize the current knowledge on platelet subpopulations including reticulated platelets, procoagulant platelets and platelets exposing signals to mediate their clearance. Thereby, we emphasize the impact of platelet turnover as an important condition for platelet production in vivo. Understanding of the features that characterize platelet subpopulations is very relevant for the methods of platelet concentrate production, which may enrich or deplete particular platelet subpopulations. Moreover, the concept of platelet size being associated with platelet function may be attractive for transfusion medicine as it holds the perspective to separate platelet subpopulations with specific functional capabilities.

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. THE COMPLEX OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES, RELEVANT MANIFESTATIONS OF INSPIRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Starikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate structure of emotional experiences, relevant manifestations of inspiration creative activities of students.Methods. The proposed methods of mathematical statistics (correlation analysis, factor analysis, multidimensional scaling are applied.Results and scientific novelty. The use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling allowed to reveal a consistent set of positive experiences of the students, the relevant experience of inspiration in creative activities. «Operational» rueful feelings dedicated by M. Chiksentmihaji («feeling of full involvement, and dilution in what you do», «feeling of concentration, perfect clarity of purpose, complete control and a feeling of total immersion in a job that does not require special efforts» and experiences of the «spiritual» nature, more appropriate to peaks experiences of A. Maslow («feeling of love for all existing, all life»; «a deep sense of self importance, the inner feeling of approval of self»; «feeling of unity with the whole world»; «acute perception of the beauty of the world of nature, “beautiful instant”»; «feeling of lightness, flowing» are included in this complex in accordance with the study results. The interrelation of degree of expressiveness of the given complex of experiences with inspiration experience is considered.Practical significance. The results of the study show structure of emotional experiences, relevant manifestations of inspiration. Research materials can be useful both to psychologists, and experts in the field of pedagogy of creative activity.

  13. Macroscale hydrologic modeling of ecologically relevant flow metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Luce, Charles H.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Neville, Helen M.

    2010-09-01

    Stream hydrology strongly affects the structure of aquatic communities. Changes to air temperature and precipitation driven by increased greenhouse gas concentrations are shifting timing and volume of streamflows potentially affecting these communities. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model has been employed at regional scales to describe and forecast hydrologic changes but has been calibrated and applied mainly to large rivers. An important question is how well VIC runoff simulations serve to answer questions about hydrologic changes in smaller streams, which are important habitat for many fish species. To answer this question, we aggregated gridded VIC outputs within the drainage basins of 55 streamflow gages in the Pacific Northwest United States and compared modeled hydrographs and summary metrics to observations. For most streams, several ecologically relevant aspects of the hydrologic regime were accurately modeled, including center of flow timing, mean annual and summer flows and frequency of winter floods. Frequencies of high and low flows in the summer were not well predicted, however. Predictions were worse for sites with strong groundwater influence, and some sites showed errors that may result from limitations in the forcing climate data. Higher resolution (1/16th degree) modeling provided small improvements over lower resolution (1/8th degree). Despite some limitations, the VIC model appears capable of representing several ecologically relevant hydrologic characteristics in streams, making it a useful tool for understanding the effects of hydrology in delimiting species distributions and predicting the potential effects of climate shifts on aquatic organisms.

  14. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  15. RX: a nonimaging concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, J C; Benítez, P; González, J C

    1995-05-01

    A detailed description of the design procedure for a new concentrator, RX, and some examples of it's use are given. The method of design is basically the same as that used in the design of two other concentrators: the RR and the XR [Appl. Opt. 31, 3051 (1992)]. The RX is ideal in two-dimensional geometry. The performance of the rotational RX is good when the average angular spread of the input bundle is small: up to 95% of the power of the input bundle can be transferred to the output bundle (with the assumption of a constant radiance for the rays of the input bundle).

  16. Dilution thermodynamics of the biologically relevant cation mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczyński, Marek; Borowik, Tomasz; Przybyło, Magda; Langner, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dilution energetics of Ca 2+ can be altered by the aqueous phase ionic composition. • Dissipated heat upon Ca 2+ dilution is drastically reduced in the K + presence. • Reduction of the enthalpy change upon Ca 2+ dilution is K + concentration dependent. • The cooperativity of Ca 2+ hydration might be of great biological relevance providing a thermodynamic argument for the specific ionic composition of the intracellular environment. - Abstract: The ionic composition of intracellular space is rigorously controlled by a variety of processes consuming large quantities of energy. Since the energetic efficiency is an important evolutional criterion, therefore the ion fluxes within the cell should be optimized with respect to the accompanying energy consumption. In the paper we present the experimental evidence that the dilution enthalpies of the biologically relevant ions; i.e. calcium and magnesium depend on the presence of monovalent cations; i.e. sodium and potassium. The heat flow generated during the dilution of ionic mixtures was measured with the isothermal titration calorimetry. When calcium was diluted together with potassium the dilution enthalpy was drastically reduced as the function of the potassium concentration present in the solution. No such effect was observed when the potassium ions were substituted with sodium ones. When the dilution of magnesium was investigated the dependence of the dilution enthalpy on the accompanying monovalent cation was much weaker. In order to interpret experimental evidences the ionic cluster formation is postulated. The specific organization of such cluster should depend on ions charges, sizes and organization of the hydration layers

  17. Degadation of semiconducting polymers by concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Manceau, Matthieu; Petersen, Martin Helgesen

    2011-01-01

    infra-red spectra of MEH-PPV degraded at 1 sun intensity and at high solar concentration only showed minor deviations in degradation mechanisms. The acceleration factor was found to vary linearly with the solar concentration. Finally, a comparison of the degradation rates at 1 sun and 100 suns...... was carried out in a materials study employing five different conjugated polymers relevant to polymer solar cells for which acceleration factors in the range 19–55 were obtained.......A lens based sunlight concentration setup was used to accelerate the degradation of semiconducting polymers. Sunlight was collected outdoor and focused into an optical fiber bundle allowing for indoor experimental work. Photo-degradation of several polymers was studied by UV–vis absorbance...

  18. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  19. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

  20. Relevance of physics to the pharmacy major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P

    2007-08-15

    To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.

  1. Parabolic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.

  2. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  3. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  4. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...

  5. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  6. [Terbinafine : Relevant drug interactions and their management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrbeck, A; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    The allylamine terbinafine is the probably most frequently prescribed systemic antifungal agent in Germany for the treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. According to the German drug law, terbinafine is approved for patients who are 18 years and older; however, this antifungal agent is increasingly used off-label for treatment of onychomycoses and tinea capitis in children. Terbinafine is associated with only a few interactions with other drugs, which is why terbinafine can generally be used without problems in older and multimorbid patients. Nevertheless, some potential interactions of terbinafine with certain drug substances are known, including substances of the group of antidepressants/antipsychotics and some cardiovascular drugs. Decisive for the relevance of interactions is-along with the therapeutic index of the substrate and the possible alternative degradation pathways-the genetically determined type of metabolism. When combining terbinafine with tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, the clinical response and potential side effects must be monitored. Problematic is the use of terbinafine with simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen. The administration of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors leads to a diminished efficacy of tamoxifen because one of its most important active metabolites-endoxifen-is not sufficiently available. Therefore, combination of tamoxifen and terbinafine should be avoided. In conclusion, the number of substances which are able to cause clinically relevant interactions in case of simultaneously administration with terbinafine is clear and should be manageable in the dermatological office with adequate monitoring.

  7. Relevance of randomised controlled trials in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Ian F; Amir, Eitan; Booth, Christopher M; Niraula, Saroj; Ocana, Alberto; Seruga, Bostjan; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Well-designed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can prevent bias in the comparison of treatments and provide a sound basis for changes in clinical practice. However, the design and reporting of many RCTs can render their results of little relevance to clinical practice. In this Personal View, we discuss the limitations of RCT data and suggest some ways to improve the clinical relevance of RCTs in the everyday management of patients with cancer. RCTs should ask questions of clinical rather than commercial interest, avoid non-validated surrogate endpoints in registration trials, and have entry criteria that allow inclusion of all patients who are fit to receive treatment. Furthermore, RCTs should be reported with complete accounting of frequency and management of toxicities, and with strict guidelines to ensure freedom from bias. Premature reporting of results should be avoided. The bar for clinical benefit should be raised for drug registration, which should require publication and review of mature data from RCTs, post-marketing health outcome studies, and value-based pricing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Nutrition Relevant Mixtures of Phytoestrogens on Steroidogenesis, Aromatase, Estrogen, and Androgen Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Engell-Kofoed, Anders Elleby; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    in the MCF7 cells of the isoflavonoid mixture and coumestrol was supported by an observed increase in progesterone receptor protein expression as well as a decreased ER expression. Overall, the results support that nutrition-relevant concentrations of PEs both alone and in mixtures possess various endocrine...

  9. Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmensen, O J; Menne, T; Kaaber, K; Solgaard, P

    1981-01-01

    The nickel content of water specimens from consecutive stages during the cleaning process in a Danish hospital was analyzed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found from step to step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitizing safety limit. The relevance of the findings in relation to hand eczema is discussed.

  10. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  11. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  12. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  13. Relevance of EDTA carryover during blood collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadamuro, Janne; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Oberkofler, Hannes; Mrazek, Cornelia; Wiedemann, Helmut; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    The order of draw is regarded as a preanalytical issue to prevent carryover of additives during blood collection. Our objective was to prove the theory of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) carryover for a closed vacuum system and the influence of EDTA on concentrations of selected biomarkers. To test the carryover of EDTA, a blood collection with tripotassium EDTA (K3EDTA) and subsequent non-additive tubes was simulated using distilled water as substitute for blood. EDTA concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Then we added increasing concentrations of EDTA to heparinized blood and measured routine biomarkers, thereby simulating a carryover of EDTA whole blood and pure EDTA, respectively. Additionally, we tested for EDTA contamination and biomarker alteration in samples collected from 10 healthy volunteers by a syringe with subsequent transfer into sample tubes. No EDTA contamination was detected in samples collected subsequent to a K3EDTA tube when adhering to guidelines of blood sampling. Magnesium, calcium, and potassium levels were altered by artificial K3EDTA whole-blood contamination as well as when adding 1 μL pure K3EDTA. Iron values were altered at EDTA concentrations of 4.4 mmol/L. All other parameters remained unaffected. A slight EDTA carryover was observed in syringe collection and subsequent transfer into EDTA and heparin tubes, however, without any biomarker alteration. An EDTA carryover during blood collection using a closed vacuum system is highly unlikely. Even if carryover of EDTA whole blood occurs, an absolute volume larger than 10 μL would be necessary to alter test results. However, contamination of samples with preloaded pure K3EDTA solution by severe neglect of current recommendations in blood collection may significantly alter testing results.

  14. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.; Albuquerque Brocchi, E. de

    1990-01-01

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  15. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  16. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  17. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  18. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  19. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  20. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    /talin complex was inserted in biologically relevant bilayers that resemble the cell plasma membrane containing zwitterionic and charged phospholipids, cholesterol and sphingolipids to study the dynamics of the integrin receptor and its effect on bilayer structure and dynamics. The results of this study...... demonstrate the dynamic nature of the integrin receptor and suggest that the presence of the integrin receptor alters the lipid organization between the two leaflets of the bilayer. In particular, our results suggest elevated density of cholesterol and of phosphatidylserine lipids around the integrin....../talin complex and a slowing down of lipids in an annulus of ~30 Å around the protein due to interactions between the lipids and the integrin/talin F2–F3 complex. This may in part regulate the interactions of integrins with other related proteins or integrin clustering thus facilitating signal transduction...

  1. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  2. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  3. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  4. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  5. Climate-relevant monitorings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metternich, P.

    1993-01-01

    This catalogue contains so-called meta-data; i.e. information on data. For each measuring programme or set of data, users find the address (postal address, telephone, fax-number) of the respective contact person at the beginning of the entry. The catalogue has three parts: Part A is a compilation of monitoring programmes using conventional methods adopted on the ground. Part B contains research programmes or sets of data from the field of remote sensing. In part C, data sets from time series of climate-relevant parameters are described. Section A was additionally structured according so the compartments of the climate system: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere. (orig./KW) [de

  6. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives have continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  7. Reach and Relevance of Prison Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Tubex

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I reflect on the changes in the penal landscape and how they impact on prison research. I do this from my experiences as a prison researcher in a variety of roles, in both Europe and Australia. The growing dominance of managerialism has impacted on both corrective services and universities, in ways that have changed the relationship between current prison practices and academically oriented research. Therefore, academics have to question how their contemporary prison research can bridge the emerging gap: how they can not only produce research that adheres to the roots of criminology and provides a base for a rational penal policy, but also how they can develop strategies to get recognition of and funding for this broader contextual work which, although it might not produce results that are immediately identifiable, can be of relevance in indirect ways and in the longer term.

  8. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  9. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  10. Thermochemical data for environmentally-relevant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Brown, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an extensive stability constant (log K) database suitable for calculating the speciation of selected environmentally-relevant elements (H, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, U, Al Pb, Zn, Cu and cd) in an aqueous system, where a model fulvic acid (comprising aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids) is used to simulate metal binding by dissolved organic material Stability constants for inorganic metal complexes and minerals were selected primarily from critical literature complications and/or reviews. In contrast, few critically evaluated data were available for metal complexes with aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids. Consequently, data from original research articles were carefully evaluated and compiled as part of the study, following defined selection criteria. to meet the objective of compiling a comprehensive and reliable database of stability constants, all relevant equilibria and species, ranging from simple binary metal complexes to more complex ternary and even quaternary, metal complexes were included where possible in addition to the selection of stability constants from empirical sources, estimates of stability constants were performed when this could be done reliably, based on the unified theory of metal ion complexation and/or linear tree energy relationships The stability constants are given as common logarithms (logo) in the form required by the HARPHRQ geochemical code and refer to the standard state, i.e 298.15 K (25 deg C), 10 5 Pa (1 atm) and, for all species, infinite dilution (ionic strength = 0 mol L -1 ). In addition to the compilation of stability constant data, an overview is given of geochemical speciation modelling in aqueous systems and available conceptual models of metal binding by humic substances. (authors)

  11. The estimation of effective doses using measurement of several relevant physical parameters from radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzikova, A; Fronka, A.; Maly, B.; Moucka, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present investigation, we will be study the dose relevant factors from continual monitoring in real homes into account getting more accurate estimation of 222 Rn the effective dose. The dose relevant parameters include the radon concentration, the equilibrium factor (f), the fraction (fp) of unattached radon decay products and real time occupancy people in home. The result of the measurement are the time courses of radon concentration that are based on estimation effective doses together with assessment of the real time occupancy people indoor. We found out by analysis that year effective dose is lower than effective dose estimated by ICRP recommendation from the integral measurement that included only average radon concentration. Our analysis of estimation effective doses using measurement of several physical parameters was made only in one case and for the better specification is important to measure in different real occupancy houses. (authors)

  12. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  13. Reflections on Meaningfulness and its Social Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Note

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers who write about the meaning of life are few nowadays. Thesubject has lost its attractiveness. Perceived from a viewpoint of logical positivism or language philosophy, the whole issue of meaningfulness seems rather pointless. It is often considered to be related to metaphysics, making it less suitable for philosophical inquiry. The topic of meaningfulness seems too intangible. Indeed, the few philosophers that have embarked on examining meaningfulness have proven to be well aware of the challenges this poses. At times they acknowledge that the more they concentrate on the subject, the more it seems to fall apart into unintelligible pieces about whichnothing of philosophical value can be said.

  14. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    ) can be used to describe the relative concentration between two cytokines, and the GMR ratio (GMRR) can be used to compare two groups. The problem is how to estimate GMRRs from censored distributions.We evaluated methods, including simple deletion and substitution, in simulated and real data. One...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  16. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  17. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...... models of vortex structures used for interpretation of experimental data which serve as a ground for development of theoretical and numerical approaches to vortex investigation. Achievements in the fields of stability analysis, waves on vortices and vortex breakdown are also presented....

  18. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  19. Complex concentrate pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Scheele, R.D.; Strachan, D.M.; Toste, A.P.

    1991-03-01

    After removal of the transuranics (TRU) by the TRUEX process, complex concentrate waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destruction of the organic contents. It has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than previously. None of the organics found in the waste have been found on the EPA hazardous chemicals list. Two potential problems with the processing of the complex concentrate wastes were identified during the use of the TRUEX process on samples of several milliliters. One was the amount of foam that is generated during acid addition to the alkaline waste. Some of this foam appears to be of a waxy nature but does redissolve when the waste is strongly acid. The second potential problem is that noticeable amounts of NO x gases are generated. No quantitative measure of the NO x gas generation was made. The problem relates to processing the waste in B-plant where there are no facilities to handle NO x gases. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  1. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  2. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  3. Top studies relevant to primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael

    2018-04-01

    To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  5. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  6. Relevance of extracellular DNA in rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietramellara, Giacomo; Ascher, Judith; Baraniya, Divyashri; Arfaioli, Paola; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Hawes, Martha

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for future development is the manipulation of the rhizosphere to produce sustainable and efficient agriculture production systems. Using Omics approaches, to define the distinctive features of eDNA systems and structures, will facilitate progress in rhizo-enforcement and biocontrol studies. The relevance of these studies results clear when we consider the plethora of ecological functions in which eDNA is involved. This fraction can be actively extruded by living cells or discharged during cellular lysis and may exert a key role in the stability and variability of the soil bacterial genome, resulting also a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for plants due to the root's capacity to directly uptake short DNA fragments. The adhesive properties of the DNA molecule confer to eDNA the capacity to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria by cation limitation induction, and to facilitate formation of biofilm and extracellular traps (ETs), that may protect microorganisms inhabiting biofilm and plant roots against pathogens and allelopathic substances. The ETs are actively extruded by root border cells when they are dispersed in the rhizosphere, conferring to plants the capacity to extend an endogenous pathogen defence system outside the organism. Moreover, eDNA could be involved in rhizoremediation in heavy metal polluted soil acting as a bioflotation reagent.

  7. Relevance of tidal heating on large TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Renaud, Joe P.; Henning, Wade G.; Jutzi, Martin; Hurford, Terry

    2018-03-01

    We examine the relevance of tidal heating for large Trans-Neptunian Objects, with a focus on its potential to melt and maintain layers of subsurface liquid water. Depending on their past orbital evolution, tidal heating may be an important part of the heat budget for a number of discovered and hypothetical TNO systems and may enable formation of, and increased access to, subsurface liquid water. Tidal heating induced by the process of despinning is found to be particularly able to compete with heating due to radionuclide decay in a number of different scenarios. In cases where radiogenic heating alone may establish subsurface conditions for liquid water, we focus on the extent by which tidal activity lifts the depth of such conditions closer to the surface. While it is common for strong tidal heating and long lived tides to be mutually exclusive, we find this is not always the case, and highlight when these two traits occur together. We find cases where TNO systems experience tidal heating that is a significant proportion of, or greater than radiogenic heating for periods ranging from100‧s of millions to a billion years. For subsurface oceans that contain a small antifreeze component, tidal heating due to very high initial spin states may enable liquid water to be preserved right up to the present day. Of particular interest is the Eris-Dysnomia system, which in those cases may exhibit extant cryovolcanism.

  8. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  9. Human error theory: relevance to nurse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry

    2009-03-01

    Describe, discuss and critically appraise human error theory and consider its relevance for nurse managers. Healthcare errors are a persistent threat to patient safety. Effective risk management and clinical governance depends on understanding the nature of error. This paper draws upon a wide literature from published works, largely from the field of cognitive psychology and human factors. Although the content of this paper is pertinent to any healthcare professional; it is written primarily for nurse managers. Error is inevitable. Causation is often attributed to individuals, yet causation in complex environments such as healthcare is predominantly multi-factorial. Individual performance is affected by the tendency to develop prepacked solutions and attention deficits, which can in turn be related to local conditions and systems or latent failures. Blame is often inappropriate. Defences should be constructed in the light of these considerations and to promote error wisdom and organizational resilience. Managing and learning from error is seen as a priority in the British National Health Service (NHS), this can be better achieved with an understanding of the roots, nature and consequences of error. Such an understanding can provide a helpful framework for a range of risk management activities.

  10. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Danbo; Yu, Lei; Van, Sang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic

  11. Accreditation - Its relevance for laboratories measuring radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S E [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)

    2001-11-01

    Accreditation is an internationally recognised way for laboratories to demonstrate their competence. Obtaining and maintaining accreditation is, however, a costly and time-consuming procedure. The benefits of accreditation also depend on the role of the laboratory. Accreditation may be of limited relevance for a research laboratory, but essential for a laboratory associated with a national authority and e.g. issuing certificates. This report describes work done within the NKSBOK-1.1 sub-project on introducing accreditation to Nordic laboratories measuring radionuclides. Initially the focus was on the new standard ISO/IEC 17025, which was just in a draft form at the time, but which provides now a new framework for accreditation of laboratories. Later the focus was widened to include a general introduction to accreditation and providing through seminars a forum for exchanging views on the experience laboratories have had in this field. Copies of overheads from the last such seminar are included in the appendix to this report. (au)

  12. Perspective: Organizational professionalism: relevant competencies and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egener, Barry; McDonald, Walter; Rosof, Bernard; Gullen, David

    2012-05-01

    The professionalism behaviors of physicians have been extensively discussed and defined; however, the professionalism behaviors of health care organizations have not been systemically categorized or described. Defining organizational professionalism is important because the behaviors of a health care organization may substantially impact the behaviors of physicians and others within the organization as well as other institutions and the larger community. In this article, the authors discuss the following competencies of organizational professionalism, derived from ethical values: service, respect, fairness, integrity, accountability, mindfulness, and self-motivation. How nonprofit health care organizations can translate these competencies into behaviors is described. For example, incorporating metrics of population health into assessments of corporate success may increase collaboration among regional health care organizations while also benefiting the community. The unique responsibilities of leadership to model these competencies, promote them in the community, and develop relevant organizational strategies are clarified. These obligations elevate the importance of the executive leadership's capacity for self-reflection and the governing boards' responsibility for mapping operational activities to organizational mission. Lastly, the authors consider how medical organizations are currently addressing professionalism challenges. In an environment made turbulent by regulatory change and financial constraints, achieving proficiency in professionalism competencies can assist nonprofit health care organizations to promote population health and the well-being of their workforces.

  13. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  14. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  15. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Danbo [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Yu, Lei, E-mail: yu-lei@gg.nitto.co.jp [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Van, Sang [Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States)

    2010-12-23

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  16. Safety relevant failure mechanisms in the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stiller, Jan Christopher; Roemer, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    When the 13"t"h amendment of the Atomic Energy Act came into force, eight Germ an nuclear power plant units had their power operating licences revoked and are now in the so-called post operation phase. Of the remaining nuclear power plants, one have by now also entered the post operation phase, with those left in operation bound for entering this phase sometime between now and the end of 2022. Therefore, failure mechanisms that are particularly relevant for post operation were to be identified and described in the frame of the present project. To do so, three major steps were taken: Firstly, recent national and international pertinent literature was evaluated to obtain indications of failure mechanisms in the post operation phase. It turned out that most of the national and international literature deals with the general procedure of the transition from power operation to decommissioning and dismantling. However, there were also some documents providing detailed indications of possible failure mechanisms in post operation. This includes e.g. the release of radioactive materials caused by the drop of containers, chemical impacts on systems important to safety in connection with decontamination work, and corrosion in connection with the storage of the core in the spent fuel pool, with the latter leading to the jamming of the fuel assemblies in the storage racks and a possible reduction of coolant circulation. In a second step, three safety analyses of pressurised water reactors prepared by the respective plant operators were evaluated to identify failure mechanisms based on systems engineering. The failure mechanisms that were found here include e.g. faults in the boric acid concentration of the reactor coolant, damage to the equipment airlock upon the unloading of Castor casks, leakages in connection with primary system decontamination, and the drop of packages holding radioactive residual materials or waste with subsequent mobilisation of radioactive aerosols

  17. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-01-01

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M and O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits

  18. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  19. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.

  20. Hydrogen distribution studies relevant to CANDU containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Chan, C.K.; Jones, S.C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Following a loss of coolant accident with coincident loss of emergency core cooling, hydrogen may be produced in a CANDU reactor from the in-core Zircaloy-steam reaction, and released into containment. To meet the requirements for predicting containment hydrogen distribution, and to support measures for mitigation, a computer code GOTHIC is used. Simulations of gas mixing were performed using simple well defined experiments in a small-scale compartment, helium being substituted for hydrogen. At the time of the conference, results indicated that GOTHIC could quantitatively predict the stratified gas distribution resulting from buoyant gas injection near the bottom of an unobstructed compartment. When gas was injected near the top, GOTHIC underpredicted maximum gas concentration at the top, and overpredicted mixing. These errors arise from the finite-volume approximation. 2 refs., 11 figs

  1. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  2. Stress concentration at notches

    CERN Document Server

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  3. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  4. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  5. Structural Model Error and Decision Relevancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, M.; Lusk, G.

    2017-12-01

    The extent to which climate models can underwrite specific climate policies has long been a contentious issue. Skeptics frequently deny that climate models are trustworthy in an attempt to undermine climate action, whereas policy makers often desire information that exceeds the capabilities of extant models. While not skeptics, a group of mathematicians and philosophers [Frigg et al. (2014)] recently argued that even tiny differences between the structure of a complex dynamical model and its target system can lead to dramatic predictive errors, possibly resulting in disastrous consequences when policy decisions are based upon those predictions. They call this result the Hawkmoth effect (HME), and seemingly use it to rebuke rightwing proposals to forgo mitigation in favor of adaptation. However, a vigorous debate has emerged between Frigg et al. on one side and another philosopher-mathematician pair [Winsberg and Goodwin (2016)] on the other. On one hand, Frigg et al. argue that their result shifts the burden to climate scientists to demonstrate that their models do not fall prey to the HME. On the other hand, Winsberg and Goodwin suggest that arguments like those asserted by Frigg et al. can be, if taken seriously, "dangerous": they fail to consider the variety of purposes for which models can be used, and thus too hastily undermine large swaths of climate science. They put the burden back on Frigg et al. to show their result has any effect on climate science. This paper seeks to attenuate this debate by establishing an irenic middle position; we find that there is more agreement between sides than it first seems. We distinguish a `decision standard' from a `burden of proof', which helps clarify the contributions to the debate from both sides. In making this distinction, we argue that scientists bear the burden of assessing the consequences of HME, but that the standard Frigg et al. adopt for decision relevancy is too strict.

  6. Intracranial Aneurysms of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Newman, Nancy J; Barrow, Daniel L; Biousse, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Cavernous sinus aneurysms were not included in this review. Surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling for aneurysms causing third nerve palsies was compared in 13 retrospective studies representing 447 patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 78% of surgical patients compared with 44% of patients treated with endovascular coiling. However, the complication rate, hospital costs, and days spent in intensive care were reported as higher in surgically treated patients. Retrospective reviews of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for all ocular motor nerve palsies (third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves) revealed similar results of complete resolution in 76% and 49%, respectively. Improvement in visual deficits related to aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways was also better among patients treated with clipping than with coiling. The time to treatment from onset of visual symptoms was a predictive factor of visual recovery in several studies. Few reports have specifically assessed the improvement of visual deficits after treatment with flow diverters. Decisions regarding the choice of therapy for intracranial aneurysms causing neuro-ophthalmologic signs ideally should be made at high-volume centers with access to both surgical and endovascular treatments. The status of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and experience of the treating physicians

  7. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis.

  8. Relevant optical properties for direct restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; do Amaral, Erika A Navarro; Cardona, Juan C; Della Bona, Alvaro; Pérez, María M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate relevant optical properties of esthetic direct restorative materials focusing on whitened and translucent shades. Enamel (E), body (B), dentin (D), translucent (T) and whitened (Wh) shades for E (WhE) and B (WhB) from a restorative system (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE) were evaluated. Samples (1 mm thick) were prepared. Spectral reflectance (R%) and color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C* and h°) were measured against black and white backgrounds, using a spectroradiometer, in a viewing booth, with CIE D65 illuminant and d/0° geometry. Scattering (S) and absorption (K) coefficients and transmittance (T%) were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. Translucency (TP) and opalescence (OP) parameters and whiteness index (W*) were obtained from differences of CIELAB color coordinates. R%, S, K and T% curves from all shades were compared using VAF (Variance Accounting For) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Color coordinates and optical parameters were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.0007). Spectral behavior of R% and S were different for T shades. In addition, T shades showed the lowest R%, S and K values, as well as the highest T%, TP an OP values. In most cases, WhB shades showed different color and optical properties (including TP and W*) than their corresponding B shades. WhE shades showed similar mean W* values and higher mean T% and TP values than E shades. When using whitened or translucent composites, the final color is influenced not only by the intraoral background but also by the color and optical properties of multilayers used in the esthetic restoration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, L.; Bayetti, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Grisolia, C.; Hatchressian, J.C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache (France). Dept. de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee; Friconneau, J.P.; Keller, D.; Perrot, Y. [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2007-07-01

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning could be very useful. Within this framework, the aim of the project called AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm) is to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 11 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The project is currently developed by the CEA within the European workprogramme. Its first in situ tests are planned this summer on the Tore Supra tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate chosen concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for generic application. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is currently being manufactured and will allow for close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (limiters, neutralisers, RF antennae, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of leakage based on helium sniffer is also studied to improve maintenance operations. - Finally the laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, also developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implanted into the robot and put into operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot in the Tore Supra tokamak and the advances in the development of the listed processes. It also introduces the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions. (orig.)

  10. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Laurent [Association Euratom-CEA, Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache 13108 (France)], E-mail: laurent.gargiulo@cea.fr; Bayetti, Pascal; Bruno, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-Jacques [Association Euratom-CEA, Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache 13108 (France); Friconneau, Jean-Pierre [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, CE Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Grisolia, Christian; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Houry, Michael [Association Euratom-CEA, Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache 13108 (France); Keller, Delphine; Perrot, Yann [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, CE Fontenay Aux Roses (France)

    2008-12-15

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in-vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning will be mandatory. In this context, an Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) is currently developed by the CEA within the European work programme framework, which aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 8 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The first in situ tests will take place by the end of 2007 on the Tore Supra Tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for various applications. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is already manufactured and will allow close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (PFC) (limiters, neutralisers, RF antenna, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of water leakage based on a helium sniffing system is also being studied to improve and facilitate maintenance operations. - Finally a laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implemented on the robot for future operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot into Tore Supra and the progress in the development of the processes listed above. It also describes the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions.

  11. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, L.; Bayetti, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Grisolia, C.; Hatchressian, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning could be very useful. Within this framework, the aim of the project called AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm) is to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 11 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The project is currently developed by the CEA within the European workprogramme. Its first in situ tests are planned this summer on the Tore Supra tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate chosen concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for generic application. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is currently being manufactured and will allow for close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (limiters, neutralisers, RF antennae, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of leakage based on helium sniffer is also studied to improve maintenance operations. - Finally the laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, also developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implanted into the robot and put into operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot in the Tore Supra tokamak and the advances in the development of the listed processes. It also introduces the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions. (orig.)

  12. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, Laurent; Bayetti, Pascal; Bruno, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Grisolia, Christian; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Houry, Michael; Keller, Delphine; Perrot, Yann

    2008-01-01

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in-vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning will be mandatory. In this context, an Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) is currently developed by the CEA within the European work programme framework, which aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 8 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The first in situ tests will take place by the end of 2007 on the Tore Supra Tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for various applications. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is already manufactured and will allow close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (PFC) (limiters, neutralisers, RF antenna, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of water leakage based on a helium sniffing system is also being studied to improve and facilitate maintenance operations. - Finally a laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implemented on the robot for future operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot into Tore Supra and the progress in the development of the processes listed above. It also describes the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions

  13. Autonomia e relevância dos regimes The autonomy and relevance of regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Seignemartin de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Teorias institucionalistas na disciplina de relações internacionais usualmente definem regimes como um conjunto de normas e regras formais ou informais que permitem a convergência de expectativas ou a padronização do comportamento de seus participantes em uma determinada área de interesses com o objetivo de resolver problemas de coordenação que tenderiam a resultados não pareto-eficientes. Como estas definições baseadas meramente na "eficiência" dos regimes não parecem suficientes para explicar sua efetividade, o presente artigo propõe uma definição diferente para regimes: a de arranjos políticos que permitem a redistribuição dos ganhos da cooperação pelos participantes em uma determinada área de interesses em um contexto de interdependência. Regimes possuiriam efetividade pela sua autonomia e relevância, ou seja, por possuírem existência objetiva autônoma da de seus participantes e por influenciarem seu comportamento e expectativas de maneiras que não podem ser reduzidas à ação individual de nenhum deles. O artigo inicia-se com uma breve discussão sobre as dificuldades terminológicas associadas ao estudo de regimes e a definição dos conceitos de autonomia e relevância. Em seguida, classifica os diversos autores participantes do debate em duas perspectivas distintas, uma que nega (não-autonomistas e outra que atribui (autonomistas aos regimes autonomia e relevância, e faz uma breve análise dos autores e tradições mais significativos para o debate, aprofundando-se nos autonomistas e nos argumentos que reforçam a hipótese aqui apresentada. Ao final, o artigo propõe uma decomposição analítica dos regimes nos quatro elementos principais que lhes propiciam autonomia e relevância: normatividade, atores, especificidade da área de interesses e interdependência complexa com o contexto.Regimes are defined by institutionalist theories in the discipline of International Relations as formal or informal sets

  14. Preparation of selective molybdenum concentrate from collective coppermolybdenum concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tusupbaev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers possibilities of selective separation of the concentrate of copper and molybdenum from a collective copper-molybdenum concentrate of Aktogay deposit using regrinding and conventional flotation reagents. In the case of conventional flotoreagents, the content of molybdenum in a molybdenum concentrate was 8.0% at extraction effectiveness 83.12%. At 27.96% extraction degree of copper, it’s content in the concentrate equaled to 21.3%. After regrinding, molybdenum content in the concentrate was 24.0% at the extraction effectiveness 59.63%, and copper content in the concentrate was 21.9% at the recovery of 61.23%. Thus, the regrinding of a collective copper-molybdenum concentrate resulted in an increase in the content of molybdenum in molybdenum concentrate by 16%, and the copper concentration increased by 0.6%.

  15. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R.; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing

  16. Concentration of lemon pectin extract by ultrafiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Stechina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Current annual lemon production in Argentina is about 900 thousand t. 75% is used industrially to obtain pasteurized juice concentrate. Since 40 - 45 % of citrus fruit content is peel and seeds, the annual lemon residue yield is 360 thousand t. Lemon peel contains about 30% (B.S. of peptic substances with an important commercial value due to its gelling and thickening properties for food, chemical, pharmacological and cosmetic products. Membrane processes have many applications in food manufacture. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ultrafiltration operating variables on instant permeate flow (Fp and on the energy requirement for pectin extract concentration from lemon peel. A DDS lab module was used, lab 20-772 model with synthetic material membranes, 9 kDa, shear force, the intrinsic membrane resistance (Rm being 3*1013 m -1 . Results show that Fp decrease caused by polarization induced resistance occurrence and the influence of operating variables on Fp offer relevant data to estimate the energy requirement in relation to feeding flow at constant temperature, which may be compared to pectin concentration increase in the retained flow in relation to initial extract concentration.

  17. Clinical relevance of cimetidine drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, A F

    1992-01-01

    The excellent efficacy and tolerability profiles of H2-antagonists have established these agents as the leading class of antiulcer drugs. Attention has been focused on drug interactions with H2-antagonists as a means of product differentiation and because many patients are receiving multiple drug therapy. The main mechanism of most drug interactions involving cimetidine appears to be inhibition of the hepatic microsomal enzyme cytochrome P450, an effect which may be related to the different structures of H2-antagonists. Ranitidine appears to have less affinity than cimetidine for this system. There have been many published case reports and studies of drug interactions with cimetidine, but many of these have provided pharmacokinetic data only, with little information concerning the clinical significance of these findings. Nevertheless, the coadministration of cimetidine with drugs that have a narrow therapeutic margin (such as theophylline) may potentially result in clinically significant adverse effects. The monitoring of serum concentrations of drugs coadministered with cimetidine may reduce the risk of adverse events but does not abolish the problem. However, for most patients, concomitant administration of cimetidine with drugs possessing a wide therapeutic margin is unlikely to pose a significant problem.

  18. 49 CFR 556.9 - Public inspection of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public inspection of relevant information. 556.9... NONCOMPLIANCE § 556.9 Public inspection of relevant information. Information relevant to a petition under this... Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. Copies of available information may be obtained in...

  19. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...

  20. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback

  1. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  2. The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engelenburg, F. A. C.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schuitemaker, H.; Moorer, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture (80% ethanol and 5% isopropanol) was determined for a broad series of lipid-enveloped (LE) and non-lipid-enveloped (NLE) viruses covering all relevant blood-borne viruses. LE viruses were represented by human immunodeficiency virus

  3. Xanthine oxidoreductase and its inhibitors: relevance for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard O; Kamel, Bishoy; Kannangara, Diluk R W; Williams, Kenneth M; Graham, Garry G

    2016-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism and converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine into uric acid. When concentrations of uric acid exceed its biochemical saturation point, crystals of uric acid, in the form of monosodium urate, emerge and can predispose an individual to gout, the commonest form of inflammatory arthritis in men aged over 40 years. XOR inhibitors are primarily used in the treatment of gout, reducing the formation of uric acid and thereby, preventing the formation of monosodium urate crystals. Allopurinol is established as first-line therapy for gout; a newer alternative, febuxostat, is used in patients unable to tolerate allopurinol. This review provides an overview of gout, a detailed analysis of the structure and function of XOR, discussion on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of XOR inhibitors-allopurinol and febuxostat, and the relevance of XOR in common comorbidities of gout. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Parvovirus B19: What Is the Relevance in Transfusion Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, David; Hennig, Holger

    2018-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) has been discovered in 1975. The association with a disease was unclear in the first time after the discovery of B19V, but meanwhile, the usually droplet transmitted B19V is known as the infectious agent of the “fifth disease,” a rather harmless children’s illness. But B19V infects erythrocyte progenitor cells and thus, acute B19V infection in patients with a high erythrocyte turnover may lead to a life-threatening aplastic crisis, and acutely infected pregnant women can transmit B19V to their unborn child, resulting in a hydrops fetalis and fetal death. However, in many adults, B19V infection goes unnoticed and thus many blood donors donate blood despite the infection. The B19V infection does not impair the blood cell counts in healthy blood donors, but after the acute infection with extremely high DNA concentrations exceeding 1010 IU B19V DNA/ml plasma is resolved, B19V DNA persists in the plasma of blood donors at low levels for several years. That way, many consecutive donations that contain B19V DNA can be taken from a single donor, but the majority of blood products from donors with detectable B19V DNA seem not to be infectious for the recipients from several reasons: first, many recipients had undergone a B19V infection in the past and have formed protective antibodies. Second, B19V DNA concentration in the blood product is often too low to infect the recipient. Third, after the acute infection, the presence of B19V DNA in the donor is accompanied by presumably neutralizing antibodies which are protective also for the recipient of his blood products. Thus, transfusion-transmitted (TT-) B19V infections are very rarely reported. Moreover, in most blood donors, B19V DNA concentration is below 1,000 IU/ml plasma, and no TT-B19V infections have been found by such low-viremic donations. Cutoff for an assay for B19V DNA blood donor screening should, therefore, be approximately 1,000 IU/ml plasma, if a general screening of blood

  5. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  6. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh B. Kokare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  7. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Ward, Bess

    2013-01-01

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelli...

  8. Therapeutic relevance of penicillin-induced hypersensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, C; Georgopoulos, A; Laber, G; Schütze, E

    1984-01-01

    There is an overwhelming body of evidence that certain Staphylococcus aureus strains become more sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes after their growth in media containing subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin. However, it is not clear to what extent this phenomenon contributes to the curative effect of penicillin in vivo. To explore its therapeutic relevance, we evaluated the interaction of staphylococci pretreated with penicillin in vitro with leukocytes in cell-proof ...

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    accurate determination of sentinel nodes in all areas. There is a significant number of unusual and unexpected drainage patterns found in melanoma many of which would be undetectable if only using a gamma probe alone or delayed imaging with large particles. There is also some controversy in breast cancer on the most accurate sentinel node technique and the relevance of extra axillary drainage sites eg internal mammary chain. The sentinel lymph node mapping with lymphoscintigraphy and blue due in association with applications of the gamma probe at surgery for accurate localisation of sentinel nodes is making a significant impact on patient management. This is in particular by more accurate staging and prognostic information with better stratification of patients requiring further regional node dissection and those suitable for adjuvant therapy and specific clinical trials

  10. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  11. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  12. Changes in power and force generation during coupled eccentric-concentric versus concentric muscle contraction with training and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Puggaard, Lis

    2008-01-01

    Age-related decline in maximal concentric muscle power is associated with frailty and functional impairments in the elderly. Compared to concentric contraction, mechanical muscle output is generally enhanced when muscles are rapidly pre-stretched (eccentric contraction), albeit less pronounced...... with increasing age. Exercise has been recommended to prevent loss of muscle power and function and recent guidelines indicate training program for increasing muscle power highly relevant for elderly subjects. This study examined the differences in muscle power, force and movement pattern during concentric......) and JH increased in training group (P age-related decline in muscle power and functional performance observed in the control subjects, while substantial gains...

  13. IEK-3 report 2011. Climate-relevant energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    IEK-3 is one of nine sub-institutes within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. IEK-3 aims to conduct research of social, ecological and economic relevance and thus generate groundbreaking results on an international level. This quality of work is achieved through basic research in close coordination with technical development work in relevant scientific and technical fields of expertise. Special significance is attached here to international cooperations with partners from research and industry. By implementing research results in innovative products, procedures and processes in cooperation with industry, IEK-3 hopes to help bridge the gap between science and technology. Cooperation with universities, universities of applied sciences, training departments and training centers is designed to promote opportunities for further education and training. With a staff of approximately 100, IEK-3 concentrates on the basic topics of electrochemistry and process engineering for fuel cells. In an integrated approach, the four key areas worked on in the institute - direct methanol fuel cells, high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and fuel processing systems - are accompanied by systems analysis and theoretical investigations, basic modeling and simulations, and by experimental and theoretical systems evaluations. The information generated in these areas is used to design and verify functional systems. In addition, particular attention is given to the development, configuration and application of special measuring techniques for the structural analysis of membrane electrode assemblies, for flow simulation and visualization, and for the characterization of stacks. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack pictured comprises 36 cells, each with an active cell area of 360 cm{sup 2}. The nominal power at a mean cell voltage of 800 mV is approximately 5.5 kW. The stack is operated on natural gas, which is

  14. Concentrating on caustic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Full text: First there was the Beer Battery, which aimed to generate electricity from brewery wastewater using a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Trials at Foster's Yatala brewery in Queensland in 2007 ran into challenges around the cost of electricity and duration of treatment, but they also revealed a new possibility. Komeel Rabaey, a University of Queensland specialist in microbial dynamics with a particular passion for bioelectrochemical systems, recognised the potential to extract sodium hydroxide - caustic soda - out of wastewater in a form suitable for reuse. In 2008 he converted such a system into a lab-scale caustic recovery plant, then upsized it to a one litre test reactor, which is again running at the Yatala brewery. The concept flips wastewater treatment on its head, seeing the discharge as a resource to be harvested rather than a cost and a contaminant load to be managed. “We typically aim to make a concentration of about four per cent caustic. That is what is easily achievable with the system and you will also note a lot of industries use caustic at four per cent,” said Dr Rabaey. “So you can use the wastewater from the plant to drive caustic production, with the extra advantage of removing enormous amounts of sodium.” Sodium hydroxide is a ubiquitous industrial compound used in pH regulation, as a cleaning agent in clean-in-place systems and variously in pulp and paper, textiles and food processing. Dr Rabaey wants to close the loop on caustic. Industries along the Murray-Darling basin, for example, truck in a lot of it from outside the area and then discharge it with their wastewater into the salt-sensitive river system. “If you use a bioelectrochemical system to recover the sodium hydroxide, you are not even importing the sodium into the area but recycling the sodium the whole time on-site,” he told WME. Get the technology right and he reckons a three-year payback on investment is readily achievable. A microbial fuel cell oxidises organics

  15. Predicting adult fish acute lethality with the zebrafish embryo: relevance of test duration, endpoints, compound properties, and exposure concentration analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knöbel, M.; Busser, F.J.M.; Rico-Rico, A.; Kramer, N.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836125; Hermens, J.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069681384; Hafner, C.; Tanneberger, K.; Schirmer, K.; Scholz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, which is required by various regulations for environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We investigated the reliability of the embryo test by probing organic industrial chemicals with a wide

  16. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Toxicologically Relevant Concentrations of Chromium(VI in Cosmetic Pigments and Eyeshadow Using Synthetic Lachrymal Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wurster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium(VI salts are possible contaminants of the chromium(III pigments used as colorants in eyeshadow preparations. The use of products containing these contaminants poses acute risks for sensitization and contact allergies. Chromium(VI compounds are also classified as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1. An analytical method to analyse trace levels of chromium(VI in eyeshadow was developed in this study. The method is based on an extraction of the chromium(VI from the sample using a maximum extraction with alkali and additionally with synthetic lachrymal fluid to simulate physiological conditions. Following derivatization with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide, the extracted chromium(VI is then quantified by spectrophotometry (540 nm. Validation tests indicated a method standard deviation (inter- and intraday of 8.7% and a linear range up to 25 mg/kg. The average recovery was 107.9%, and the detection limit was 2.7 mg/kg. The applicability of the procedure was confirmed by the analysis of pigments and authentic eyeshadow matrices.

  17. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowicz, Michelle; Garcia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia) for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologi...

  18. Absent biologically relevant associations between serum inhibin B concentrations and characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S.E. Laven (Joop); B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); F.H. de Jong (Frank); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Dominant follicle selection is disturbed in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility [World Health Organization (WHO) 2] and remaining early antral follicles are either healthy or atretic. This study was conducted to investigate whether

  19. Integration of Density Dependence and Concentration Response Models Provides an Ecologically Relevant Assessment of Populations Exposed to Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of toxic exposure on wildlife populations involves the integration of organism level effects measured in toxicity tests (e.g., chronic life cycle) and population models. These modeling exercises typically ignore density dependence, primarily because information on ...

  20. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  1. Signal Enhancement as Minimization of Relevant Information Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Bernhard C.; Kubin, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the r...

  2. Alpha power gates relevant information during working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2014-04-23

    Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.

  3. Evaluating automatic attentional capture by self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Brenda; Kahan, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Our everyday decisions and memories are inadvertently influenced by self-relevant information. For example, we are faster and more accurate at making perceptual judgments about stimuli associated with ourselves, such as our own face or name, as compared with familiar non-self-relevant stimuli. Humphreys and Sui propose a "self-attention network" to account for these effects, wherein self-relevant stimuli automatically capture our attention and subsequently enhance the perceptual processing of self-relevant information. We propose that the masked priming paradigm and continuous flash suppression represent two ways to experimentally examine these controversial claims.

  4. Explaining citizens’ perceptions of international climate-policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Faure, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically analyses the antecedents of citizens’ perceptions of the relevance of international climate policy. Its use of representative surveys in the USA, China and Germany controls for different environmental attitudes and socio-economic factors between countries. The findings of the micro-econometric analysis suggest that the perceived relevance of international climate policy is positively affected by its perceived effectiveness, approval of the key topics discussed at international climate conferences, and environmental attitudes, but is not affected by perceived procedural justice. A higher level of perceived trust in international climate policy was positively related to perceived relevance in the USA and in China, but not in Germany. Citizens who felt that they were well informed and that their position was represented at climate summits were more likely to perceive international climate policy as relevant in China in particular. Generally, the results show only weak evidence of socio-demographic effects. - Highlights: • Perceptions of climate-policy relevance increase with perceptions of effectiveness. • In China and the USA, trust increases perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • Environmental attitudes are related to perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • In China, well-informed citizens perceive climate policy as more relevant. • Socio-demographics only weakly affect perceptions of climate-policy relevance.

  5. Clinically relevant incidental cardiovascular findings in CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, P.; Fahnert, J.; Kahn, T.; Surov, A.; Schramm, D.; Bach, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Incidental cardiovascular findings are a frequent phenomenon in computed tomography (CT) examinations. As the result of a dedicated PubMed search this article gives a systemic overview of the current literature on the most important incidental cardiovascular findings, their prevalence and clinical relevance. The majority of incidental cardiovascular findings are of only low clinical relevance; however, highly relevant incidental findings, such as aortic aneurysms, thromboses and thromboembolic events can also occasionally be found, especially in oncology patients. The scans from every CT examination should also be investigated for incidental findings as they can be of decisive importance for the further clinical management of patients, depending on their clinical relevance. (orig.) [de

  6. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernie, Kim J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: kim.fernie@ec.gc.ca; Mayne, Greg [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Shutt, J. Laird [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Pekarik, Cynthia [Canadian Wildlife Service, PO Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Grasman, Keith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States); Letcher, Robert J. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Drouillard, Ken [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 {mu}g {sigma}PBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6{+-}0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching {sigma}PBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1{+-}29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73{+-}0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and {sigma}PBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels.

  7. Evidence of immunomodulation in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant PBDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, Kim J.; Mayne, Greg; Shutt, J. Laird; Pekarik, Cynthia; Grasman, Keith A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Drouillard, Ken

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) causes immunomodulation in captive nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Eggs within each clutch, divided by laying sequence, were injected with safflower oil or penta-BDE congeners-47, -99, -100, and -153 dissolved in safflower oil (18.7 μg ΣPBDEs/egg) approximating Great Lakes birds. For 29 days, nestlings consumed the same PBDE mixture (15.6±0.3 ng/g body weight per day), reaching ΣPBDE body burden concentrations that were 120x higher in the treatment birds (86.1±29.1 ng/g ww) than controls (0.73±0.5 ng/g ww). PBDE-exposed birds had a greater PHA response (T-cell-mediated immunity), which was negatively associated with increasing BDE-47 concentrations, but a reduced antibody-mediated response that was positively associated with increasing BDE-183 concentrations. There were also structural changes in the spleen (fewer germinal centers), bursa (reduced apoptosis) and thymus (increased macrophages), and negative associations between the spleen somatic index and ΣPBDEs, and the bursa somatic index and BDE-47. Immunomodulation from PBDE exposure may be exacerbated in wild birds experiencing greater environmental stresses. - Exposure to environmentally relevant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners and concentrations) resulted in the immunomodulation of nestling American kestrels

  8. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  9. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  10. Quantifying Relevance of Mobile Digital Evidence As They Relate to Case Types: A Survey and a Guide for Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Saleem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a survey was conducted to help quantify the relevance of nineteen types of evidence (such as SMS to seven types of digital investigations associated with mobile devices (MD (such as child pornography. 97 % of the respondents agreed that every type of digital evidence has a different level of relevance to further or solve a particular investigation. From 55 serious participants, a data set of 5,772 responses regarding the relevance of nineteen types of digital evidence for all the seven types of digital investigations was obtained. The results showed that (i SMS belongs to the most relevant type of digital evidence for all the seven types of investigations, (ii MMS belongs to the most relevant type of digital evidence for all the types of digital investigations except espionage and eavesdropping where it is the second most relevant type of digital evidence, (iii Phonebook and Contacts is the most relevant type of digital evidence for all types of digital investigations except child pornography, (iv Audio Calls is the most relevant type of digital evidence for all types of digital investigations except credit card fraud and child pornography and (v Standalone Files are the least relevant type of digital evidence for most of the digital investigations. The size of the response data set was fairly reasonable to analyze and then define; by generalization, relevance based best practices for mobile device forensics, which can supplement any forensics process model, including digital triage. For the reliability of these best practices, the impact of responses from the participants with more than five years of experience was analyzed by using one hundred and thirty three (133 instances of One-Way ANOVA tests. The results of this research can help investigators concentrate on the relevant types of digital evidence when investigating a specific case, consequently saving time and effort.

  11. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim -3 (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate

  12. Optical assessment of nonimaging concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinger, A; Kribus, A; Ries, H; Smith, T; Walther, M

    2000-11-01

    An optical measurement method for nonimaging radiation concentrators is proposed. A Lambertian light source is placed in the exit aperture of the concentrator. Looking into the concentrator's entrance aperture from a remote position, one can photograph the transmission patterns. The patterns show the transmission of radiation through the concentrator with the full resolution of the four-dimensional phase space of geometric optics. By matching ray-tracing simulations to the measurement, one can achieve detailed and accurate information about the geometry of the concentrator. This is a remote, noncontact measurement and can be performed in situ for installed concentrators. Additional information regarding small-scale reflector waviness and surface reflectivity can also be obtained from the same measurement with additional analysis.

  13. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Kalf DF; Polder MD; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) derived for a series of pesticides are presented in this report. These MPCs and NCs are used by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to set Environmental Quality Objectives. For some of the

  14. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  15. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  16. Factors affecting the concentration of outdoor particles indoors: Existing data and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Thatcher, T.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Sohn, M.D.; Delp, W.W.; Riley, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate characterization of particle concentrations indoors is critical to exposure assessments. It is estimated that indoor particle concentrations depend strongly on outdoor concentrations. For health scientists, knowledge of the factors that control the relationship of indoor particle concentrations to outdoor levels is particularly important. In this paper, we identify and evaluate sources of data for those factors that affect the transport to and concentration of outdoor particles indoors. To achieve this goal, we (i) identify and assemble relevant information on how particle behavior during air leakage, HVAC operation, and particle filtration effects indoor particle concentration; (ii) review and evaluate the assembled information to distinguish data that are directly relevant to specific estimates of particle transport from those that are only indirectly useful; and (iii) provide a synthesis of the currently available information on building air-leakage parameters and their effect on indoor particle matter concentrations

  17. An ERP Study on Self-Relevant Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nomura, Michio; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We performed an event-related potential study to investigate the self-relevance effect in object recognition. Three stimulus categories were prepared: SELF (participant's own objects), FAMILIAR (disposable and public objects, defined as objects with less-self-relevant familiarity), and UNFAMILIAR (others' objects). The participants' task was to…

  18. Rocchio-based relevance feedback in video event retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pingen, G.L.J.; de Boer, M.H.T.; Aly, Robin; Amsaleg, Laurent; Guðmundsson, Gylfi Þór; Gurrin, Cathal; Jónsson, Björn Þór; Satoh, Shin’ichi

    This paper investigates methods for user and pseudo relevance feedback in video event retrieval. Existing feedback methods achieve strong performance but adjust the ranking based on few individual examples. We propose a relevance feedback algorithm (ARF) derived from the Rocchio method, which is a

  19. The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Combat Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the complete...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11081 TITLE: The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Combat Medicine...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 25-1 The Relevance of Hyperbaric Oxygen to

  20. On Reading Comprehension Teaching for English Majors under Relevance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Relevance Theory from the perspective of cognitive psychology argues that human communication is an ostensive-inferential process, and emphasizes the function of the optimal relevance for communication. In this sense, reading comprehension could be considered as a kind of communication in which the writer manifests his/her communication intention…

  1. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  2. Examining Hip-Hop as Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Pulido, Isaura

    2015-01-01

    Culturally relevant pedagogy is a framework that conceptualizes the process of student learning as contingent upon educators' deep understanding of students' cultural backgrounds to co-construct knowledge and develop academic skills. Concurrently, there are a growing number of studies that explore hip-hop as a culturally relevant curriculum for…

  3. Making Learning Personally Meaningful: A New Framework for Relevance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priniski, Stacy J.; Hecht, Cameron A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2018-01-01

    Personal relevance goes by many names in the motivation literature, stemming from a number of theoretical frameworks. Currently these lines of research are being conducted in parallel with little synthesis across them, perhaps because there is no unifying definition of the relevance construct within which this research can be situated. In this…

  4. Practical Relevance of Experiments in Comprehensibility of Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) community has become increasingly aware of the importance of carrying out industry-relevant research. Researchers and practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of their empirical research to increase the likely adoption of RE methods in

  5. Clinical relevance of findings in trials of CBT for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepping, P.; Whittington, R.; Sambhi, R.S.; Lane, S.; Poole, R.; Leucht, S.; Cuijpers, P.; McCabe, R.; Waheed, W.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is beneficial in depression. Symptom scores can be translated into Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale scores to indicate clinical relevance. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance of findings of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT in depression. We

  6. Advancing the Relevance Criteria for Video Search and Visual Summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudinac, S.

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate finding of relevant information in ever-growing multimedia collections, a number of multimedia information retrieval solutions have been proposed over the past years. The essential element of any such solution is the relevance criterion deployed to select or rank the items from a

  7. Relevant test set using feature selection algorithm for early detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of feature selection is to find the most relevant features for classification. Thus, the dimensionality of the information will be reduced and may improve classification's accuracy. This paper proposed a minimum set of relevant questions that can be used for early detection of dyslexia. In this research, we ...

  8. Bringing Relevance to Elearning--A Gender Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann; Panteli, Niki

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the importance of relevance in the provision of eLearning for the pursuit of higher education (HE). In particular, we argue how the extant literature focuses on quality and security in the design of eLearning platforms, but pays scant attention to how relevant the platform and the programme contents are to the needs of…

  9. Constructing Contracts: Making Discrete Mathematics Relevant to Beginning Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegg-Harrison, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    Although computer scientists understand the importance of discrete mathematics to the foundations of their field, computer science (CS) students do not always see the relevance. Thus, it is important to find a way to show students its relevance. The concept of program correctness is generally taught as an activity independent of the programming…

  10. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  11. The Relevance Of Research And Development (R&D) Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relevance of Research and Development (R&D) programmes of Nigerian universities in national development. Data was collected form 432 senior academic staff of five selected universities in Nigeria. Indicators of relevance such as quality, results, dissemination, utilization and ...

  12. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  13. School concentration and school travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research as described in this Doctor’s thesis is twofold. Firstly it is to define in how far Dutch facilities for primary and secondary education were subjected to spatial concentration during recent decades. Secondly it is intended to assess what this concentration implied for

  14. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  15. Micro-evaporation electrolyte concentrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.H.; van Delft, K.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of miniaturized chemical analysis systems depends most of the time on the obtainable detection limit. Concentrating the analyte prior to the detection system can enhance the detection limit. In this writing an analyte concentrator is presented that makes use of evaporation to

  16. Radon concentration in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.; Veldhuizen, A.

    1986-02-01

    In 1000 dwellings, which can be assumed to be an reasonable representation of the average Dutch dwellings, time averaged radon concentrations, radon daughter concentrations and gamma-exposure tempi are determined during a year with passive dosemeters. They are also determined outdoor at circa 200 measure points. (Auth.)

  17. Causal and Epistemic Relevance in Appeals to Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Lommi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Appeals to authority have a long tradition in the history of argumentation theory. During the Middle Age they were considered legitimate and sound arguments, but after Locke’s treatment in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding their legitimacy has come under question. Traditionally, arguments from authority were considered informal arguments, but since the important work of Charles Hamblin (Hamblin, 1970 many attempts to provide a form for them have been done. The most convincing of them is the presumptive form developed by Douglas Walton and John Woods (Woods, Walton, 1974 that aims at taking into account the relevant contextual aspects in assessing the provisional validity of an appeal to authority. The soundness of an appeal depends on its meeting the adequacy conditions set to scrutinize all the relevant questions. I want to claim that this approach is compatible with the analysis of arguments in terms of relevance advanced by David Hitchcock (Hitchcock, 1992. He claims that relevance is a triadic relation between two items and a context. The first item is relevant to the second one in a given context. Different types of relevance relation exist, namely causal relevance and epistemic relevance. “Something is [causally] relevant to an outcome in a given situation if it helps to cause that outcome in the situation” (Hitchcock, 1992, p. 253, whereas it is epistemically relevant when it helps to achieve an epistemic goal in a given situation. I claim that we can adapt this conception to Walton and Krabbe’s theory of dialogue type (Walton, Krabbe, 1995, seeing the items of a relevance relation as the argument and its consequence and the context as the type of dialogue in which these arguments are advanced. According to this perspective, an argument from authority that meets the adequacy conditions has to be considered legitimate because it is an epistemically relevant relation. Therefore, my conclusion is that an analysis of appeals to

  18. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  19. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  20. Ideal flux field dielectric concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Botella, Angel

    2011-10-01

    The concept of the vector flux field was first introduced as a photometrical theory and later developed in the field of nonimaging optics; it has provided new perspectives in the design of concentrators, overcoming standard ray tracing techniques. The flux field method has shown that reflective concentrators with the geometry of the field lines achieve the theoretical limit of concentration. In this paper we study the role of surfaces orthogonal to the field vector J. For rotationally symmetric systems J is orthogonal to its curl, and then a family of surfaces orthogonal to the lines of J exists, which can be called the family of surfaces of constant pseudopotential. Using the concept of the flux tube, it is possible to demonstrate that refractive concentrators with the shape of these pseudopotential surfaces achieve the theoretical limit of concentration.

  1. Reflections on relevance: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Relevance of an article is a highly desirable yet hardly predictable quality at the time of its publication. Article relevance is frequently measured by the impact factor of the journal where the article is published. Furthermore, impact factor, citation index and citation analysis are used as a measure of research progress and scientific wealth of a nation. The wisdom and significance of this approach to relevance is debatable and thus discussed here. In 2004, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics published a variety of articles which, in the author's view, are clinically relevant. Several selected clinically relevant issues reviewed in this article include: the conceptualization of fibromyalgia as a stress disorder; the psychosocial impact and psychosocial interventions in cancer; the impact of alexithymia on patient care; the possible relationship between depression and nutrition (namely intake of folate and pyridoxal phosphate); the significance of hypercoagulability in panic-like anxiety; the questionable value of single isomer drugs, and the relevance and adequacy of clinimetrics versus psychometrics in clinical research. The reviewed issues seem to be relevant to clinical practice, research or both, but also to our critical thinking, and the critical review of the developments in psychiatry and psychology. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. [Widows of victims of Nazi concentration camps: their pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryn, Z J

    1992-09-01

    The psychosocial situation of widows and orphans of victims of the Nazi concentration camps in Poland are presented. In 1984, 74 widows of victims from the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp were interviewed. This article describes widows' emotional-behavioral reactions when facing the imprisonment and death of their husbands, their difficulties in adapting themselves to widowhood, different adaptative forms of memories of their married life, and consequences relevant to widows' mental health and family, and social consequences of widowhood.

  3. Independent effects of relevance and arousal on deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparos, Serge; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2017-08-01

    Emotional content can have either a deleterious or a beneficial impact on logicality. Using standard deductive-reasoning tasks, we tested the hypothesis that the interplay of two factors - personal relevance and arousal - determines the nature of the effect of emotional content on logicality. Arousal was assessed using measures of skin conductance. Personal relevance was manipulated by asking participants to reason about semantic contents linked to an emotional event that they had experienced or not. Findings showed that (1) personal relevance exerts a positive effect on logicality while arousal exerts a negative effect, and that (2) these effects are independent of each other.

  4. Popularity and Relevance of Science Education and Scientific Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Wolfgang; Blonder, Ron; Bolte, Claus

    2008-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from 8 European nations has successfully applied to the EU commission for funding the PARSEL (Popularity and Relevance in Science Education for Scientific Literacy) project, which aims at raising the popularity and relevance of science teaching and enhancing students...... of a range of personal and social skills (including cognitive skills associated with investigatory scientific problem solving and socio-scientific decision making) and clarify the relevancy of science education for the 21st century. This symposium will introduce and discuss the project PARSEL ideas within...

  5. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  6. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  7. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2017-07-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat grafting. Improvements in graft retention, the SVF to fat (SVF:fat) ratio, and the ASC concentration used for enrichment were emphasized. We proposed an increased retention rate greater than 1.5-fold relative to nonenriched grafts and a maximum SVF:fat ratio of 1:1 as the thresholds for clinical relevance and feasibility, respectively. Nine studies fulfilled these criteria, whereof 6 used ASCs for enrichment. We found no convincing evidence of a clinically relevant effect of SVF enrichment in humans. ASC enrichment has shown promising results in enhancing graft retention, but additional clinical trials are needed to substantiate this claim and also determine the optimal concentration of SVF cells/ASCs for enrichment. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Community Pharmacists' Perception of the Relevance of Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Community Pharmacists' Perception of the Relevance of. Drug Package Insert as Source of Drug Information in. Southwestern Nigeria. Kenechuckwu Diobi, Titilayo O Fakeye* and Rasaq Adisa. Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

  9. Relevance of few-nucleon problems to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divatia, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that the study of few-nucleon problems did not specifically start because they were relevant to nuclear power. However, as the need for power has become more urgent and the systems which may generate nuclear power in the future are likely to be highly complex, it has become necessary to examine the question of relevance of few-nucleon problems to nuclear power. The nuclear data needs for nuclear power have been studied exhaustively by many groups all over the world and The International Atomic Energy Agency, operating through the International Nuclear Data Committee and their Nuclear Data section, have compiled and evaluated these nuclear data needs. It is therefore possible to draw upon the various studies and compilations of the IAEA for examining the question of relevance. The relevant nuclear data needs for fission reactors, fusion reactors and nuclear safeguards programmes are examined. (Auth.)

  10. Silk-polypyrrole biocompatible actuator performance under biologically relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Jo'elen; Peterson, Ben; Murphy, Amanda; Leger, Janelle

    Biocompatible actuators that are capable of controlled movement and can function under biologically relevant conditions are of significant interest in biomedical fields. Previously, we have demonstrated that a composite material of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) can be formed into a bilayer device that can bend under applied voltage. Further, these silk-PPy composites can generate forces comparable to human muscle (>0.1 MPa) making them ideal candidates for interfacing with biological tissues. Here silk-PPy composite films are tested for performance under biologically relevant conditions including exposure to a complex protein serum and biologically relevant temperatures. Free-end bending actuation performance, current response, force generation and, mass degradation were investigated . Preliminary results show that when exposed to proteins and biologically relevant temperatures, these silk-PPy composites show minimal degradation and are able to generate forces and conduct currents comparable to devices tested under standard conditions. NSF.

  11. Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An Empirical ... to others through product, process, packaging and advertising modification(s). ... thus appropriate strategies for effective application of green marketing are lacking.

  12. The LAILAPS Search Engine: Relevance Ranking in Life Science Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.

  13. Value Relevance of Accounting Information in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Barzegari Khanagha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approaches, shows a decline in value relevance of accounting information after the reform in accounting standards. It could be interpreted to mean that following to IFRS in UAE didn’t improve value relevancy of accounting information. However, results based on and portfolio approach shows that cash flows’ incremental information content increased for the post-IFRS period.

  14. Dividend Is Relevant: A Restatement | Amadasu | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major recommendation is that dividend, priceearningsratio, retained earnings, return on capital employed andautonomous part assumed to be government, external, internal, andeconomic environment, should be coordinated through policy instruments forcorporate governance for dividend to have relevance.

  15. assessing the relevance of academic research productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DGS-FUTO

    2018-06-01

    Jun 1, 2018 ... research process relevant to their future development. ... value the opportunity to work with academics in a one- to- one relationship while ... professional researchers that are publicized in scholarly journals are perceived to be.

  16. Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of key biochemical markers relevant to stroke by Antiaris africana leaf extract following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Omotayo B. Ilesanmi, Afolabi C. Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M. Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A. Akindahunsi ...

  17. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  18. Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment. ... Futuristic ideas of young designers can become the first stage in solving these challenging tasks. ... the problems of a modern city: from space organization to leisure organization.

  19. A relevance theoretic approach to intertextuality in print advertising

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anonymous vs. acknowledged intertexts: A relevance theoretic approach to intertextuality in print advertising. ... make intertextual references to texts from mass media genres other than advertising as part of an ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Relevance of Corporate Governance in Nigerian Banks | Akinyomi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevance of Corporate Governance in Nigerian Banks. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Although corporate governance is of general interests to the Nigerian public, that of the banking industry is of particular interest ...

  1. OHB's Exploration Capabilities Overview Relevant to Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, A.; Gerth, I.; Rohrbeck, M.; Scheper, M.

    2018-04-01

    The presentation will give an overview to all the OHB past and current projects that are relevant to the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, including some valuable lessons learned applicable to the upcoming MSR mission.

  2. Hyperthermic radiosensitization : mode of action and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, HH; Dikomey, E

    Purpose: To provide an update on the recent knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of thermal radiosensitization and its possible relevance to thermoradiotherapy. Summary: Hyperthermia is probably the most potent cellular radiosensitizer known to date. Heat interacts with radiation and potentiates

  3. On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the Relevance of Game Theory in Strategic Thinking. ... The author reviews some of the applicable literature and shows how game theory can be used to predict the outcome of a strategy, explain why a ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Relevance of nanotechnology to Africa: synthesis, applications and safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, two nanotechnology-based applications relevant to Africa in promoting sustainability and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are presented. The applications comprise the provision of therapeutic treatment...

  5. Assessing the scientific relevance of a single publication over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp A. Bloching

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively assessing the scientific relevance of a research paper is challenging for two reasons. Firstly, scientific relevance may change over time, and secondly, it is unclear how to evaluate a recently published paper. The temporally averaged paper-specific impact factor is defined as the yearly average of citations to the paper until now including bonus citations equal to the journal impact factor in the publication year. This new measure subsequently allows relevance rankings and annual updates of all (i.e. both recent and older scientific papers of a department, or even a whole scientific field, on a more objective basis. It can also be used to assess both the average and overall time-dependent scientific relevance of researchers in a specific department or scientific field.

  6. Fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne; Lunde, Jens; Johansen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Hypofibrinogenaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but the optimal treatment level, the use of preemptive treatment and the preferred source of fibrinogen remain disputed. Fibrinogen concentrate is increasingly used and recommended for bleeding with acquired haemostatic...

  7. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency.

  8. Ultra Low Concentration Adsorption Equilibria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Buettner, Leonard C; LeVan, M. D; Schindler, Bryan J

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically this work focuses on novel experimental and modeling methods to characterize and predict at ultra-low chemical vapor concentrations the protection afforded by adsorption-based vapor filtration systems...

  9. Value-Relevance of Biological Assets under IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Rute Gonçalves; Patrícia Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Using 389 firm-year observations of listed firms worldwide in 27 countries that adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) until 2010, for the period 2011-2013, the purpose of this paper is to examine the value-relevance of fair value accounting of biological assets. In order to operationalize it as the book value’s ability to explain market equity value, this study adjusts the Ohlson model. The results support that recognized biological assets are value-relevant. After includ...

  10. Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES): Its Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    any analysis of AAFES’s relevance. This SRP reviews the statutes and regulations governing the organization, its evolution , its strategic missions...Finally, this project will offer recommendations and a concluding assessment of the relevancy of AAFES. Evolution of AAFES AAFES was launched in...well-kept lunch counter supplied with as great a variety of viands as circumstances permit, such as tea, coffee, cocoa , nonalcoholic drinks, soup, fish

  11. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  12. Thermodynamic efficiency of nonimaging concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of a nonimaging concentrator is to transfer maximal flux from the phase space of a source to that of a target. A concentrator's performance can be expressed relative to a thermodynamic reference. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics. We review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators, especially for the photovoltaic (PV) role. We introduce the concept of optical thermodynamic efficiency which is a performance metric combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of this new metric. In particular we discuss concentrating PV systems for solar power applications.

  13. Students' perceptions of the relevance of mathematics in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer; Mallet, Dann; Lupton, Mandy

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we report on the findings of an exploratory study into the experience of students as they learn first year engineering mathematics. Here we define engineering as the application of mathematics and sciences to the building and design of projects for the use of society [M. Kirschenman and B. Brenner, Education for Civil Engineering: A Profession of Practice, Leader. Manag. Eng. 10 (2010), p. 54]. Qualitative and quantitative data on students' views of the relevance of their mathematics study to their engineering studies and future careers in engineering was collected. The students described using a range of mathematics techniques (mathematics skills developed, mathematics concepts applied to engineering and skills developed relevant for engineering) for various usages (as a subject of study, a tool for other subjects or a tool for real world problems). We found a number of themes relating to the design of engineering mathematics curriculum emerged from the data. These included the relevance of mathematics within different engineering majors, the relevance of mathematics to future studies, the relevance of learning mathematical rigour and the effectiveness of problem-solving tasks in conveying the relevance of mathematics more effectively than other forms of assessment. We make recommendations for the design of engineering mathematics curriculum based on our findings.

  14. Consultation document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Karel, A.; La Bastide, G.; Giesbertz, P.; Buijs, F.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.

    2006-06-01

    This the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002). The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects [nl

  15. Clinical relevance of β₂-glycoprotein-I plasma levels in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies associated with thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. The antibodies mainly involved in this disorder are directed against β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). β2-GPI plasma level is usually not reported in studies on APS, because it is not regarded as relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of APS. Nevertheless its measurement may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. This review summarizes available data from the literature on plasma concentrations of β2-GPI in patients with different antibody profiles.

  16. Vision document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Giesbertz, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.; Te Velthuis, M.; Drahos, M.

    2006-11-01

    June 2006 the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002) was published. The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects. In this vision document all the relevant parties and stakeholders are informed about the development of energy markets in the Netherlands and abroad. Also an overview is given of the reactions from many stakeholders, involved and interested parties. [nl

  17. Low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and outcome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Rennie, J; Baker, B A; Morley, R

    1988-01-01

    A major association has been found between low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in preterm neonates and their later developmental outcome. Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was measured longitudinally in 280 preterm infants below 1850 g birth weight. Babies whose lowest recorded concentration was less than 0.3 nmol/l had, at 18 months' corrected age, 8.3 and 7.4 point disadvantages in Bayley mental and motor scales and a 8.6 point disadvantage on the academic scale of Developmental Profile II, even after adjusting for a range of antenatal and neonatal factors known to influence later development. Low concentrations of triiodothyronine were strongly associated with infant mortality, but not after adjusting for the presence of respiratory illness. There was no association between plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and somatic growth up to 18 months, and no association with necrotising enterocolitis or later cerebral palsy. Data on postnatal changes in plasma triiodothyronine concentrations are presented for reference purposes. While cited reference ranges for plasma triiodothyronine concentration appear suitable for well infants above 1500 g birth weight, smaller or ill babies often have very low values for many weeks. Our data are relevant to the debate on endocrine 'replacement' treatment in premature babies. PMID:2461683

  18. Toxicological risk assessment and prioritization of drinking water relevant contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baken, Kirsten A; Sjerps, Rosa M A; Schriks, Merijn; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2018-06-13

    Toxicological risk assessment of contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) in (sources of) drinking water is required to identify potential health risks and prioritize chemicals for abatement or monitoring. In such assessments, concentrations of chemicals in drinking water or sources are compared to either (i) health-based (statutory) drinking water guideline values, (ii) provisional guideline values based on recent toxicity data in absence of drinking water guidelines, or (iii) generic drinking water target values in absence of toxicity data. Here, we performed a toxicological risk assessment for 163 CEC that were selected as relevant for drinking water. This relevance was based on their presence in drinking water and/or groundwater and surface water sources in downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse, in combination with concentration levels and physicochemical properties. Statutory and provisional drinking water guideline values could be derived from publically available toxicological information for 142 of the CEC. Based on measured concentrations it was concluded that the majority of substances do not occur in concentrations which individually pose an appreciable human health risk. A health concern could however not be excluded for vinylchloride, trichloroethene, bromodichloromethane, aniline, phenol, 2-chlorobenzenamine, mevinphos, 1,4-dioxane, and nitrolotriacetic acid. For part of the selected substances, toxicological risk assessment for drinking water could not be performed since either toxicity data (hazard) or drinking water concentrations (exposure) were lacking. In absence of toxicity data, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach can be applied for screening level risk assessment. The toxicological information on the selected substances was used to evaluate whether drinking water target values based on existing TTC levels are sufficiently protective for drinking water relevant CEC. Generic drinking water target levels of 37 μg/L for

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant