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Sample records for releasing peptide grp

  1. Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of trout gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP in the unanesthetized trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Le Mével

    2013-07-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, a neuropeptide initially isolated from porcine stomach, shares sequence similarity with bombesin. GRP and its receptors are present in the brains and peripheral tissues of several species of teleost fish, but little is known about the ventilatory and cardiovascular effects of this peptide in these vertebrates. The goal of this study was to compare the central and peripheral actions of picomolar doses of trout GRP on ventilatory and cardiovascular variables in the unanesthetized rainbow trout. Compared to vehicle, intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of GRP (1–50 pmol significantly elevated the ventilation rate (ƒV and the ventilation amplitude (VAMP, and consequently the total ventilation (VTOT. The maximum hyperventilatory effect of GRP (VTOT: +225%, observed at a dose of 50 pmol, was mostly due to its stimulatory action on VAMP (+170% rather than ƒV (+20%. In addition, ICV GRP (50 pmol produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA (+35% and in heart rate (ƒH (+25%. Intra-arterial injections of GRP (5–100 pmol were without sustained effect on the ventilatory variables but produced sporadic and transient increases in ventilatory movement at doses of 50 and 100 pmol. At these doses, GRP elevated PDA by +20% but only the 50 pmol dose significantly increased HR (+15%. In conclusion, our study suggests that endogenous GRP within the brain of the trout may act as a potent neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the regulation of cardio-ventilatory functions. In the periphery, endogenous GRP may act as locally-acting and/or circulating neurohormone with an involvement in vasoregulatory mechanisms.

  2. Pre-clinical evaluation of eight DOTA coupled gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) ligands for in vivo targeting of receptor-expressing tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Antonella; Galli, Filippo; Mansi, Rosalba; Del Pozzo, Luigi; Aurilio, Michela; Morisco, Anna; Ringhieri, Paola; Signore, Alberto; Morelli, Giancarlo; Aloj, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) has been documented in several human neoplasms such as breast, prostate, and ovarian cancer. There is growing interest in developing radiolabeled peptide-based ligands toward these receptors for the purpose of in vivo imaging and radionuclide therapy of GRP-R-overexpressing tumors. A number of different peptide sequences, isotopes, and labeling methods have been proposed for this purpose. The aim of this work is to perform a direct side-by-side comparison of different GRP-R binding peptides utilizing a single labeling strategy to identify the most suitable peptide sequence. Solid-phase synthesis of eight derivatives (BN1-8) designed based on literature analysis was carried out. Peptides were coupled to the DOTA chelator through a PEG4 spacer at the N-terminus. Derivatives were characterized for serum stability, binding affinity on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, biodistribution in tumor-bearing mice, and gamma camera imaging at 1, 6, and 24 h after injection. Serum stability was quite variable among the different compounds with half-lives ranging from 16 to 400 min at 37 °C. All compounds tested showed K d values in the nanomolar range with the exception of BN3 that showed no binding. Biodistribution and imaging studies carried out for compounds BN1, BN4, BN7, and BN8 showed targeting of the GRP-R-positive tumors and the pancreas. The BN8 compound (DOTA-PEG-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-NMeGly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2) showed high affinity, the longest serum stability, and the highest target-to-background ratios in biodistribution and imaging experiments among the compounds tested. Our results indicate that the NMeGly for Gly substitution and the Sta-Leu substitution at the C-terminus confer high serum stability while maintaining high receptor affinity, resulting in biodistribution properties that outperform those of the other peptides.

  3. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides

  4. Gastrin-releasing peptide stimulates glycoconjugate release from feline trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, J.D.; Baraniuk, J.N.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Kaliner, M.A.; Shelhamer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) on respiratory glycoconjugate (RGC) secretion was investigated in a feline tracheal organ culture model. RGC secretion was stimulated by GRP in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M (range 15-38% increase above control) with a peak effect within 0.5-1 h of incubation. GRP-(14-27), the receptor binding portion of GRP, and the related molecule, bombesin, also stimulated RGC secretion by approximately 20% above control. Acetyl-GRP-(20-27) stimulated RGC release by 10%, whereas GRP-(1-16) was inactive. Autoradiographic studies with 125I-GRP revealed that specific binding was restricted to the submucosal glands and the surface epithelium. A specific radioimmunoassay showed the content of GRP in feline trachea after extraction with ethanol-acetic acid to be 156 +/- 91 fmol/g wet wt. Indirect immunohistochemistry indicated that ganglion cells located just outside the cartilage contained GRP-immunoreactive materials. GRP is a novel mucus secretagogue that may participate in regulating airway mucosal gland secretion

  5. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a transmitter mediating porcine gallbladder contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Birgit; Poulsen, S.S.; Schmidt, P.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) for porcine gallbladder motility. Immunohistochemistry visualized nerve fibers containing GRP-like immunoreactivity in muscularis. GRP concentration dependently stimulated contractions of muscularis strips (ED50, 2.9 nM). Neuromedin B was les......-like immunoreactivity. Thus two neural inputs were defined: a cholinergic rapid onset-rapid offset excitation and a delayed, slow onset-slow offset excitation caused by release and subsequent binding of GRP to GRP-preferring receptors....

  6. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide and Glucose Metabolism Following Pancreatitis.

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    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Drury, Marie; Walia, Monika; Korc, Murray; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-08-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a pluripotent peptide that has been implicated in both gastrointestinal inflammatory states and classical chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes. Abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) after pancreatitis, an exemplar inflammatory disease involving the gastrointestinal tract, is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones as well as cytokines. While GRP is involved in secretion of many of them, it is not known whether GRP has a role in AGM. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between GRP and AGM following pancreatitis. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure GRP, blood glucose, insulin, amylin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, cholecystokinin, gastric-inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin, ghrelin, glicentin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY), secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin-6. Modified Poisson regression analysis and linear regression analyses were conducted. Four statistical models were used to adjust for demographic, metabolic, and pancreatitis-related risk factors. A total of 83 individuals after an episode of pancreatitis were recruited. GRP was significantly associated with AGM, consistently in all four models (P -trend < 0.05), and fasting blood glucose contributed 17% to the variance of GRP. Further, GRP was significantly associated with glucagon (P < 0.003), MCP-1 (P < 0.025), and TNF-α (P < 0.025) - consistently in all four models. GRP was also significantly associated with PP and PYY in three models (P < 0.030 for both), and with GIP and glicentin in one model (P = 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Associations between GRP and other pancreatic and gut hormones were not significant. GRP is significantly increased in patients with AGM after pancreatitis and is associated with increased levels of pro

  7. Gastrin-releasing peptide induces monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium by upregulating endothelial adhesion molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Yeon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that plays roles in various pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory diseases in peripheral tissues; however, little is known about whether GRP can directly regulate endothelial inflammatory processes. In this study, we showed that GRP promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the aortic endothelium. GRP increased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in endothelial cells. In addition, GRP activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38MAPK, and AKT, and the inhibition of these signaling pathways significantly reduced GRP-induced monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Overall, our results suggested that GRP may cause endothelial dysfunction, which could be of particular relevance in the development of vascular inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • GRP induces adhesion of monocytes to vascular endothelium. • GRP increases the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules through the activation of NF-κB. • ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and Akt pathways are involved in the GRP-induced leukocyte adhesiveness to endothelium.

  8. Expression of gastrin-releasing peptide by excitatory interneurons in the mouse superficial dorsal horn.

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    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J

    2014-12-11

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor have been shown to play an important role in the sensation of itch. However, although GRP immunoreactivity has been detected in the spinal dorsal horn, there is debate about whether this originates from primary afferents or local excitatory interneurons. We therefore examined the relation of GRP immunoreactivity to that seen with antibodies that label primary afferent or excitatory interneuron terminals. We tested the specificity of the GRP antibody by preincubating with peptides with which it could potentially cross-react. We also examined tissue from a mouse line in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed under control of the GRP promoter. GRP immunoreactivity was seen in both primary afferent and non-primary glutamatergic axon terminals in the superficial dorsal horn. However, immunostaining was blocked by pre-incubation of the antibody with substance P, which is present at high levels in many nociceptive primary afferents. EGFP+ cells in the GRP-EGFP mouse did not express Pax2, and their axons contained the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), indicating that they are excitatory interneurons. In most cases, their axons were also GRP-immunoreactive. Multiple-labelling immunocytochemical studies indicated that these cells did not express either of the preprotachykinin peptides, and that they generally lacked protein kinase Cγ, which is expressed by a subset of the excitatory interneurons in this region. These results show that GRP is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory interneurons in laminae I-II that are likely to be involved in the itch pathway. They also suggest that the GRP immunoreactivity seen in primary afferents in previous studies may have resulted from cross-reaction of the GRP antibody with substance P or the closely related peptide neurokinin A.

  9. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...... electrical vagal stimulation was shown by gel filtration to consist of the same two forms. By use of immunocytochemical techniques employing an antiserum directed against its N terminus, GRP was localized to varicose nerve fibers in close association with the exocrine tissue of the porcine pancreas...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  10. Overexpression of pro-gastrin releasing peptide promotes the cell proliferation and progression in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Zhiyun; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Jiang, Minglei; Liu, Kai; Xiao, Ran; Shen, Jiabin; Wang, Yanchun; Guo, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) plays the role of oncogene in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we aim to explore the biological function of ProGRP in SCLC cells and its potential mechanism. Expression of ProGRP in SCLC tissues and cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. The transduced cell lines with ProGRP down-regulation were established using RNA interference technology. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated assay and the biomarker levels determination for cell supernatant were performed in the transduced cells to elucidate the biological functions and mechanisms of ProGRP in SCLC cells. Our data showed that ProGRP protein was demonstrated a higher level in SCLC tissues and cells compared with the control, and its diagnostic efficiency was better than NSE, further, the higher levels of ProGRP were detected in the patients with extensive disease stage (P < 0.05), were also the unfavorable factor to the prognosis of SCLC patients. Additionally, the concentration of serum ProGRP is a useful biomarker in disease-monitoring of the patients with SCLC. Down-regulation of ProGRP significantly reduced SCLC cell growth, repressed colony formation, but increased cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, repression of ProGRP also induced change in the cell cycle and output of NSE. Our data indicated that ProGRP serve as the useful biomarker in the management of SCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • ProGRP is overexpressed in the tissues and sera of the patients with SCLC. • Down-regulation of ProGRP inhibited cell proliferation. • Inhibition of ProGRP altered cell cycle distribution and triggers the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.

  11. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Andrew M; Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polg?r, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphoryla...

  12. Infusion of exogenous cholecystokinin-8, gastrin releasing peptide-29 and their combination reduce body weight in diet-induced obese male rats.

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    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control. In conclusion, CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination reduce BW in the DIO rat model. If infused near their gastrointestinal sites of action CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination may have a role in regulating BW. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass augments the feeding responses evoked by gastrin releasing peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Martha C.; Mhalhal, Thaer R.; Berger, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse Jose; Heath, John; Seeley, Randy; Sayegh, Ayman I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective method for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may reduce body weight by altering the feeding responses evoked by the short term satiety peptides. Materials and Methods Here, we measured meal size (MS, chow), intermeal interval (IMI) length and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS; food consumed per a unit of time) by the small and the large forms of gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) in rats, GRP-10 and GRP-29 (0, 0.1, 0.5 nmol/kg) infused in the celiac artery (CA, supplies stomach and upper duodenum) and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA, supplies small and large intestine) in a RYGB rat model. Results GRP-10 reduced MS, prolonged the IMI and increased the SR only in the RYGB group, whereas GRP-29 evoked these responses by both routes and in both groups. Conclusion The RYGB procedure augments the feeding responses evoked by exogenous GRP, possibly by decreasing total food intake, increasing latency to the first meal, decreasing number of meals or altering the sites of action regulating MS and IMI length by the two peptides. PMID:27884350

  14. Peptide imprinted receptors for the determination of the small cell lung cancer associated biomarker progastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qader, A. A.; Urraca, J.; Torsetnes, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide imprinted polymers were developed for detection of progastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP); a low abundant blood based biomarker for small cell lung cancer. The polymers targeted the proteotypic nona-peptide sequence NLLGLIEAK and were used for selective enrichment of the proteotypic peptide...... prior to LCMS based quantification. Peptide imprinted polymers with the best affinity characteristics were first identified from a 96-polymer combinatorial library. The effects of functional monomers, crosslinker, porogen, and template on adsorption capacity and selectivity for NLLGLIEAK were...

  15. Effects of Sex Steroids on the Spinal Gastrin-Releasing Peptide System Controlling Male Sexual Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Ito, Saya; Ueda, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ukimura, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2018-04-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence. In these Tg rats, the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP neurons controlling male sexual function were clearly labeled with Venus fluorescence. As expected, Venus fluorescence in the male lumbar cord was markedly decreased after castration and restored by chronic androgen replacement. Furthermore, androgen-induced Venus expression in the spinal cord of adult Tg males was significantly attenuated by chronic treatment with progesterone but not with estradiol. A luciferase assay using a human GRP-promoter construct showed that androgens enhance the spinal GRP system, and more strikingly, that progesterone acts to inhibit the GRP system via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that circulating androgens may play an important role in the spinal GRP system controlling male sexual function not only in rats but also in humans and that progesterone could be an important feminizing factor in the spinal GRP system in females during pubertal development.

  16. Physical exercise alleviates ER stress in obese humans through reduction in the expression and release of GRP78 chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Abdelkrim; Kavalakatt, Sina; Abubaker, Jehad; Cherian, Preethi; Madhu, Dhanya; Al-Khairi, Irina; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Warsame, Samia; Elkum, Naser; Dehbi, Mohammed; Tiss, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Perturbation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has emerged as one of the prominent features of obesity and diabetes. This occurs when the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) fails to restore ER function in key metabolic tissues. We previously reported increased inflammation and impaired heat shock response (HSR) in obese human subjects that were restored by physical exercise. Here, we investigated the status of ER stress chaperone; glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and its downstream UPR pathways in human obese, and their modulation by a supervised 3-month physical exercise. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and blood samples were collected from non-diabetic adult human lean (n=40) and obese (n=40, at baseline and after 3months of physical exercise). Transcriptomic profiling was used as a primary screen to identify differentially expressed genes and it was carried out on SAT samples using the UPR RT(2) Profiler PCR Array. Conventional RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot and ELISA were used to validate the transcriptomic data. Correlation analyses with the physical, clinical and biochemical outcomes were performed using Pearson's rank correlation coefficient. Levels of GRP78 and its three downstream UPR arms; activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) were increased in obese subjects. More interestingly, higher levels of circulating GRP78 protein were found in obese compared to lean subjects which correlated negatively with maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 Max) but positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and obesity indicators such as BMI, percentage body fat (PBF) and waist circumference. GRP78 increased secretion in obese was further confirmed in vitro using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells under ER stress. Finally, we showed that physical exercise significantly attenuated the expression and release of GRP78

  17. Glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter for gastrin releasing peptide-sensitive and insensitive itch-related synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jennifer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Itch sensation is one of the major sensory experiences of human and animals. Recent studies have proposed that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP is a key neurotransmitter for itch in spinal cord. However, no direct evidence is available to indicate that GRP actually mediate responses between primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn neurons. Here we performed integrative neurobiological experiments to test this question. We found that a small population of rat dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with increases in calcium signaling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that a part of superficial dorsal horn neurons responded to GRP application with the increase of action potential firing in adult rats and mice, and these dorsal horn neurons received exclusively primary afferent C-fiber inputs. On the other hands, few Aδ inputs receiving cells were found to be GRP positive. Finally, we found that evoked sensory responses between primary afferent C fibers and GRP positive superficial dorsal horn neurons are mediated by glutamate but not GRP. CNQX, a blocker of AMPA and kainate (KA receptors, completely inhibited evoked EPSCs, including in those Fos-GFP positive dorsal horn cells activated by itching. Our findings provide the direct evidence that glutamate is the principal excitatory transmitter between C fibers and GRP positive dorsal horn neurons. Our results will help to understand the neuronal mechanism of itch and aid future treatment for patients with pruritic disease.

  18. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastrin-releasing peptide signaling plays a limited and subtle role in amygdala physiology and aversive memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Chaperon

    Full Text Available Links between synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA and Pavlovian fear learning are well established. Neuropeptides including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP can modulate LA function. GRP increases inhibition in the LA and mice lacking the GRP receptor (GRPR KO show more pronounced and persistent fear after single-trial associative learning. Here, we confirmed these initial findings and examined whether they extrapolate to more aspects of amygdala physiology and to other forms of aversive associative learning. GRP application in brain slices from wildtype but not GRPR KO mice increased spontaneous inhibitory activity in LA pyramidal neurons. In amygdala slices from GRPR KO mice, GRP did not increase inhibitory activity. In comparison to wildtype, short- but not long-term plasticity was increased in the cortico-lateral amygdala (LA pathway of GRPR KO amygdala slices, whereas no changes were detected in the thalamo-LA pathway. In addition, GRPR KO mice showed enhanced fear evoked by single-trial conditioning and reduced spontaneous firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA. Altogether, these results are consistent with a potentially important modulatory role of GRP/GRPR signaling in the amygdala. However, administration of GRP or the GRPR antagonist (D-Phe(6, Leu-NHEt(13, des-Met(14-Bombesin (6-14 did not affect amygdala LTP in brain slices, nor did they affect the expression of conditioned fear following intra-amygdala administration. GRPR KO mice also failed to show differences in fear expression and extinction after multiple-trial fear conditioning, and there were no differences in conditioned taste aversion or gustatory neophobia. Collectively, our data indicate that GRP/GRPR signaling modulates amygdala physiology in a paradigm-specific fashion that likely is insufficient to generate therapeutic effects across amygdala-dependent disorders.

  20. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

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    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  1. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...

  2. Circulating levels of cholecystokinin and gastrin-releasing peptide in rainbow trout fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Elisabeth; Forsman, Antti; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg E; Egnér, Barbro; Ruohonen, Kari; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur

    2006-09-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are gastrointestinal peptides thought to be important regulators of intake and digestion of food in vertebrates. In this study, pre- and postprandial plasma levels of CCK and GRP were measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the establishment of homologous radioimmunoassays, and the hormonal levels assessed in relation to dietary lipid:protein ratio and food intake. Fish were acclimated to either a high protein/low lipid diet (HP/LL diet; 14.1% lipids) or a normal protein/high lipid diet (NP/HL diet; 31.4% lipids). On three consecutive sampling days, radio-dense lead-glass beads were included in the diets for assessment of feed intake. Fish were terminally sampled for blood and stomach contents prior to feeding at time 0, and at 0.3, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after feeding. There was a postprandial elevation of plasma CCK levels, which was most evident after 4 and 6 h. Fish fed the NP/HL diet had higher plasma CCK levels compared with those fed the HP/LL diet. Plasma CCK levels were not affected by the amount of food ingested. GRP levels in plasma were not influenced by sampling time, diet, or feed intake. The results indicate that the endocrine release of gastrointestinal CCK is increased during feeding and may be further influenced by the dietary lipid:protein ratio in rainbow trout. Plasma GRP levels, on the other hand, appear not to be influenced by feeding or diet composition.

  3. The 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78/BIP) is expressed on the cell membrane, is released into cell culture medium and is also present in human peripheral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, Andrea; Castelli, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    In human rabdomiosarcoma cells (TE671/RD) chronic exposure to 500 nM thapsigargin (a powerful inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases) resulted in the induction of the stress protein GRP78/BIP. Making use of the surface biotinylation method, followed by the isolation of the GRP78 using ATP-agarose affinity chromatography, it was found that a fraction of the thapsigargin-induced GRP78 is expressed on the cell surface. The presence of GRP78 on the membrane of thapsigargin-treated cells was confirmed by fractionation of cell lysates into a soluble and a membrane fraction, followed by Western blot analysis with an anti-GRP78 antibody. It was also found that conspicuous amounts of GRP78 are present in the culture medium collected from thapsigargin-treated cultures. This extracellular GRP78 originates mostly by an active release from intact cells and does not result solely from the leakage of proteins from dead cells. Moreover, small amounts of circulating, free GRP78 and naturally-occurring anti-GRP78 autoantibodies were detected in the peripheral circulation of healthy human individuals.

  4. Identification of the sexually dimorphic gastrin-releasing peptide system in the lumbosacral spinal cord that controls male reproductive function in the mouse and Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kei; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Hirooka, Asuka; Takanami, Keiko; Oti, Takumi; Jogahara, Takamichi; Oda, Sen-Ichi; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    Several regions of the brain and spinal cord control male reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system, located in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats, controls spinal centers to promote penile reflexes during male copulatory behavior. However, little information exists on the male-specific spinal GRP system in animals other than rats. The objective of this study was to examine the functional generality of the spinal GRP system in mammals using the Asian house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; suncus named as the laboratory strain), a specialized placental mammal model. Mice are also used for a representative model of small laboratory animals. We first isolated complementary DNA encoding GRP in suncus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that suncus preproGRP was clustered to an independent branch. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that GRP and its receptor mRNAs were both expressed in the lumbar spinal cord of suncus and mice. Immunohistochemistry for GRP demonstrated that the sexually dimorphic GRP system and male-specific expression/distribution patterns of GRP in the lumbosacral spinal cord in suncus are similar to those of mice. In suncus, we further found that most GRP-expressing neurons in males also express androgen receptors, suggesting that this male-dominant system in suncus is also androgen-dependent. Taken together, these results indicate that the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP system exists not only in mice but also in suncus, suggesting that this system is a conserved property in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1586-1598, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Stress affects a gastrin-releasing peptide system in the spinal cord that mediates sexual function: implications for psychogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Many men suffering from stress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, report sexual dysfunction, which is traditionally treated via psychological counseling. Recently, we identified a gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP system in the lumbar spinal cord that is a primary mediator for male reproductive functions.To ask whether an acute severe stress could alter the male specific GRP system, we used a single-prolonged stress (SPS, a putative rat model for PTSD in the present study. Exposure of SPS to male rats decreases both the local content and axonal distribution of GRP in the lower lumbar spinal cord and results in an attenuation of penile reflexes in vivo. Remarkably, pharmacological stimulation of GRP receptors restores penile reflexes in SPS-exposed males, and induces spontaneous ejaculation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, although the level of plasma testosterone is normal 7 days after SPS exposure, we found a significant decrease in the expression of androgen receptor protein in this spinal center.We conclude that the spinal GRP system appears to be a stress-vulnerable center for male reproductive functions, which may provide new insight into a clinical target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction triggered by stress and psychiatric disorders.

  6. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the central nervous system: role in brain function and as a drug target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eRoesler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides acting on specific cell membrane receptors of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily regulate a range of important aspects of nervous and neuroendocrine function. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP is a mammalian neuropeptide that binds to the GRP receptor (GRPR, BB2. Increasing evidence indicates that GRPR-mediated signaling in the central nervous system (CNS plays an important role in regulating brain function, including aspects related to emotional responses, social interaction, memory, and feeding behavior. In addition, some alterations in GRP or GRPR expression or function have been described in patients with neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders, as well as in brain tumors. Findings from preclinical models are consistent with the view that the GRPR might play a role in brain disorders, and raise the possibility that GRPR agonists might ameliorate cognitive and social deficits associated with neurological diseases, while antagonists may reduce anxiety and inhibit the growth of some types of brain cancer. Further preclinical and translational studies evaluating the potential therapeutic effects of GRPR ligands are warranted.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurone-specific enolase in the uterus of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, A; Sasaki, M; Budipitojo, T; Kitamura, N; Krause, W J; Yamada, J

    2005-08-01

    The present study has demonstrated the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE) in the uterus of the North American opossum. Although the presence of GRP, nNOS and NSE has been reported recently in the uterus of eutherian species this is the first description of these peptides in a metatherian species. Metatherian mammals are of interest because in these species it is the prolonged lactation phase of development that is the period of primary reproductive investment rather than intrauterine development as is true of eutherian mammals. The opossum, like other marsupial species, has a very abbreviated gestation period which in Didelphis lasts only 12.5 days. GRP was localized in the cytoplasm of cells forming the surface lining epithelium and the glandular epithelium of the opossum endometrium late in pregnancy, at 11.5 days of gestation. Likewise, immunoreactivities of nNOS and NSE were found primarily within the epithelial cells of the endometrium at 11.5 days of gestation. As these peptides and enzymes appear primarily at the time of establishment of the yolk sac placenta (between day 10 and day 12.5 gestation), the present results strongly suggest that these factors may play a fundamental role in the placentation of the opossum.

  8. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of heterobivalent peptidic radioligands targeting both GRP- and VPAC1-Receptors concomitantly overexpressed on various malignancies - Is the concept feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Simon; Fiedler, Luise; Wängler, Björn; Bartenstein, Peter; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Carmen

    2018-05-29

    Radiolabeled heterobivalent peptidic ligands (HBPLs), being able to address different receptors, are highly interesting tumor imaging agents as they can offer multiple advantages over monovalent peptide receptor ligands. However, few examples of radiolabeled HBPLs have been described so far. One promising approach is the combination of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)- and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor subtype 1 (VPAC 1 R)-targeting peptides into one single radioligand since gastrinomas, prostate and breast cancer have been shown to concomitantly or complementarily overexpress both receptors. Here we report the design and synthesis of different HBPLs, comprising a GRPR-binding (BBN 7-14 ) and a VPAC 1 R-targeting (PACAP-27) peptide. The heterodimers were varied with regard to the distance between the peptide binders and the steric rigidity of the systems. We radiolabeled the HBPLs 19-23 as well as their monomeric reference standards 26 and 27 with 68 Ga, achieving radiochemical yields and purities of 95-99% and non-optimized molar activities of 25-61 GBq/μmol. We tested the stability of the radioligands and further evaluated them in vitro regarding their uptake in different prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC-3, DU-145 and VCaP cells). We found that the heterobivalent substances [ 68 Ga]19 - [ 68 Ga]23 showed comparable uptakes into the tumor cells to those of the respective monomers [ 68 Ga]26 and [ 68 Ga]27, indicating that both peptides are still able to address their target receptors. Furthermore, the obtained results indicate that in case of overall low receptor densities, heterobivalent peptides surpass peptide monomers in tumor cell uptake. Most importantly, it could be shown by blocking studies that both peptide parts of the HBPL [ 68 Ga]19 contributed to tumor cell uptake in VCaP cells, expressing both receptor types. Thus, we describe here the first examples of HBPLs being able to address the GRPR as well as the VPAC 1 R and have the

  9. Corticotropin-releasing activity of gastrin-releasing peptide in normal men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Holst, J J; Knuhtsen, S

    1987-01-01

    than 0.0025). GRP dose-dependently stimulated beta-endorphin immunoreactivity compared with the effect of saline [delta beta-endorphin immunoreactivity before and after treatment: GRP I, 6 +/- 1 vs. -3 +/- 1 pmol/L (P less than 0.01); GRP II, 11 +/- 4 vs. -6 +/- 2 pg/mL (P less than 0.025)]. GRP had...

  10. GRP-R expression in breast cancer as target for nuclear imaging and therapy, correlation with ER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, S.U.; Melis, M.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Martens, J.W.M.; Jong, M. de

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease: several molecular characteristics reflect subtypes, partly overlapping with therapeutic targets. Examples include the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER), expressed in approximately 75 % of all breast cancer cases. Currently mammography, MRI, 99m Tc-Sestamibi scintigraphy, and 18 F-FDG PET are commonly used for diagnostic imaging to accurately localize BC. Since it has been reported that the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is expressed in BC, targeting this receptor with radiolabeled GRP analogues might offer opportunities for SPECT/CT or PET/CT imaging as well as radionuclide therapy in BC. In this study GRP-R expression was determined in human BC specimens and BC cell lines and correlated with ER status. Methods: GRP-R mRNA levels of 90 human breast cancer specimens, with known ER status (48 ER-positive and 42 ER-negative) were determined using qRT-PCR in a Taqman Gene expression assay. Furthermore a panel of 21 BC cell lines characterized for ER expression (13 ER-positive, 8 ER-negative) was analysed for GRP-R expression at the protein level. Internalisation studies were performed with 10-9 M 111 In-AMBA (an receptor-agonist GRP analogue) for 1 hour and 15 minutes at 37 C. degrees. Thirteen of these BC cell lines were also analyzed for GRP-R expression at mRNA level using qRT-PCR. Results: Clinical BC specimens with high GRP-R mRNA level were all ER-positive, resulting in a significant positive correlation (p=0.03). Fifty-two percent of the analyzed BC cell lines showed the ability to internalize 111 In-AMBA, although high variation between cell lines was observed. GRP-R mRNA levels of the BC cell lines significantly correlated with the internalisation rate (p=0.0003), indicating that the amount of internalized 111 In-AMBA is partly determined by the level of receptor expression. However, no correlation was found between ER status and GRP

  11. Bioactive peptides released during of digestion of processed milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the proteins contained in milk consist of alpha-s1-, alpha-s2-, beta- and kappa-casein, and some of the peptides contained in these caseins may impart health benefits. To determine if processing affected release of peptides, samples of raw (R), homogenized (H), homogenized and pasteurized (...

  12. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  13. Preparation and evaluation of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin for imaging gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Cortés, Jeanette; Pedraza-López, Martha; Ramírez-Iglesias, María Teresa

    2006-04-01

    Bombesin is a peptide that was initially isolated from frog skin and which belongs to a large group of neuropeptides with many biological functions. The human equivalent is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), whose receptors are over-expressed in a variety of malignant tumours. To prepare a HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin analogue that could be easily labelled with 99mTc from lyophilized kit formulations and to evaluate its potential as an imaging agent for GRP receptor-positive tumours. HYNIC was conjugated to the epsilon-amino group of Lys 3 residue at the N-terminal region of bombesin via succinimidyl-N-Boc-HYNIC at pH 9.0. 99mTc labelling was performed by addition of sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0 to a lyophilized formulation. Stability studies were carried out by reversed phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In-vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer PC-3 cells with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in PC-3 tumour-bearing nude mice. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin was obtained with radiochemical purities >93% and high specific activity ( approximately 0.1 GBq.nmol). Results of in-vitro studies demonstrated a high stability in serum and cysteine solutions, specific cell receptor binding and rapid internalization. Biodistribution data showed a rapid blood clearance, with predominantly renal excretion and specific binding towards GRP receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and PC-3 tumours. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin obtained from lyophilized kit formulations has promising characteristics for the diagnosis of malignant tumours that over-express the GRP receptor.

  14. Physiological function of gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin B receptors in regulating itch scratching behavior in the spinal cord of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devki D Sukhtankar

    Full Text Available Pruritus (itch is a severe side effect associated with the use of drugs as well as hepatic and hematological disorders. Previous studies in rodents suggest that bombesin receptor subtypes i.e. receptors for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRPr and neuromedin B (NMBr differentially regulate itch scratching. However, to what degree spinal GRPr and NMBr regulate scratching evoked by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides is not known. The first aim of this study was to pharmacologically compare the dose-response curves for scratching induced by intrathecally administered bombesin-related peptides versus morphine, which is known to elicit itch in humans. The second aim was to determine if spinal GRPr and NMBr selectively or generally mediate scratching behavior. Mice received intrathecal injection of bombesin (0.01-0.3 nmol, GRP (0.01-0.3 nmol, NMB (0.1-1 nmol or morphine (0.3-3 nmol and were observed for one hour for scratching activity. Bombesin elicited most profound scratching over one hour followed by GRP and NMB, whereas morphine failed to evoke scratching response indicating the insensitivity of mouse models to intrathecal opioid-induced itch. Intrathecal pretreatment with GRPr antagonist RC-3095 (0.03-0.1 nmol produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose response curve of GRP-induced scratching but not NMB-induced scratching. Similarly, PD168368 (1-3 nmol only attenuated NMB but not GRP-induced scratching. Individual or co-administration of RC-3095 and PD168368 failed to alter bombesin-evoked scratching. A higher dose of RC-3095 (0.3 nmol generally suppressed scratching induced by all three peptides but also compromised motor function in the rotarod test. Together, these data indicate that spinal GRPr and NMBr independently drive itch neurotransmission in mice and may not mediate bombesin-induced scratching. GRPr antagonists at functionally receptor-selective doses only block spinal GRP-elicited scratching but the suppression of

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Alexa Fluor 680-Bombesin[7–14]NH2 Peptide Conjugate, a High-Affinity Fluorescent Probe with High Selectivity for the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Ma

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP receptors are overexpressed on several types of human cancer cells, including breast, prostate, small cell lung, and pancreatic cancers. Bombesin (BBN, a 14–amino acid peptide that is an analogue of human GRP, binds to GRP receptors with very high affinity and specificity. The aim of this study was to develop a new fluorescent probe based on BBN having high tumor uptake and optimal pharmacokinetics for specific targeting and optical imaging of human breast cancer tissue. In this study, solid-phase peptide synthesis was used to produce H2N-glycylglycylglycine-BBN[7–14]NH2 peptide with the following general sequence: H2N-G-G-G-Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH2. This conjugate was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by electrospray-ionization mass spectra. The fluorescent probe Alexa Fluor 680-G-G-G-BBN[7–14]NH2 conjugate was prepared by reaction of Alexa Fluor 680 succinimidyl ester to H2N-G-G-G-BBN[7–14]NH2 in dimethylformamide (DMF. In vitro competitive binding assays, using 125I-Tyr4-BBN as the radiolabeling gold standard, demonstrated an inhibitory concentration 50% value of 7.7 ± 1.4 nM in human T-47D breast cancer cells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy images of Alexa Fluor 680-G-G-G-BBN[7–14]NH2 in human T-47D breast cancer cells indicated specific uptake, internalization, and receptor blocking of the fluorescent bioprobe in vitro. In vivo investigations in SCID mice bearing xenografted T-47D breast cancer lesions demonstrated the ability of this new conjugate to specifically target tumor tissue with high selectivity and affinity.

  16. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  17. Mycobacteria attenuate nociceptive responses by formyl peptide receptor triggered opioid peptide release from neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Rittner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In inflammation, pain is regulated by a balance of pro- and analgesic mediators. Analgesic mediators include opioid peptides which are secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, leading to activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In humans, local opioids and opioid peptides significantly downregulate postoperative as well as arthritic pain. In rats, inflammatory pain is induced by intraplantar injection of heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum, a component of complete Freund's adjuvant. We hypothesized that mycobacterially derived formyl peptide receptor (FPR and/or toll like receptor (TLR agonists could activate neutrophils, leading to opioid peptide release and inhibition of inflammatory pain. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the paw were quantified (Hargreaves and Randall-Selitto methods, respectively. Withdrawal time to heat was decreased following systemic neutrophil depletion as well as local injection of opioid receptor antagonists or anti-opioid peptide (i.e. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin antibodies indicating an increase in pain. In vitro, opioid peptide release from human and rat neutrophils was measured by radioimmunoassay. Met-enkephalin release was triggered by Mycobacterium butyricum and formyl peptides but not by TLR-2 or TLR-4 agonists. Mycobacterium butyricum induced a rise in intracellular calcium as determined by FURA loading and calcium imaging. Opioid peptide release was blocked by intracellular calcium chelation as well as phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition. The FPR antagonists Boc-FLFLF and cyclosporine H reduced opioid peptide release in vitro and increased inflammatory pain in vivo while TLR 2/4 did not appear to be involved. In summary, mycobacteria activate FPR on neutrophils, resulting in tonic secretion of opioid peptides from neutrophils and in a decrease in inflammatory pain. Future therapeutic strategies may aim

  18. Plant proteases for bioactive peptides release: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazorra-Manzano, M A; Ramírez-Suarez, J C; Yada, R Y

    2017-04-10

    Proteins are a potential source of health-promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization, and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been the process most commonly used for bioactive peptide production. Most commercial enzymatic preparations frequently used are from animal (e.g., trypsin and pepsin) and microbial (e.g., Alcalase® and Neutrase®) sources. Although the use of plant proteases is still relatively limited to papain and bromelain from papaya and pineapple, respectively, the application of new plant proteases is increasing. This review presents the latest knowledge in the use and diversity of plant proteases for bioactive peptides release from food proteins including both available commercial plant proteases as well as new potential plant sources. Furthermore, the properties of peptides released by plant proteases and health benefits associated in the control of disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer are reviewed.

  19. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, V.; Popelová, A.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, J.; Maletínská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 2 (2016), R51-R58 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * obesity * GPR10 * anorexigenic * mice Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  20. Prolactin-releasing peptide: a new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Pražienková, Veronika; Popelová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 2 (2016), R51-R58 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * obesity * GPR10 * anorexigenic * mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  1. Peptide release, side-chain deprotection, work-up, and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Ljungberg; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    After having successfully synthesized a peptide, it has to be released from the solid support, unless it is being used for on-resin display. The linker and, in some cases, the cleavage mixture determine the C-terminal functionality of the released peptide. In most cases, the peptide is released w...

  2. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-targeted gadolinium oxide-based multifunctional nanoparticles for dual magnetic resonance/fluorescent molecular imaging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui DT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Danting Cui,1 Xiaodan Lu,1 Chenggong Yan,1 Xiang Liu,1 Meirong Hou,1 Qi Xia,2 Yikai Xu,1 Ruiyuan Liu2,3 1Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bombesin (BBN, an analog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, specifically binds to GRP receptors, which are overexpressed in human prostate cancer (PC. Here, we synthesized a BBN-modified gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 nanoprobe containing fluorescein (Gd2O3-5(6-carboxyfluorescein [FI]-polyethylene glycol [PEG]-BBN for targeted magnetic resonance (MR/optical dual-modality imaging of PC. The Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN nanoparticles exhibited a relatively uniform particle size with an average diameter of 52.3 nm and spherical morphology as depicted by transmission electron microscopy. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1 of Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN (r1 =4.23 mM–1s–1 is comparable to that of clinically used Magnevist (Gd-DTPA. Fluorescence microscopy and in vitro cellular MRI demonstrated GRP receptor-specific and enhanced cellular uptake of the Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN in PC-3 tumor cells. Moreover, Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN showed more remarkable contrast enhancement than the corresponding nontargeted Gd2O3-FI-PEG according to in vivo MRI and fluorescent imaging. Tumor immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated improved accumulation of the targeted nanoprobe in tumors. BBN-conjugated Gd2O3 may be a promising nanoplatform for simultaneous GRP receptor-targeted molecular cancer diagnosis and antitumor drug delivery in future clinical applications. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium oxide, bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, molecular imaging

  3. Early detection of response in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma by changes in serum concentrations of creatine kinase, neuron specific enolase, calcitonin, ACTH, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, E; Hansen, M; Urdal, P

    1988-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK-BB), neuron specific enolase (NSE), ACTH, calcitonin, serotonin and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) were measured in serum or plasma before and immediately after initiation of treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCC). Pretherapeutic elevated concentrations of CK...... stage patients and 71% in limited stage patients. Frequent initial monitoring of the substances showed an increase in the concentrations of pretherapeutic elevated CK-BB and NSE on day 1 or 2 followed by a sharp decrease within 1 week. These changes were correlated to objective clinical response...... determined within 4-8 weeks. The results indicate that serum CK-BB and NSE are potential markers for SCC at the time of diagnosis and that changes in the concentrations during the first course of cytostatic therapy are promising as biochemical tests for early detection of response to chemotherapy....

  4. Application of reaction type of C-peptide release test in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Duan Wenruo; He Juan; Lu Zhenfang

    2001-01-01

    The author is to confirm the effect of C-peptide release test and types of release reaction in appraisal of pancreas function of β-cell and selection of treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The serum C-peptide release test of 67 normal controls and 217 DM patients were determined by RIA, and the results were analyzed and compared. C-peptide release test can reflect the pancreas function of β-cell better, the peak of C-peptide ≥ 0.6 nmol/L after lunch can be the limit of whether to reduce the level of blood glucose only by oral drug. The authors should adjust the treatment through analyzing the type of C-peptide release reaction. C-peptide release test is very important in evaluating the pancreas function of β-cell, classifying the type of DM and selecting the treatment

  5. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin‐releasing peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Michelin Becker

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that the gastrin‐releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials–randomized, double‐blinded, and with more children–are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin‐releasing peptide in autism.

  6. Clinical value of Pro-GRP and T lymphocyte subpopulation for the assessment of immune functions of lung cancer patients after DC-CIK biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijie; Wang, Jing; Chang, Dandan; Lv, Dandan; Li, Haina; Zhang, Heping

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the aptness of assessing the levels of progastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP) in addition to the T lymphocyte subpopulation in lung cancer patients prior to and after therapy for determining immune function. A total of 45 patients with lung cancer were recruited and stratified in to a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and an SCLC group. Prior to and after treatment by combined biological therapy comprising chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy followed by three cycles of retransformation of autologous dendritic cells-cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK), the peripheral blood was assessed for populations of CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and regulatory T cells (Treg) by flow cytometry, and for the levels of pro-GRP, carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase and Cyfra 21-1. The results revealed that in NSCLC patients, CD8 + T lymphocytes and Treg populations were decreased, and that CD3 + and CD4 + T lymphocytes as well as the CD4 + /CD8 + ratio were increased after therapy; in SCLC patients, CD3 + , CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes were increased, while Treg cells were decreased after treatment compared with those at baseline. In each group, Pro-GRP was decreased compared with that prior to treatment, and in the SCLC group only, an obvious negative correlation was identified between Pro-GRP and the T lymphocyte subpopulation. Furthermore, a significant correlation between Pro-GRP and Tregs was identified in each group. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the immune function of the patients was improved after biological therapy. The results suggested a significant correlation between Pro-GRP and the T lymphocyte subpopulation in SCLC patients. Detection of Pro-GRP may assist the early clinical diagnosis of SCLC and may also be used to assess the immune regulatory function of patients along with the T lymphocyte subpopulation. Biological therapy with retransformed autologous DC-CIK was indicated to enhance the specific elimination

  7. Uniformity of Peptide Release Is Maintained by Methylation of Release Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Pierson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Termination of protein synthesis on the ribosome is catalyzed by release factors (RFs, which share a conserved glycine-glycine-glutamine (GGQ motif. The glutamine residue is methylated in vivo, but a mechanistic understanding of its contribution to hydrolysis is lacking. Here, we show that the modification, apart from increasing the overall rate of termination on all dipeptides, substantially increases the rate of peptide release on a subset of amino acids. In the presence of unmethylated RFs, we measure rates of hydrolysis that are exceptionally slow on proline and glycine residues and approximately two orders of magnitude faster in the presence of the methylated factors. Structures of 70S ribosomes bound to methylated RF1 and RF2 reveal that the glutamine side-chain methylation packs against 23S rRNA nucleotide 2451, stabilizing the GGQ motif and placing the side-chain amide of the glutamine toward tRNA. These data provide a framework for understanding how release factor modifications impact termination.

  8. Bioactive peptides released from in vitro digestion of human milk with or without pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Pasteurized donor human milk (HM) serves as the best alternative for breast-feeding when availability of mother's milk is limited. Pasteurization is also applied to mother's own milk for very low birth weight infants, who are vulnerable to microbial infection. Whether pasteurization affects protein digestibility and therefore modulates the profile of bioactive peptides released from HM proteins by gastrointestinal digestion, has not been examined to date. HM with and without pasteurization (62.5 °C for 30 min) were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, followed by peptidomic analysis to compare the formation of bioactive peptides. Some of the bioactive peptides, such as caseinophosphopeptide homologues, a possible opioid peptide (or propeptide), and an antibacterial peptide, were present in undigested HM and showed resistance to in vitro digestion, suggesting that these peptides are likely to exert their bioactivities in the gastrointestinal lumen, or be stably transported to target organs. In vitro digestion of HM released a large variety of bioactive peptides such as angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory peptides. Bioactive peptides were released largely in the same manner with and without pasteurization. Provision of pasteurized HM may be as beneficial as breast-feeding in terms of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides.

  9. Suppress flashover of GRP fire with water mist inside ISO 9705 Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water mist suppression tests for glass-reinforced polyester (GRP panels were conducted in ISO 9705 room. GRP panels covered part of the room and a wood crib fire was used as fire source to ignite GRP fire. A four-nozzle water mist suppression equipment was used inside test room on the time of flashover. Heat release rate of the combustion inside the room, room temperature, surface temperature of GRP panels, total heat flux to wall, ceiling and floor in specific positions were measured. Gas concentration of O2, CO, and CO2 was also measured in the corner of the room at two different levels. A thermal image video was used to record the suppression procedure inside room. Test results show that the water mist system is efficient in suppressing the flashover of GRP fire and cooling the room within short time.

  10. Lipidized prolactin-releasing peptide analogs: A new tool for obesity treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Pražienková, Veronika; Zemenová, Jana; Popelová, Andrea; Blechová, Miroslava; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl S2 (2016), S179-S180 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /34./ and International Peptide Symposium /8./. 04.09.2016-09.09.2016, Leipzig] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * food intake * obesity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Targeted imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys3]-bombesin: biokinetics and dosimetry in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Cuevas, Clara L; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Pichardo-Romero, Pablo A

    2008-08-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is overexpressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small-cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. Recently, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys]-bombesin (99mTc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-R binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99mTc-HYNIC-BN and the feasibility of using this radiopharmaceutical to image GRP-R in four early breast cancer patients and seven healthy women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min, and 24 h after 99mTc-HYNIC-BN administration. The same regions of interest were drawn around source organs on each time frame and regions of interest were converted to activity (conjugate view counting method). The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99mTc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. 99mTc-HYNIC-BN had a rapid blood clearance with mainly renal excretion. No statistically significant differences (P>0.05) in the radiation-absorbed doses among cancer patients and healthy women were observed. The average equivalent doses (n=11) were 24.8+/-8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3+/-1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5+/-4.0 mSv (breast), 2.0+/-0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6+/-0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2+/-0.2 mSv (ovaries), and 1.0+/-0.2 mSv (red marrow). The effective dose was 3.3+/-0.6 mSv. The images showed well-differentiated concentration of 99mTc-HYNIC-BN in cancer mammary tissue. All the absorbed doses were comparable with those known for most of the 99mTc studies. 99mTc-HYNIC-BN shows high tumor uptake in breasts with malignant tumors so it is a promising imaging radiopharmaceutical to target site-specific early breast cancer. The results obtained

  12. Ultrashort peptide nanogels release in situ generated silver manoparticles to combat emerging antimicrobial resistance strains

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud; Susapto, Hepi Hari; Arab, Wafaa Talat Abdullah; Sharip, Ainur; Sundaramurthi, Dhakshinamoorthy; Rauf, Sakandar; Hauser, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Nanogels made from self-assembling ultrashort peptides (3-6 amino acids in size) are promising biomaterials for various biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, regenerative medicine, microbiology and biosensing.We have developed silver-releasing peptide nanogels with promising wound care applications. The peptide nanogels allow a precise control of in situ syntesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using soley short UV radiation and no other chemical reducing agent. We propose these silver-releasing nanogels as excellent biomaterial to combat emerging antimicrobial resistant strains.

  13. Ultrashort peptide nanogels release in situ generated silver manoparticles to combat emerging antimicrobial resistance strains

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud

    2017-01-08

    Nanogels made from self-assembling ultrashort peptides (3-6 amino acids in size) are promising biomaterials for various biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, regenerative medicine, microbiology and biosensing.We have developed silver-releasing peptide nanogels with promising wound care applications. The peptide nanogels allow a precise control of in situ syntesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using soley short UV radiation and no other chemical reducing agent. We propose these silver-releasing nanogels as excellent biomaterial to combat emerging antimicrobial resistant strains.

  14. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides in young women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.

  15. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin-releasing peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michele Michelin; Bosa, Cleonice; Oliveira-Freitas, Vera Lorentz; Goldim, José Roberto; Ohlweiler, Lygia; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in three children with autistic spectrum disorder. Case series study with the intravenous administration of gastrin-releasing peptide in the dose of 160pmol/kg for four consecutive days. To evaluate the results, parental impressions the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale. Each child underwent a new peptide cycle after two weeks. The children were followed for four weeks after the end of the infusions. The gastrin-releasing peptide was well tolerated and no child had adverse effects. Two children had improved social interaction, with a slight improvement in joint attention and the interaction initiatives. Two showed reduction of stereotypes and improvement in verbal language. One child lost his compulsion to bathe, an effect that lasted two weeks after each infusion cycle. Average reduction in CARS score was 2.8 points. CGI was "minimally better" in two children and "much better" in one. This study suggests that the gastrin-releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials-randomized, double-blinded, and with more children-are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in autism. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin-releasing peptide,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Michelin Becker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in three children with autistic spectrum disorder. Methods: Case series study with the intravenous administration of gastrin-releasing peptide in the dose of 160 pmol/kg for four consecutive days. To evaluate the results, parental impressions the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale. Each child underwent a new peptide cycle after two weeks. The children were followed for four weeks after the end of the infusions. Results: The gastrin-releasing peptide was well tolerated and no child had adverse effects. Two children had improved social interaction, with a slight improvement in joint attention and the interaction initiatives. Two showed reduction of stereotypes and improvement in verbal language. One child lost his compulsion to bathe, an effect that lasted two weeks after each infusion cycle. Average reduction in CARS score was 2.8 points. CGI was "minimally better" in two children and "much better" in one. Conclusions: This study suggests that the gastrin-releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials-randomized, double-blinded, and with more children-are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in autism.

  17. Enhancing bioactive peptide release and identification using targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-06-01

    Milk proteins have been extensively studied for their ability to yield a range of bioactive peptides following enzymatic hydrolysis/digestion. However, many hurdles still exist regarding the widespread utilization of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides as health enhancing agents for humans. These mostly arise from the fact that most milk protein-derived bioactive peptides are not highly potent. In addition, they may be degraded during gastrointestinal digestion and/or have a low intestinal permeability. The targeted release of bioactive peptides during the enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of particularly potent bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Therefore, the development of milk protein hydrolysates capable of improving human health requires, in the first instance, optimized targeted release of specific bioactive peptides. The targeted hydrolysis of milk proteins has been aided by a range of in silico tools. These include peptide cutters and predictive modeling linking bioactivity to peptide structure [i.e., molecular docking, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR)], or hydrolysis parameters [design of experiments (DOE)]. Different targeted enzymatic release strategies employed during the generation of milk protein hydrolysates are reviewed herein and their limitations are outlined. In addition, specific examples are provided to demonstrate how in silico tools may help in the identification and discovery of potent milk protein-derived peptides. It is anticipated that the development of novel strategies employing a range of in silico tools may help in the generation of milk protein hydrolysates containing potent and bioavailable peptides, which in turn may be used to validate their health promoting effects in humans. Graphical abstract The targeted enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins may allow the generation of highly potent and bioavailable bioactive peptides.

  18. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, Dina; Wielen, van der Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis

  19. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis

  20. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  1. Genetic induction of the gastrin releasing peptide receptor on tumor cells for radiolabeled peptide binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raben, David; Stackhouse, Murray; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Mikheeva, Galeena; Khazaeli, M.B.; McLean, Stephanie; Kirkman, Richard; Krasnykh, Victor; Curiel, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To improve upon existing radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) approaches, we have devised a strategy to genetically induce high levels of new membrane-associated receptors on human cancer cells targetable by radiolabeled peptides. In this context, we report successful adenoviral-mediated transduction of tumor cells to express the murine gastrin releasing peptide receptor (mGRPr) as demonstrated by 125 I-labeled bombesin binding. Materials and Methods: To demonstrate the feasibility of our strategy and to provide rapid proof of principle, we constructed a plasmid encoding the mGRPr gene. We cloned the mGRPr gene into the adenoviral shuttle vector pACMVpLpARS+ (F. Graham). We then utilized the methodology of adenovirus-polylysine-mediated transfection (AdpLmGRPr) to accomplish transient gene expression of mGRPr in two human cancer cell lines including A427 non-small cell lung cancer cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells. Murine GRPr expression was then measured by a live-cell binding assay using 125 I-labeled bombesin. In order to develop this strategy further, it was necessary to construct a vector that would be more efficient for in vivo transduction. In this regard, we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector (AdCMVGRPr) encoding the mGRPr under the control of the CMV promoter based on in vivo homologous recombination methods. The recombinant shuttle vector containing mGRPr was co-transfected with the adenoviral rescue plasmid pJM17 into the E1A trans complementing cell line 293 allowing for derivation of replication-incompetent, recombinant adenoviral vector. Individual plaques were isolated and subjected to two further rounds of plaque purification. The identity of the virus was confirmed at each step by PCR employing primers for mGRPr. The absence of wild-type adenovirus was confirmed by PCR using primers to the adenoviral E1A gene. SKOV3.ip1 human ovarian cancer cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were transduced in vitro with AdCMVGRPr at

  2. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters

  4. Peptides reproducibly released by in vivo digestion of beef meat and trout flesh in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchart, Caroline; Morzel, Martine; Chambon, Christophe; Mirand, Philippe Patureau; Reynès, Christelle; Buffière, Caroline; Rémond, Didier

    2007-12-01

    Characterisation and identification of peptides (800 to 5000 Da) generated by intestinal digestion of fish or meat were performed using MS analyses (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray-ionisation ion trap MS/MS). Four pigs fitted with cannulas at the duodenum and jejunum received a meal exclusively made of cooked Pectoralis profundus beef meat or cooked trout fillets. A protein-free meal, made of free amino acids, starch and fat, was used to identify peptides of endogenous origin. Peptides reproducibly detected in digesta (i.e. from at least three pigs) were evidenced predominantly in the first 3 h after the meal. In the duodenum, most of the fish- and meat-derived peptides were characteristic of a peptic digestion. In the jejunum, the majority of peptides appeared to result from digestion by chymotrypsin and trypsin. Despite slight differences in gastric emptying kinetics and overall peptide production, possibly in relation to food structure and texture, six and four similar peptides were released after ingestion of fish or meat in the duodenum and jejunum. A total of twenty-six different peptides were identified in digesta. All were fragments of major structural (actin, myosin) or sarcoplasmic (creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) muscle proteins. Peptides were short ( digestion, some of them can be reproducibly observed in intestinal digesta.

  5. Release of peptides from Fibrinogen in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weibel, S.

    1986-01-01

    The dissertation deals experimentally with the following problem fields: The attempt was made to obtain extremely pure, native peptides from fibrinogen with micropreparation with the help of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC); a HPLC-pure antigen which could be labelled (DAT-FPA) was also to be produced and a HPLC-purified, labelled antigen (J 125 DAT-FPA) for the radioimmunoassay was to be prepared. By applying HPLC-purified FPA-material to immunise rabbits, a highly specific antibody against FPA was obtained, and the radioimmunoassay was decisively improved. Furthermore, a method with a high recovery rate specific for the A-peptides could be found. A procedure was developed which is able to separate the modifications from the plasma from one another and to prove them specifically in ng-quantities. This is the first time that the sensitive method of high-pressure liquid chromatography is used to observe the effects of the snake venom enzymes on fibrinogen over a period of 20 hrs. The kinetics of intravenously administered J 123 DAT-FPA and, in comparison, J 123 FPB β 15-42 in vivo in rabbits with the help of a scintiscanning method, was investigated and the distribution in the organism and the ways of elimination were determined. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Localization of receptors for bombesin-like peptides in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.W.; Getz, R.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Rosenstein, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    BN-like peptides and receptors are present in discrete areas of the mammalian brain. By radioimmunoassay, endogenous BN/GRP, neuromedin B, and ranatensin-like peptides are present in the rat brain. High-to-moderate concentrations of BN/GRP are present in the rat hypothalamus and thalamus, whereas moderate-to-high densities of neuromedin B and ranatensin-like peptides are present in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, as well as in the hypothalamus and thalamus. While the distribution of neuromedin B and ranatensin-like peptides appears similar, it is distinct from that of BN/GRP. When released from CNS neurons, these peptides may interact with receptors for BN-like peptides. BN, GRP, ranatensin, and neuromedin B inhibit specific [ 125 I-Tyr4]BN binding with high affinity. By use of in vitro autoradiographic techniques to detect binding of [ 125 I-Tyr4]BN to receptors for BN-like peptides, high grain densities were found in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the central medial and paraventricular thalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala of the rat brain. Some of these receptors may be biologically active and mediate the biological effects of BN-like peptides. For example, when BN is directly injected into the nucleus accumbens, pronounced grooming results and the effects caused by BN are reversed by spantide and [D-Phe12]BN. Thus, the putative BN receptor antagonists may serve as useful agents to investigate the biological significance of BN-like peptides in the CNS

  7. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  8. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor imaging in human breast carcinoma versus immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wiele, Christophe Van; Phonteyne, Philippe; Pauwels, Patrick; Goethals, Ingeborg; Van den Broecke, Rudi; Cocquyt, Veronique; Dierckx, Rudi Andre

    This study reports on the uptake of (99m)Tc-RP527 by human breast carcinoma and its relationship to gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRIP-R) expression as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods: Nine patients referred because of a clinical diagnosis suggestive of breast carcinoma and 5

  9. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  10. Identification and Relative Quantification of Bioactive Peptides Sequentially Released during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion of Commercial Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufang; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2017-03-08

    Health-promoting effects of kefir may be partially caused by bioactive peptides. To evaluate their formation or degradation during gastrointestinal digestion, we monitored changes of the peptide profile in a model of (1) oral, (2) gastric, and (3) small intestinal digestion of kefir. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy analyses revealed clearly different profiles between digests 2/3 and kefir/digest 1. Subsequent ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified 92 peptides in total (25, 25, 43, and 30, partly overlapping in kefir and digests 1, 2, and 3, respectively), including 16 peptides with ascribed bioactivity. Relative quantification in scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mode showed that many bioactive peptides were released by simulated digestion. Most prominently, the concentration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor β-casein 203-209 increased approximately 10 000-fold after combined oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion. Thus, physiological digestive processes may promote bioactive peptide formation from proteins and oligopeptides in kefir. Furthermore, bioactive peptides present in certain compartments of the gastrointestinal tract may exert local physiological effects.

  11. Different growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide and GH-releasing hormone in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Dias, J C; Pimentel-Filho, F; Reis, A F; Lengyel, A M

    1996-04-01

    Altered GH responses to several pharmacological stimuli, including GHRH, have been found in hyperthyroidism. The mechanisms underlying these disturbances have not been fully elucidated. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) is a synthetic hexapeptide that specifically stimulates GH release both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of action of GHRP-6 is unknown, but it probably acts by inhibiting the effects of somatostatin on GH release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GHRP-6 on GH secretion in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 9) and in control subjects (n = 9). Each subject received GHRP-6 (1 microg/kg, iv), GHRH (100 microg, iv), and GHRP-6 plus GHRH on 3 separate days. GH peak values (mean +/- SE; micrograms per L) were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients compared to those in control subjects after GHRH alone (9.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 27.0 +/- 5.2) and GHRP-6 plus GHRH (22.5 +/- 3.5 vs. 83.7 +/- 15.2); a lack of the normal synergistic effect of the association of both peptides was observed in thyrotoxicosis. However, a similar GH response was seen in both groups after isolated GHRP-6 injection (31.9 +/- 5.7 vs. 23.2 +/- 3.9). In summary, we have shown that hyperthyroid patients have a normal GH response to GHRP-6 together with a blunted GH responsiveness to GHRH. Our data suggest that thyroid hormones modulate GH release induced by these two peptides in a differential way.

  12. Peptide Drug Release Behavior from Biodegradable Temperature-Responsive Injectable Hydrogels Exhibiting Irreversible Gelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Takata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the release behavior of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 from a biodegradable injectable polymer (IP hydrogel. This hydrogel shows temperature-responsive irreversible gelation due to the covalent bond formation through a thiol-ene reaction. In vitro sustained release of GLP-1 from an irreversible IP formulation (F(P1/D+PA40 was observed compared with a reversible (physical gelation IP formulation (F(P1. Moreover, pharmaceutically active levels of GLP-1 were maintained in blood after subcutaneous injection of the irreversible IP formulation into rats. This system should be useful for the minimally invasive sustained drug release of peptide drugs and other water-soluble bioactive reagents.

  13. Stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles for cancerous cells intracellular drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhangjing@zjut.edu.cn; Li, Mengfei [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Yuan, Zhefan [Zhejiang University, Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (China); Wu, Dan; Chen, Jia-da; Feng, Jie, E-mail: fengjie@zjut.edu.cn [Zhejiang University of Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-10-15

    A novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for cancerous cells intracellular drug release. Deca-lysine sequence (K{sub 10}), a type of cell-penetrating peptide, was synthesized and terminated with azido-glycine. Then a new kind of molecule, alkyne modified doxorubicin (DOX) connecting through disulfide bond (DOX-SS-alkyne), was synthesized. After coupling via Cu-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry reaction, reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug was obtained. Due to the amphiphilic property of the prodrug, it can assemble to form micelles. To prevent the nanocarriers from unspecific cellular uptake, the prodrug micelles were subsequently modified with 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride to obtain MPPM with a negatively charged outer shell. In vitro studies showed that MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would be activated by charge reversal of the micelles via hydrolysis of acid-labile β-carboxylic amides and regeneration of K{sub 10}, which enabled efficient internalization of MPPM by tumor cells as well as following glutathione- and protease-induced drug release inside the cancerous cells. Furthermore, since the guide peptide sequences can be accurately designed and synthesized, it can be easily changed for various functions, such as targeting peptide, apoptotic peptide, even aptamers, only need to be terminated with azido-glycine. This method can be used as a template for reduction-sensitive peptide-guided prodrug for cancer therapy.Graphical abstractA novel type of stepwise-activable multifunctional peptide-guided prodrug micelles (MPPM) was fabricated for selective drug delivery in cancerous cells. MPPM could be shielded from cells under psychological environment. However, when arriving at mild acidic tumor site, the cell-penetrating capacity of MPPM would

  14. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  15. Carboxylic Terminated Thermo-Responsive Copolymer Hydrogel and Improvement in Peptide Release Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Kun Rao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the release profile of peptide drugs, thermos-responsive triblock copolymer poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone-b-poly (ethylene glycol-b-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone (PECP was prepared and end capped by succinic anhydride to give its carboxylic terminated derivative. Both PCEP block copolymer and its end group modified derivative showed temperature-dependent reversible sol-gel transition in water. The carboxylic end group could significantly decrease the sol-gel transition temperature by nearly 10 °C and strengthen the gel due to enhanced intermolecular force among triblock copolymer chains. Furthermore, compared with the original PECP triblock copolymer, HOOC–PECP–COOH copolymer displayed a retarded and sustained release profile for leuprorelin acetate over one month while effectively avoiding the initial burst. The controlled release was believed to be related to the formation of conjugated copolymer-peptide pair by ionic interaction and enhanced solubility of drug molecules into the hydrophobic domains of the hydrogel. Therefore, carboxyl terminated HOOC–PECP–COOH hydrogel was a promising and well-exhibited sustained release carrier for peptide drugs with the advantage of being able to develop injectable formulation by simple mixing.

  16. Further studies on the structural requirements for mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide-mediated histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A; Price, J A

    2001-12-01

    Mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide was modified in its two disulfide bridges and in the two arginine residues in order to measure the ability of these analogs to induce histamine release from mast cells in vitro. Analogs prepared were [Ala(3,15)]MCD, [Ala(5,19)]MCD, [Orn(16)]MCD, and [Orn(7,16)]MCD. Their histamine-releasing activity was determined spectrofluorometrically with peritoneal mast cells. The monocyclic analogs in which the cysteine residues were replaced pairwise with alanine residues showed three-to ten-fold diminished histamine-releasing activity respectively, compared with the parent MCD peptide. Substantial increases in activity were observed where arginine residues were replaced by ornithines. The ornithine-mono substituted analog showed an almost six-fold increase and the ornithine-doubly substituted analog three-fold increase in histamine-releasing activity compared with the parent MCD peptide. The structural changes associated with these activities were followed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Changes in the shape and ellipticity of the CD spectra reflected a role for the disulfide bonds and the two arginine residues in the overall conformation and biological activity of the molecule.

  17. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van der Wielen, Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2016-06-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis for the current study was that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release from EECs is modulated by serotonin through a process involving serotonin receptor interaction. This was studied by assessing the effects of serotonin reuptake inhibition by fluoxetine on nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release from isolated pig intestinal segments. Next, serotonin-induced GLP-1 release was studied in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells, where effects of serotonin receptor inhibition were studied using specific and non-specific antagonists. Casein (1% w/v), safflower oil (3.35% w/v), sucrose (50mM) and rebaudioside A (12.5mM) stimulated GLP-1 release from intestinal segments, whereas casein only stimulated PYY and CCK release. Combining nutrients with fluoxetine further increased nutrient-induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin release from intestinal tissue segments was stimulated by casein and safflower oil while sucrose and rebaudioside A had no effect. The combination with fluoxetine (0.155μM) further enhanced casein and safflower oil induced-serotonin release. Exposure of ileal tissue segments to serotonin (30μM) stimulated GLP-1 release whereas it did not induce PYY and CCK release. Serotonin (30 and 100μM) also stimulated GLP-1 release from STC-1 cells, which was inhibited by the non-specific 5HT receptor antagonist asenapine (1 and 10μM). These data suggest that nutrient-induced GLP-1 release is modulated by serotonin through a receptor mediated process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Peptide profiling of bovine kefir reveals 236 unique peptides released from caseins during its production by starter culture or kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Aşçı Arslan, Ayşe; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Küçükçetin, Ahmet; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-03-18

    Kefir has a long tradition in human nutrition due to its presupposed health promoting effects. To investigate the potential contribution of bioactive peptides to the physiological effects of kefir, comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile was performed by nano-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS coupled to nano-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, 257 peptides were identified, mainly released from β-casein, followed by αS1-, κ-, and αS2-casein. Most (236) peptides were uniquely detected in kefir, but not in raw milk indicating that the fermentation step does not only increase the proteolytic activity 1.7- to 2.4-fold compared to unfermented milk, but also alters the composition of the peptide fraction. The influence of the microflora was determined by analyzing kefir produced from traditional kefir grains or commercial starter culture. Kefir from starter culture featured 230 peptide sequences and showed a significantly, 1.4-fold higher proteolytic activity than kefir from kefir grains with 127 peptides. A match of 97 peptides in both varieties indicates the presence of a typical kefir peptide profile that is not influenced by the individual composition of the microflora. Sixteen of the newly identified peptides were previously described as bioactive, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, antimicrobial, immunomodulating, opioid, mineral binding, antioxidant, and antithrombotic effects. The present study describes a comprehensive peptide profile of kefir comprising 257 sequences. The peptide list was used to identify 16 bioactive peptides with ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, mineral binding, antimicrobial, immunomodulating and opioid activity in kefir. Furthermore, it was shown that a majority of the kefir peptides were not endogenously present in the raw material milk, but were released from milk caseins by proteases of the microbiota and are therefore specific for the product. Consequently, the proteolytic activity and the

  19. Disturbed release of gastrointestinal peptides in anorexia nervosa and in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, B; Radzikowska, M; Wasilewska-Dziubinska, E; Roguski, K; Borowiec, M

    2000-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that some neuropeptides play an important role in the control of appetite and hormonal secretion. Several gastrointestinal peptides may affect on central control of appetite via vagal and spinal nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of gastrointestinal peptides in anorexia nervosa and in obesity, because in these diseases the disturbances in the control of appetite and hormonal secretion were found. Material consisted of 30 women with anorexia nervosa aged 16-29 years (mean 22 years) and 23 women with obesity aged 19-33 years (mean 29 years) and 25 lean women of control group. In women with anorexia nervosa as compared with control group we observed a significant increase of plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels (p anorexia nervosa. These findings suggests that dysfunction of brain-gut axis may be also an important factor in the abnormal control of appetite axcept of hypothalamic dysfunction.

  20. Metabolic and stress-related roles of prolactin-releasing peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Tatsushi; Takayanagi, Yuki; Leng, Gareth

    2010-05-01

    In the modern world, improvements in human health can be offset by unhealthy lifestyle factors, including the deleterious consequences of stress and obesity. For energy homeostasis, humoral factors and neural afferents from the gastrointestinal tract, in combination with long-term nutritional signals, communicate information to the brain to regulate energy intake and expenditure. Energy homeostasis and stress interact with each other, and stress affects both food intake and energy expenditure. Prolactin-releasing peptide, synthesized in discrete neuronal populations in the hypothalamus and brainstem, plays an important role in integrating these responses. This review describes how prolactin-releasing peptide neurons receive information concerning both internal metabolic states and environmental conditions, and play a key role in energy homeostasis and stress responses. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial and antiproliferative peptides in synbiotic yogurt-Release and stability during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2016-06-01

    The search for alternative therapeutics is on the rise due to the extensive increase in bacterial resistance to various conventional antibiotics and side effects of conventional cancer therapies. Bioactive peptides released from natural sources such as dairy foods by lactic acid bacteria have received attention as a potential source of biotherapeutic peptides. However, liberation of peptides in yogurt depends on proteolytic activities of the cultures used. Thus, this research was conducted to establish generation of inhibitory peptides in yogurt against pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells during storage at 4°C for 28d. Water-soluble crude peptide extracts were prepared by high-speed centrifugation of plain and probiotic yogurts supplemented with or without pineapple peel powder (PPP). The inhibition zones against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by PPP-fortified probiotic yogurt at 28d of storage were, respectively, 25.89 and 11.72mm in diameter, significantly higher than that of nonsupplemented control yogurts. Antiproliferative activity against HT29 colon cancer cells was also significantly higher in probiotic yogurt with PPP than in nonsupplemented probiotic yogurt. Overall, crude water-soluble peptide extracts of the probiotic yogurt with PPP possessed stronger inhibitory activities against bacteria and cancer cells than controls, and these activities were maintained during storage. However, activities were lowered substantially during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. These findings support the possibility of utilizing dairy-derived bioactive peptides in the development of a superior alternative to the current generation of antibacterial and anticancer agents, as well as a functional ingredient in foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovery of a novel target for the dysglycemic chromogranin A fragment pancreastatin: interaction with the chaperone GRP78 to influence metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima Biswas

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: The chromogranin A-derived peptide pancreastatin (PST is a dysglycemic, counter-regulatory peptide for insulin action, especially in liver. Although previous evidence for a PST binding protein has been reported, such a receptor has not been identified or sequenced. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used ligand affinity to purify the PST target, with biotinylated human PST (hCHGA273-301-amide as "bait" and mouse liver homogenate as "prey", and identified GRP78 (a.k.a. "78 kDa Glucose Regulated Protein", HSPA5, BIP as a major interacting partner of PST. GRP78 belongs to the family of heat shock proteins (chaperones, involved in several cellular processes including protein folding and glucose metabolism. We analyzed expression of GRP78 in the absence of PST in a mouse knockout model lacking its precursor CHGA: hepatic transcriptome data revealed global over-expression of not only GRP78 but also other heat shock transcripts (of the "adaptive UPR" in CHGA(-/- mice compared to wild-type (+/+. By contrast, we found a global decline in expression of hepatic pro-apoptotic transcripts in CHGA(-/- mice. GRP78's ATPase enzymatic activity was dose-dependently inhibited by PST (IC50∼5.2 µM. PST also inhibited the up-regulation of GRP78 expression during UPR activation (by tunicamycin in hepatocytes. PST inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes, and increased hepatic expression of G6Pase (the final step in gluconeogenesis/glycogenolysis. In hepatocytes not only PST but also other GRP78-ATPase inhibitors (VER-155008 or ADP increased G6Pase expression. GRP78 over-expression inhibited G6Pase expression in hepatocytes, with partial restoration by GRP78-ATPase inhibitors PST, VER-155008, or ADP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that an unexpected major hepatic target of PST is the adaptive UPR chaperone GRP78. PST not only binds to GRP78 (in pH-dependent fashion, but also inhibits GRP78's ATPase enzymatic activity, and impairs its biosynthetic

  3. Kinetics of immobilisation and release of tryptophan, riboflavin and peptides from whey protein microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Graham J; Egan, Thelma; Jacquier, Jean Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Dolores O'Riordan, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the kinetics of immobilisation and release of riboflavin, amino acids and peptides from whey microbeads. Blank whey microbeads were placed in solutions of the compounds. As the volume of microbeads added to the solution was increased, the uptake of the compounds increased, to a maximum of 95% for the pentapeptide and 56%, 57% and 45% for the dipeptide, riboflavin and tryptophan respectively, however, the rate of uptake remained constant. The rate of uptake increased with increasing molecule hydrophobicity. The opposite was observed in the release studies, the more hydrophobic compounds had lower release rate constants (kr). When whey microbeads are used as sorbents, they show excellent potential to immobilise small hydrophobic molecules and minimise subsequent diffusion, even in high moisture environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of CJC-1295, a growth-hormone-releasing peptide, in an unknown pharmaceutical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninge, John; Pepaj, Milaim; Hullstein, Ingunn; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several peptide drugs are being manufactured illicitly, and in some cases they are being made available to the public before entering or completing clinical trials. At the request of Norwegian police and customs authorities, unknown pharmaceutical preparations suspected to contain peptide drugs are regularly subjected to analysis. In 2009, an unknown pharmaceutical preparation was submitted for analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). The preparation was found to contain a 29 amino acid peptide with a C-terminal amide function. Based on the interpretation of mass spectrometric data, an amino acid sequence was proposed. The sequence is consistent with a peptide currently marketed under the name CJC-1295. CJC-1295 is a releasing factor for growth hormone and is therefore considered a Prohibited Substance under Section S2 of the WADA Prohibited List. This substance has potential performance-enhancing effects, it is readily available, and there is reason to believe that it is being used within the bodybuilding community. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saporito, M.S.; Warwick, R.O. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B decreased K + evoked 3 H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin, a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K + evoked 3 H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 μM) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K + evoked 3 H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 μM), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of 3 H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 μM) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on 3 H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of 3 H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit 3 H-5-HT uptake

  6. In Vivo Imaging of the Stability and Sustained Cargo Release of an Injectable Amphipathic Peptide-Based Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, Edith; Martin, Charlotte; Caveliers, Vicky; Madder, Annemieke; Van Mele, Bruno; Hoogenboom, Richard; Hernot, Sophie; Ballet, Steven

    2017-03-13

    Hydrogels are promising materials for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and controlled drug release. In the past two decades, the peptide hydrogel subclass has attracted an increasing level of interest from the scientific community because of its numerous advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and, most importantly, injectability. Here, we report on a hydrogel consisting of the amphipathic hexapeptide H-FEFQFK-NH 2 , which has previously shown promising in vivo properties in terms of releasing morphine. In this study, the release of a small molecule, a peptide, and a protein cargo as representatives of the three major drug classes is directly visualized by in vivo fluorescence and nuclear imaging. In addition, the in vivo stability of the peptide hydrogel system is investigated through the use of a radiolabeled hydrogelator sequence. Although it is shown that the hydrogel remains present for several days, the largest decrease in volume takes place within the first 12 h of subcutaneous injection, which is also the time frame wherein the cargos are released. Compared to the situation in which the cargos are injected in solution, a prolonged release profile is observed up to 12 h, showing the potential of our hydrogel system as a scaffold for controlled drug delivery. Importantly, this study elucidates the release mechanism of the peptide hydrogel system that seems to be based on erosion of the hydrogel providing a generally applicable controlled release platform for small molecule, peptide, and protein drugs.

  7. Functions of two distinct prolactin-releasing peptides evolved from a common ancestral gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya eTachibana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP is one of the RF-amide peptides and was originally identified in the bovine hypothalamus as a stimulator of prolactin (PRL release. Independently, another RF-amide peptide was found in Japanese crucian carp and named Carassius RFa (C-RFa, which shows high homology to PrRP and stimulates PRL secretion in teleost fish. Therefore, C-RFa has been recognized as fish PrRP. However, recent work has revealed that PrRP and C-RFa in non-mammalian vertebrates are encoded by separate genes originated through duplication of an ancestral gene. Indeed, both PrRP and C-RFa are suggested to exist in teleost, amphibian, reptile, and avian species. Therefore, we propose that non-mammalian PrRP (C-RFa be renamed PrRP2. Despite a common evolutionary origin, PrRP2 appears to be a physiological regulator of PRL, whereas this is not a consistent role for PrRP itself. Further work revealed that the biological functions of PrRP and PrRP2 are not limited solely to PRL release, because they are also neuromodulators of several hypothalamus-pituitary axes and are involved in some brain circuits related to the regulation of food intake, stress, and cardiovascular functions. However, these actions appear to be different among vertebrates. For example, central injection of PrRP inhibits feeding behavior in rodents and teleosts while it stimulates it in chicks. Therefore, both PrRP and PrRP2 have acquired diverse actions through evolution. In this review, we integrate the burgeoning information of structures, expression profiles, and multiple biological actions of PrRP in higher vertebrates, as well as those of PrRP2 in non-mammals.

  8. Release of PYY from pig intestinal mucosa; luminal and neural regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, S P; Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    1989-01-01

    in release of PYY into the circulation. Stimulation of the splanchnic nerves did not affect the basal release of PYY. PYY-immunoreactivity extracted from ileal tissue or released to plasma or perfusate from the ileum was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine PYY by gel filtration and reverse phase HPLC...... of PYY was observed in isolated perfused pig ileum in response to luminal stimulation with glucose and vascular administration of the neuropeptide gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve supply to the distal small intestine in intact anaesthetized pigs resulted...

  9. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...

  10. LIMIT STRESS SPLINE MODELS FOR GRP COMPOSITES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    INTRODUCTION. The strength of any material used in any design is very important in order to evaluate the performance index of a particular project. Plastics are polymers that are viscoelastic in nature, show time dependence response to applied stress (Creep), [1]. GRP mechanical properties are therefore affected by creep.

  11. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  12. Impact of human milk pasteurization on the kinetics of peptide release during in vitro dynamic term newborn digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deglaire, Amélie; De Oliveira, Samira C; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Emily, Mathieu; Ménard, Olivia; Bourlieu, Claire; Dupont, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Holder pasteurization (62.5°C, 30 min) ensures sanitary quality of donor's human milk but also denatures beneficial proteins. Understanding whether this further impacts the kinetics of peptide release during gastrointestinal digestion of human milk was the aim of the present paper. Mature raw (RHM) or pasteurized (PHM) human milk were digested (RHM, n = 2; PHM, n = 3) by an in vitro dynamic system (term stage). Label-free quantitative peptidomics was performed on milk and digesta (ten time points). Ascending hierarchical clustering was conducted on "Pasteurization × Digestion time" interaction coefficients. Preproteolysis occurred in human milk (159 unique peptides; RHM: 91, PHM: 151), mostly on β-casein (88% of the endogenous peptides). The predicted cleavage number increased with pasteurization, potentially through plasmin activation (plasmin cleavages: RHM, 53; PHM, 76). During digestion, eight clusters resumed 1054 peptides from RHM and PHM, originating for 49% of them from β-casein. For seven clusters (57% of peptides), the kinetics of peptide release differed between RHM and PHM. The parent protein was significantly linked to the clustering (p-value = 1.4 E-09), with β-casein and lactoferrin associated to clusters in an opposite manner. Pasteurization impacted selectively gastric and intestinal kinetics of peptide release in term newborns, which may have further nutritional consequences. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, Aurélien; Claustre, Jean; Caillon, Fabienne; Jourdan, Gérard; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2003-11-01

    Intestinal mucus is critically involved in the protection of the mucosa. An enzymatic casein hydrolysate and beta-casomorphin-7, a mu-opioid peptide generated in the intestine during bovine casein digestion, markedly induce mucus discharge. Because shorter mu-opioid peptides have been described, the effects of the opioid peptides in casein, beta-casomorphin-7, -6, -4, -4NH2 and -3, and of opioid neuropeptides met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and (D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,glycinol5)enkephalin (DAMGO) on intestinal mucus secretion were investigated. The experiments were conducted with isolated perfused rat jejunum. Mucus secretion under the influence of beta-casomorphins and opioid neuropeptides administered intraluminally or intra-arterially was evaluated using an ELISA for rat intestinal mucus. Luminal administration of beta-casomorphin-7 (1.2 x 10(-4) mol/L) provoked a mucus discharge (500% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone, a specific opiate receptor antagonist. Luminal beta-casomorphin-6, -4 and -4NH2 did not modify basal mucus secretion, whereas intra-arterial administration of beta-casomorphin-4 (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a mucus discharge. In contrast, intra-arterial administration of the nonopioid peptide beta-casomorphin-3 did not release mucus. Among the opioid neuropeptides, intra-arterial infusion of Met-enkephalin or dynorphin-A did not provoke mucus secretion. In contrast, beta-endorphin (1.2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a dose-dependent release of mucus (maximal response at 500% of controls). DAMGO (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L), a mu-receptor agonist, also evoked a potent mucus discharge. Our findings suggest that mu-opioid neuropeptides, as well as beta-casomorphins after absorption, modulate intestinal mucus discharge. Milk opioid-derived peptides may thus be involved in defense against noxious agents and could have dietary and health applications.

  14. The Pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2A prevents receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-08-03

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF(2(a))R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF(2(a))R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF(1)R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF(2(a))R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general.

  15. Short-term effects of beta-amyloid25-35 peptide aggregates on transmitter release in neuromuscular synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2008-03-01

    The beta-amyloid (AB) peptide25-35 contains the functional domain of the AB precursor protein that is both required for neurotrophic effects in normal neural tissues and is involved in the neurotoxic effects in Alzheimer disease. We demonstrated the presence of the amyloid precursor protein/AB peptide in intramuscular axons, presynaptic motor nerve terminals, terminal and myelinating Schwann cells, and the postsynaptic and subsarcolemmal region in the Levator auris longus muscle of adult rats by immunocytochemistry. Using intracellular recording, we investigated possible short-term functional effects of the AB fragment (0.1-10 micromol/L) on acetylcholine release in adult and newborn motor end plates. We found no change in evoked, spontaneous transmitter release or resting membrane potential of the muscle cells. A previous block of the presynaptic muscarinic receptor subtypes and a previous block or stimulation of protein kinase C revealed no masked effect of the peptide on the regulation of transmitter release. The aggregated form of AB peptide25-35, however, interfered acutely with acetylcholine release (quantal content reduction) when synaptic activity was maintained by electric stimulation. The possible relevance of this inhibition of neurotransmission by AB peptide25-35 to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer remains to be determined.

  16. Grp78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hongdan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78 is involved in the invasion and metastasis in many human cancers including gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer. But the role of Grp78 in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. In this article, we examined if Grp78 was associated with the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the possible underlying mechanism. Methods The Grp78 and FAK expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Grp78 overexpressing SMMC7721 cells were established by pcDNA3.1 (+-Grp78 transfection and screened by G418. Grp78 and FAK levels in Grp78 overexpressing cells were down-regulated by siRNA transfection. The invasion status of tumor cells was evaluated by transwell assay in vitro, and chick embryo metastasis model in vivo. Cell spreading was determined by cell spreading assay, and quantitatively measured by Orisis software HUG. Grp78, pY397 FAK, pY576/577 FAK and FAK levels were detected by western blot. RhoA activity was detected by GST pulldown assay. The distribution of actin cytoskeleton was observed by fluorescent staining. Results Grp78 expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were negatively correlated with tumor grading, and positively correlated with portal invasion and intra-hepatic invasion. Overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells promoted the invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and this increase in tumor cell invasion was blocked by Grp78 siRNA knockdown. Our results also revealed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells accelerated the process of cell spreading and promoted lamellipodia formation. Further analysis showed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells increased pY397 and pY576/577 levels of FAK. Grp78 siRNA knockdown decreased FAK activation and activity. Our results also revealed that Grp78 overexpression in SMMC7721 cells decreased

  17. Grp78 promotes the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Rongjian; Li, Zhen; Li, Hongdan; Song, Huijuan; Bao, Cuifen; Wei, Jia; Cheng, Liufang

    2010-01-01

    Glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78) is involved in the invasion and metastasis in many human cancers including gastric cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer. But the role of Grp78 in the invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported. In this article, we examined if Grp78 was associated with the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the possible underlying mechanism. The Grp78 and FAK expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were examined using immunohistochemistry. Grp78 overexpressing SMMC7721 cells were established by pcDNA3.1 (+)-Grp78 transfection and screened by G418. Grp78 and FAK levels in Grp78 overexpressing cells were down-regulated by siRNA transfection. The invasion status of tumor cells was evaluated by transwell assay in vitro, and chick embryo metastasis model in vivo. Cell spreading was determined by cell spreading assay, and quantitatively measured by Orisis software HUG. Grp78, pY397 FAK, pY576/577 FAK and FAK levels were detected by western blot. RhoA activity was detected by GST pulldown assay. The distribution of actin cytoskeleton was observed by fluorescent staining. Grp78 expression levels in 44 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were negatively correlated with tumor grading, and positively correlated with portal invasion and intra-hepatic invasion. Overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells promoted the invasion of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and this increase in tumor cell invasion was blocked by Grp78 siRNA knockdown. Our results also revealed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells accelerated the process of cell spreading and promoted lamellipodia formation. Further analysis showed that overexpression of Grp78 in SMMC7721 cells increased pY397 and pY576/577 levels of FAK. Grp78 siRNA knockdown decreased FAK activation and activity. Our results also revealed that Grp78 overexpression in SMMC7721 cells decreased RhoA-GTP level, and Grp78 siRNA knockdown rescued Rho

  18. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Delivery System for the Controlled Release of Antimicrobial Peptides: Citropin 1.1 and Temporin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Piotrowska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are prospective therapeutic options for treating multiple-strain infections. However, clinical and commercial development of AMPs has some limitations due to their limited stability, low bioavailability, and potential hemotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to develop new polymeric carriers as highly controlled release devices for amphibian peptides citropin 1.1 (CIT and temporin A (TEMP. The release rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs was strongly dependent on the API characteristics and the matrix microstructure. In the current work, we investigated the effect of the polymer microstructure on in vitro release kinetics of AMPs. Non-contact laser profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to determine the structural changes during matrix degradation. Moreover, geno- and cytotoxicity of the synthesized new carriers were evaluated. The in vitro release study of AMPs from the obtained non-toxic matrices shows that peptides were released with near-zero-order kinetics. The peptide “burst release” effect was not observed. New devices have reached the therapeutic concentration of AMPs within 24 h and maintained it for 28 days. Hence, our results suggest that these polymeric devices could be potentially used as therapeutic options for the treatment of local infections.

  20. Measurement of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Adenylation Domain Activity Using a Continuous Hydroxylamine Release Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Benjamin P; Wilson, Daniel J; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2016-01-01

    Adenylation is a crucial enzymatic process in the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) derived natural products. Adenylation domains are considered the gatekeepers of NRPSs since they select, activate, and load the carboxylic acid substrate onto a downstream peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain of the NRPS. We describe a coupled continuous kinetic assay for NRPS adenylation domains that substitutes the PCP domain with hydroxylamine as the acceptor molecule. The pyrophosphate released from the first-half reaction is then measured using a two-enzyme coupling system, which detects conversion of the chromogenic substrate 7-methylthioguanosine (MesG) to 7-methylthioguanine. From profiling substrate specificity of unknown or engineered adenylation domains to studying chemical inhibition of adenylating enzymes, this robust assay will be of widespread utility in the broad field NRPS enzymology.

  1. Corticotropin-releasing factor peptide antagonists: design, characterization and potential clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Jean E; Rivier, Catherine L

    2014-04-01

    Elusive for more than half a century, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was finally isolated and characterized in 1981 from ovine hypothalami and shortly thereafter, from rat brains. Thirty years later, much has been learned about the function and localization of CRF and related family members (Urocortins 1, 2 and 3) and their 2 receptors, CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) and CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2). Here, we report the stepwise development of peptide CRF agonists and antagonists, which led to the CRFR1 agonist Stressin1; the long-acting antagonists Astressin2-B which is specific for CRFR2; and Astressin B, which binds to both CRFR1 and CRFR2.This analog has potential for the treatment of CRF-dependent diseases in the periphery, such as irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enzymatic Release and Characterization of Novel Bioactive Peptides from Milk Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gobba, Cristian

    -inhibitory, antioxidant and antimicrobial peptides) released from milk proteins by mean of enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis. Goat milk fractions (produced using microfiltration membranes) and bovine casein were used as substrates. The goat milk fractions (retentate, permeate and skimmed milk) were hydrolysed with two...... commercial enzymes. The bovine casein was hydrolysed using the supernatant of a Greenlandic bacterium (Arsukibacterium ikkense), produced in the NOVENIA project, which contains cold-active proteolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates were tested for the relevant bioactivities and active fractions were fractionated...... protein hydrolysates made in other studies. Regarding radical scavenging activity, the bovine casein hydrolysates also showed a positive correlation between extent of hydrolysis and activity, although the difference between the unhydrolysed sample and the hydrolysates was less marked. The goat milk...

  3. Bioaccessible peptides released by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fermented goat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Jauregi, Paula; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Amigo, Lourdes; Miralles, Beatriz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed. Evaluation of the cleavage specificity suggested a lower proteolytic activity of the probiotic strain. Some of the potentially identified peptides had been previously reported as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial and might account for the in vitro activity previously reported for these fermented milks. Simulated digestion of the products was conducted in the presence of a dialysis membrane to retrieve the bioaccessible peptide fraction. Some sequences with reported physiological activity resisted digestion but were found in the non-dialyzable fraction. However, new forms released by digestion, such as the antioxidant α s1 -casein 144 YFYPQL 149 , the antihypertensive α s2 -casein 90 YQKFPQY 96 , and the antibacterial α s2 -casein 165 LKKISQ 170 , were found in the dialyzable fraction of both fermented milks. Moreover, in the fermented milk including the probiotic strain, the k-casein dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) 51 INNQFLPYPY 60 as well as additional ACE inhibitory or antioxidant sequences could be identified. With the aim of anticipating further biological outcomes, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was applied to the bioaccessible fragments and led to potential ACE inhibitory sequences being proposed. Graphical abstract Ultrafiltered goat milks were fermented with the classical starter bacteria (St) and with St plus the

  4. Anhydrous polymer-based coating with sustainable controlled release functionality for facile, efficacious impregnation, and delivery of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kaiyang; Saravanan, Rathi; Chong, Kelvin K L; Goh, Sharon H M; Chua, Ray R Y; Tambyah, Paul A; Chang, Matthew W; Kline, Kimberly A; Leong, Susanna S J

    2018-04-17

    Anhydrous polymers are actively explored as alternative materials to overcome limitations of conventional hydrogel-based antibacterial coating. However, the requirement for strong organic solvent in polymerization reactions often necessitates extra protection steps for encapsulation of target biomolecules, lowering encapsulation efficiency, and increasing process complexity. This study reports a novel coating strategy that allows direct solvation and encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides (HHC36) into anhydrous polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer-based dual layer coating. A thin 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) film is layered onto the peptide-impregnated PCL as a diffusion barrier, to modulate and enhance release kinetics. The impregnated peptides are eventually released in a controlled fashion. The use of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), as polymerization and solvation medium, induces the impregnated peptides to adopt highly stable turned conformation, conserving peptide integrity, and functionality during both encapsulation and subsequent release processes. The dual layer coating showed sustained antibacterial functionality, lasting for 14 days. In vivo assessment using an experimental mouse wounding model demonstrated good biocompatibility and significant antimicrobial efficacy of the coating under physiological conditions. The coating was translated onto silicone urinary catheters and showed promising antibacterial efficacy, even outperforming commercial silver-based Dover cather. This anhydrous polymer-based platform holds immense potential as an effective antibacterial coating to prevent clinical device-associated infections. The simplicity of the coating process enhances its industrial viability. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bio-fabrication and physiological self-release of tissue equivalents using smart peptide amphiphile templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Ricardo M; Hamley, Ian W; Connon, Che J

    2015-10-01

    In this study we applied a smart biomaterial formed from a self-assembling, multi-functional synthetic peptide amphiphile (PA) to coat substrates with various surface chemistries. The combination of PA coating and alignment-inducing functionalised substrates provided a template to instruct human corneal stromal fibroblasts to adhere, become aligned and then bio-fabricate a highly-ordered, multi-layered, three-dimensional tissue by depositing an aligned, native-like extracellular matrix. The newly-formed corneal tissue equivalent was subsequently able to eliminate the adhesive properties of the template and govern its own complete release via the action of endogenous proteases. Tissues recovered through this method were structurally stable, easily handled, and carrier-free. Furthermore, topographical and mechanical analysis by atomic force microscopy showed that tissue equivalents formed on the alignment-inducing PA template had highly-ordered, compact collagen deposition, with a two-fold higher elastic modulus compared to the less compact tissues produced on the non-alignment template, the PA-coated glass. We suggest that this technology represents a new paradigm in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, whereby all processes for the bio-fabrication and subsequent self-release of natural, bio-prosthetic human tissues depend solely on simple template-tissue feedback interactions.

  6. Bioactive peptides released from Saccharomyces cerevisiae under accelerated autolysis in a wine model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide-Hidalgo, J M; Pueyo, E; Polo, M C; Martínez-Rodríguez, A J

    2007-09-01

    The ACE inhibitory activity (IACE) and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC-FL) values of yeast peptides isolated from a model wine during accelerated autolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. Samples were taken at 6, 24, 48, 121, and 144 h of autolysis. Peptide concentration increased throughout autolysis process. Peptides were fractionated into 2 fractions: F1, constituted by hydrophilic peptides, and F2, containing hydrophobic peptides. Both IACE activity and ORAC-FL values increased during 121 h of autolysis, then decreased afterward. Peptide fraction F2 was the main fraction involved in IACE activity and ORAC-FL.

  7. Release of atrial natriuretic peptide from rat myocardium in vitro: effect of minoxidil-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, P.; Taskinen, T.; Leppäluoto, J.; Ruskoaho, H.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by stimulation of ventricular synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). To examine the role of ventricular ANP levels in the secretion of ANP into the circulation, atrial and ventricular levels of immunoreactive-ANP (IR-ANP) as well as ANP messenger RNA (mRNA), and the release of IR-ANP from isolated perfused hearts, both before and after atrialectomy, were measured simultaneously in control and minoxidil-treated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. 2. IR-ANP levels in the ventricles of untreated, 12 month-old SHR with severe ventricular hypertrophy were increased when compared to age-matched WKY rats. Minoxidil treatment for 8 weeks in both strains resulted in a decrease in mean arterial pressure and increases in ventricular weight to body weight ratios, plasma IR-ANP concentrations (in WKY from 133 +/- 20 to 281 +/- 34 pg ml-1, P less than 0.01; in SHR from 184 +/- 38 to 339 +/- 61 pg ml-1, P less than 0.05), and in ventricular IR-ANP contents (in WKY: 53%; in SHR: 41%). A highly significant correlation was found between ventricular IR-ANP content and ventricular weight to body weight ratio (r = 0.59, P less than 0.001, n = 26). 3. When studied in vitro, in isolated perfused heart preparations, the hypertrophied ventricular tissue after atrialectomy secreted more ANP into the perfusate than ventricles of the control hearts; ventricles contributed 28%, 22%, 18% and 15% of the total ANP release to perfusate in the minoxidil-treated SHR, control SHR, minoxidil-treated WKY and control WKY, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141796

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of ganglia in the rat stomach serosa, containing neurons immunoreactive for gastrin-releasing peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Ganglia, not previously described, were identified in the rat stomach serosa along the minor curvature. The ganglia consisted of varying number of cell bodies lying in clusters along or within nerve bundles. The ganglia were shown to contain GRP and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibers and cell bodies...

  9. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2018-03-01

    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides 5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Leu-enkephalin and delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) on endogenous noradrenaline release by rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhanets, V.V.; Anosov, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nonapeptide delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) causes specific changes in the encephalogram of recipient animals: It prolongs the phase of long-wave or delta sleep. The cellular mechanism of action of DSIP has not yet been explained. To test the hyporhesis that this peptide or its degradation product may be presynaptic regulators of catecholamine release, the action of Leu-enkephaline, DSIP, and amino acids composing DSIP on release of endogenous noradrenalin (NA) from synaptosomes during depolarization was compared. Subcellular fractions from cerebral hemisphere of noninbred male albino rats were isolated. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined in the suspension of synaptosomes before and after addition of 0.5% Triton X-100. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test

  11. Synthesis and in vitro anti-cancer evaluation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-conjugated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a decapeptide hormone released from the hypothalamus and shows high affinity binding to the LHRH receptors. It is reported that several cancer cells also express LHRH receptors such as breast, ovarian, prostatic, bladder and others. In this study, we linked B1, an anti-cancer peptide, to LHRH and its analogs to improve the activity against cancer cells with LHRH receptor. Biological evaluation revealed that TB1, the peptide contains triptorelin sequence, present favorable anti-cancer activity as well as plasma stability. Further investigations disclosed that TB1 trigger apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-cytochrome c-caspase apoptotic pathway, it also exhibited the anti-migratory effect on cancer cells.

  12. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological characterization of lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide with a modified C-terminal aromatic ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pražienková, Veronika; Tichá, Anežka; Blechová, Miroslava; Špolcová, Andrea; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2016), s. 121-128 ISSN 0867-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * blood-brain barrier * food intake * lipidization * phenylalanine derivatives Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.883, year: 2016 http://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/02_16/articles/11_article.html

  14. Reduction of free fatty acids by acipimox enhances the growth hormone (GH) responses to GH-releasing peptide 2 in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, HEC; de Vries, WR; Niesink, M; Bolscher, E; Waasdorp, EJ; Dieguez, C; Casanueva, FF; Koppeschaar, HPF

    2000-01-01

    GH release is increased by reducing circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). Aging is associated with decreased plasma GH concentrations. We evaluated GH releasing capacity in nine healthy elderly men after administration of GH-releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2), with or without pretreatment with the

  15. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) promotes EMT, growth, and invasion in canine prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafae, Said M; Hassan, Bardes B; Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Camiener, Rachael Y; Ding, Haiming; Tweedle, Michael F; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is upregulated in early and late-stage human prostate cancer (PCa) and other solid tumors of the mammary gland, lung, head and neck, colon, uterus, ovary, and kidney. However, little is known about its role in prostate cancer. This study examined the effects of a heterologous GRPr agonist, bombesin (BBN), on growth, motility, morphology, gene expression, and tumor phenotype of an osteoblastic canine prostate cancer cell line (Ace-1) in vitro and in vivo. The Ace-1 cells were stably transfected with the human GRPr and tumor cells were grown in vitro and as subcutaneous and intratibial tumors in nude mice. The effect of BBN was measured on cell proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth (using bioluminescence), tumor cell morphology, bone tumor phenotype, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR). GRPr mRNA expression was measured in primary canine prostate cancers and normal prostate glands. Bombesin (BBN) increased tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth and invasion in vivo. BBN upregulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (TWIST, SNAIL, and SLUG mRNA) and downregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA), and modified tumor cell morphology to a spindle cell phenotype. Blockade of GRPr upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated VIMENTIN and SNAIL mRNA. BBN altered the in vivo tumor phenotype in bone from an osteoblastic to osteolytic phenotype. Primary canine prostate cancers had increased GRPr mRNA expression compared to normal prostates. These data demonstrated that the GRPr is important in prostate cancer growth and progression and targeting GRPr may be a promising strategy for treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate 76:796-809, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Common and divergent structural features of a series of corticotropin releasing factor-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Perrin, Marilyn H; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Vale, Wylie W; Rivier, Jean E; Riek, Roland

    2007-12-26

    Members of the corticoliberin family include the corticotropin releasing factors (CRFs), sauvagine, the urotensins, and urocortin 1 (Ucn1), which bind to both the CRF receptors CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and the urocortins 2 (Ucn2) and 3 (Ucn3), which are selective agonists of CRF-R2. Structure activity relationship studies led to several potent and long-acting analogues with selective binding to either one of the receptors. NMR structures of six ligands of this family (the antagonists astressin B and astressin2-B, the agonists stressin1, and the natural ligands human Ucn1, Ucn2, and Ucn3) were determined in DMSO. These six peptides show differences in binding affinities, receptor-selectivity, and NMR structure. Overall, their backbones are alpha-helical, with a small kink or a turn around residues 25-27, resulting in a helix-loop-helix motif. The C-terminal helices are of amphipathic nature, whereas the N-terminal helices vary in their amphipathicity. The C-terminal helices thereby assume a conformation very similar to that of astressin bound to the ECD1 of CRF-R2 recently reported by our group.1 On the basis of an analysis of the observed 3D structures and relative potencies of [Ala]-substituted analogues, it is proposed that both helices could play a crucial role in receptor binding and selectivity. In conclusion, the C-terminal helices may interact along their hydrophobic faces with the ECD1, whereas the entire N-terminal helical surface may be involved in receptor activation. On the basis of the common and divergent features observed in the 3D structures of these ligands, multiple binding models are proposed that may explain their plurality of actions.

  17. Interactive effect of body posture on exercise-induced atrial natriuretic peptide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Delp, M D; Hartle, D K

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that supine exercise elicits a greater atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) response than upright exercise because of higher atrial filling pressure attained in the supine posture. Plasma ANP concentration ([ANP]) was measured during continuous graded supine and upright exercise in eight healthy men at rest after 4 min of cycling exercise at 31, 51, and 79% of posture-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), after 2 min of cycling at posture-specific VO2 peak, and 5 and 15 min postexercise. [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) above rest by 64, 140, and 228% during supine cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak, respectively. During upright cycling, [ANP] was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) at 79% (60%) and VO2 peak (125%). After 15 min of postexercise rest, [ANP] remained elevated (P less than 0.05) only in the supine subjects. [ANP] was 63, 79, and 75% higher (P less than 0.05) in the supine than in the upright position during cycling at 51 and 79% and VO2 peak. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different between positions in all measurement periods. Heart rates were lower (P less than 0.05) in the supine position compared with the upright position. In conclusion, these results suggest that supine exercise elicits greater ANP release independent of blood pressure and heart rate but presumably caused by greater venous return, central blood volume, and concomitant atrial filling pressure and stretch.

  18. Release of Periplasmic Nucleotidase Induced by Human Antimicrobial Peptide in E. coli Causes Accumulation of the Immunomodulator Adenosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Bergamo Estrela

    Full Text Available Previous work by our group described that human β-defensin-2 induces accumulation of extracellular adenosine (Ado in E. coli cultures through a non-lytic mechanism causing severe plasmolysis. Here, we investigate the presence of AMP as a direct precursor and the involvement of a bacterial enzyme in the generation of extracellular Ado by treated bacteria. Following hBD-2 treatment, metabolites were quantified in the supernatants using targeted HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Microbial growth was monitored by optical density and cell viability was determined by colony forming units counts. Phosphatase activity was measured using chromogenic substrate pNPP. The results demonstrate that defensin-treated E. coli strain W releases AMP in the extracellular space, where it is converted to Ado by a bacterial soluble factor. An increase in phosphatase activity in the supernatant was observed after peptide treatment, similar to the effect of sucrose-induced osmotic stress, suggesting that the periplasmic 5'nucleotidase (5'-NT is released following the plasmolysis event triggered by the peptide. Ado accumulation was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ ion and inhibited by EDTA, further supporting the involvement of a metallo-phosphatase such as 5'-NT in extracellular AMP conversion into Ado. The comparative analysis of hBD-induced Ado accumulation in different E. coli strains and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed that the response is not correlated to the peptide's effect on cell viability, but indicates it might be dependent on the subcellular distribution of the nucleotidase. Taken together, these data shed light on a yet undescribed mechanism of host-microbial interaction: a human antimicrobial peptide inducing selective release of a bacterial enzyme (E. coli 5'-NT, leading to the formation of a potent immunomodulator metabolite (Ado.

  19. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 induces cell death and DAMP release by mitochondria distortion in human melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eike, Liv-Marie; Yang, Nannan; Rekdal, Øystein; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are naturally occurring molecules found in most species, in which they play a significant role in the first line defense against intruding pathogens, and several HDPs have been shown to possess anticancer activity. Structure-activity relationship studies on the HDP bovine lactoferricin revealed a de novo design of a nonamer peptide LTX-315, with oncolytic properties. In the present study, we investigated the oncolytic activity of LTX-315 in human melanoma cells (A375). LTX-315 induced a rapid plasma membrane disruption and cell death within 2 hours. At a low concentration, fluorescence-labeled LTX-315 was internalized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vacuoles in close proximity to the mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential was shown to depolarize as a consequence of LTX-315 treatment and at ultrastructural level, the mitochondria morphology was significantly altered. Release of danger signals (DAMPs) such as ATP, Cytochrome C and HMGB1 into the cell supernatant of cultured cells was evident minutes after peptide treatment. The oncolytic effect of LTX-315 involving perturbation of both the cell membrane and the mitochondria with subsequent release of DAMPs may highlight the ability of LTX-315 to induce complete regression and long-term protective immune responses as previously reported in experimental animal models. PMID:26472184

  20. C peptide and insulin releasing RIA test for the investigation of β cell function in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ailan; Zhu Chengmo; Wang Qiyu; Wang Ping

    1993-01-01

    Results of C-peptide releasing RIA test in 15 normals, and 100 diabetes were summarized and compared with glucose tolerance test and serum insulin for investigating the characteristics in different types of diabetes and evaluating the functional state of islet β cell. In 36 cases of IDDM the fasting blood sugar was significantly increased, and further elevated after eating of bread, but its peak time delay in 2 hours (normalin 1 hour). The level of basal C-peptide is very low, but shows slightly weak on no response after bread stimulating test, all of this denotes that β cell function of islets severely injured. The increasing of fasting blood sugar in 64 cases of NIDDM was lower than those of IDDM. Fasting C-peptide and insulin was normal or increased, their peak value increased after bread stimulation with peak time delayed also at 2 hours. Above results demonstrated that the function of islets B cell decreased but not fully deprived. It is concluded that C-peptide and insulin stimulating test, together with OGTT can accurately assess the islets β cell function, and also have important significance in the pathogenesis, classification and staging, prognostic evaluation and monitoring of therapeutic effects in diabetes

  1. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Does bombesin-like peptide mediate radiation-induced anorexia and satiety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Y.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Forsgren, S.; Kjoerell, U.; Funegaard, U.

    1999-01-01

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian counterpart gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) act as neuroregulatory hormones and peripheral and central satiety-inducing agents. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiation induces an increase in the expression of BN/GRP in the innervation of the salivary glands in rats. We therefore carried out a study using radioimmunoassay (RIA) analysis and immunohistochemistry to examine whether saliva contains BN and whether irradiation affects the BN release to saliva in rats. Immunoreactivity for BN was detected not only in the innervation of the parenchyma but also in the duct cells and in the lumina of the ducts, suggesting entrance of BN into saliva. The RIA analysis confirmed that rat saliva contains a BN-like peptide. The observation shows that saliva contains this peptide but that there is no significant increase following the radiation schedule used. Nevertheless, the occurrence of an enhanced expression of BN in different peripheral tissues such as the salivary and laryngeal glands should be taken into consideration when discussing the clinically important problem of reduced food intake and anorexia in cancer patients. (orig.)

  3. Does bombesin-like peptide mediate radiation-induced anorexia and satiety?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, Y.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Forsgren, S.; Kjoerell, U. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Anatomy; Funegaard, U. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology

    1999-07-01

    Bombesin (BN) and its mammalian counterpart gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) act as neuroregulatory hormones and peripheral and central satiety-inducing agents. Previously, we demonstrated that irradiation induces an increase in the expression of BN/GRP in the innervation of the salivary glands in rats. We therefore carried out a study using radioimmunoassay (RIA) analysis and immunohistochemistry to examine whether saliva contains BN and whether irradiation affects the BN release to saliva in rats. Immunoreactivity for BN was detected not only in the innervation of the parenchyma but also in the duct cells and in the lumina of the ducts, suggesting entrance of BN into saliva. The RIA analysis confirmed that rat saliva contains a BN-like peptide. The observation shows that saliva contains this peptide but that there is no significant increase following the radiation schedule used. Nevertheless, the occurrence of an enhanced expression of BN in different peripheral tissues such as the salivary and laryngeal glands should be taken into consideration when discussing the clinically important problem of reduced food intake and anorexia in cancer patients. (orig.)

  4. Potent and long-acting corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 selective peptide competitive antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, J; Gulyas, J; Kirby, D; Low, W; Perrin, M H; Kunitake, K; DiGruccio, M; Vaughan, J; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Koerber, S C; Martinez, V; Wang, L; Taché, Y; Vale, W

    2002-10-10

    We present evidence that members of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family assume distinct structures when interacting with the CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors. Predictive methods, physicochemical measurements, and structure-activity relationship studies have suggested that CRF, its family members, and competitive antagonists such as astressin [cyclo(30-33)[DPhe(12),Nle(21),Glu(30),Lys(33),Nle(38)]hCRF((12-41))] assume an alpha-helical conformation when interacting with their receptors. We had shown that alpha-helical CRF((9-41)) and sauvagine showed some selectivity for CRF receptors other than that responsible for ACTH secretion(1) and later for CRF2.(2) More recently, we suggested the possibility of a helix-turn-helix motif around a turn encompassing residues 30-33(3) that would confer high affinity for both CRF(1) and CRF(2)(2,4) in agonists and antagonists of all members of the CRF family.(3) On the other hand, the substitutions that conferred ca. 100-fold CRF(2) selectivity to the antagonist antisauvagine-30 [[DPhe(11),His(12)]sauvagine((11-40))] did not confer such property to the corresponding N-terminally extended agonists. We find here that a Glu(32)-Lys(35) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in hCRF and the corresponding Glu(31)-Lys(34) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in sauvagine yield potent ligands that are selective for CRF(2). Additionally, we introduced deletions and substitutions known to increase duration of action to yield antagonists such as cyclo(31-34)[DPhe(11),His(12),C(alpha)MeLeu(13,39),Nle(17),Glu(31),Lys(34)]Ac-sauvagine((8-40)) (astressin(2)-B) with CRF(2) selectivities greater than 100-fold. CRF receptor autoradiography was performed in rat tissue known to express CRF(2) and CRF(1) in order to confirm that astressin(2)-B could indeed bind to established CRF(2) but not CRF(1) receptor-expressing tissues. Extended duration of action of astressin(2)-B vs that of antisauvagine-30 is demonstrated in

  5. Residues Phe103 and Phe149 are critical for the co-chaperone activity of Bacillus licheniformis GrpE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Guan; Chi, Meng-Chun; Chen, Bo-En; Wang, Tzu-Fan; Lo, Huei-Fen; Lin, Long-Liu

    2015-01-01

    A tryptophan-free Bacillus licheniformis nucleotide exchange factor (BlGrpE) and its Trp mutants (F70W, F103W, F149W, F70/103W, F70/149W, F103/149W and F70/103/149W) were over-expressed and purified to near homogeneity. Simultaneous addition of B. licheniformis DnaJ, NR-peptide and individual variants synergistically stimulated the ATPase activity of a recombinant DnaK (BlDnaK) from the same bacterium by 3.1-14.7-fold, which are significantly lower than the synergistic stimulation (18.9-fold) of BlGrpE. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that Trp mutants relevant to amino acid positions 103 and 149 lost the ability to bind BlDnaK. Circular dichroism measurements indicate that F70W displayed a comparable level of secondary structure to that of BlGrpE, and the wild-type protein and the Trp mutants as well all experienced a reversible behavior of thermal denaturation. Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)-induced unfolding transition for BlGrpE was calculated to be 1.25 M corresponding to ΔG(N-U) of 4.29 kcal/mol, whereas the unfolding transitions of mutant proteins were in the range of 0.77-1.31 M equivalent to ΔG(N-U) of 2.41-4.14 kcal/mol. Taken together, the introduction of tryptophan residue, especially at positions 103 and 149, into the primary structure of BlGrpE has been proven to be detrimental to structural integrity and proper function of the protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the Functional Complementation between Grp94 and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Maharaj

    Full Text Available Grp94 and Hsp90 are the ER and cytoplasmic paralog members, respectively, of the hsp90 family of molecular chaperones. The structural and biochemical differences between Hsp90 and Grp94 that allow each paralog to efficiently chaperone its particular set of clients are poorly understood. The two paralogs exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity, yet also display significant differences in their quaternary conformations and ATPase activity. In order to identify the structural elements that distinguish Grp94 from Hsp90, we characterized the similarities and differences between the two proteins by testing the ability of Hsp90/Grp94 chimeras to functionally substitute for the wild-type chaperones in vivo. We show that the N-terminal domain or the combination of the second lobe of the Middle domain plus the C-terminal domain of Grp94 can functionally substitute for their yeast Hsp90 counterparts but that the equivalent Hsp90 domains cannot functionally replace their counterparts in Grp94. These results also identify the interface between the Middle and C-terminal domains as an important structural unit within the Hsp90 family.

  7. Oleic acid stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 release from enteroendocrine cells by modulating cell respiration and glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Rosmarie; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent satiating and incretin hormone released by enteroendocrine L-cells in response to eating. Dietary fat, in particular monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), potently stimulates GLP-1 secretion from L-cells. It is, however, unclear whether the intracellular metabolic handling of OA is involved in this effect. First we determined the optimal medium for the bioenergetics measurements. Then we examined the effect of OA on the metabolism of the immortalized enteroendocrine GLUTag cell model and assessed GLP-1 release in parallel. We measured oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate in response to OA and to different metabolic inhibitors with the Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. OA increased cellular respiration and potently stimulated GLP-1 release. The fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir did neither reduce OA-induced respiration nor affect the OA-induced GLP-1 release. In contrast, inhibition of the respiratory chain or of downstream steps of aerobic glycolysis reduced the OA-induced GLP-1 release, and an inhibition of the first step of glycolysis by addition of 2-deoxy-d-glucose even abolished it. These findings indicate that an indirect stimulation of glycolysis is crucial for the OA-induced release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. D-2 dopamine receptor activation reduces free [3H]arachidonate release induced by hypophysiotropic peptides in anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Dopamine reduces the stimulation of intracellular [ 3 H]arachidonate release produced by the two PRL-stimulating peptides angiotensin-II and TRH. This effect is concentration dependent and is mediated by stimulation of D-2 dopamine receptors. D-2 receptor agonists (bromocriptine, dihydroergocryptine, and dihydroergocristine) inhibit the release of fatty acid induced by angiotensin-II with a potency that parallels their ability to inhibit PRL release in vitro. Conversely, the selective D-2 receptor antagonist L-sulpiride completely prevents dopamine's effect, whereas SCH 23390 (a D-1 receptor antagonist) is ineffective. The inhibitory action of dopamine does not seem to be consequent to an action on the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, as 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM) does not affect either basal or dopamine-inhibited [ 3 H]arachidonate release. However, a 24-h pertussis toxin pretreatment significantly reduces the action of dopamine on fatty acid release. Collectively, these results suggest that D-2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular [ 3 H]arachidonate release requires the action of a GTP-binding protein, but is not a consequence of an inhibitory action on cAMP levels

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in food model system of fish peptides released during simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieva-Echevarria, B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    In the last decade, increasing evidences of the occurrence of lipid oxidation during digestion have been reported, in either in vivo or in vitro studies (1,2,3). As a result, the nutritional quality and safety of foodstuffs could be affected by the decrease of certain lipidic compounds of interest...... in the gastrointestinal tract. In fact, several studies have reported antioxidant activity of fish protein hydrolysates, coming from fish industry waste by-products (3,4). Thus, the potential release of peptides showing antioxidant properties during fish digestion cannot be ruled out. In order to shed light...... on these aspects, in vitro digestates of European sea bass were submitted to ultrafiltration using membranes with different cut off size. Afterwards, the potential antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions obtained was evaluated by comparing the oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions (5...

  10. Bone induction through controlled release of novel BMP-2-related peptide from PTMC11-F127-PTMC11 hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuo; Li Jingfeng; Teng Yu; Guo Xiaodong; Zhao Jingjing; Xu Shuyun; Quan Daping

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is the most powerful osteogenic factor; its effectiveness in enhancing osteoblastic activation has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a novel peptide (designated P24) derived from the ‘knuckle’ epitope of BMP-2 and found it also had osteogenic bioactivity to some extent. The main objective of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on poly(trimethylene carbonate)–F127–poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC 11 -F127-PTMC 11 ) hydrogels for the P24 peptide, to promote bone formation. By varying the copolymer concentrations, we demonstrated that P24/PTMC 11 -F127-PTMC 11 hydrogels were an efficient system for the sustained release of P24 over 21–35 days. The P24-loaded hydrogels elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and promoted the expression of osteocalcin mRNA in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Radiographic and histological examination showed that P24-loaded hydrogels could induce more effective ectopic bone formation in vivo than P24-free hydrogels. These results indicate that the PTMC 11 -F127-PTMC 11 hydrogel is a suitable carrier for the controlled release of P24, and is a promising injectable biomaterial for the induction of bone regeneration. (paper)

  11. Binding free energy and counterion release for adsorption of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B on a POPG membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Vivcharuk, Victor; Tomberli, Bruno; Gray, C. G.

    2009-09-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interaction of an anionic palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) bilayer with the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin (LFCinB) in a 100 mM NaCl solution at 310 K. The interaction of LFCinB with a POPG bilayer is employed as a model system for studying the details of membrane adsorption selectivity of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Seventy eight 4 ns MD production run trajectories of the equilibrated system, with six restrained orientations of LFCinB at 13 different separations from the POPG membrane, are generated to determine the free energy profile for the peptide as a function of the distance between LFCinB and the membrane surface. To calculate the profile for this relatively large system, a variant of constrained MD and thermodynamic integration is used. A simplified method for relating the free energy profile to the LFCinB-POPG membrane binding constant is employed to predict a free energy of adsorption of -5.4±1.3kcal/mol and a corresponding maximum adsorption binding force of about 58 pN. We analyze the results using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We find the peptide-membrane attraction to be dominated by the entropy increase due to the release of counterions and polarized water from the region between the charged membrane and peptide, as the two approach each other. We contrast these results with those found earlier for adsorption of LFCinB on the mammalianlike palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine membrane.

  12. Steric effects in release of amides from linkers in solid-phase synthesis. Molecular mechanics modeling of key step in peptide and combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Acidolytic release of an amide from a solid support by C-N bond cleavage is all ubiquitous and crucial step in many solid-phase syntheses. We have used molecular modeling of a pseudo-equilibrium to explore substituent and steric effects in the release of peptides. The high acid-lability of the ba......Acidolytic release of an amide from a solid support by C-N bond cleavage is all ubiquitous and crucial step in many solid-phase syntheses. We have used molecular modeling of a pseudo-equilibrium to explore substituent and steric effects in the release of peptides. The high acid......-lability of the backbone amide linkage (BAL), which releases sec. amides, compared to C-terminal amide anchoring, which releases primary amides, was rationalized by steric relief upon cleavage. Thus, the relative stability of the carbenium ion formed from the linker in the acidolytic release is an insufficient measure...

  13. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Bayer; Justus Lammel; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Sebastian Lippross; Peter Behrendt; Tim Klüter; Thomas Pufe; Jochen Cremer; Holger Jahr; Franziska Rademacher; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF?)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting acti...

  14. Effects of NSAIDs on the Release of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Prostaglandin E2 from Rat Trigeminal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Vellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are frequently used to treat migraine, but the mechanisms of their effects in this pathology are not fully elucidated. The trigeminal ganglia and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. The release of CGRP and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 from freshly isolated rat trigeminal ganglia was evaluated after oral administration of nimesulide, etoricoxib, and ketoprofen, NSAIDs with different pharmacological features. Thirty minutes after oral administration, nimesulide, 10 mg/Kg, decreased the GCRP release induced by an inflammatory soup, while the other NSAIDs were ineffective at this point in time. Two hours after oral nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/Kg and ketoprofen (10 mg/Kg, but not of etoricoxib, a significant decrease in the CGRP release was observed. All drugs reduced PGE2, although with some differences in timing and doses, and the action on CGRP does not seem to be related to PGE2 inhibition. The reduction of CGRP release from rat trigeminal ganglia after nimesulide and ketoprofen may help to explain the mechanism of action of NSAIDs in migraine. Since at 30 minutes only nimesulide was effective in reducing CGRP release, these results suggest that this NSAID may exert a particularly rapid effect in patients with migraine.

  15. Anorexia induction by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) is mediated by the release of the gut satiety hormone peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Clark, Erica S; Pestka, James J

    2012-12-01

    Consumption of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin known to commonly contaminate grain-based foods, suppresses growth of experimental animals, thus raising concerns over its potential to adversely affect young children. Although this growth impairment is believed to result from anorexia, the initiating mechanisms for appetite suppression remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DON induces the release of satiety hormones and that this response corresponds to the toxin's anorectic action. Acute ip exposure to DON had no effect on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastric inhibitory peptide, or ghrelin; however, the toxin was found to robustly elevate peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Specifically, ip exposure to DON at 1 and 5mg/kg bw induced PYY by up to 2.5-fold and CCK by up to 4.1-fold. These responses peaked within 15-120 min and lasted up to 120 min (CCK) and 240 min (PPY), corresponding with depressed rates of food intake. Direct administration of exogenous PYY or CCK similarly caused reduced food intake. Food intake experiments using the NPY2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 and the CCK1A receptor antagonist devazepide, individually, suggested that PYY mediated DON-induced anorexia but CCK did not. Orolingual exposure to DON induced plasma PYY and CCK elevation and anorexia comparable with that observed for ip exposure. Taken together, these findings suggest that PYY might be one critical mediator of DON-induced anorexia and, ultimately, growth suppression.

  16. Electrical stimulation of the isolated rat intestine in the presence of nutrient stimulus enhances glucagon-like peptide-1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Ann; Ort, Tatiana; Kajekar, Radhika; Hornby, Pamela J; Wade, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    The release of small intestinal hormones by constituents of ingested food, such as fatty acids, is integral to post-prandial responses that reduce food intake. Recent evidence suggests that small intestinal electrical stimulation reduces food intake, although the mechanism of action is debated. To test the hypothesis that intestinal stimulation directly alters hormone release locally we used isolated rat distal ileum and measured glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released in the presence or absence of linoleic acid (LA) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Intact segments were oriented longitudinally between bipolar stimulating electrodes in organ bath chambers containing modified Krebs–Ringers bicarbonate (KRB) buffer including protease inhibitors. Incubation in LA (3 mg ml −1 ) for 45 min increased GLP-1 concentration (21.9 ± 2.6 pM versus KRB buffer alone 3.6 ± 0.1 pM). Eleven electrical stimulation conditions were tested. In the presence of LA none of the stimulation conditions inhibited LA-evoked GLP-1 release, whereas two high frequency short pulse widths (14 V, 20 Hz, 5 ms and 14 V, 40 Hz, 5 ms) and one low frequency long pulse width (14 V, 0.4 Hz, 300 ms) EFS conditions enhanced LA-evoked GLP-1 release by >250%. These results are consistent with a local effect of intestinal electrical stimulation to enhance GLP-1 release in response to luminal nutrients in the intestines. Enhancing hormone release could improve the efficacy of intestinal electrical stimulation and provide a potential treatment for obesity and metabolic conditions

  17. The growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide (His-DTrp-Ala-Trp-DPhe-Lys-NH2), GH-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, D K; Bowers, C Y; Jaffe, C A; Ho, P J; Barkan, A L

    1993-09-01

    In patients with acromegaly, GH-producing pituitary tumors release GH in response to specific stimuli such as GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and are also responsive to a variety of nonspecific stimuli, such as TRH or GnRH, and may exhibit paradoxical responses to glucose and dopamine. In healthy humans, the synthetic peptide GH-releasing peptide (GHRP) (His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) releases GH by a putative mechanism of action that is independent of GHRH. How these tumors respond to GHRP is not well characterized. We studied the GH responses to GHRH, GHRP, and TRH stimulation in 11 patients with active acromegaly. The peak GH responses to GHRP and GHRH were not correlated (r = 0.57; P = 0.066). In contrast, the peak GH responses to GHRP and TRH were highly correlated (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in patients with acromegaly, the GH response to GHRP is qualitatively normal and does not appear to depend on GHRH.

  18. Aptamer based peptide enrichment for quantitative analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, S L; Cawley, A T; Cavicchioli, R; Suann, C J; Pickford, R; Raftery, M J

    2016-04-01

    Over recent years threats to racing have expanded to include naturally occurring biological molecules, such as peptides and proteins, and their synthetic analogues. Traditionally, antibodies have been used to enable detection of these compounds as they allow purification and concentration of the analyte of interest. The rapid expansion of peptide-based therapeutics necessitates a similarly rapid development of suitable antibodies or other means of enrichment. Potential alternative enrichment strategies include the use of aptamers, which offer the significant advantage of chemical synthesis once the nucleic acid sequence is known. A method was developed for the enrichment, detection and quantitation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in equine urine using aptamer-based enrichment and LC-MS/MS. The method achieved comparable limits of detection (1 pg/mL) and quantification (2.5 pg/mL) to previously published antibody-based enrichment methods. The intra- and inter-assay precision achieved was less than 10% at both 5 and 20 pg/mL, and displayed a working dynamic range of 2.5-100 pg/mL. Significant matrix enhancement (170 ± 8%) and low analytical recovery (29 ± 15%) was observed, although the use of an isotopically heavy labelled GnRH peptide, GnRH (Pro(13)C5,(15)N), as the internal standard provides compensation for these parameters. Within the current limits of detection GnRH was detectable up to 1h post administration in urine and identification of a urinary catabolite extended this detection window to 4h. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation we propose the use of aptamers as a viable alternative to antibodies in the enrichment of peptide targets from equine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo release of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like material from the cervicotrigeminal area in the rat. Effects of electrical and noxious stimulations of the muzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, M; Collin, E; Bourgoin, S; Clot, A M; Hamon, M; Cesselin, F; Le Bars, D

    1992-10-01

    The continuous perfusion with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid of the cervicotrigeminal area of the spinal cord in halothane-anaesthetized rats allowed the collection of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like material with the same immunological and chromatographic characteristics as authentic rat alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide. The spinal release of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like material could be significantly increased by the local application of 60 mM K+ (approximately +100%), high-intensity percutaneous electrical stimulation (approximately +200%) and noxious heat (by immersion in water at 52 degrees C; approximately +150%) applied to the muzzle. By contrast, noxious mechanical (pinches) and chemical (subcutaneous formalin injection) stimulations and deep cooling (by immersion in water at 0 degrees C) of the muzzle did not alter the spinal release of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like material. In addition, low-intensity electrical stimulation, recruiting only the A alpha/beta primary afferent fibres, significantly reduced (approximately -30%) the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like material from the cervicotrigeminal area. These data suggest that among the various types of natural noxious stimuli, noxious heat may selectively excite calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing A delta and C primary afferent fibres projecting within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and that activation of A alpha/beta fibres reduces spontaneous calcitonin gene-related peptide-like material release possibly through an inhibitory presynaptic control of calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing A delta/C fibres.

  20. Strategies for the Activation and Release of the Membranolytic Peptide Melittin from Liposomes Using Endosomal pH as a Trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Blenke, E; Sleszynska, M; Evers, M J W; Storm, G; Martin, N I; Mastrobattista, E

    2017-02-15

    Endosomolytic peptides are often coupled to drug delivery systems to enhance endosomal escape, which is crucial for the delivery of macromolecular drugs that are vulnerable to degradation in the endolysosomal pathway. Melittin is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from bee venom that has a very high membranolytic activity. However, such lytic peptides also impose a significant safety risk when applied in vivo as they often have similar activity against red blood cells and other nontarget cell membranes. Our aim is to control the membrane-disrupting capacity of these peptides in time and space by physically constraining them to a nanocarrier surface in such a way that they only become activated when delivered inside acidic endosomes. To this end, a variety of chemical approaches for the coupling of lytic peptides to liposomes via functionalized PEG-lipids were explored, including maleimide-thiol chemistry, click-chemistry, and aldehyde-hydrazide chemistry. The latter enables reversible conjugation via a hydrazone bond, allowing for release of the peptide under endosomal conditions. By carefully choosing the conjugation site and by using a pH activated analog of the melittin peptide, lytic activity toward a model membrane is completely inhibited at physiological pH. At endosomal pH the activity is restored by hydrolysis of the acid-labile hydrazone bond, releasing the peptide in its most active, free form. Furthermore, using an analogue containing a nonhydrolyzable bond as a control, it was shown that the activity observed can be completely attributed to release of the peptide, validating dynamic covalent conjugation as a suitable strategy to maintain safety during circulation.

  1. Efectiveness of GrpMI with fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres Serna, Esperanza

    This study attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI) with women suffering from fibromyalgia (FM). It uses a randomized controlled trial, with a pretest-posttest control group design, and a three month follow-up. The results show statistically or tendentially...... that it is advisable to use music therapy and especially Group Imagery and Music for FM treatment. The results obtained open the way for further research studies focussing on the usefulness of GrpMI in other populations that, like FM sufferers, experience chronic pain....

  2. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  3. Octopus gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: a multifunctional peptide in the endocrine and nervous systems of the cephalopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, H; Shigeno, S; Kano, N; Haraguchi, S; Osugi, T; Tsutsui, K

    2009-03-01

    The optic gland, which is analogous to the anterior pituitary in the context of gonadal maturation, is found on the upper posterior edge of the optic tract of the octopus Octopus vulgaris. In mature octopus, the optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotrophic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the brain of octopus and was named oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH showed luteinising hormone-releasing activity in the anterior pituitary cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix. Oct-GnRH immunoreactive signals were observed in the glandular cells of the mature optic gland. Oct-GnRH stimulated the synthesis and release of sex steroids from the ovary and testis, and elicited contractions of the oviduct. Oct-GnRH receptor was expressed in the gonads and accessory organs, such as the oviduct and oviducal gland. These results suggest that oct-GnRH induces the gonadal maturation and oviposition by regulating sex steroidogenesis and a series of egg-laying behaviours via the oct-GnRH receptor. The distribution and expression of oct-GnRH in the central and peripheral nervous systems suggest that oct-GnRH acts as a multifunctional modulatory factor in feeding, memory processing, sensory, movement and autonomic functions.

  4. Effects of long-term treatment with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in the GHRH knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Maria; Fintini, Danilo; Bowers, Cyril Y; Parlow, A F; Salvatori, Roberto

    2005-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretagogues (GHS) stimulate GH secretion in vivo in humans and in animals. They act on the ghrelin receptor, expressed in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary. It is unknown whether GHSs act predominantly by increasing the release of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) or by acting directly on the somatotroph cells. We studied whether a potent GHS could stimulate growth in the absence of endogenous GHRH. To this end, we used GHRH knockout (GHRH-KO) mice. These animals have proportionate dwarfism due to severe GH deficiency (GHD) and pituitary hypoplasia due to reduced somatotroph cell mass. We treated male GHRH-KO mice for 6 wk (from week 1 to week 7 of age) with GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2, 10 microg s.c. twice a day). Chronic treatment with GHRP-2 failed to stimulate somatotroph cell proliferation and GH secretion and to promote longitudinal growth. GHRP-2-treated mice showed an increase in total body weight compared with placebo-treated animals, due to worsening of the body composition alterations typical of GHD animals. These data demonstrate that GHRP-2 failed to reverse the severe GHD caused by lack of GHRH.

  5. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  6. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs: A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Berlanga-Acosta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. Methodology: PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. Results and Conclusions: GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36, which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs’ binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of “drugable” peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  7. Synthetic Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs): A Historical Appraisal of the Evidences Supporting Their Cytoprotective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Abreu-Cruz, Angel; Herrera, Diana García-Del Barco; Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Rodríguez-Ulloa, Arielis; García-Ojalvo, Ariana; Falcón-Cama, Viviana; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Beichen, Qu; Guillén-Nieto, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) constitute a group of small synthetic peptides that stimulate the growth hormone secretion and the downstream axis activity. Mounting evidences since the early 1980s delineated unexpected pharmacological cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties for the GHRPs. However, despite intense basic pharmacological research, alternatives to prevent cell and tissue demise before lethal insults have remained as an empty niche in the clinical armamentarium. Here, we have rigorously reviewed the investigational development of GHRPs and their clinical niching perspectives. PubMed/MEDLINE databases, including original research and review articles, were explored. The search design was date escalated from 1980 and included articles in English only. GHRPs bind to two different receptors (GHS-R1a and CD36), which redundantly or independently exert relevant biological effects. GHRPs' binding to CD36 activates prosurvival pathways such as PI-3K/AKT1, thus reducing cellular death. Furthermore, GHRPs decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) spillover, enhance the antioxidant defenses, and reduce inflammation. These cytoprotective abilities have been revealed in cardiac, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and hepatic cells, representing a comprehensive spectrum of protection of parenchymal organs. Antifibrotic effects have been attributed to some of the GHRPs by counteracting fibrogenic cytokines. In addition, GHRP family members have shown a potent myotropic effect by promoting anabolia and inhibiting catabolia. Finally, GHRPs exhibit a broad safety profile in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these fragmented lines incite to envision multiple pharmacological uses for GHRPs, especially as a myocardial reperfusion damage-attenuating candidate, this family of "drugable" peptides awaits for a definitive clinical niche.

  8. Peptide YY, neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin-releasing factor modulate gastrointestinal motility and food intake during acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah C; Cox, Helen M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropeptide Y (NPY) provides protection against the endocrine, feeding and gastrointestinal (GI) responses to stress; however, it is not yet established how it interacts with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) to mediate these effects. Peptide YY (PYY) also has significant roles in GI motility and food intake but little is known about its role in stress responses. Upper GI transit, fecal pellet output (FPO) and feeding responses, and the role of CRF1 receptors, during restraint or a novel environment stress, were ascertained in PYY-/-, NPY-/- and wild type (WT) mice, with CRF and the CRF1 antagonist, antalarmin, injected intraperitoneally. Upper GI transit and FPO were significantly increased in PYY-/- mice during restraint stress. Exogenous CRF increased defecation during placement in a novel environment in WT mice through CRF1 , while CRF1 blockade reduced defecation in WT and NPY-/- mice but had no effect in PYY-/- mice. In addition, CRF1 blockade had no effect on upper GI transit in WT mice, or on food intake in PYY-/- or NPY-/- mice, but it significantly increased food intake in WT mice. Endogenous NPY appears to inhibit the colonic motor response induced by CRF1 activation, unlike PYY, while both peptides are required for CRF1 modulation of feeding behavior during stress. Overall, these results provide new insights into the mechanism by which PYY and NPY affect stress responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Transformable Peptide Nanocarriers for Expeditious Drug Release and Effective Cancer Therapy via Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tianjiao; Zhao, Ying; Ding, Yanping; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Ruifang; Lang, Jiayan; Qin, Hao; Liu, Xiaoman; Shi, Jian; Tao, Ning; Qin, Zhihai; Nie, Guangjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2016-01-18

    A novel cleavable amphiphilic peptide (CAP) was designed to be specifically responsive to fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α), a protease specifically expressed on the surface of cancer-associated fibroblasts. The CAP self-assembled into fiber-like nanostructures in solution, while the presence of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs readily transformed the assemblies into drug-loaded spherical nanoparticles. The disassembly of these nanoparticles (CAP-NPs) upon FAP-α cleavage resulted in rapid and efficient release of the encapsulated drugs specifically at tumor sites. This Transformers-like drug delivery strategy could allow them to disrupt the stromal barrier and enhance local drug accumulation. Therapeutic results suggested that drug-loaded CAP-NPs hold promising tumor specificity and therapeutic efficacy for various solid tumor models, confirming its potential utility and versatility in antitumor therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Secondary Creep Response of Hand Lay-Up GRP Composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) composite load bearing components are now in common use, quite often at temperatures above the ambient, where creep behaviour may be significant, as in pressurized industrial containers. This is especially true of those composites produced by the Hand Lay-Up Contact Moulding ...

  11. Multi-functional system of radiotherapy and thermal phototherapy for tumors that over-express receptors of the gastrin releasing peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez M, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and characterize a multifunctional system of 177 Lu and 99m Tc-labelled gold nanoparticles conjugated to Tat(49 57)-Lys 3 bombesin ( 177 Lu/ 99m Tc- AuNP-Tat-Bn) and to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose in GRP receptor positive PC3 tumours induced in mice (human prostate cancer cells), as well as to evaluate the thermal effect produced by the multifunctional system in PC3 cancer cells. The preparation of the system involved the conjugation of Bn-Tat, DOTA-GGC and HYNICTOC peptides to AuNP of 20 nm or 5 nm in diameter. The radiolabeling of the system with 99m Tc was carried out through the ligand HYNIC-TOC and with the 177 Lu through DOTA-GGC. The functionalization of peptides to AuNP, was accomplished through a spontaneous reaction of thiol groups. The system was characterized by spectroscopic techniques while radiochemical purity was determined by size-exclusion molecular chromatography and ultrafiltration. Various internalization trials and non-specific binding were tested to demonstrate the affinity of the system to PC3 cells. The thermal effect was evaluated incubating the system into PC3 cells and irradiating it with a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam and monitoring the temperature; after irradiation, cell viability was measured. In the evaluation of absorbed dose in mice with induced tumours, the system was administered intratumorally and later, mice were sacrificed, relevant organs and tumor were extracted, activity was quantified and radiopharmaceutical models were obtained for each organ and tumor to be used in the accumulated activity and absorbed dose calculation by the MIRD methodology. Finally, to establish the system location at cellular level, fluorescent images of the system incubated in PC3 cells were acquired with an epi fluorescent microscope. Tem, UV-Vis, XP S and Far-IR spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that AuNPs were functionalized with peptides through interactions with the -Sh groups. The radiochemical

  12. Effects of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of peptides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kimihiko [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-03-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the present study, we examined the effect of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in slice cultures of the rat SCN. The effect of irradiation on the glial cell proliferation in the SCN culture was also examined by the immunohistochemical method. In SCN cultures which received irradiation, circadian rhythms in the release of AVP and VIP were detected, as observed in the SCN culture not irradiated. However, the AVP and VIP rhythms showed various phase angle differences in some cultures irradiated, which suggested that irradiation caused a looseness of coupling between AVP and VIP oscillators. On the other hand, the number of glial cells was decreased by irradiation. These results suggested that the dissociation of the two peptide rhythms after irradiation might be due to the inhibition of glial cell proliferation. Furthermore, the radiation changed the amplitude of AVP and VIP rhythms, suggesting that couplings within both AVP and VIP oscillators were influenced by irradiation. (author)

  13. Effects of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of peptides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimihiko

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the circadian clock which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the present study, we examined the effect of irradiation on the circadian rhythm in the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in slice cultures of the rat SCN. The effect of irradiation on the glial cell proliferation in the SCN culture was also examined by the immunohistochemical method. In SCN cultures which received irradiation, circadian rhythms in the release of AVP and VIP were detected, as observed in the SCN culture not irradiated. However, the AVP and VIP rhythms showed various phase angle differences in some cultures irradiated, which suggested that irradiation caused a looseness of coupling between AVP and VIP oscillators. On the other hand, the number of glial cells was decreased by irradiation. These results suggested that the dissociation of the two peptide rhythms after irradiation might be due to the inhibition of glial cell proliferation. Furthermore, the radiation changed the amplitude of AVP and VIP rhythms, suggesting that couplings within both AVP and VIP oscillators were influenced by irradiation. (author)

  14. Release kinetics of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in a clinical model of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Christoph; Gaede, Luise; Dörr, Oliver; Troidl, Christian; Voss, Sandra; Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Paszko, Agata; Weber, Michael; Rolf, Andreas; Hamm, Christian; Nef, Holger; Möllmann, Helge

    2014-02-15

    N-terminal segment of B-type natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-proBNP) is elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) thus providing both diagnostic information and prognostic information. The aim of the present study was to determine the time course of NT-proBNP release in patients undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH) a procedure mimicking AMI. We analyzed the release kinetics of NT-proBNP in 18 consecutive patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy undergoing TASH. Serum samples were collected prior to and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 min, and 2, 4, 8, and 24h after TASH. NT-proBNP concentrations showed a continuous increase during the first 75 min with a significant percent change compared to baseline value already 15 min after TASH (105.6% [IQR 102.2-112.7]; Pvalue until the 8th h after initiation of myocardial infarction. NT-proBNP concentration increases immediately after induction of myocardial infarction proving early evidence of myocardial injury despite the decrease of the left ventricular wall stress due to the TASH related reduction of the left ventricular outflow gradient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exaggerated release and preserved insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide-1 underlie insulin hypersecretion in glucose-tolerant individuals after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glycaemic control in part by increasing postprandial insulin secretion through exaggerated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 release. However, it is unknown whether islet cell responsiveness to i.v. glucose, non-glucose (arginine) and incretin hormones...

  16. Effect of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide on food intake and neural activation after different routes of peripheral administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Pirník, Zdenko; Pražienková, Veronika; Bednárová, Lucie; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, Jan (2016), s. 109-117 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * food intake * c-Fos * pharmacokinetics * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2016

  17. LC-MS/MS analysis of lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide utilizing a monolithic column and simple sample preparation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemenová, Jana; Sýkora, D.; Freislebenová, A.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 17 (2017), s. 1319-1328 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : LC-MS * lipopeptides * monolithic column * prolactin-releasing peptide * stability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2016

  18. Novel lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide have prolonged half-lives and exert anti-obesity effects after peripheral administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, L.; Nagelová, V.; Tichá, A.; Zemenová, J.; Pirník, Z.; Holubová, M.; Špolcová, A.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Blechová, M.; Sýkora, D.; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, B.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2015), s. 986-993 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : food intake * prolactin-releasing peptide * GPR10 receptor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2015

  19. The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor as Target for Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer : GRPR expression in prostate cancer and targeting with Bombesin-like radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo

    2014-01-01

    Prostaatkanker is wereldwijd een veel voorkomende oorzaak van kanker, morbiditeit en sterfte. Nauwkeurige stagering is moeilijk en nog steeds suboptimaal. De Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) is een tumor-geassocieerd antigeen dat tot overexpressie wordt gebracht in prostaatkanker. Gerichte

  20. Effect of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide on food intake and neural activation after different routes of peripheral administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, J.; Pirník, Z.; Pražienková, V.; Bednárová, L.; Železná, B.; Maletínská, L.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, Jan (2016), s. 109-117 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * food intake * c-Fos * pharmacokinetics * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2016

  1. Peripheral administration of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide induces Fos expression in hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis in NMRI male mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirník, Zdenko; Železná, Blanka; Kiss, A.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1625, Nov 2 (2015), s. 151-158 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hypothalamus * prolactin-releasing peptide * Fos * oxytocin * hypocretin * mice Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2015

  2. Steviol Glycoside Rebaudioside A Induces Glucagon-like Peptide-1 and Peptide YY Release in a Porcine ex Vivo Intestinal Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are hormones important for satiation and are involved in the process called “ileal brake”. The aim of this study was to investigate the GLP-1- and PYY-stimulating efficacy of rebaudioside A, casein, and sucrose. This was studied using tissue

  3. Steviol glycoside rebaudioside A induces glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY release in a porcine ex vivo intestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, van der N.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are hormones important for satiation and are involved in the process called "ileal brake". The aim of this study was to investigate the GLP-1- and PYY-stimulating efficacy of rebaudioside A, casein, and sucrose. This was studied using tissue

  4. A circadian clock-regulated toggle switch explains AtGRP7 and AtGRP8 oscillations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schmal

    Full Text Available The circadian clock controls many physiological processes in higher plants and causes a large fraction of the genome to be expressed with a 24h rhythm. The transcripts encoding the RNA-binding proteins AtGRP7 (Arabidopsis thaliana Glycine Rich Protein 7 and AtGRP8 oscillate with evening peaks. The circadian clock components CCA1 and LHY negatively affect AtGRP7 expression at the level of transcription. AtGRP7 and AtGRP8, in turn, negatively auto-regulate and reciprocally cross-regulate post-transcriptionally: high protein levels promote the generation of an alternative splice form that is rapidly degraded. This clock-regulated feedback loop has been proposed to act as a molecular slave oscillator in clock output. While mathematical models describing the circadian core oscillator in Arabidopsis thaliana were introduced recently, we propose here the first model of a circadian slave oscillator. We define the slave oscillator in terms of ordinary differential equations and identify the model's parameters by an optimization procedure based on experimental results. The model successfully reproduces the pertinent experimental findings such as waveforms, phases, and half-lives of the time-dependent concentrations. Furthermore, we obtain insights into possible mechanisms underlying the observed experimental dynamics: the negative auto-regulation and reciprocal cross-regulation via alternative splicing could be responsible for the sharply peaking waveforms of the AtGRP7 and AtGRP8 mRNA. Moreover, our results suggest that the AtGRP8 transcript oscillations are subordinated to those of AtGRP7 due to a higher impact of AtGRP7 protein on alternative splicing of its own and of the AtGRP8 pre-mRNA compared to the impact of AtGRP8 protein. Importantly, a bifurcation analysis provides theoretical evidence that the slave oscillator could be a toggle switch, arising from the reciprocal cross-regulation at the post-transcriptional level. In view of this

  5. New Gastrin Releasing Peptide Receptor-Directed [99mTc]Demobesin 1 Mimics: Synthesis and Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Berthold A; Charalambidis, David; Sallegger, Werner; Waser, Beatrice; Mansi, Rosalba; Nicolas, Guillaume P; Ketani, Eleni; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Fani, Melpomeni; Reubi, Jean-Claude; Maina, Theodosia

    2018-04-12

    We have previously reported on the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist [ 99m Tc]1, ([ 99m Tc]demobesin 1, 99m Tc-[N 4 '-diglycolate-dPhe 6 ,Leu-NHEt 13 ]BBN(6-13)). [ 99m Tc]1 has shown superior biological profile compared to analogous agonist-based 99m Tc-radioligands. We herein present a small library of [ 99m Tc]1 mimics generated after structural modifications in (a) the linker ([ 99m Tc]2, [ 99m Tc]3, [ 99m Tc]4), (b) the peptide chain ([ 99m Tc]5, [ 99m Tc]6), and (c) the C-terminus ([ 99m Tc]7 or [ 99m Tc]8). The effects of above modifications on the biological properties of analogs were studied in PC-3 cells and tumor-bearing SCID mice. All analogs showed subnanomolar affinity for the human GRPR, while most receptor-affine 4 and 8 behaved as potent GRPR antagonists in a functional internalization assay. In mice bearing PC-3 tumors, [ 99m Tc]1-[ 99m Tc]6 exhibited GRPR-specific tumor uptake, rapidly clearing from normal tissues. [ 99m Tc]4 displayed the highest tumor uptake (28.8 ± 4.1%ID/g at 1 h pi), which remained high even after 24 h pi (16.3 ± 1.8%ID/g), well surpassing that of [ 99m Tc]1 (5.4 ± 0.7%ID/g at 24 h pi).

  6. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H.; Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H.; Nicolas, P.

    1990-01-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for 125 I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH

  7. Expression and clinical significance of Glucose Regulated Proteins GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 (GP96) in human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Rupert; Feith, Marcus; Siewert, Joerg Rüdiger; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Hoefler, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Glucose regulated proteins (GRPs) are main regulators of cellular homeostasis due to their role as molecular chaperones. Moreover, the functions of GRPs suggest that they also may play important roles in cancer biology. In this study we investigated the glucose regulated proteins GRP78 (BiP) and GRP94 (GP96) in a series of human esophageal adenocarcinomas to determine their implications in cancer progression and prognosis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of primary resected esophageal (Barrett) adenocarcinomas (n = 137) and corresponding normal tissue were investigated. mRNA-gene expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after mRNA extraction. Protein expression analysis was performed with immunohistochemical staining of the cases, assembled on a tissue micorarray. The results were correlated with pathologic features (pT, pN, G) and overall survival. GRP78 and GRP94 mRNA were expressed in all tumors. The relative gene expression of GRP78 was significantly higher in early cancers (pT1m and pT1sm) as compared to more advanced stages (pT2 and pT3) and normal tissue (p = 0.031). Highly differentiated tumors showed also higher GRP78 mRNA levels compared to moderate and low differentiated tumors (p = 0.035). In addition, patients with higher GRP78 levels tended to show a survival benefit (p = 0.07). GRP94 mRNA-levels showed no association to pathological features or clinical outcome. GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression was detectable by immunohistochemistry in all tumors. There was a significant correlation between a strong GRP78 protein expression and early tumor stages (pT1m and pT1sm, p = 0.038). For GRP94 low to moderate protein expression was significantly associated with earlier tumor stage (p = 0.001) and less lymph node involvement (p = 0.036). Interestingly, the patients with combined strong GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression exclusively showed either early (pT1m or pT1sm) or advanced (pT3) tumor stages and no

  8. Expression and clinical significance of Glucose Regulated Proteins GRP78 (BiP and GRP94 (GP96 in human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wester Hans-Juergen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose regulated proteins (GRPs are main regulators of cellular homeostasis due to their role as molecular chaperones. Moreover, the functions of GRPs suggest that they also may play important roles in cancer biology. In this study we investigated the glucose regulated proteins GRP78 (BiP and GRP94 (GP96 in a series of human esophageal adenocarcinomas to determine their implications in cancer progression and prognosis. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of primary resected esophageal (Barrett adenocarcinomas (n = 137 and corresponding normal tissue were investigated. mRNA-gene expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after mRNA extraction. Protein expression analysis was performed with immunohistochemical staining of the cases, assembled on a tissue micorarray. The results were correlated with pathologic features (pT, pN, G and overall survival. Results GRP78 and GRP94 mRNA were expressed in all tumors. The relative gene expression of GRP78 was significantly higher in early cancers (pT1m and pT1sm as compared to more advanced stages (pT2 and pT3 and normal tissue (p = 0.031. Highly differentiated tumors showed also higher GRP78 mRNA levels compared to moderate and low differentiated tumors (p = 0.035. In addition, patients with higher GRP78 levels tended to show a survival benefit (p = 0.07. GRP94 mRNA-levels showed no association to pathological features or clinical outcome. GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression was detectable by immunohistochemistry in all tumors. There was a significant correlation between a strong GRP78 protein expression and early tumor stages (pT1m and pT1sm, p = 0.038. For GRP94 low to moderate protein expression was significantly associated with earlier tumor stage (p = 0.001 and less lymph node involvement (p = 0.036. Interestingly, the patients with combined strong GRP78 and GRP94 protein expression exclusively showed either early (pT1m or p

  9. Interactions of GRF(1-29)NH2 with plasma proteins and their effects on the release of the peptide from a PLAGA matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, B; Coudane, J; Vert, M

    2005-09-02

    The administration of the GRF(1-29)NH2 Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone analog is known as relevant of the concept of drug delivery system using a bioresorbable matrix. However, the release of this peptide from poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) matrices is affected by its insolubility at neutral in salted media and in plasma as well. In order to investigate the origin and the nature of the insolubility in these media in more details, the precipitates collected when the peptide was set in contact with saline, isotonic pH=7.4 phosphate buffer and plasma were analyzed by various techniques, namely weighting, gel chromatography, 1D- and 2D-immunoelectrophoresis, and dialysis to discern the soluble from the insoluble or aggregated fractions. It is shown that precipitation in protein-free salted media is due to a salting out phenomenon complemented by the neutralization of the solubilizing electrostatic charges in the isotonic buffer. In contrast, the precipitation in plasma is due to inter polyelectrolyte-type complexation that involved polyanionic proteins having a rather low isoelectric point like albumin, transferin, haptoglobulin and IgG immunoglobulins. When a rather large quantity of GRF(1-29)NH2 was entrapped in bioresorbable pellets working at a percolating regime after subcutaneous implantation in rats, the peptide was slowly released despite the complexation with plasma proteins. However only a very small part of the peptide was found in blood, this small part being still large enough to cause a detectable increase of the circulating growth hormone concentration. Attempts made to increase the solubility of the peptide in plasma were successful when the peptide was combined with arginine, an amino acid known to promote the poor hormonal activity of injected GRF(1-29)NH2 solutions under clinical conditions.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-2, but not glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, stimulates glucagon release in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the glucagon-releasing properties of the hormones glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in 8 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without paracrine intraislet influence of insulin (C-peptide negative following a 5 g...... intravenous arginine stimulation; on study days only treated with basal insulin substitution). On 3 study days, 180-minute two-step glucose clamps were performed. Plasma glucose (PG) was clamped at fasting values, with a mean of 7.4+/-0.5 mM in the first 90 min (period 1) and raised 1.5 times the fasting...

  11. Conservation of Three-Dimensional Helix-Loop-Helix Structure through the Vertebrate Lineage Reopens the Cold Case of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Associated Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela I. Pérez Sirkin; Daniela I. Pérez Sirkin; Anne-Gaëlle Lafont; Nédia Kamech; Gustavo M. Somoza; Paula G. Vissio; Paula G. Vissio; Sylvie Dufour

    2017-01-01

    GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) is the C-terminal portion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) preprohormone. Although it was reported in mammals that GAP may act as a prolactin-inhibiting factor and can be co-secreted with GnRH into the hypophyseal portal blood, GAP has been practically out of the research circuit for about 20 years. Comparative studies highlighted the low conservation of GAP primary amino acid sequences among vertebrates, contributing to consider that this peptide onl...

  12. RasGRP3 regulates the migration of glioma cells via interaction with Arp3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Poisson, Laila M.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Brodie, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors, are highly infiltrative. Although GBM express high Ras activity and Ras proteins have been implicated in gliomagenesis, Ras-activating mutations are not frequent in these tumors. RasGRP3, an important signaling protein responsive to diacylglycerol (DAG), increases Ras activation. Here, we examined the expression and functions of RasGRP3 in GBM and glioma cells. RasGRP3 expression was upregulated in GBM specimens and glioma stem cells compared with normal brains and neural stem cells, respectively. RasGRP3 activated Ras and Rap1 in glioma cells and increased cell migration and invasion partially via Ras activation. Using pull-down assay and mass spectroscopy we identified the actin-related protein, Arp3, as a novel interacting protein of RasGRP3. The interaction of RasGRP3 and Arp3 was validated by immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, and PMA, which activates RasGRP3 and induces its translocation to the peri-nuclear region, increased the association of Arp3 and RasGRP3. Arp3 was upregulated in GBM, regulated cell spreading and migration and its silencing partially decreased these effects of RasGRP3 in glioma cells. In summary, RasGRP3 acts as an important integrating signaling protein of the DAG and Ras signaling pathways and actin polymerization and represents an important therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:25682201

  13. Cell surface GRP78 facilitates hepatoma cells proliferation and migration by activating IGF-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yancun; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jinliang; Zhan, Renhui; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Defang; Li, Minjing

    2017-07-01

    The 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78) is a multifunctional chaperone that is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) often aberrant expresses in many types of tumor cells. The IGF-IR signaling plays key roles in carcinogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. The crosstalk between GRP78 and IGF-IR molecules has not well been illuminated. Here, we demonstrated a reciprocal regulation of GRP78 expression and IGF-IR pathway activation. IGF-I induced GRP78 expression in hepatoma cells. IGF-IR knockdown or IGF-IR inhibitor repressed GRP78 expression. Both phosphatidylinositol 3-kianase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways involved in IGF-I induction of GRP78 expression. Interestingly, treatment of hepatoma cells with IGF-I re-distributes GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cell surface and promotes its physical interaction with IGF-IR. Also, GRP78 promotes IGF-IR phosphorylation and activation. Blocked of GRP78 by small interfering RNA or inhibition of GRP78 function by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) blocks IGF-I induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and its downstream signaling. Further, blocked cell surface GRP78 with antibody inhibits IGF-I stimulated cellular proliferation and migration. These data reveal an essential role for the molecular chaperone GRP78 in IGF-IR signaling and implicate the use of GRP78 inhibitors in blocking IGF-IR signaling in hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF® contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3 is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds.

  15. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Justus; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Cremer, Jochen; Jahr, Holger; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds. PMID:28811680

  16. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide 6 Enhances the Healing Process and Improves the Esthetic Outcome of the Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yssel Mendoza Marí

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to its cytoprotective effects, growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6 proved to reduce liver fibrotic induration. CD36 as one of the GHRP-6 receptors appears abundantly represented in cutaneous wounds granulation tissue. The healing response in a scenario of CD36 agonistic stimulation had not been previously investigated. Excisional full-thickness wounds (6 mmØ were created in the dorsum of Wistar rats and topically treated twice a day for 5 days. The universal model of rabbit’s ears hypertrophic scars was implemented and the animals were treated daily for 30 days. Treatments for both species were based on a CMC jelly composition containing GHRP-6 400 μg/mL. Wounds response characterization included closure dynamic, RT-PCR transcriptional profile, histology, and histomorphometric procedures. The rats experiment indicated that GHRP-6 pharmacodynamics involves attenuation of immunoinflammatory mediators, their effector cells, and the reduction of the expression of fibrotic cytokines. Importantly, in the hypertrophic scars rabbit’s model, GHRP-6 intervention dramatically reduced the onset of exuberant scars by activating PPARγ and reducing the expression of fibrogenic cytokines. GHRP-6 showed no effect on the reversion of consolidated lesions. This evidence supports the notion that CD36 is an active and pharmacologically approachable receptor to attenuate wound inflammation and accelerate its closure so as to improve wound esthetic.

  17. RasGRP1, but not RasGRP3, is required for efficient thymic β-selection and ERK activation downstream of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P Golec

    Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  18. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin releases correlated with the area under the lafutidine concentration-time curve in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, K; Shimatani, T; Azuma, Y; Inoue, M; Morikawa, N

    2006-08-01

    To examine the effects of the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist, lafutidine, at clinical dosage (10 mg tablet after a standardized meal) on plasma levels of the gastrointestinal peptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin and gastrin. Six healthy male volunteers ate a standardized meal, and received either lafutidine orally at a dose of 10 mg or water only (control). Blood samples were taken before and up to 4 h after the drug administration. Plasma lafutidine concentrations were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis of lafutidine was performed using one-compartmental model. The levels of immunoreactive substances of plasma CGRP, somatostatin and gastrin were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and the amount of peptide release was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Lafutidine significantly increased plasma CGRP levels at 1, 1.5, 2.5 and 4 h and the total amount of CGRP release (192 +/- 14.0 pg.h/mL) compared with the control group (128 +/- 21.5 pg.h/mL). Lafutidine significantly increased the plasma somatostatin levels at 1 and 1.5 h, and the total amount of somatostatin released (107 +/- 18.2 pg.h/mL) compared with the control (78.4 +/- 7.70 pg.h/mL). The area under the drug concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 4 h after administration correlated well with the Delta-CGRP and Delta-somatostatin release but not with total amount of gastrin released. However, plasma gastrin levels were significantly elevated at 1.5 h after drug administration. Lafutidine at clinical dosage increases plasma CGRP and the somatostatin. The amounts released correlated with the AUC of lafutidine in humans. These results suggest that the increased release of CGRP and somatostatin may contribute to its gastroprotective and anti-acid secretory effect.

  19. High Level Soluble Expression and ATPase Characterization of Human Heat Shock Protein GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Luo, Miao; Chen, Ke; Yang, Wei; Bai, Lei; Huang, Ailong; Wang, Deqiang

    2017-02-01

    Human GRP78 has been shown to promote cancer progression and is regarded as a novel target for anticancer drugs. However, generation of recombinant full-length GRP78 remains challenging. This report demonstrates that E. coli autoinduction is an excellent method for the preparation of active recombinant GRP78 protein. The final yield was approximately 50 mg/liter of autoinduction culture. Gel-filtration experiments confirmed that the chaperone is a monomer. The purified human GRP78 catalyzed the conversion of ATP to ADP without requiring metal ions as cofactors. Three mutants, T38A, T229A, and S300A, exhibited much lower activity than wild-type GRP78, indicating that the active sites of the ATPase are located at the negatively charged cavity. Three mutants in the negatively charged cavity region dramatically reduced GRP78 activity, further confirming the region as the site of ATPase activity.

  20. Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs III - the effect of fed state conditions on the in vitro release and degradation of desmopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip C; Vaghela, Dimple; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-01-01

    The effect of food intake on the release and degradation of peptide drugs from solid lipid particles is unknown and was therefore investigated in vitro using different fed state media in a lipolysis model. Desmopressin was used as a model peptide and incorporated into solid lipid particles...... and the protease or desmopressin. Addition of a medium chain triglyceride, trilaurin, in combination with drug-loaded lipid particles diminished the food effect on the TG18 particles, and trilaurin is therefore proposed to be a suitable excipient for reduction of the food effect. Overall, the present study shows...... that strategies to reduce food effect, such as adding trilaurin, for lipid particle formulations should be considered as drug release from such formulations might be influenced by the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract....

  1. The gastric acid secretagogue gastrin-releasing peptide and the inhibitor oxyntomodulin do not exert their effect directly on the parietal cell in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Holst, J J

    1988-01-01

    in vitro by measuring [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation, a reliable index of H+ generation, in isolated rat parietal cells. However, neither gastrin-releasing peptide nor oxyntomodulin influenced basal acid secretion or histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion. Electron-microscopic studies of unstimulated...... and histamine-stimulated parietal cells confirmed that the cells retained the normal morphology of intracellular organelles and that the cells responded to physiological stimulation by marked expansion of the intracellular canaliculi....

  2. Novel lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide have prolonged half-lives and exert anti-obesity effects after peripheral administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Nagelová, Veronika; Tichá, Anežka; Zemenová, Jana; Pirník, Zdenko; Holubová, Martina; Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Blechová, Miroslava; Sýkora, D.; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2015), s. 986-993 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1368; GA ČR GAP303/12/0576; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : food intake * prolactin-releasing peptide * GPR10 receptor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2015

  3. Effects of short-term glucocorticoid deprivation on growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing peptide-6: Studies in normal men and in patients with adrenal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ana Claudia de Assis Rocha [UNIFESP; Dias-da-Silva, Magnus Régios [UNIFESP; Martins, Manoel R. [UNIFESP; Brunner, Elisa [UNIFESP; Lengyel, Ana Maria Judith [UNIFESP

    2000-01-01

    There are no data in the literature about the effects of glucocorticoid deprivation on GH-releasing peptide-g (GHRP-6)-induced GH release. the aims of this study were to evaluate GH responsiveness to GHRP-6 1) after metyrapone administration in normal men, and 2) in patients with chronic hypocortisolism after glucocorticoid withdrawal for 72 h. in normal subjects, metyrapone ingestion did not alter significantly GH responsiveness to GHRP-6 [n = 8; peak, 39.3 +/- 7.1 mu g/L; area under the cur...

  4. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero

  5. Effect of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Analogue Exenatide Extended Release in Cats with Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, A; Zini, E; Salesov, E; Fracassi, F; Padrutt, I; Macha, K; Stöckle, T M; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E

    2016-01-01

    Exenatide extended release (ER) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue that increases insulin secretion, inhibits glucagon secretion and induces satiation in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The use of exenatide ER is safe and stimulates insulin secretion in healthy cats. The objective of this study is to assess the safety of exenatide ER and its effect on body weight, remission and metabolic control in newly diagnosed diabetic cats receiving insulin and a low-carbohydrate diet. Thirty client-owned cats. Prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cats were treated with exenatide ER or 0.9% saline, administered SC, once weekly. Both groups received insulin glargine and a low-carbohydrate diet. Exenatide ER was administered for 16 weeks, or in cats that achieved remission it was given for 4 weeks after discontinuing insulin treatment. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Cats in the exenatide ER and placebo groups had transient adverse signs including decreased appetite (60% vs. 20%, respectively, P = .06) and vomiting (53% vs. 40%, respectively, P = .715). Body weight increased significantly in the placebo group (P = .002), but not in cats receiving exenatide ER. Cats on exenatide ER achieved remission or good metabolic control in 40% or 89%, respectively, whereas in control cats percentages were 20% or 58% (P = .427 and P = .178, respectively). Exenatide ER is safe in diabetic cats and does not result in weight gain. Our pilot study suggests that, should there be an additional clinically relevant beneficial effect of exenatide ER in insulin-treated cats on rate of remission and good metabolic control, it would likely approximate 20% and 30%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Impact of novel palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide analogs on metabolic changes in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pražienková

    Full Text Available Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP, have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus. Two-week treatment with analogs that were palmitoylated through linkers to Lys11 (analogs 1 and 2, but not with analog modified both at the N-terminus and Lys11 (analog 3 decreased body and liver weights, insulin, leptin, triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid plasma levels in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the expression of uncoupling protein-1 was increased in brown fat suggesting an increase in energy expenditure. In addition, treatment with analogs 1 and 2 but not analog 3 significantly decreased urinary concentrations of 1-methylnicotinamide and its oxidation products N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and N-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, as shown by NMR-based metabolomics. This observation confirmed the previously reported increase in nicotinamide derivatives in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effectiveness of analogs 1 and 2 in the treatment of these disorders.

  7. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on catecholamine release in the pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, C J; McKendry, J; Perry, S F

    2001-08-01

    The interaction between homologous C-type natriuretic peptide (dfCNP) and catecholamine release in cardiovascular control was assessed in the marine dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This was accomplished by evaluation of the dynamics of the dfCNP-elicited secretion of catecholamines in situ and in vivo. With an in situ saline-perfused postcardinal sinus preparation, it was demonstrated that perfusion with saline containing dfCNP (10(-9) mol x L(-1)) did not affect the secretion of either noradrenaline or adrenaline. However, the presence of dfCNP in the perfusate significantly enhanced carbachol-evoked secretion of noradrenaline. In vivo, intravascular injection of dfCNP (10(-9) mol x kg(-1)) caused a biphasic pressor-depressor response consisting of a brief increase in caudal artery blood pressure (P(CA)) followed by a prolonged reduction in P(CA). Furthermore, although systemic resistance initially increased, it was subsequently maintained at baseline values in the face of persistent decreases in both P(CA) and cardiac output. Bolus injection of dfCNP elicited significant increases in plasma noradrenaline levels that peaked within 10 min; plasma adrenaline levels were unaffected. The release of noradrenaline elicited by dfCNP was unaffected by prior blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril) or by pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium. The delayed decrease in P(CA) was not observed in the hexamethonium-treated fish. Prior blockade of beta-adrenoreceptors (with sotalol) or alpha-adrenoreceptors (with prazosin) either significantly reduced (sotalol) or abolished (prazosin) the increase in plasma noradrenaline levels after dfCNP injection. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the elevation of plasma noradrenaline levels observed in vivo following dfCNP injection is not caused by a direct effect of dfCNP on catecholamine secretion from axillary body chromaffin cells

  8. Renal clearance of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide pyroglutamyl-glutamyl-prolineamide in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Klootwijk (Willem); E. Sleddens-Linkels (Esther); R. de Boer (Renske); C.A. Jansen; R. Autar; W.W. de Herder (Wouter); E.R. Boeve; T.J. Visser (Theo); W.J. de Greef (W.)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTRH-like peptides have been identified that differ from TRH (pGlu-His- ProNH2) in the middle aminoacid. We have estimated TRH-like immunoreactivity (TRH-LI) in human serum and urine by RIA with TRH-specific antiserum 8880 or with antiserum 4319, which binds most peptides with the

  9. Evidence that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from isolated intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizi, E S; Somogyi, G T; Magyar, K

    1981-12-01

    1 The release of acetylcholine from guinea-pig ileal isolated longitudinal muscle strip with intact Auerbach's plexus was measured by bioassay and by a radioisotope technique. 2 Normorphine (5 x 10(-7)M) and D-Met2, Pro5-enkephalinamide (D-Met, Pro-EA) reduced the release of acetylcholine. Theophylline, an adenosine antagonist, failed to prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine or D-Met, Pro-EA. 3 Theophylline (1.7 x 10(-4)M) by itself enhanced the twitch responses to field stimulation (0.1 Hz) but did not prevent the inhibitory effect of normorphine and D-Met, Pro-EA. 4 From the results it can be concluded that morphine and opioid peptides do not share a common pathway with adenosine in inhibiting acetylcholine release from axon terminals of Auerbach's plexus.

  10. Overexpression of molecular chaperons GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nami, Babak; Ghasemi-Dizgah, Armin; Vaseghi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cell with CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phonotype is described having stem cell properties and represented as the main driving factor in breast cancer initiation, growth, metastasis and low response to anti-cancer agents. Glucoseregulated proteins (GRPs) are heat shock protein family chaperons that are charged with regulation of protein machinery and modulation of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis whose important roles in stem cell development and invasion of various cancers have been demonstrated. Here, we investigated the expression levels of GRP78 and GRP94 in CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). MCF7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were used. CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population were analyzed and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Transcriptional and translational expression of GRP78 and GRP94 were investigated by western blotting and quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS showed different proportion of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population in their original bulk cells. The ranking of the cell lines in terms of CD44(hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cell population was as MCF7hi)/CD24(lo) phenotype cells exhibited higher mRNA and protein expression level of GRP78 and GRP94 compared to their original bulk cells. Our results show a relationship between overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 and exhibiting CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype in breast cancer cells. We conclude that upregulation of GRPs may be an important factor in the emergence of CD44hi/CD24lo phenotype BCSCs features.

  11. Gla-Rich Protein Is a Potential New Vitamin K Target in Cancer: Evidences for a Direct GRP-Mineral Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. B. Viegas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gla-rich protein (GRP was described in sturgeon as a new vitamin-K-dependent protein (VKDP with a high density of Gla residues and associated with ectopic calcifications in humans. Although VKDPs function has been related with γ-carboxylation, the Gla status of GRP in humans is still unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of recently identified GRP spliced transcripts, the γ-carboxylation status, and its association with ectopic calcifications, in skin basal cell and breast carcinomas. GRP-F1 was identified as the predominant splice variant expressed in healthy and cancer tissues. Patterns of γ-carboxylated GRP (cGRP/undercarboxylated GRP (ucGRP accumulation in healthy and cancer tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry, using newly developed conformation-specific antibodies. Both GRP protein forms were found colocalized in healthy tissues, while ucGRP was the predominant form associated with tumor cells. Both cGRP and ucGRP found at sites of microcalcifications were shown to have in vitro calcium mineral-binding capacity. The decreased levels of cGRP and predominance of ucGRP in tumor cells suggest that GRP may represent a new target for the anticancer potential of vitamin K. Also, the direct interaction of cGRP and ucGRP with BCP crystals provides a possible mechanism explaining GRP association with pathological mineralization.

  12. Effects of a synthetic bioactive peptide on neurite growth and nerve growth factor release in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Conovaloff, Aaron W.; Beier, Brooke L.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has revealed robust dorsal root ganglia neurite growth in hydrogels of chondroitin sulfate. In the current work, it was determined whether addition of a synthetic bioactive peptide could augment neurite growth in these matrices via enhanced binding and sequestering of growth factors. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that addition of peptide slowed nerve growth factor diffusivity in chondroitin sulfate gels, but not in control gels of hyaluronic acid. F...

  13. Second Generation Grp94-Selective Inhibitors Provide Opportunities for the Inhibition of Metastatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, Vincent M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The University of Kansas, 1251 Wescoe Hall Dr. Malott 4070 Lawrence KS 66045 USA; Huard, Dustin J. E. [School of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 USA; Lieberman, Raquel L. [School of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 USA; Blagg, Brian S. J. [Warren Family Research Center for Drug Discovery and Development, and Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 305 McCourtney Hall Notre Dame IN 46556 USA

    2017-09-27

    Glucose regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident isoform of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) family and its inhibition represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of many diseases. Modification of the first generation cis-amide bioisostere imidazole to alter the angle between the resorcinol ring and the benzyl side chain via cis-amide replacements produced compounds with improved Grp94 affinity and selectivity. Structure–activity relationship studies led to the discovery of compound 30, which exhibits 540 nm affinity and 73-fold selectivity towards Grp94. Grp94 is responsible for the maturation and trafficking of proteins associated with cell signaling and motility, including select integrins. The Grp94-selective inhibitor 30 was shown to exhibit potent anti-migratory effects against multiple aggressive and metastatic cancers.

  14. On the blood-brain barrier to peptides: [3H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J.; Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R.

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of [ 3 H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([ 3 H]GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g -1 of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of [ 3 H]GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated [ 3 H]OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of [ 3 H]GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for [ 3 H]GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated. (author)

  15. Peptide chemistry toolbox - Transforming natural peptides into peptide therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erak, Miloš; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Els-Heindl, Sylvia; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2018-06-01

    The development of solid phase peptide synthesis has released tremendous opportunities for using synthetic peptides in medicinal applications. In the last decades, peptide therapeutics became an emerging market in pharmaceutical industry. The need for synthetic strategies in order to improve peptidic properties, such as longer half-life, higher bioavailability, increased potency and efficiency is accordingly rising. In this mini-review, we present a toolbox of modifications in peptide chemistry for overcoming the main drawbacks during the transition from natural peptides to peptide therapeutics. Modifications at the level of the peptide backbone, amino acid side chains and higher orders of structures are described. Furthermore, we are discussing the future of peptide therapeutics development and their impact on the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of collagen peptide functionalized chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method: An effective carrier system for encapsulation and release of doxorubicin for cancer drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandhakumar, S., E-mail: rsanandhakumar@gmail.com [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Krishnamoorthy, G.; Ramkumar, K.M. [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Raichur, A.M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) based on biopolymers or peptides are gaining popularity for the encapsulation and release of drug molecules, especially for cancer therapy, due to their ability for targeted and controlled release. The use of collagen peptide (CP) for the preparation of chitosan (CN) NPs is especially interesting as it results in NPs that are stable under physiological conditions. In this work, mono-dispersed pH responsive CPCN NPs of about 100 nm were prepared via ionic gelation method by simple and mild co-precipitation of CN and CP. Investigation of NPs with Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements reveals that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions are believed to be major driving forces for NP formation and drug encapsulation, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations show that hard and fine CPCN NPs transform to soft and bigger gel like particles as a function of collagen concentration. The unique “polymeric gel” structure of NPs showed high encapsulation efficiency towards doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as well as pH controlled release. Anti-proliferative and cell viability analysis revealed that DOX loaded NPs showed excellent anti-proliferative characteristics against HeLa cells with favorable biocompatibility against normal cells. Such NPs have high potential for use as smart drug delivery carriers in advanced cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Preparation of collagen peptide functionalized chitosan nanoparticles • Hydrogen bonding plays a key role in particle formation. • Electrostatic interaction plays a key role in drug encapsulation. • Functionalized chitosan particles are more stable than chitosan NPs.

  17. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  18. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent. PMID:24464222

  19. Isthmin targets cell-surface GRP78 and triggers apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Zhang, Y; Yu, V C; Chong, Y-S; Yoshioka, T; Ge, R

    2014-05-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a secreted 60-kDa protein that potently induces endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. It suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in mice when stably overexpressed in cancer cells. Although αvβ5 integrin serves as a low-affinity receptor for ISM, the mechanism by which ISM mediates antiangiogenesis and apoptosis in ECs remain to be fully resolved. In this work, we report the identification of cell-surface glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) as a high-affinity receptor for ISM (Kd=8.6 nM). We demonstrated that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers apoptosis not only in activated ECs but also in cancer cells expressing high level of cell-surface GRP78. Normal cells and benign tumor cells tend to express low level of cell-surface GRP78 and are resistant to ISM-induced apoptosis. Upon binding to GRP78, ISM is internalized into ECs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis that is essential for its proapoptotic activity. Once inside the cell, ISM co-targets with GRP78 to mitochondria where it interacts with ADP/ATP carriers on the inner membrane and blocks ATP transport from mitochondria to cytosol, thereby causing apoptosis. Hence, ISM is a novel proapoptotic ligand that targets cell-surface GRP78 to trigger apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The restricted and high-level expression of cell-surface GRP78 on cancer cells and cancer ECs make them uniquely susceptible to ISM-targeted apoptosis. Indeed, systemic delivery of recombinant ISM potently suppressed subcutaneous 4T1 breast carcinoma and B16 melanoma growth in mice by eliciting apoptosis selectively in the cancer cells and cancer ECs. Together, this work reveals a novel ISM-GRP78 apoptosis pathway and demonstrates the potential of ISM as a cancer-specific and dual-targeting anticancer agent.

  20. RasGRP1 confers the phorbol ester-sensitive phenotype to EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shujie; Knoepp, Stewart M; Hallman, Mark A; Meier, Kathryn E

    2007-01-01

    The murine EL4 lymphoma cell line exists in variants that are either sensitive or resistant to the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). In sensitive EL4 cells, PMA causes robust Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase activation that results in growth arrest. In resistant cells, PMA induces minimal Erk activation, without growth arrest. PMA stimulates IL-2 production in sensitive, but not resistant, cells. The role of RasGRP1, a PMA-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras, in EL4 phenotype was examined. Endogenous RasGRP1 protein is expressed at much higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells. PMA-induced Ras activation is observed in sensitive cells but not in resistant cells lacking Ras-GRP1. PMA induces down-regulation of RasGRP1 protein in sensitive cells but increases RasGRP1 in resistant cells. Transfection of RasGRP1 into resistant cells enhances PMA-induced Erk activation. In the reverse experiment, introduction of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for RasGRP1 suppresses PMA-induced Ras and Erk activations in sensitive cells. Sensitive cells incubated with siRNA for RasGRP1 exhibit the PMA-resistant phenotype, in that they are able to proliferate in the presence of PMA and do not secrete IL-2 when stimulated with PMA. These studies indicate that the PMA-sensitive phenotype, as previously defined for the EL4 cell line, is conferred by endogenous expression of RasGRP1 protein.

  1. Renal clearance of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide pyroglutamyl-glutamyl-prolineamide in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Klootwijk (Willem); E. Sleddens-Linkels (Esther); R.D.H. de Boer (Remco); C.A. Jansen; R. Autar; W.W. de Herder (Wouter); E.R. Boeve; T.J. Visser (Theo); W.J. de Greef

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTRH-like peptides have been identified that differ from TRH (pGlu-His-ProNH2) in the middle amino acid. We have estimated TRH-like immunoreactivity (TRH-LI) in human serum and urine by RIA with TRH-specific antiserum 8880 or with antiserum 4319, which binds

  2. One-pot synthesis of water soluble iron nanoparticles using rationally-designed peptides and ligand release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papst, Stefanie; Cheong, Soshan; Banholzer, Moritz J; Brimble, Margaret A; Williams, David E; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-05-18

    Herein we report the rational design of new phosphopeptides for control of nucleation, growth and aggregation of water-soluble, superparamagnetic iron-iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles. The use of the designed peptides enables a one-pot synthesis that avoids utilizing unstable or toxic iron precursors, organic solvents, and the need for exchange of capping agent after synthesis of the NPs.

  3. Microspheres based on biodegradable functionalized poly(alpha-hydroxy) acids for the controlled release of bioactive proteins and peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical peptides/proteins have proven to be potent molecules for the treatment of a great variety of chronic and life threatening diseases. These molecules however demand a suitable formulation for their successful delivery. For formulation and delivery of such molecules the parenteral route

  4. In vitro evaluation of (99m)Tc-EDDA/tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin in gastrin-releasing peptide receptor positive tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma; Durkan, Kübra; Ozgür, Aykut; Gündüz, Cumhur; Avcı, Cığır Biray; Susluer, Sunde Yılmaz

    2013-05-01

    Bombesin and its derivatives exhibit a high affinity for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr), which is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers (prostate, pancreatic, lung, etc.). The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro potential of the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-Q-Litorin. (99m)Tc labeling was performed by using different co-ligands: tricine and ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA). The radiochemical stability of radiolabeled peptide conjugates was checked at room temperature and in cysteine solution up to 24 h. The in vitro cell uptake of (99m)Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and (99m)Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were evaluated on pancreatic tumor and control cell lines. Optimum specific activity and incubation time were determined for all the cell lines. The results showed that the cell uptake of the radiolabeled peptide conjugates in tumor cell lines were higher than in the control cell line. The findings of this study indicated the need for further development of in vivo study as a radiopharmaceutical for pancreatic tumor imaging.

  5. Conservation of Three-Dimensional Helix-Loop-Helix Structure through the Vertebrate Lineage Reopens the Cold Case of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Associated Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sirkin, Daniela I; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Kamech, Nédia; Somoza, Gustavo M; Vissio, Paula G; Dufour, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) is the C-terminal portion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) preprohormone. Although it was reported in mammals that GAP may act as a prolactin-inhibiting factor and can be co-secreted with GnRH into the hypophyseal portal blood, GAP has been practically out of the research circuit for about 20 years. Comparative studies highlighted the low conservation of GAP primary amino acid sequences among vertebrates, contributing to consider that this peptide only participates in the folding or carrying process of GnRH. Considering that the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein may define its function, the aim of this study was to evaluate if GAP sequences and 3D structures are conserved in the vertebrate lineage. GAP sequences from various vertebrates were retrieved from databases. Analysis of primary amino acid sequence identity and similarity, molecular phylogeny, and prediction of 3D structures were performed. Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogeny analyses confirmed the large variation of GAP sequences throughout vertebrate radiation. In contrast, prediction of the 3D structure revealed a striking conservation of the 3D structure of GAP1 (GAP associated with the hypophysiotropic type 1 GnRH), despite low amino acid sequence conservation. This GAP1 peptide presented a typical helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure in all the vertebrate species analyzed. This HLH structure could also be predicted for GAP2 in some but not all vertebrate species and in none of the GAP3 analyzed. These results allowed us to infer that selective pressures have maintained GAP1 HLH structure throughout the vertebrate lineage. The conservation of the HLH motif, known to confer biological activity to various proteins, suggests that GAP1 peptides may exert some hypophysiotropic biological functions across vertebrate radiation.

  6. Conservation of Three-Dimensional Helix-Loop-Helix Structure through the Vertebrate Lineage Reopens the Cold Case of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Associated Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I. Pérez Sirkin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available GnRH-associated peptide (GAP is the C-terminal portion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH preprohormone. Although it was reported in mammals that GAP may act as a prolactin-inhibiting factor and can be co-secreted with GnRH into the hypophyseal portal blood, GAP has been practically out of the research circuit for about 20 years. Comparative studies highlighted the low conservation of GAP primary amino acid sequences among vertebrates, contributing to consider that this peptide only participates in the folding or carrying process of GnRH. Considering that the three-dimensional (3D structure of a protein may define its function, the aim of this study was to evaluate if GAP sequences and 3D structures are conserved in the vertebrate lineage. GAP sequences from various vertebrates were retrieved from databases. Analysis of primary amino acid sequence identity and similarity, molecular phylogeny, and prediction of 3D structures were performed. Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogeny analyses confirmed the large variation of GAP sequences throughout vertebrate radiation. In contrast, prediction of the 3D structure revealed a striking conservation of the 3D structure of GAP1 (GAP associated with the hypophysiotropic type 1 GnRH, despite low amino acid sequence conservation. This GAP1 peptide presented a typical helix-loop-helix (HLH structure in all the vertebrate species analyzed. This HLH structure could also be predicted for GAP2 in some but not all vertebrate species and in none of the GAP3 analyzed. These results allowed us to infer that selective pressures have maintained GAP1 HLH structure throughout the vertebrate lineage. The conservation of the HLH motif, known to confer biological activity to various proteins, suggests that GAP1 peptides may exert some hypophysiotropic biological functions across vertebrate radiation.

  7. Omega-conotoxin- and nifedipine-insensitive voltage-operated calcium channels mediate K(+)-induced release of pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone-connecting peptides Ps4 and Ps5 from perifused rat hypothalamic slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, K; Tranchand Bunel, D; Vaudry, H

    1992-07-01

    The rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) precursor (prepro-TRH) contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence linked together by intervening sequences. Recently, we have shown that the connecting peptides prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and prepro-TRH-(178-199) (Ps5) are released from rat hypothalamic neurones in response to elevated potassium concentrations, in a calcium-dependent manner. In the present study, the role of voltage-operated calcium channels in potassium-induced release of Ps4 and Ps5 was investigated, using a perifusion system for rat hypothalamic slices. The release of Ps4 and Ps5 stimulated by potassium (70 mM) was blocked by the inorganic ions Co2+ (2.6 mM) and Ni2+ (5 mM). In contrast, the stimulatory effect of KCl was insensitive to Cd2+ (100 microM). The dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine (10 microM) had no effect on K(+)-evoked release of Ps4 and Ps5. Furthermore, the response to KCl was not affected by nifedipine (10 microM) in combination with diltiazem (1 microM), a benzothiazepine which increases the affinity of dihydropyridine antagonists for their receptor. The dihydropyridine agonist BAY K 8644, at concentrations as high as 1 mM, did not stimulate the basal secretion of Ps4 and Ps5. In addition, BAY K 8644 had no potentiating effect on K(+)-induced release of Ps4 and Ps5. The marine cone snail toxin omega-conotoxin, a blocker of both L- and N-type calcium channels had no effect on the release of Ps4 and Ps5 stimulated by potassium. Similarly, the omega-conopeptide SNX-111, a selective blocker of N-type calcium channels, did not inhibit the stimulatory effect of potassium. The release of Ps4 and Ps5 evoked by high K+ was insensitive to the non-selective calcium channel blocker verapamil (20 microM). Amiloride (1 microM), a putative blocker of T-type calcium channels, did not affect KCl-induced secretion of the two connecting peptides. Taken together, these results indicate that two connecting peptides derived from the pro-TRH, Ps

  8. Neurochemical evidence that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide modulates the dopaminergic reward system by decreasing the dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovska, Angelina; Baranyi, Maria; Windisch, Katalin; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Gagov, Hristo; Kalfin, Reni

    2017-09-01

    CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system. Thus in the present study, we examined the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on the basal, electrical field stimulation-evoked (EFS-evoked) (30V, 2Hz, 120 shocks) and returning basal dopamine (DA) release and on the release of the DA metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetaldehyde (DOPAL), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) as well as on norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine-o-quinone (Daq) in isolated mouse nucleus accumbens, in a preparation, in which any CART peptide effects on the dendrites or soma of ventral tegmental projection neurons have been excluded. We further extended our study to assess the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on basal cocaine-induced release of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAL, DOPAC, HVA, DOPET and 3-MT as well as on NE and Daq. To analyze the amount of [ 3 H]dopamine, dopamine metabolites, Daq and NE in the nucleus accumbens superfusate, a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with electrochemical, UV and radiochemical detections was used. CART (55-102) peptide, 0.1μM, added alone, exerted: (i) a significant decrease in the basal and EFS-evoked levels of extracellular dopamine (ii) a significant increase in the EFS-evoked and returning basal levels of the dopamine metabolites DOPAC and HVA, major products of dopamine degradation and (iii) a significant decrease in the returning basal

  9. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph F.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Brill, Allison L.; Brar, Harpreet K.; Thompson, Mary F.; Cadena, Mark T.; Connors, Kelsey M.; Busch, Rebecca A.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Cham, Candace M.; Jones, Elaina K.; Kibbe, Carly R.; Davis, Dawn B.; Groblewski, Guy E.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  10. The analgesic agent tapentadol inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat brainstem via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Maria Cristina; Navarra, Pierluigi; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that tapentadol inhibits GGRP release from the rat brainstem through a mechanism mediated by the inhibition of NA reuptake; as a second alternative hypothesis, we investigated whether tapentadol inhibits GGRP release via the inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Rat brainstems were explanted and incubated in short-term experiments. CGRP released in the incubation medium was taken as a marker of CGRP release from the central terminals of trigeminal neurons within the brainstem. CGRP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay under basal conditions or in the presence of tapentadol; NA, 5-HT, clonidine, yohimbine and ondansetron were used as pharmacological tools to investigate the action mechanism of tapentadol. The α2-antagonist yohimbine failed to counteract the effects of tapentadol. Moreover, neither NA nor the α2-agonist clonidine per se inhibited K(+)-stimulated CGRP release, thereby indicating that the effects of tapentadol are nor mediated through the block of NA reuptake. Further experiments showed that 5-HT and tramadol, which inhibits both NA and 5-HT reuptake, significantly reduced K(+)-stimulated CGRP release. Moreover, the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was able to counteract the effects of tapentadol in this system. This study provided pharmacological evidence that tapentadol inhibits stimulated CGRP release from the rat brainstem in vitro through a mechanism involving an increase in 5-HT levels in the system and the subsequent activation of 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    was abolished by infusion of hexamethonium (3x10(-5) M). Infusion of capsaicin (10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in the release of CGRP-LI to 485+/-82% of basal output (n=5). Our results suggest a dual origin of CGRP innervation of the porcine ileum (intrinsic and extrinsic). The intrinsic CGRP neurons...... extracts, CGRP-LI corresponded entirely to porcine CGRP plus smaller amounts of oxidised CGRP. Using isolated vascularly perfused segments of the ileum, we studied the release of CGRP-LI in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed extrinsic periarterial nerves and to infusion of different...... receive excitatory input by parasympathetic, possibly vagal, preganglionic fibres, via release of acetylcholine acting on nicotinic receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin suggests that CGRP is also released from extrinsic sensory neurons....

  12. Secretion of the endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, GRP78, into the BALF is increased in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mark O; Kim, Victor; Cornwell, William D; Rogers, Thomas J; Kosmider, Beata; Bahmed, Karim; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim; Shetty, Neena; Kelsen, Steven G

    2017-05-02

    Identification of biomarkers of cigarette smoke -induced lung damage and early COPD is an area of intense interest. Glucose regulated protein of 78 kD (i.e., GRP78), a multi-functional protein which mediates cell responses to oxidant stress, is increased in the lungs of cigarette smokers and in the serum of subjects with COPD. We have suggested that secretion of GRP78 by lung cells may explain the increase in serum GRP78 in COPD. To assess GRP78 secretion by the lung, we assayed GRP78 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in chronic smokers and non-smokers. We also directly assessed the acute effect of cigarette smoke material on GRP78 secretion in isolated human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). GRP78 was measured in BALF of smokers (S; n = 13) and non-smokers (NS; n = 11) by Western blotting. GRP78 secretion by HAEC was assessed by comparing its concentration in cell culture medium and cell lysates. Cells were treated for 24 h with either the volatile phase of cigarette smoke (cigarette smoke extract (CSE) or the particulate phase (cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)). GRP78 was present in the BALF of both NS and S but levels were significantly greater in S (p = 0.04). GRP78 was secreted constitutively in HAEC. CSE 15% X 24 h increased GRP78 in cell-conditioned medium without affecting its intracellular concentration. In contrast, CSC X 24 h increased intracellular GRP78 expression but did not affect GRP78 secretion. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of classical Golgi secretion pathways, did not inhibit GRP78 secretion indicating that non-classical pathways were involved. The present study indicates that GRP78 is increased in BALF in cigarette smokers; that HAEC secrete GRP78; and that GRP78 secretion by HAEC is augmented by cigarette smoke particulates. Enhanced secretion of GRP78 by lung cells makes it a potential biomarker of cigarette smoke-induced lung injury.

  13. BAG3 sensitizes cancer cells exposed to DNA damaging agents via direct interaction with GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Li, Chao; Liu, Bao-Qin; Guan, Yifu; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2013-12-01

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has a modular structure that contains a BAG domain, a WW domain, a proline-rich (PxxP) domain to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and other proteins that participate in more than one signal transduction. In search for novel interacting partners, the current study identified that 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was a novel partner interacting with BAG3. Interaction between GRP78 and BAG3 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown. We also identified that the ATPase domain of GRP78 and BAG domain of BAG3 mediated their interaction. Counterintuitive for a prosurvival protein, BAG3 was found to promote the cytotoxicity of breast cancer MCF7, thyroid cancer FRO and glioma U87 cells subjected to genotoxic stress. In addition, the current study demonstrated that BAG3 interfered with the formation of the antiapoptotic GRP78-procaspase-7 complex, which resulted in an increased genotoxic stress-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of GRP78 significantly blocked the enhancing effects of BAG3 on activation of caspase-7 and induction of apoptosis by genotoxic stress. Overall, these results suggested that through direct interaction BAG3 could prevent the antiapoptotic effect of GRP78 upon genotoxic stress. © 2013.

  14. Determination of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) and their major metabolites in human urine for doping controls by means of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andreas; Höppner, Sebastian; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Petrou, Michael; Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Thevis, Mario

    2011-08-01

    A family of small peptides has reached the focus of doping controls representing a comparably new strategy for cheating sportsmen. These growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) are orally active and induce an increased production of endogenous growth hormone (GH). While the established test for exogenous GH fails, the misuse of these prohibited substances remains unrecognized. The present study provides data for the efficient extraction of a variety of known drug candidates (GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-4, GHRP-5, GHRP-6, alexamorelin, ipamorelin, and hexarelin) from human urine with subsequent mass spectrometric detection after liquid chromatographic separation. The used method potentially enables the retrospective evaluation of the acquired data for unknown metabolites by means of a non-targeted approach with high-resolution/high-accuracy full-scan mass spectrometry with additional higher collision energy dissociation experiments. This is of great importance due to the currently unknown metabolism of most of the targets and, thus, the method is focused on the intact peptidic drugs. Only the already characterised major metabolite of GHRP-2 (D-Ala-D-2-naphthylAla-L-Ala, as well as its stable isotope-labelled analogue) was synthesised and implemented in the detection assay. Method validation for qualitative purpose was performed with respect to specificity, precision (<20%), intermediate precision (<20%), recovery (47-95%), limit of detection (0.2-1 ng/mL), linearity, ion suppression and stability. Two stable isotope-labelled internal standards were used (deuterium-labelled GHRP-4 and GHRP-2 metabolite). The proof-of-principle was obtained by the analysis of excretion study urine samples obtained from a single oral administration of 10 mg of GHRP-2. Here, the known metabolite was detectable over 20 h after administration while the intact drug was not observed.

  15. One-week glucose control via zero-order release kinetics from an injectable depot of glucagon-like peptide-1 fused to a thermosensitive biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuhl, Kelli M; Schaal, Jeffrey L; Umstead, Bret; Mastria, Eric M; Li, Xinghai; Banskota, Samagya; Arnold, Susan; Feinglos, Mark; D'Alessio, David; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Stimulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor is a useful treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes because of pleiotropic effects, including the regulation of islet hormones and the induction of satiety. However, the native ligand for the GLP1 receptor has a short half-live owing to enzymatic inactivation and rapid clearance. Here, we show that a subcutaneous depot formed after a single injection of GLP1 recombinantly fused to a thermosensitive elastin-like polypeptide results in zero-order release kinetics and circulation times of up to 10 days in mice and 17 days in monkeys. The optimized pharmacokinetics leads to 10 days of glycemic control in three different mouse models of diabetes, as well as to the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin levels and weight gain in ob/ob mice treated once weekly for 8 weeks. Our results suggest that the optimized GLP1 formulation could enhance therapeutic outcomes by eliminating peak-and-valley pharmacokinetics and improving overall safety and tolerability. The design principles that we established should be broadly applicable for improving the pharmacological performance of other peptide and protein therapeutics.

  16. SHP-1, a novel peptide isolated from seahorse inhibits collagen release through the suppression of collagenases 1 and 3, nitric oxide products regulated by NF-kappaB/p38 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been taken to identify natural peptides as potential bioactive substances. In this study, novel peptide (SHP-1) derived from seahorse (Hippocampus, Syngnathidae) hydrolysate was explored for its inhibitory effects on collagen release in arthritis with the investigation of its underlying mechanism of action. The efficacy of SHP-1 was determined on cartilage protective effects such as inhibition of collagen and GAG release. SHP-1 was able to suppress not only the expression of collagenases 1 and 3, but also the production of NO via down-regulation of iNOS. However, it presented an irrelevant effect on the level of GAG release in chondrocytic and osteoblastic cells. Inhibition of collagen release by SHP-1 is associated with restraining the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and p38 kinase cascade. Therefore, it could be suggested that SHP-1 has a potential to be used in arthritis treatment.

  17. Randomized Trial of a Group Music and Imagery Method (GrpMI) for Women with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Esperanza; Pedersen, Inge N; Pérez-Fernández, José I

    2018-06-07

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to examine preliminary efficacy of a Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI) intervention, which included relaxation, music listening, and spontaneous imagery, to improve subjective psychological well-being, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety, and depression in women with FM. Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 years (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM were randomly assigned to either GrpMI treatment (n = 33) or control (n = 26) condition. Experimental group participants received 12 weekly GrpMI sessions, and control group participants who did not receive any additional service completed measures at the same time points as the experimental group. Intra-group analyses showed that GrpMI participants had a significant increase in psychological well-being and significant decrease in the impact of FM on functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety, and depression post-treatment, with sustained benefit at three-month follow-up for all variables except psychological well-being. Control group participants showed decreases in trait anxiety and depression at post-treatment, with no significant benefit at three-month follow-up. Inter-group analyses showed that compared with control participants, GRpMI participants had significantly higher scores for psychological well-being and lower-state anxiety post-treatment; however, no differences were observed between groups at three-month follow-up. Findings offer preliminary evidence for the benefit of GrpMI to improve well-being and reduce anxiety in women with FM. Findings also suggest that GrpMI may help diminish pain intensity, state depression, and the impact of FM on functional capacity and health, but further studies are needed to establish efficacy.

  18. Multi-functional system of radiotherapy and thermal phototherapy for tumors that over-express receptors of the gastrin releasing peptide; Sistema multifuncional de radioterapia y fototerapia termica para tumores que sobre-expresan receptores del peptido liberador de gastrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez M, N. P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this research was to prepare and characterize a multifunctional system of {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc-labelled gold nanoparticles conjugated to Tat(49 57)-Lys{sup 3} bombesin ({sup 177}Lu/{sup 99m}Tc- AuNP-Tat-Bn) and to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose in GRP receptor positive PC3 tumours induced in mice (human prostate cancer cells), as well as to evaluate the thermal effect produced by the multifunctional system in PC3 cancer cells. The preparation of the system involved the conjugation of Bn-Tat, DOTA-GGC and HYNICTOC peptides to AuNP of 20 nm or 5 nm in diameter. The radiolabeling of the system with {sup 99m}Tc was carried out through the ligand HYNIC-TOC and with the {sup 177}Lu through DOTA-GGC. The functionalization of peptides to AuNP, was accomplished through a spontaneous reaction of thiol groups. The system was characterized by spectroscopic techniques while radiochemical purity was determined by size-exclusion molecular chromatography and ultrafiltration. Various internalization trials and non-specific binding were tested to demonstrate the affinity of the system to PC3 cells. The thermal effect was evaluated incubating the system into PC3 cells and irradiating it with a Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam and monitoring the temperature; after irradiation, cell viability was measured. In the evaluation of absorbed dose in mice with induced tumours, the system was administered intratumorally and later, mice were sacrificed, relevant organs and tumor were extracted, activity was quantified and radiopharmaceutical models were obtained for each organ and tumor to be used in the accumulated activity and absorbed dose calculation by the MIRD methodology. Finally, to establish the system location at cellular level, fluorescent images of the system incubated in PC3 cells were acquired with an epi fluorescent microscope. Tem, UV-Vis, XP S and Far-IR spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that AuNPs were functionalized with peptides through interactions with

  19. Adenosine-derived inhibitors of 78 kDa glucose regulated protein (Grp78) ATPase: insights into isoform selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Alba T; Williamson, Douglas S; Allen, Nicola; Borgognoni, Jenifer; Clay, Alexandra; Daniels, Zoe; Dokurno, Pawel; Drysdale, Martin J; Francis, Geraint L; Graham, Christopher J; Howes, Rob; Matassova, Natalia; Murray, James B; Parsons, Rachel; Shaw, Terry; Surgenor, Allan E; Terry, Lindsey; Wang, Yikang; Wood, Mike; Massey, Andrew J

    2011-06-23

    78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp78) is a heat shock protein (HSP) involved in protein folding that plays a role in cancer cell proliferation. Binding of adenosine-derived inhibitors to Grp78 was characterized by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. The most potent compounds were 13 (VER-155008) with K(D) = 80 nM and 14 with K(D) = 60 nM. X-ray crystal structures of Grp78 bound to ATP, ADPnP, and adenosine derivative 10 revealed differences in the binding site between Grp78 and homologous proteins.

  20. Some commonly used brominated flame retardants cause Ca2+-ATPase inhibition, beta-amyloid peptide release and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Al-Mousa

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFRs are chemicals commonly used to reduce the flammability of consumer products and are considered pollutants since they have become widely dispersed throughout the environment and have also been shown to bio-accumulate within animals and man. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some of the most commonly used groups of BFRs on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The results showed that of the BFRs tested, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBPE, all are cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations (LC(50 being 2.7 ± 0.7 µM, 15 ± 4 µM and 28 ± 7 µM, respectively. They induced cell death, at least in part, by apoptosis through activation of caspases. They also increased intracellular [Ca(2+] levels and reactive-oxygen-species within these neuronal cells. Furthermore, these BFRs also caused rapid depolarization of the mitochondria and cytochrome c release in these neuronal cells. Elevated intracellular [Ca(2+] levels appear to occur through a mechanism involving microsomal Ca(2+-ATPase inhibition and this maybe responsible for Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, µM levels of these BFRs caused β-amyloid peptide (Aβ-42 processing and release from these cells with a few hours of exposure. These results therefore shows that these pollutants are both neurotoxic and amyloidogenic in-vitro.

  1. Expression of the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor, the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen and the Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; van den Heuvel, Marius C.; Helfrich, Wijnand; de Jong, Igle J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Cell membrane antigens like the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), expressed in prostate cancer, are attractive targets for new therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Therefore, we

  2. Structure determination by 1H NMR spectroscopy of (sulfated) sialylated N-linked carbohydrate chains released from porcine thyroglobulin by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase-F

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Waard, P. de; Koorevaar, A.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The N-linked carbohydrate chains of porcine thyroglobulin were released by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase-F (PNGase- F). The resulting oligosaccharides were fractionated by a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and

  3. Radiometal-Dependent Biological Profile of the Radiolabeled Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist SB3 in Cancer Theranostics: Metabolic and Biodistribution Patterns Defined by Neprilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperis, Emmanouil; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Sallegger, Werner; Bakker, Ingrid L; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A

    2018-05-16

    Recent advances in oncology involve the use of diagnostic/therapeutic radionuclide-carrier pairs that target cancer cells, offering exciting opportunities for personalized patient treatment. Theranostic gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)-directed radiopeptides have been proposed for the management of GRPR-expressing prostate and breast cancers. We have recently introduced the PET tracer 68 Ga-SB3 (SB3, DOTA- p-aminomethylaniline-diglycolic acid-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHEt), a receptor-radioantagonist that enables the visualization of GRPR-positive lesions in humans. Aiming to fully assess the theranostic potential of SB3, we herein report on the impact of switching 68 Ga to 111 In/ 177 Lu-label on the biological properties of resulting radiopeptides. Notably, the bioavailability of 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 in mice drastically deteriorated compared with metabolically robust 68 Ga-SB3, and as a result led to poorer 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 uptake in GRPR-positive PC-3 xenografts. The peptide cleavage sites were identified by chromatographic comparison of blood samples from mice intravenously receiving 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 with each of newly synthesized 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3-fragments. Coinjection of the radioconjugates with the neprilysin (NEP)-inhibitor phosphoramidon led to full stabilization of 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 in peripheral mouse blood and resulted in markedly enhanced radiolabel uptake in the PC-3 tumors. In conclusion, in situ NEP-inhibition led to indistinguishable 68 Ga/ 111 In/ 177 Lu-SB3 profiles in mice emphasizing the theranostic prospects of SB3 for clinical use.

  4. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaonan Sun

    Full Text Available The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS, subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs. Whether the ERS pathway is involved in radioresistance after administration of cetuximab has not been reported. Herein, we show that cetuximab could increase the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells but not Detroit562 cells. In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells. Silencing GRP78 increased the radiosensitivity of oropharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibited radiation-induced DNA double-strand-break (DSB repair and autophagy. More interestingly, silencing GRP78 abrogated resistance to cetuximab and radiation in Detroit562 cells and had a synergistic effect with cetuximab in increasing the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that overexpression of both GRP78 and EGFR was associated with a poor prognosis in oropharyngeal carcinoma patients (P<0.05. Overall, the results of this study show that radioresistance after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab is mediated by the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78. This suppression was consequently unable to inhibit radiation-induced DSB repair and autophagy in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells, which conferred resistance to radiotherapy and cetuximab. These results suggest that the cooperative effects of radiotherapy and cetuximab could be further improved by inhibiting GRP78 in non-responsive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  5. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  6. Cell surface localization of the 78 kD glucose regulated protein (GRP 78) induced by thapsigargin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, A; Piselli, P; Vismara, D; Vendetti, S; Colizzi, V

    1998-01-01

    In the present study it was found that the synthesis of the 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78 or BIP) is vigorously induced in human rabdomiosarcoma cells (TE 671/RD) following both short-term (1 h) and prolonged (18 h) exposure to 100 nM thapsigargin (Tg). Flow cytometric analysis with a specific anti-GRP 78 polyclonal antibody showed that Tg-treated cells express the GRP 78 on the plasma membrane. Cell surface localization of the Tg-induced GRP 78 was confirmed by biotinylation of membrane-exposed proteins and subsequent isolation of the biotin-labelled proteins by streptavidin/agarose affinity chromatography. It was found that a fraction of the Tg-induced GRP 78 is present among the biotin-labelled, surface-exposed, proteins. Conversely, the GRP 78 immunoprecipitated from unfractionated lysates of Tg-treated and biotin-reacted cells was found to be biotinylated. This is the first report demonstrating surface expression of GRP 78 in cells exposed to a specific GRP 78-inducing stimulus.

  7. GRP1 PH Domain, Like AKT1 PH Domain, Possesses a Sentry Glutamate Residue Essential for Specific Targeting to Plasma Membrane PI(3,4,5)P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P3, an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P2 and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P3 target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al (1), revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P2, thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P3 targeting (2). The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P2 affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis the present study investigates the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of General Receptor for Phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P2 affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2 releases E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm and the efficiency of this release increases when target Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K (1, 3). Analysis of available PH domain structures suggests that a lone glutamate residue (or, in some cases an aspartate) is a common, perhaps ubiquitous, feature of PI(3,4,5)P3-specific binding

  8. Autoreceptor Modulation of Peptide/Neurotransmitter Co-release from PDF Neurons Determines Allocation of Circadian Activity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Charles; Cao, Guan; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; McCarthy, Ellena v.; Jung, Misun; Schleyer, William; Shang, Yuhua; Rosbash, Michael; Yin, Jerry C.P.; Nitabach, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster flies concentrate behavioral activity around dawn and dusk. This organization of daily activity is controlled by central circadian clock neurons, including the lateral ventral pacemaker neurons (LNvs) that secrete the neuropeptide PDF (Pigment Dispersing Factor). Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for PDF signaling to PDF receptor (PDFR)-expressing dorsal clock neurons in organizing circadian activity. While LNvs also express functional PDFR, the role of these autoreceptors has remained enigmatic. Here we show that (1) PDFR activation in LNvs shifts the balance of circadian activity from evening to morning, similar to behavioral responses to summer-like environmental conditions and (2) this shift is mediated by stimulation of the Ga,s-cAMP pathway and a consequent change in PDF/neurotransmitter co-release from the LNvs. These results suggest a novel mechanism for environmental control of the allocation of circadian activity and provide new general insight into the role of neuropeptide autoreceptors in behavioral control circuits. PMID:22938867

  9. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  11. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  12. Which way is the wind blowing for GRP? Materials and processes for manufacturing rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittmann, E. [Werkstoff and Struktur, Herreth (Germany)

    2002-11-01

    The material technology for the production of large-area rotor blades made of glass reinforced plastics (GRP) constitutes an important milestone in development. Customised resin systems, flexible, automated processing methods and high component quality document the progress made in the wind power industry. (orig.)

  13. Targeting HSP70 and GRP78 in canine osteosarcoma cells in combination with doxorubicin chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asling, Jonathan; Morrison, Jodi; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones subdivided into several families based on their molecular weight. Due to their cytoprotective roles, these proteins may help protect cancer cells against chemotherapy-induced cell death. Investigation into the biologic activity of HSPs in a variety of cancers including primary bone tumors, such as osteosarcoma (OSA), is of great interest. Both human and canine OSA tumor samples have aberrant production of HSP70. This study assessed the response of canine OSA cells to inhibition of HSP70 and GRP78 by the ATP-mimetic VER-155008 and whether this treatment strategy could sensitize cells to doxorubicin chemotherapy. Single-agent VER-155008 treatment decreased cellular viability and clonogenic survival and increased apoptosis in canine OSA cell lines. However, combination schedules with doxorubicin after pretreatment with VER-155008 did not improve inhibition of cellular viability, apoptosis, or clonogenic survival. Treatment with VER-155008 prior to chemotherapy resulted in an upregulation of target proteins HSP70 and GRP78 in addition to the co-chaperone proteins Herp, C/EBP homologous transcription protein (CHOP), and BAG-1. The increased GRP78 was more cytoplasmic in location compared to untreated cells. Single-agent treatment also revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activated and total Akt. Based on these results, targeting GRP78 and HSP70 may have biologic activity in canine osteosarcoma. Further studies are required to determine if and how this strategy may impact the response of osteosarcoma cells to chemotherapy.

  14. The endothelial cell receptor GRP78 is required for mucormycosis pathogenesis in diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfu; Spellberg, Brad; Phan, Quynh T.; Fu, Yue; Fu, Yong; Lee, Amy S.; Edwards, John E.; Filler, Scott G.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.

    2010-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that causes a mortality rate of at least 50% despite first-line therapy. Because angioinvasion is a hallmark of mucormycosis infections, we sought to define the endothelial cell receptor(s) for fungi of the order Mucorales (the fungi that cause mucormycosis). Furthermore, since patients with elevated available serum iron, including those with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), are uniquely susceptible to mucormycosis, we sought to define the role of iron and glucose in regulating the expression of such a receptor. Here, we have identified glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as what we believe to be a novel host receptor that mediates invasion and damage of human endothelial cells by Rhizopus oryzae, the most common etiologic species of Mucorales, but not Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. Elevated concentrations of glucose and iron, consistent with those seen during DKA, enhanced GRP78 expression and the resulting R. oryzae invasion and damage of endothelial cells in a receptor-dependent manner. Mice with DKA, which have enhanced susceptibility to mucormycosis, exhibited increased expression of GRP78 in sinus, lungs, and brain compared with normal mice. Finally, GRP78-specific immune serum protected mice with DKA from mucormycosis. These results suggest a unique susceptibility of patients with DKA to mucormycosis and provide a foundation for the development of new therapeutic interventions for these deadly infections. PMID:20484814

  15. 99mTc(CO)3-DTMA bombesin conjugates having high affinity for the GRP receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Stephanie R.; Veerendra, Bhadrasetty; Rold, Tammy L.; Sieckman, Gary L.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Smith, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Targeted diagnosis of specific human cancer types continues to be of significant interest in nuclear medicine. 99m Tc is ideally suited as a diagnostic radiometal for in vivo tumor targeting due to its ideal physical characteristics and diverse labeling chemistries in numerous oxidation states. Methods: In this study, we report a synthetic approach toward design of a new tridentate amine ligand for the organometallic aqua-ion [ 99m Tc(H 2 O) 3 (CO) 3 ] + . The new chelating ligand framework, 2-(N,N'-Bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)diethylenetriamine) acetic acid (DTMA), was synthesized from a diethylenetriamine precursor and fully characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H and 13 C). DTMA was conjugated to H 2 N-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 , where X=an amino acid or aliphatic pharmacokinetic modifier and BBN=bombesin peptide, by means of solid phase peptide synthesis. DTMA-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 conjugates were purified by reversed-phase high-performance chromatography and characterized by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Results: The new conjugates were radiolabeled with [ 99m Tc(H 2 O) 3 (CO) 3 ] + produced via Isolink radiolabeling kits to produce [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 -DTMA-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ]. Radiolabeled conjugates were purified by reversed-phase high-performance chromatography. Effective receptor binding behavior was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 -DTMA-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ] conjugates displayed very high affinity for the gastrin releasing peptide receptor in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, these conjugates hold some propensity to be investigated as molecular imaging agents that specifically target human cancers uniquely expressing the gastrin releasing peptide receptor subtypes

  16. The effect of macrocyclic chelators on the targeting properties of the 68Ga-labeled gastrin releasing peptide receptor antagonist PEG2-RM26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varasteh, Zohreh; Mitran, Bogdan; Rosenström, Ulrika; Velikyan, Irina; Rosestedt, Maria; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Larhed, Mats; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Overexpression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) has been reported in several cancers. Bombesin (BN) analogs are short peptides with a high affinity for GRPR. Different BN analogs were evaluated for radionuclide imaging and therapy of GRPR-expressing tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonistic analog of BN (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH 2 , RM26) conjugated to NOTA via a PEG 2 spacer (NOTA-PEG 2 -RM26) labeled with 68 Ga, 111 In and Al 18 F. 68 Ga-labeled NOTA-PEG 2 -RM26 showed high tumor-to-organ ratios. Methods: The influence of different macrocyclic chelators (NOTA, NODAGA, DOTA and DOTAGA) on the targeting properties of 68 Ga-labeled PEG 2 -RM26 was studied in vitro and in vivo. Results: All conjugates were labeled with generator-produced 68 Ga with high yields and demonstrated high stability and specific binding to GRPR. The IC 50 values of nat Ga-X-PEG 2 -RM26 (X = NOTA, DOTA, NODAGA, DOTAGA) were 2.3 ± 0.2, 3.0 ± 0.3, 2.9 ± 0.3 and 10.0 ± 0.6 nM, respectively. The internalization of the conjugates by PC-3 cells was low. However, the DOTA-conjugated analog demonstrated a higher internalization rate compared to other analogs. GRPR-specific uptake was found in receptor-positive normal tissues and PC-3 xenografts for all conjugates. The biodistribution of the conjugates was influenced by the choice of the chelator moiety. Although all radiotracers cleared rapidly from the blood, [ 68 Ga]Ga-NOTA-PEG 2 -RM26 showed significantly lower uptake in lung, muscle and bone compared to the other analogs. The uptake in tumors (5.40 ± 1.04 %ID/g at 2 h p.i.) and the tumor-to-organ ratios (25 ± 3, 157 ± 23 and 39 ± 4 for blood, muscle and bone, respectively) were significantly higher for the NOTA-conjugate than the other analogs. Conclusions: Chelators had a clear influence on the biodistribution and targeting properties of 68 Ga-labeled antagonistic BN analogs. Positively charged [ 68 Ga]Ga-NOTA-PEG 2 -RM26 provided

  17. Targeting GRP75 improves HSP90 inhibitor efficacy by enhancing p53-mediated apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Guo

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 inhibitors are potential drugs for cancer therapy. The inhibition of HSP90 on cancer cell growth largely through degrading client proteins, like Akt and p53, therefore, triggering cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we show that the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG can induce the expression of GRP75, a member of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 family, which, in turn, attenuates the anti-growth effect of HSP90 inhibition on cancer cells. Additionally, 17-AAG enhanced binding of GRP75 and p53, resulting in the retention of p53 in the cytoplasm. Blocking GRP75 with its inhibitor MKT-077 potentiated the anti-tumor effects of 17-AAG by disrupting the formation of GRP75-p53 complexes, thereby facilitating translocation of p53 into the nuclei and leading to the induction of apoptosis-related genes. Finally, dual inhibition of HSP90 and GRP75 was found to significantly inhibit tumor growth in a liver cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, the GRP75 inhibitor MKT-077 enhances 17-AAG-induced apoptosis in HCCs and increases p53-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Dual targeting of GRP75 and HSP90 may be a useful strategy for the treatment of HCCs.

  18. Hypoxic Preconditioning Promotes the Bioactivities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the HIF-1α-GRP78-Akt Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Yoon, Yeo Min; Lee, Sang Hun

    2017-06-21

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are ideal materials for stem cell-based therapy. As MSCs reside in hypoxic microenvironments (low oxygen tension of 1% to 7%), several studies have focused on the beneficial effects of hypoxic preconditioning on MSC survival; however, the mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the potential mechanism involving 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) to explain the enhanced MSC bioactivity and survival in hindlimb ischemia. Under hypoxia (2% O₂), the expression of GRP78 was significantly increased via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Hypoxia-induced GRP78 promoted the proliferation and migration potential of MSCs through the HIF-1α-GRP78-Akt signal axis. In a murine hind-limb ischemia model, hypoxic preconditioning enhanced the survival and proliferation of transplanted MSCs through suppression of the cell death signal pathway and augmentation of angiogenic cytokine secretion. These effects were regulated by GRP78. Our findings indicate that hypoxic preconditioning promotes survival, proliferation, and angiogenic cytokine secretion of MSCs via the HIF-1α-GRP78-Akt signal pathway, suggesting that hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs might provide a therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapies and that GRP78 represents a potential target for the development of functional MSCs.

  19. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

    1995-03-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a synthetic peptide of its C terminus. When allergen and antibodies were allowed to preincubate, Lol p I induced histamine release was inhibited up to 85% by the antiserum against Lol p I. By omitting preincubation, and thereby more closely mimicking an in vivo situation, up to 55% inhibition was realized. This indicates that allergen-specific IgG can act as 'blocking' antibody without preincubation. Immunization of rabbits with a synthetic C-terminal peptide of Lol p I resulted in antibodies reactive with natural Lol p I. Despite their 100-fold lower avidity for Lol p I (as compared with antinatural Lol p I), these antibodies had the capacity to inhibit Lol p I induced histamine release for > 90% (up to 50% without preincubation). This indicates that it is possible to block histamine release induced by a major allergen with low-avidity IgG antibodies directed against a minor proportion of the allergen (25 amino acids). IgE antibodies from the donors studied were unreactive with this synthetic peptide, indicating that for blocking activity identical epitope specificity of IgE and IgG is not essential. This opens interesting perspectives for application of synthetic peptides in immunotherapy, distinct from their effects on T cell reactivity.

  20. AAV delivery of GRP78/BiP promotes adaptation of human RPE cell to ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Shima; Ahmadian, Shahin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Kheitan, Samira; Pirmardan, Ehsan R

    2018-02-01

    Adeno associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery of GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) attenuates the condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and prevents apoptotic loss of photoreceptors in Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) rats. In the current study we overexpressed Grp78 with the help of AAV-2 in primary human retinal pigmented epithelium (hRPE) cell cultures and examined its effect on cell response to ER stress. The purpose of this work was studying potential stimulating effect of GRP78 on adaptation/pro-survival of hRPE cells under ER stress, as an in vitro model for RPE degeneration. To investigate the effect of Grp78 overexpression on unfolded protein response (UPR) markers under ER stress, hRPE primary cultures were transduced by recombinant virus rAAV/Grp78, and treated with ER stressor drug, tunicamycin. Expression changes of four UPR markers including GRP78, PERK, ATF6α, and GADD153/CHOP, were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting. We found that GRP78 has a great contribution in modulation of UPR markers to favor adaptive response in ER-stressed hRPE cells. In fact, GRP78 overexpression affected adaptation and apoptotic phases of early UPR, through enhancement of two master regulators/ER stress sensors (PERK and ATF6α) and down-regulation of a key pro-apoptotic cascade activator (GADD153/CHOP). Together these findings demonstrate the promoting effect of GRP78 on adaptation/pro-survival of hRPE cells under ER stress. This protein with anti-apoptotic actions in the early UPR and important role in cell fate regulation, can be recruited as a useful candidate for future investigations of RPE degenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin on cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2011-12-29

    Ingestion of a meal increases the blood flow to the gastrointestinal organs and affects the heart rate (HR), blood pressure and cardiac output (CO), although the mechanisms are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin on CO, HR, stroke volume (SV), and blood pressure. Eleven healthy men and twelve healthy women ((mean ± SEM) aged: 26 ± 0.2 y; body mass index: 21.8 ± 0.1 kg/m(2))) were included in this study. The CO, HR, SV, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antral area, gastric emptying rate, and glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin levels were measured. The CO and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting in both men and women (P blood pressure (P = 0.021, r = -0.681), and the change in SV (P = 0.008, r = -0.748) relative to the fasting in men. The insulin 0-30 min AUC was significantly correlated to the CO 0-30 min AUC (P = 0.002, r = 0.814) in men. Significant correlations were also found between the 0-120 min ghrelin and HR AUCs (P = 0.007, r = 0.966) in men. No statistically significant correlations were seen in women. Physiological changes in the levels of glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin may influence the activity of the heart and the blood pressure. There may also be gender-related differences in the haemodynamic responses to postprandial changes in hormone levels. The results of this study show that subjects should not eat immediately prior to, or during, the evaluation of cardiovascular interventions as postprandial affects may affect the results, leading to erroneous interpretation of the cardiovascular effects of the primary intervention. NCT01027507.

  2. Strategies for the Activation and Release of the Membranolytic Peptide Melittin from Liposomes Using Endosomal pH as a Trigger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Blenke, E.; Sleszynska, M.; Evers, M. J W; Storm, G.; Martin, N. I.; Mastrobattista, E.

    2017-01-01

    Endosomolytic peptides are often coupled to drug delivery systems to enhance endosomal escape, which is crucial for the delivery of macromolecular drugs that are vulnerable to degradation in the endolysosomal pathway. Melittin is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from bee venom that has a very high

  3. Labeling bombesin-like peptide with 99mTc via hydrazinonicotinamide. Description of optimized radiolabeling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F.; Durkan, K.; Bayrak, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bombesin (BNN)-like peptides have very high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor. The goal of the current study was to optimize the labeling conditions of a new 99m Tc-radiolabeled BNN-like peptide based on the bifunctional chelating ligand HYNIC using different co-ligands (EDDA and tricine). The radiolabeling conditions (pH, amount of co-ligand, amount of stannous chloride, temperature and reaction time) for newly-formed 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were optimized and evaluated by RHPLC and RTLC. Radiochemical yields for 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin and 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin were 98.0 ± 1.7 and 97.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. When EDDA was used as co-ligand, the labeling of 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-Q-Litorin was optimal in the following reaction mixture: HYNIC-peptide: EDDA: 10 μg/5 mg, pH 3, SnCl 2 concentration: 12 μg/0.1 mL, reaction temperature: 100 deg C, reaction time: 15 min. Besides, the optimum conditions were HYNIC-peptide:tricine: 10 μg/50 mg, pH 5, SnCl 2 concentration: 12 μg/0.1 mL, reaction temperature: 100 deg C, reaction time: 15 min for preparing 99m Tc-tricine-HYNIC-Q-Litorin. The manufactured 99m Tc-HYNIC-Q-Litorin conjugates may offer new possibilities for imaging cancer cells expressing bombesin receptors. (author)

  4. Biological evaluation of 177Lu-labeled DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH2 for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive prostate tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, So young; Nam, Sung Soo; Park, Ul Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Bombesin binds with selectivity and high affinity to a Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The present study describes the in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics of DOTA-Ala(SO 3 H)-Aminooctanoyl-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH 2 (DOTA-sBBNA), an antagonist analogue of bombesin peptide for the targeting of GRPR. DOTA-sBBNA was synthesized and labeled with 177 Lu as previously published. A saturation assay on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells revealed that the Kd value of the radiolabeled peptide was 1.88 nM with a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 289.3 fmol/10 6 cells. The radio-peptide slowly internalized, and 24.4 ± 0.5% of the total binding was internalized in 4 hr. Biodistribution studies were conducted in healthy and PC-3 xenografted balb/c mice, which showed high uptake and retention of tumor-associated radioactivity in PC-3 xenografted mice. The tumor-to-blood ratio was 126.02 ± 9.36 at 1.5 hr p.i., and was increased to 216.33 ± 61.58 at 24 hr p.i., which means that the radiolabeled peptide was highly accumulated in a tumor and rapidly cleared from the blood pool. The GRPR is also over-expressed in Korean prostate cancer patients. These results suggest that this 177 Lu-labeled peptide has promising characteristics for application in nuclear medicine, namely for the diagnosis and treatment of GRPR over-expressing prostate tumors

  5. Theranostic Perspectives in Prostate Cancer with the Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist NeoBOMB1: Preclinical and First Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Berthold A; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Lymperis, Emmanouil; Giarika, Athina; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Klette, Ingo; Singh, Aviral; Krenning, Eric P; de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia; Baum, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    We recently introduced the potent gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist 68 Ga-SB3 ( 68 Ga-DOTA-p-aminomethylaniline-diglycolic acid-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHEt), showing excellent tumor localizing efficacy in animal models and in patients. By replacement of the C-terminal Leu 13 -Met 14 -NH 2 dipeptide of SB3 by Sta 13 -Leu 14 -NH 2 , the novel GRPR antagonist NeoBOMB1 was generated and labeled with different radiometals for theranostic use. We herein report on the biologic profile of resulting 67/68 Ga-, 111 In-, and 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1 radioligands in GRPR-expressing cells and mouse models. The first evidence of prostate cancer lesion visualization in men using 68 Ga-NeoBOMB1 and PET/CT is also presented. NeoBOMB1 was radiolabeled with 67/68 Ga, 111 In, and 177 Lu according to published protocols. The respective metalated species nat Ga-, nat In-, and nat Lu-NeoBOMB1 were also synthesized and used in competition binding experiments against [ 125 I-Tyr 4 ]BBN in GRPR-positive PC-3 cell membranes. Internalization of 67 Ga-, 111 In-, and 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1 radioligands was studied in PC-3 cells at 37°C, and their metabolic stability in peripheral mouse blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of blood samples. Biodistribution was performed by injecting a 67 Ga-, 111 In-, or 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1 bolus (74, 74, or 370 kBq, respectively, 100 μL, 10 pmol total peptide ± 40 nmol Tyr 4 -BBN: for in vivo GRPR blockade) in severe combined immunodeficiency mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. PET/CT images with 68 Ga-NeoBOMB1 were acquired in prostate cancer patients. NeoBOMB1 and nat Ga-, nat In-, and nat Lu-NeoBOMB1 bound to GRPR with high affinity (half maximal inhibitory concentration, 1-2 nM). 67 Ga-, 111 In-, and 177 Lu-NeoBOMB1 specifically and strongly bound on the cell membrane of PC-3 cells displaying low internalization, as expected for receptor antagonists. They showed excellent metabolic stability in peripheral mouse blood

  6. Preclinical and first clinical experience with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-antagonist [⁶⁸Ga]SB3 and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Theodosia; Bergsma, Hendrik; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Mueller, Dirk; Charalambidis, David; Krenning, Eric P; Nock, Berthold A; de Jong, Marion; Baum, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) represent attractive targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy because of their overexpression in major human cancers. Internalizing GRPR agonists were initially proposed for prolonged lesion retention, but a shift of paradigm to GRPR antagonists has recently been made. Surprisingly, radioantagonists, such as [(99m)Tc]DB1 ((99m)Tc-N4'-DPhe(6),Leu-NHEt(13)]BBN(6-13)), displayed better pharmacokinetics than radioagonists, in addition to their higher inherent biosafety. We introduce here [(68)Ga]SB3, a [(99m)Tc]DB1 mimic-carrying, instead of the (99m)Tc-binding tetraamine, the chelator DOTA for labeling with the PET radiometal (68)Ga. Competition binding assays of SB3 and [(nat)Ga]SB3 were conducted against [(125)I-Tyr(4)]BBN in PC-3 cell membranes. Blood samples collected 5 min postinjection (pi) of the [(67)Ga]SB3 surrogate in mice were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for degradation products. Likewise, biodistribution was performed after injection of [(67)Ga]SB3 (37 kBq, 100 μL, 10 pmol peptide) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. Eventually, [(68)Ga]SB3 (283 ± 91 MBq, 23 ± 7 nmol) was injected into 17 patients with breast (8) and prostate (9) cancer. All patients had disseminated disease and had received previous therapies. PET/CT fusion images were acquired 60-115 min pi. SB3 and [(nat)Ga]SB3 bound to the human GRPR with high affinity (IC50: 4.6 ± 0.5 nM and 1.5 ± 0.3 nM, respectively). [(67)Ga]SB3 displayed good in vivo stability (>85 % intact at 5 min pi). [(67)Ga]SB3 showed high, GRPR-specific and prolonged retention in PC-3 xenografts (33.1 ± 3.9%ID/g at 1 h pi - 27.0 ± 0.9%ID/g at 24 h pi), but much faster clearance from the GRPR-rich pancreas (≈160%ID/g at 1 h pi to <17%ID/g at 24 h pi) in mice. In patients, [(68)Ga]SB3 elicited no adverse effects and clearly visualized cancer lesions. Thus, 4 out of 8 (50 %) breast

  7. Preclinical and first clinical experience with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-antagonist [{sup 68}Ga]SB3 and PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maina, Theodosia; Charalambidis, David; Nock, Berthold A. [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Molecular Radiopharmacy, Athens (Greece); Bergsma, Hendrik; Krenning, Eric P. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P. [Zentralklinik, Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany); Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) represent attractive targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy because of their overexpression in major human cancers. Internalizing GRPR agonists were initially proposed for prolonged lesion retention, but a shift of paradigm to GRPR antagonists has recently been made. Surprisingly, radioantagonists, such as [{sup 99m}Tc]DB1 ({sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 4}'-DPhe{sup 6},Leu-NHEt{sup 13}BBN(6-13)), displayed better pharmacokinetics than radioagonists, in addition to their higher inherent biosafety. We introduce here [{sup 68}Ga]SB3, a [{sup 99m}Tc]DB1 mimic-carrying, instead of the {sup 99m}Tc-binding tetraamine, the chelator DOTA for labeling with the PET radiometal {sup 68}Ga. Competition binding assays of SB3 and [{sup nat}Ga]SB3 were conducted against [{sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4}]BBN in PC-3 cell membranes. Blood samples collected 5 min postinjection (pi) of the [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 surrogate in mice were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for degradation products. Likewise, biodistribution was performed after injection of [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 (37 kBq, 100 μL, 10 pmol peptide) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. Eventually, [{sup 68}Ga]SB3 (283 ± 91 MBq, 23 ± 7 nmol) was injected into 17 patients with breast (8) and prostate (9) cancer. All patients had disseminated disease and had received previous therapies. PET/CT fusion images were acquired 60-115 min pi. SB3 and [{sup nat}Ga]SB3 bound to the human GRPR with high affinity (IC{sub 50}: 4.6 ± 0.5 nM and 1.5 ± 0.3 nM, respectively). [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 displayed good in vivo stability (>85 % intact at 5 min pi). [{sup 67}Ga]SB3 showed high, GRPR-specific and prolonged retention in PC-3 xenografts (33.1 ± 3.9%ID/g at 1 h pi - 27.0 ± 0.9%ID/g at 24 h pi), but much faster clearance from the GRPR-rich pancreas (∼160%ID/g at 1 h pi to <17%ID/g at 24 h pi) in mice. In patients, [{sup 68}Ga]SB3 elicited no adverse effects and

  8. Preclinical and first clinical experience with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-antagonist [68Ga]SB3 and PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, Theodosia; Charalambidis, David; Nock, Berthold A.; Bergsma, Hendrik; Krenning, Eric P.; Kulkarni, Harshad R.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Jong, Marion de

    2016-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) represent attractive targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy because of their overexpression in major human cancers. Internalizing GRPR agonists were initially proposed for prolonged lesion retention, but a shift of paradigm to GRPR antagonists has recently been made. Surprisingly, radioantagonists, such as [ 99m Tc]DB1 ( 99m Tc-N 4 '-DPhe 6 ,Leu-NHEt 13 BBN(6-13)), displayed better pharmacokinetics than radioagonists, in addition to their higher inherent biosafety. We introduce here [ 68 Ga]SB3, a [ 99m Tc]DB1 mimic-carrying, instead of the 99m Tc-binding tetraamine, the chelator DOTA for labeling with the PET radiometal 68 Ga. Competition binding assays of SB3 and [ nat Ga]SB3 were conducted against [ 125 I-Tyr 4 ]BBN in PC-3 cell membranes. Blood samples collected 5 min postinjection (pi) of the [ 67 Ga]SB3 surrogate in mice were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for degradation products. Likewise, biodistribution was performed after injection of [ 67 Ga]SB3 (37 kBq, 100 μL, 10 pmol peptide) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. Eventually, [ 68 Ga]SB3 (283 ± 91 MBq, 23 ± 7 nmol) was injected into 17 patients with breast (8) and prostate (9) cancer. All patients had disseminated disease and had received previous therapies. PET/CT fusion images were acquired 60-115 min pi. SB3 and [ nat Ga]SB3 bound to the human GRPR with high affinity (IC 50 : 4.6 ± 0.5 nM and 1.5 ± 0.3 nM, respectively). [ 67 Ga]SB3 displayed good in vivo stability (>85 % intact at 5 min pi). [ 67 Ga]SB3 showed high, GRPR-specific and prolonged retention in PC-3 xenografts (33.1 ± 3.9%ID/g at 1 h pi - 27.0 ± 0.9%ID/g at 24 h pi), but much faster clearance from the GRPR-rich pancreas (∼160%ID/g at 1 h pi to <17%ID/g at 24 h pi) in mice. In patients, [ 68 Ga]SB3 elicited no adverse effects and clearly visualized cancer lesions. Thus, 4 out of 8 (50 %) breast cancer and 5 out of 9

  9. A new polymorphism in the GRP78 is not associated with HBV invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Yi; Tao, Tao; Li, Dong-Pei; Lan, Fei-Fei; Zhu, Wei; Xie, Dan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between -86 bp (T > A) in the glucose-regulated protein 78 gene (GRP78) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) invasion. METHODS: DNA was genotyped for the single-nucleotide polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing in a sample of 382 unrelated HBV carriers and a total of 350 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Serological markers for HBV infection were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits or clinical chemistry testing. RESULTS: The distributions of allelotype and genotype in cases were not significantly different from those in controls. In addition, our findings suggested that neither alanine aminotransferase/hepatitis B e antigen nor HBV-DNA were associated with the allele/genotype variation in HBV infected individuals. CONCLUSION: -86 bp T > A polymorphism in GRP78 gene is not related to the clinical risk and acute exacerbation of HBV invasion. PMID:19842229

  10. GRP78 Protein Expression as Prognostic Values in Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Laparoscopic Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yeon; Jung, Ji-Han; Cho, Hyun-Min; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jong Hoon; Shim, Byoung Yong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between biomarkers related to endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins (glucose-regulated protein of molecular mass 78 [GRP78] and Cripto-1 [teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 protein]), pathologic response, and prognosis in locally advanced rectal cancer. All clinical stage II and III rectal cancer patients received 50.4 Gy over 5.5 weeks, plus 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m(2)/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m(2)/day) bolus on days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33, and surgery was performed at 7 to 10 weeks after completion of all therapies. Expression of GRP78 and Cripto-1 proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry and was assessed in 101 patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). High expression of GRP78 and Cripto-1 proteins was observed in 86 patients (85.1%) and 49 patients (48.5%), respectively. Low expression of GRP78 protein was associated with a significantly high rate of down staging (80.0% vs. 52.3%, respectively; p=0.046) and a significantly low rate of recurrence (0% vs. 33.7%, respectively; p=0.008) compared with high expression of GRP78 protein. Mean recurrence-free survival according to GRP78 expression could not be estimated because the low expression group did not develop recurrence events but showed a significant correlation with time to recurrence, based on the log rank method (p=0.007). GRP78 also showed correlation with overall survival, based on the log rank method (p=0.045). GRP78 expression is a predictive and prognostic factor for down staging, recurrence, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin neoadjuvant CRT.

  11. Machined GRP laminates for components in heavy electrical engineering and their use at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.

    1982-01-01

    Safe and economical components can be produced from machined GRP laminates. Matrix system, fibre reinforcement and elastic properties are described. Onset of damage and long-term properties are given with detailed charting of tests. Application of the laminate studies at stresses of up to half their short-term strength can be made, provided creep strain and its dependence on time and temperature are considered

  12. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue Exendin-4 attenuates the nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, conditioned place preference as well as the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Egecioglu

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is known to regulate consummatory behavior and is released in response to nutrient ingestion. Analogues of this peptide recently emerged as novel pharmacotherapies for treatment of type II diabetes since they reduce gastric emptying, glucagon secretion as well as enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The findings that GLP-1 targets reward related areas including mesolimbic dopamine areas indicate that the physiological role of GLP-1 extends beyond food intake and glucose homeostasis control to include reward regulation. The present series of experiments was therefore designed to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex4, on established nicotine-induced effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system in mice. Specifically, we show that treatment with Ex4, at a dose with no effect per se, attenuate nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release as well as the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In accordance, Ex4 also blocks nicotine-induced expression of locomotor sensitization in mice. Given that development of nicotine addiction largely depends on the effects of nicotine on the mesolimbic dopamine system these findings indicate that the GLP-1 receptor may be a potential target for the development of novel treatment strategies for nicotine cessations in humans.

  13. Role of prostate apoptosis response 4 in translocation of GRP78 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of trophoblastic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Cohen

    Full Text Available Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER molecular chaperone that belongs to the heat shock protein 70 family. GRP78 is also present on the cell surface membrane of trophoblastic cells, where it is associated with invasive or fusion properties of these cells. Impaired mechanism of GRP78 relocation from ER to the cell surface was observed in preeclamptic cytotrophoblastic cells (CTB and could take part in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In this study, we have investigated whether prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4, a protein identified as a partner of GRP78 relocation to the cell surface in prostate cancer cells, is present in trophoblastic cells and is involved in the translocation of GRP78 to the cell surface of CTB. Par-4 is indeed present in trophoblastic cells and its expression correlates with expression of membrane GRP78. Moreover, overexpression of Par-4 led to an increase of cell surface expression of GRP78 and decreased Par-4 gene expression reduced cell surface localization of GRP78 confirming a role of Par-4 in relocation of GRP78 from ER to the cell surface. Accordingly, invasive property was modified in these cells. In conclusion, we show that Par-4 is expressed in trophoblastic cells and is involved in transport of GRP78 to the cell surface and thus regulates invasive property of extravillous CTB.

  14. Role of the Escherichia coli grpE heat shock protein in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Zylicz, M

    1991-01-01

    Initiation of replication of lambda DNA requires assembly of the proper nucleoprotein complex consisting of the lambda origin of replication-lambda O-lambda P-dnaB proteins. The dnaJ, dnaK and grpE heat shock proteins destabilize the lambda P-dnaB interaction in this complex permitting dnaB helicase to unwind lambda DNA near ori lambda sequence. First step of this disassembling reaction is the binding of dnaK protein to lambda P protein. In this report we examined the influence of dnaJ and grpE proteins on stability of the lambda P-dnaK complex. Our results show that grpE alone dissociates this complex, but both grpE and dnaJ together do not. These results suggest that, in the presence of grpE protein, dnaK protein has a higher affinity for lambda P protein complexed with dnaJ protein than in the situation where grpE protein is not used.

  15. Reversible thermal transition in GrpE, the nucleotide exchange factor of the DnaK heat-shock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, J P; Jelesarov, I; Schönfeld, H J; Christen, P

    2001-03-02

    DnaK, a Hsp70 acting in concert with its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE, is essential for Escherichia coli to survive environmental stress, including exposure to elevated temperatures. Here we explored the influence of temperature on the structure of the individual components and the functional properties of the chaperone system. GrpE undergoes extensive but fully reversible conformational changes in the physiologically relevant temperature range (transition midpoint at approximately 48 degrees C), as observed with both circular dichroism measurements and differential scanning calorimetry, whereas no thermal transitions occur in DnaK and DnaJ between 15 degrees C and 48 degrees C. The conformational changes in GrpE appear to be important in controlling the interconversion of T-state DnaK (ATP-liganded, low affinity for polypeptide substrates) and R-state DnaK (ADP-liganded, high affinity for polypeptide substrates). The rate of the T --> R conversion of DnaK due to DnaJ-triggered ATP hydrolysis follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence. In contrast, the rate of the R --> T conversion due to GrpE-catalyzed ADP/ATP exchange increases progressively less with increasing temperature and even decreases at temperatures above approximately 40 degrees C, indicating a temperature-dependent reversible inactivation of GrpE. At heat-shock temperatures, the reversible structural changes of GrpE thus shift DnaK toward its high-affinity R state.

  16. The rs391957 variant cis-regulating oncogene GRP78 expression contributes to the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Zhang, Jinfang; Fan, Wenguo; Wang, Fang; Yao, Hong; Wang, Zifeng; Hou, Shengping; Tian, Yinghong; Fu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Zhu, Wei; Long, Jun; Wu, Leijie; Zheng, Xuebao; Kung, Hsiangfu; Zhou, Keyuan; Lin, Marie C M; Luo, Hui; Li, Dongpei

    2013-06-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is one of the most important responders to disease-related stress. We assessed the association of the promoter polymorphisms of GRP78 with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and GRP78 expression in a Chinese population. We examined 1007 patients undergoing diagnostic HCC and 810 unrelated healthy controls. Mechanisms by which the GRP78 promoter polymorphism modulates HCC risk and GRP78 levels were analyzed. The promoter haplotype and diplotype carrying rs391957 (-415bp) allele G and genotype GG was strongly associated with HCC risk. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that the promoter carrying rs391957 allele G (haplotype GCCd) showed increased activity in HepG2 cells and Hela cells. rs391957 was also shown to increase the affinity of the transcriptional activator Ets-2, the resistance to apoptosis, as well as cell instability in stressful microenvironment. Furthermore, compared with allele A, rs391957 allele G was associated with higher levels of GRP78 mRNA and protein in HCC tissues. These findings provided new insights into the pathogenesis of HCC and an unexpected effect of the interaction between rs391957 and Ets-2 on hepatocarcinogenesis, and especially supported the hypothesis that stress-related and evolutionarily conserved genetic variant(s) influencing transcriptional regulation could predict susceptibilities.

  17. [Functional analysis of Grp and Iris, the gag and env domesticated errantivirus genes, in the Drosophila melanogaster genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnovskii, P A; Kuzmin, I V; Nefedova, L N; Kima, A I

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is the only invertebrate that contains endogenous retroviruses, which are called errantiviruses. Two domesticated genes, Grp and Iris, which originate from errantivirus gag and env, respectively, have been found in the D. melanogaster genome. The functions performed by the genes in Drosophila are still unclear. To identify the functions of domesticated gag and env in the D. melanogaster genome, expression of Iris and Grp was studied in strains differing by the presence or absence of the functional gypsy errantivirus. In addition, the expression levels were measured after injection of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which activate different immune response pathways, and exposure to various abiotic stress factors. The presence of functional D. melanogaster retrovirus gypsy was found to increase the Grp expression level in somatic tissues of the carcass, while exerting no effect on the Iris expression level. Activation of the immune response in D. melanogaster by bacteria Bacillus cereus increased the Grp expression level and did not affect Iris expression. As for the effects of abiotic stress factors (oxidative stress, starvation, and heat and cold stress), the Grp expression level increased in response to starvation in D. melanogaster females, and the Iris expression level was downregulated in heat shock and oxidative stress. Based on the findings, Grp was assumed to play a direct role in the immune response in D. melanogaster; Iris is not involved in immune responses, but and apparently performs a cell function that is inhibited in stress.

  18. The effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin on cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlebowicz Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of a meal increases the blood flow to the gastrointestinal organs and affects the heart rate (HR, blood pressure and cardiac output (CO, although the mechanisms are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, ghrelin on CO, HR, stroke volume (SV, and blood pressure. Methods Eleven healthy men and twelve healthy women ((mean ± SEM aged: 26 ± 0.2 y; body mass index: 21.8 ± 0.1 kg/m2 were included in this study. The CO, HR, SV, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antral area, gastric emptying rate, and glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin levels were measured. Results The CO and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting in both men and women (P P = 0.015, r = 0.946, and between ghrelin levels and HR (P = 0.013, r = 0.951 at 110 min. Significant correlations were also found between the change in glucose level at 30 min and the change in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.021, r = -0.681, and the change in SV (P = 0.008, r = -0.748 relative to the fasting in men. The insulin 0-30 min AUC was significantly correlated to the CO 0-30 min AUC (P = 0.002, r = 0.814 in men. Significant correlations were also found between the 0-120 min ghrelin and HR AUCs (P = 0.007, r = 0.966 in men. No statistically significant correlations were seen in women. Conclusions Physiological changes in the levels of glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin may influence the activity of the heart and the blood pressure. There may also be gender-related differences in the haemodynamic responses to postprandial changes in hormone levels. The results of this study show that subjects should not eat immediately prior to, or during, the evaluation of cardiovascular interventions as postprandial affects may affect the results, leading to erroneous interpretation of the cardiovascular effects of the

  19. Histological organization of the central nervous system and distribution of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetan, Jirawat; Senarai, Thanyaporn; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Chavadej, Jittipan; Hanna, Peter J; Parhar, Ishwar; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed histological description of the central nervous system (CNS: brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia) of the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus. Because the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in crustaceans has been disputed, we examine the presence and localization of a GnRH-like peptide in the CNS of the blue crab by using antibodies against lamprey GnRH (lGnRH)-III, octopus GnRH (octGnRH) and tunicate GnRH (tGnRH)-I. These antibodies showed no cross-reactivity with red-pigment-concentrating hormone, adipokinetic hormone, or corazonin. In the brain, strong lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in small (7-17 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 8, 9 and 10, in medium-sized (21-36 μm diameter) neurons of clusters 6, 7 and 11 and in the anterior and posterior median protocerebral neuropils, olfactory neuropil, median and lateral antenna I neuropils, tegumentary neuropil and antenna II neuropil. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized neurons and in the subesophageal neuropil. In the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in medium-sized and small neurons and in the neuropils. OctGnRH-ir was observed in neurons of the same clusters with moderate staining, particularly in the deutocerebrum, whereas tGnRH-I-ir was only detected in medium-sized neurons of cluster 11 in the brain. Thus, anti-lGnRH-III shows greater immunoreactivity in the crab CNS than anti-octGnRH and anti-tGnRH-I. Moreover, our functional bioassay demonstrates that only lGnRH-III has significant stimulatory effects on ovarian growth and maturation. We therefore conclude that, although the true identity of the crab GnRH eludes us, crabs possess a putative GnRH hormone similar to lGnRH-III. The identification and characterization of this molecule is part of our ongoing research.

  20. Isthmin is a novel vascular permeability inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Shruthi; Chen, Mo; Liao, Wupeng; Er, Shi Yin; Wong, Wai-Shiu Fred; Ge, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    Isthmin (ISM) is a recently identified 60 kDa secreted angiogenesis inhibitor. Two cell-surface receptors for ISM have been defined, the high-affinity glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78) and the low-affinity αvβ5 integrin. As αvβ5 integrin plays an important role in pulmonary vascular permeability (VP) and ISM is highly expressed in mouse lung, we sought to clarify the role of ISM in VP. Recombinant ISM (rISM) dose-dependently enhances endothelial monolayer permeability in vitro and local dermal VP when administered intradermally in mice. Systemic rISM administration through intravenous injection leads to profound lung vascular hyperpermeability but not in other organs. Mechanistic investigations using molecular, biochemical approaches and specific chemical inhibitors revealed that ISM-GRP78 interaction triggers a direct interaction between GRP78 and Src, leading to Src activation and subsequent phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and loss of junctional proteins from inter-endothelial junctions, resulting in enhanced VP. Dynamic studies of Src activation, VP and apoptosis revealed that ISM induces VP directly via Src activation while apoptosis contributes indirectly only after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, ISM is significantly up-regulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse lung. Blocking cell-surface GRP78 by systemic infusion of anti-GRP78 antibody significantly attenuates pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ISM is a novel VP inducer that functions through cell-surface GRP78-mediated Src activation as well as induction of apoptosis. It induces a direct GRP78-Src interaction, leading to cytoplasmic Src activation. ISM contributes to pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability of LPS-induced ALI in mice. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The current status of radiopharmacy laboratories in Turkey, conveniences to good radiopharmacy practice (GRP) and quality management systems (ISO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    This study ha been conducted in the Radiopharmacy Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine departments of various hospitals and private nuclear medicine laboratories. A total of 35 laboratories from 7 regions of Turkey have been selected by layered sampling method from 131 Radiopharmacy Laboratories located in 30 different cities. During the study, a GRP investigation list with 67 questions and direct communication technique have been used. The aim was determine the current status of the Radiopharmacy Laboratories in general and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals on patients, and good practices in radiopharmacy and conformance with quality assurance systems. In this respect, questions have been asked to determine a) General status, b) Information level of lab workers regarding to the GRP and ISO concepts (i-Status of lab managers, ii- Responsibilities and knowledge of lab workers and iii- regarding to GRP and ISO-9000), c) Conditions of infrastructure, and lab services and its quality, d) Status of organizations. Results showed that only two of the 35 managers of laboratories were radiopharmacists, the rest were Nuclear Medicine specialists. There were less knowledge on GRP than ISO, the labs holding ISO certificate were in minority even though ISO is known concept, radiopharmacist were more knowledgeable in GRP while nuclear medicine specialists were in ISO, the labs with better GRP knowledge have better infrastructure, the GRP knowledge were better in the university and armed forces hospitals while ISO knowledge and certificates were more in private labs and hospitals, the armed forces hospitals better paraphernalia, practically almost all radiopharmaceutical kits were imported goods and there were important problems in quality control

  2. Peptide conjugated polymeric nanoparticles as a carrier for targeted delivery of docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhari, Hitesh; Pooja, Deep; Shrivastava, Shweta; V G M, Naidu; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this research work was to develop Bombesin peptide (BBN) conjugated, docetaxel loaded nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer. Docetaxel loaded nanoparticles (DNP) were prepared by solvent evaporation method using sodium cholate as surfactant. BBN was conjugated to DNP surface through covalent bonding. Both DNP and BBN conjugated DNP (BDNP) were characterized by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. The particle diameter and zeta potential of BDNP were 136±3.95 nm and -10.8±2.7 mV, respectively. The change in surface charge and FTIR studies confirmed the formation of amide linkage between BBN and DNP. AFM analysis showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shapes. In nanoparticles, docetaxel was present in its amorphous form as confirmed by DSC and PXRD analysis and was stable during the thermal studies. The formulations showed the sustained release of DTX over the period of 120 h. During cellular toxicity assay in gastrin releasing peptide receptor positive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), BDNP were found to be 12 times more toxic than pure DTX and Taxotere. The IC50 value for DTX, Taxotere, DNP and BDNP was >375, >375, 142.23 and 35.53 ng/ml, respectively. The above studies showed that Bombesin conjugated nanocarrier system could be a promising carrier for active targeting of anticancer drugs in GRP receptor over expressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migrai...

  4. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone GRP78/BiP Modulates Prion Propagation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Won; Eun Kim, Gyoung; Morales, Rodrigo; Moda, Fabio; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Lee, Amy S; Hetz, Claudio; Soto, Claudio

    2017-03-23

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting several mammalian species, characterized by the accumulation of the misfolded form of the prion protein, which is followed by the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GRP78, also called BiP, is a master regulator of the UPR, reducing ER stress levels and apoptosis due to an enhancement of the cellular folding capacity. Here, we studied the role of GRP78 in prion diseases using several in vivo and in vitro approaches. Our results show that a reduction in the expression of this molecular chaperone accelerates prion pathogenesis in vivo. In addition, we observed that prion replication in cell culture was inversely related to the levels of expression of GRP78 and that both proteins interact in the cellular context. Finally, incubation of PrP Sc with recombinant GRP78 led to the dose-dependent reduction of protease-resistant PrP Sc in vitro. Our results uncover a novel role of GRP78 in reducing prion pathogenesis, suggesting that modulating its levels/activity may offer a novel opportunity for designing therapeutic approaches for these diseases. These findings may also have implications for other diseases involving the accumulation of misfolded proteins.

  5. The interplay between GRP78 expression and Akt activation in human colon cancer cells under celecoxib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaobo; Chang, Weilong; Du, Hansong; Bai, Jie; Sun, Zhenhai; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Guangsheng; Tao, Kaixiong; Long, Yueping

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported previously that celecoxib shows antitumor effects in many types of cancers. Here, we detected its effects on DLD-1 and SW480 (two human colon cancer cell lines) and investigated the dynamic relationship between the 78-kDa glucose-regulatory protein (GRP78) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Gene expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis; the cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. First, the results showed that celecoxib induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the celecoxib-triggered unfolded protein response and the bidirectional regulation of Akt activation in both cell lines. Inhibiting the Akt activation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly enhanced GRP78 expression. Besides, silencing the GRP78 expression regulated Akt activation in a time-dependent manner and increased the induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) as well as considerably promoted celecoxib-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that under the celecoxib treatment, GRP78 plays a protective role by modulating Akt activation and abrogating CHOP expression. However, Akt activation can provide a feedback loop to inhibit GRP78 expression. These studies can lead to novel therapeutic strategies for human colon cancer.

  6. Modelling of Safety Factors in the Design of GRP Composite Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babu, B.J.C.; Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage

    2010-01-01

    as independent, while in real applications these factors may interact/influence each other. Following the concept developed by the authors, a simple graph theoretic model has been used to determine overall factor of safety. This is described with the help of an example and it has been demonstrated......An attempt has been made in this paper to arrive at the safety factor design of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GRP) composite products using graph theoretic model. In the conventional design and recommendations of the standards, these design factors affecting properties have been considered...

  7. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the isolated perfused porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    increased by 154 +/- 15% in response to CGRP at 10(-8) mol L(-1). The release of gastrin was unaffected by pCGRP. In conclusion, pCGRP increases contractile activity in the porcine antrum, an effect that involves cholinergic mechanisms but is independent of the release of substance P and neurokinin A...

  8. The role of c-Src in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with activated α2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Song; Li, Hongdan; Wang, Qingjun; Su, Chang; Wang, Guan; Song, Huijuan; Zhao, Liang; Luan, Zhidong; Su, Rongjian

    2015-01-01

    Emerging data have suggested that cell surface GRP78 is a multifunctional receptor and has been linked to proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Activated α 2− macroglobin (α 2 M*) is a natural circulating ligand of cell surface GRP78. Association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis in human cancers. The invasion and metastasis of HCC cells were examined using transwell and wound healing assay; Cell surface expression of GRP78 was detected by in cell western assay. Translocation of GRP78 from cytosol to cell surface was observed by transfection of GRP78-EGFP plus TRIRC-WGA staining. The levels of Src, phosphor-Src, FAK, phospho-FAK, EGFR, phospho-EGFR, phospho-Cortactin, phospho-Paxillin were determined by western blot. Cell surface expression of GRP78 in HCC tissue samples was observed by immunofluorescence. The distribution of Paxillin and Cortactin in HCC cells was also observed by immunofluorescence. The interaction between GRP78 and Src were detected by far-western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and GST pulldown. GRP78 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. In the current study, we showed that association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* stimulated the invasion and metastasis of HCC. Cell surface GRP78 could interact directly with c-Src, promoted the phosphorylation of c-Src at Y416. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src with PP2 reverted the stimulatory effect caused by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Moreover, association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M* facilitates the interaction between EGFR and c-Src and consequently phosphorylated EGFR at Y1101 and Y845, promoting the invasion and metastasis of HCCs. However, inhibition of the tyrosine kinase of c-Src do not affect the interaction between EGFR and Src. c-Src plays a critical role in the invasion and metastasis of HCC induced by association of cell surface GRP78 with α 2 M*. Cell surface GRP

  9. In vitro Evaluation of a Bombesin Antagonistic Analogue Conjugated with DOTA-Ala(SO3H)-Aminooctanoyl for Targeting of the Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, So Young; Choi, Sang Mu

    2014-01-01

    As Bombesin (BBS) binds with high affinity to GRPR, BBS derivatives have been labeled with various radionuclides such as 99 mTc, 111 In, 90 Y, 64 Cu, 177 Lu, 68 Ga, or 18 F and have proved to be successful candidates for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). In this study, we employed Ala(SO 3 H)-Aminooctanoyl as a linker of BBS antagonistic peptide sequence, Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH 2 , with DOTA to prepare radiolabeled candidates for GRPR targeting. A DOTA-conjugated BBS antagonistic analogue was synthesized and radiolabeled with 177 Lu, and in vitro characteristics on GRPR-overexpressing human prostate tumor cells were evaluated. In conclusion, a novel BBS antagonistic analogue, 177 Lu-DOTA-sBBNA, is a promising candidate for the targeting of GRPR-over-expressing tumors. Further investigations to evaluate its in vivo characteristics and therapeutic efficacy are needed

  10. Tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assay values are associated with antimicrobial peptides expression in  polymorphonuclear cells during latent tuberculous infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E Castañeda-Delgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that patients with progressive tuberculosis (TB express abundant amounts of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs cathelicidin (LL-37 and human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1 in circulating cells, whereas latent TB infected donors showed no differences when compared with purified protein derivative (PPD and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to determine whether LL-37 and HNP-1 production correlates with higher tuberculin skin test (TST and QFT values in TB household contacts. Twenty-six TB household contact individuals between 26-58 years old TST and QFT positive with at last two years of latent TB infection were recruited. AMPs production by polymorphonuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and correlation between TST and QFT values was analysed. Our results showed that there is a positive correlation between levels of HNP-1 and LL-37 production with reactivity to TST and/or QFT levels. This preliminary study suggests the potential use of the expression levels of these peptides as biomarkers for progression in latent infected individuals.

  11. The GRP1 PH domain, like the AKT1 PH domain, possesses a sentry glutamate residue essential for specific targeting to plasma membrane PI(3,4,5)P(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Carissa; Landgraf, Kyle E; Falke, Joseph J

    2011-11-15

    During the appearance of the signaling lipid PI(3,4,5)P(3), an important subset of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains target signaling proteins to the plasma membrane. To ensure proper pathway regulation, such PI(3,4,5)P(3)-specific PH domains must exclude the more prevalant, constitutive plasma membrane lipid PI(4,5)P(2) and bind the rare PI(3,4,5)P(3) target lipid with sufficiently high affinity. Our previous study of the E17K mutant of the protein kinase B (AKT1) PH domain, together with evidence from Carpten et al. [Carpten, J. D., et al. (2007) Nature 448, 439-444], revealed that the native AKT1 E17 residue serves as a sentry glutamate that excludes PI(4,5)P(2), thereby playing an essential role in specific PI(3,4,5)P(3) targeting [Landgraf, K. E., et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 12260-12269]. The sentry glutamate hypothesis proposes that an analogous sentry glutamate residue is a widespread feature of PI(3,4,5)P(3)-specific PH domains, and that charge reversal mutation at the sentry glutamate position will yield both increased PI(4,5)P(2) affinity and constitutive plasma membrane targeting. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the E345 residue, a putative sentry glutamate, of the general receptor for phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) PH domain. The results show that incorporation of the E345K charge reversal mutation into the GRP1 PH domain enhances PI(4,5)P(2) affinity 8-fold and yields constitutive plasma membrane targeting in cells, reminiscent of the effects of the E17K mutation in the AKT1 PH domain. Hydrolysis of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P(2) releases the E345K GRP1 PH domain into the cytoplasm, and the efficiency of this release increases when Arf6 binding is disrupted. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the sentry glutamate hypothesis and suggest that the GRP1 E345K mutation will be linked to changes in cell physiology and human pathologies, as demonstrated for AKT1 E17K [Carpten, J. D., et al. (2007) Nature 448, 439-444; Lindhurst, M. J., et al

  12. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Peptides Released from β-Lactoglobulin by High Hydrostatic Pressure-Assisted Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Fatemeh; Bark, Seonghee; Kwon, Chul Hee; Suh, Joo-Won; Sunwoo, Hoon

    2017-06-07

    β-lactoglobulin hydrolysates (BLGH) have shown antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and opioid activity. In the current study, an innovative combination of high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) was used to increase the yield of short bioactive peptides, and evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the BLGH produced by the HHP-EH process. BLG was enzymatically hydrolyzed by different proteases at an enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 1:100 under HHP (100 MPa) and compared with hydrolysates obtained under atmospheric pressure (AP-EH at 0.1 MPa). The degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight distribution, and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of hydrolysates in chemical and cellular models were evaluated. BLGH obtained under HHP-EH showed higher DH than the hydrolysates obtained under AP-EH. Free radical scavenging and the reducing capacity were also significantly stronger in HHP-BLGH compared to AP-BLGH. The BLGH produced by alcalase (Alc) (BLG-Alc) showed significantly higher antioxidant properties among the six enzymes examined in this study. The anti-inflammatory properties of BLG-HHP-Alc were observed in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells by a lower level of nitric oxide production and the suppression of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Peptide sequencing revealed that 38% of the amino acids in BLG-HHP-Alc are hydrophobic and aromatic residues, which contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties. Enzymatic hydrolysis of BLG under HHP produces a higher yield of short bioactive peptides with potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  13. In vitro Evaluation of a Bombesin Antagonistic Analogue Conjugated with DOTA-Ala(SO{sub 3}H)-Aminooctanoyl for Targeting of the Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Lee, So Young; Choi, Sang Mu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    As Bombesin (BBS) binds with high affinity to GRPR, BBS derivatives have been labeled with various radionuclides such as {sup 99}mTc, {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 68}Ga, or {sup 18}F and have proved to be successful candidates for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). In this study, we employed Ala(SO{sub 3}H)-Aminooctanoyl as a linker of BBS antagonistic peptide sequence, Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-N methyl Gly-His-Statine-Leu-NH{sub 2}, with DOTA to prepare radiolabeled candidates for GRPR targeting. A DOTA-conjugated BBS antagonistic analogue was synthesized and radiolabeled with {sup 177}Lu, and in vitro characteristics on GRPR-overexpressing human prostate tumor cells were evaluated. In conclusion, a novel BBS antagonistic analogue, {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-sBBNA, is a promising candidate for the targeting of GRPR-over-expressing tumors. Further investigations to evaluate its in vivo characteristics and therapeutic efficacy are needed.

  14. Peptide dendrimers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), 757-788 ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiple antigen peptides * peptide dendrimers * synthetic vaccine * multipleantigenic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  15. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and reproductive organs of the male blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and its effect on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarai, Thanyaporn; Saetan, Jirawat; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prepee

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (lGnRH-III)-like peptide occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) of decapod crustaceans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, Portunus pelagicus), and that lGnRH-III is the most potent in stimulating ovarian maturation compared with other GnRH isoforms. In this study, we examined the localization of lGnRH-III-like peptide in the CNS and male reproductive organs of the blue swimming crab by using anti-lGnRH-III as a probe. In the brain, lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in neurons of clusters 6, 10, 11, 14/15, 16, and 17 and in many neuropils. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was present in neurons of the dorso-lateral and ventro-medial clusters. In the thoracic ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was observed in the large-sized neurons between the thoracic neuropils and in the ventromedial cluster of the abdominal ganglia. In the testis, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in nurse cells, hemocytes, spermatids 2, and the outer and inner zones of the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Bioassay showed that lGnRH-III significantly increased the testis-somatic index, the percentage of late stages of seminiferous tubules (stages VII-IX), the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and the number of BrdU-labeled early germ cells compared with the control groups. Thus, lGnRH-III-like peptide exists in the male crab and possibly enhances germ cell proliferation and maturation in the testes, leading to increased sperm production.

  16. mRNA expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B, 1D, and 1F receptors and their role in controlling the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, Dipak V; Ploug, Kenneth B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Triptans, a family of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1B, 1D, and 1F receptor agonists, are used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. The site of action and subtypes of the 5-HT(1) receptor that mediate the antimigraine effect have still to be identified. This study investigated the mRNA expres......Triptans, a family of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1B, 1D, and 1F receptor agonists, are used in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. The site of action and subtypes of the 5-HT(1) receptor that mediate the antimigraine effect have still to be identified. This study investigated the m......RNA expression of these receptors and the role of 5-HT(1) receptor subtypes in controlling the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat dura mater, trigeminal ganglion (TG), and trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC). The mRNA for each receptor subtype was quantified by quantitative real...

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn; Niu, Liwen, E-mail: mkteng@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2006-05-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, corresponding to 51.8% solvent content.

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the GRP carbohydrate-recognition domain from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Yunyu; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The CRD domain of GRP from H. sapiens has been expressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Galectins are a family of animal lectins which share similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and an affinity for β-galactosides. A novel human galectin-related protein named GRP (galectin-related protein; previously known as HSPC159) comprises only one conserved CRD with 38 additional N-terminal residues. The C-terminal fragment of human GRP (GRP-C; residues 38–172) containing the CRD has been expressed and purified. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method from a solution containing 2% PEG 400 and 2M ammonium sulfate in 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer pH 7.5. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å at beamline 3W1A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility at 100 K. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 123.07, b = 96.67, c = 61.56 Å, β = 118.72°. The estimated Matthews coefficient was 2.6 Å 3 Da −1 , corresponding to 51.8% solvent content

  19. GRP94: An HSP90-like protein specialized for protein folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Eletto, Davide; Argon, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein 94 is the HSP90-like protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and therefore it chaperones secreted and membrane proteins. It has essential functions in development and physiology of multicellular organisms, at least in part because of this unique clientele. GRP94...

  20. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...

  1. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress by deletion of Grp78 depletes Apc mutant intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lidth de Jeude, J F; Meijer, B J; Wielenga, M C B; Spaan, C N; Baan, B; Rosekrans, S L; Meisner, S; Shen, Y H; Lee, A S; Paton, J C; Paton, A W; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Heijmans, J

    2017-06-15

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells are highly sensitive to differentiation induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Colorectal cancer develops from mutated intestinal epithelial stem cells. The most frequent initiating mutation occurs in Apc, which results in hyperactivated Wnt signalling. This causes hyperproliferation and reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy, but whether these mutated stem cells are sensitive to ER stress induced differentiation remains unknown. Here we examined this by generating mice in which both Apc and ER stress repressor chaperone Grp78 can be conditionally deleted from the intestinal epithelium. For molecular studies, we used intestinal organoids derived from these mice. Homozygous loss of Apc alone resulted in crypt elongation, activation of the Wnt signature and accumulation of intestinal epithelial stem cells, as expected. This phenotype was however completely rescued on activation of ER stress by additional deletion of Grp78. In these Apc-Grp78 double mutant animals, stem cells were rapidly lost and repopulation occurred by non-mutant cells that had escaped recombination, suggesting that Apc-Grp78 double mutant stem cells had lost self-renewal capacity. Although in Apc-Grp78 double mutant mice the Wnt signature was lost, these intestines exhibited ubiquitous epithelial presence of nuclear β-catenin. This suggests that ER stress interferes with Wnt signalling downstream of nuclear β-catenin. In conclusion, our findings indicate that ER stress signalling results in loss of Apc mutated intestinal epithelial stem cells by interference with the Wnt signature. In contrast to many known inhibitors of Wnt signalling, ER stress acts downstream of β-catenin. Therefore, ER stress poses a promising target in colorectal cancers, which develop as a result of Wnt activating mutations.

  2. DiagTest3Grp: An R Package for Analyzing Diagnostic Tests with Three Ordinal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqin Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical researchers endeavor to identify potentially useful biomarkers to develop marker-based screening assays for disease diagnosis and prevention. Useful summary measures which properly evaluate the discriminative ability of diagnostic markers are critical for this purpose. Literature and existing software, for example, R packages nicely cover summary measures for diagnostic markers used for the binary case (e.g., healthy vs. diseased. An intermediate population at an early disease stage usually exists between the healthy and the fully diseased population in many disease processes. Supporting utilities for three-group diagnostic tests are highly desired and important for identifying patients at the early disease stage for timely treatments. However, application packages which provide summary measures for three ordinal groups are currently lacking. This paper focuses on two summary measures of diagnostic accuracy—volume under the receiver operating characteristic surface and the extended Youden index, with three diagnostic groups. We provide the R package DiagTest3Grp to estimate, under both parametric and nonparametric assumptions, the two summary measures and the associated variances, as well as the optimal cut-points for disease diagnosis. An omnibus test for multiple markers and a Wald test for two markers, on independent or paired samples, are incorporated to compare diagnostic accuracy across biomarkers. Sample size calculation under the normality assumption can be performed in the R package to design future diagnostic studies. A real world application evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological markers for Alzheimer’s disease is used to guide readers through step-by-step implementation of DiagTest3Grp to demonstrate its utility.

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide down-regulates LPS/ATP-mediated IL-1β release by inhibiting NF-kB, NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasoma, Letizia; Antognelli, Cinzia; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-02-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is an hormone/paracrine/autocrine factor regulating cardiovascular homeostasis by guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-1). ANP plays an important role also in regulating inflammatory and immune systems by altering macrophages functions and cytokines secretion. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in a wide range of biological responses, including the immunological one. Unlike other cytokines, IL-1β production is rigorously controlled. Primarily, NF-kB activation is required to produce pro-IL-1β; subsequently, NALP3 inflammasome/caspase-1 activation is required to cleave pro-IL-1β into the active secreted protein. NALP3 is a molecular platform capable of sensing a large variety of signals and a major player in innate immune defense. Due to their pleiotropism, IL-1β and NALP3 dysregulation is a common feature of a wide range of diseases. Therefore, identifying molecules regulating IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression is an important step in the development of new potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ANP on IL-1β/NALP3/caspase-1 expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated human THP1 monocytes. We provided new evidence of the direct involvement of ANP/NPR-1/cGMP axis on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1-mediated IL-1β release and NF-kB-mediated pro-IL-1β production. In particular, ANP inhibited both NF-kB and NALP3/caspase-1 activation leading to pro- and mature IL-1β down-regulation. Our data, pointing out a modulatory role of this endogenous peptide on IL-1β release and on NF-kB/NALP3/caspase-1 activation, indicate an important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of ANP via these mechanisms. We suggest a possible employment of ANP for the treatment of inflammatory/immune-related diseases and IL-1β/NALP3-associated disorders, affecting millions of people worldwide.

  4. A Histidine pH sensor regulates activation of the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoulen, Yvonne; Kondo, Yasushi; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Janssen, Axel B; White, Katharine A; Amini, Mojtaba; Barber, Diane L; Kuriyan, John; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-09-27

    RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes. The transition from the autoinhibited to the active form of RasGRP1 involves the rearrangement of an inter-domain linker that displaces inhibitory inter-domain interactions. His 212 is located at the fulcrum of these conformational changes, and structural features in its vicinity are consistent with its function as a pH-dependent switch.

  5. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-01-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of on...

  6. High expression of GRP78/BiP as a novel predictor of favorable outcomes in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yosuke; Kaira, Kyoichi; Sakurai, Reiko; Imai, Hisao; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Sunaga, Noriaki; Minato, Koichi; Hisada, Takeshi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-10-01

    Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78/immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) is a member of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone family, and its role in various types of human malignancies has recently been investigated. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of GRP78/BiP in advanced thymic carcinoma (ATC) remain unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between GRP78/BiP expression and the clinical outcomes of ATC patients. Thirty-four patients with ATC receiving combination chemotherapy at three institutions between April 1998 and April 2014 were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively collected patient characteristics such as therapeutic efficacy, pathological findings, and survival data from their medical records. We performed immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of GRP78/BiP in tumor specimens obtained from surgical resection or biopsy. This study included 21 men (68%) and 13 women (32%) with a median age of 62 years (range 36-75 years). GRP78/BiP overexpression was observed in 65% of the patients (22 of 34 patients). There was no correlation between GRP78/BiP expression and any patient characteristic. Patients with a high level of GRP78/BiP expression had significantly longer overall survival (OS) compared to those with a low level (46.2 vs. 16.8 months, p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high level of GRP78/BiP expression was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged OS. Our findings indicate that the overexpression of GRP78/BiP is a novel predictor of favorable outcomes in patients with ATC who receive combination chemotherapy.

  7. The effects of CRA 1000, a non-peptide antagonist of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1, on adaptive behaviour in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, J; Tõnissaar, M; Eller, M

    2001-04-01

    Intracerebrally administered CRF has been demonstrated to elicit several behavioural deficits in novel and potentially stressful experimental paradigms, and to promote activity in familiar situations. This study examined the effect of CRA 1000, a novel non-peptide antagonist of CRF(1)receptors, on rat behaviour in tests of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity and novelty-oriented behaviour. CRA 1000 (1.25-10 mg/kg) had no major effect in elevated plus-maze and social interaction tests. However, CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility in the forced swimming test, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. In the exploration box test, CRA 1000 (1.25 mg/kg) had an anxiolytic effect on rat exploratory behaviour both in intact rats and after lesioning of the projections of locus coeruleus by DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) treatment. A higher dose of CRA 1000 (5 mg/kg) tended to have anxiolytic-like effects in DSP-4 pretreated rats, but in intact animals this dose prevented the increase in exploration which develops with repeated exposure to initially anxiety-provoking situations. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that CRF1 receptor blockade by CRA 1000 has antidepressant-like effects, does not have a robust anti-anxiety effect in non-stressed animals, but does have anxiolytic-like effects in more complex tasks, which can be observed also after denervation of the locus coeruleus projections. However, large doses of CRF1 receptor antagonists may reduce motivation of exploratory behaviour in familiar environments. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  8. Improving Peptide Applications Using Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Wang, Tao; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are being successfully used in various fields including therapy and drug delivery. With advancement in nanotechnology and targeted delivery carrier systems, suitable modification of peptides has enabled achievement of many desirable goals over-riding some of the major disadvantages associated with the delivery of peptides in vivo. Conjugation or physical encapsulation of peptides to various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles and solid-lipid nanoparticles, has improved their in vivo performance multi-fold. The amenability of peptides to modification in chemistry and functionalization with suitable nanocarriers are very relevant aspects in their use and have led to the use of 'smart' nanoparticles with suitable linker chemistries that favor peptide targeting or release at the desired sites, minimizing off-target effects. This review focuses on how nanotechnology has been used to improve the number of peptide applications. The paper also focuses on the chemistry behind peptide conjugation to nanocarriers, the commonly employed linker chemistries and the several improvements that have already been achieved in the areas of peptide use with the help of nanotechnology.

  9. The Equine PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette Aamand

    2014-01-01

    Progress in MS-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first...... Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem MS analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides....... The current release comprises 24 131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2% at the peptide level and 1.4% at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic...

  10. Serum GRP78 as a Tumor Marker and Its Prognostic Significance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (78 kDa, GRP78, which is also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BIP, is a major chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The expression and clinical significance of GRP78 in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients have not yet been clearly described. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of GRP78 in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients, the relationships with clinicopathological parameters, and the potential implications for survival. Patients and Methods. A total of 163 peripheral blood samples from non-small cell lung cancer patients were prospectively collected at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer, China. Clinical characteristics data, including age, gender, stage, overall survival (OS time, and relapse-free survival (RFS time, were also collected. Serum GRP78 levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. The associations between GRP78 levels and clinicopathological characteristics and survival were examined using Student’s t-test, Kaplan-Meier, or Cox regression analyses. Results. The mean ± standard error (SE value of GRP78 was 326.5 ± 49.77 pg/mL. This level was significantly lower compared with the level in late-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients (1227 ± 223.6, p=0.0001. There were no significant correlations with the clinicopathological parameters. No significant difference was found between high GRP78 expression and low GRP78 expression with regard to RFS (p=0.1585. However, the OS of patients with higher GRP78 expression was significantly poorer (p=0.0334. Conclusions. GRP78 was expressed in non-small cell lung cancer patients and was highly enriched in late-stage lung cancer. GRP78 may have an important role in the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and may be a prognostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer.

  11. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a Purported Inhibitor of Chaperone Protein GRP78, as an Inhibitor of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Reyna; Pao, Peng-Wen; Hofman, Florence M.; Chen, Thomas C.; Louie, Stan G.; Pirrung, Michael C.; Schönthal, Axel H.

    2013-01-01

    Verrucosidin (VCD) belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78) expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD’s anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose), but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin). However, VCD’s strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin) might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed. PMID:23755268

  12. Repositioning of Verrucosidin, a purported inhibitor of chaperone protein GRP78, as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmy Thomas

    Full Text Available Verrucosidin (VCD belongs to a group of fungal metabolites that were identified in screening programs to detect molecules that preferentially kill cancer cells under glucose-deprived conditions. Its mode of action was proposed to involve inhibition of increased GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78 expression during hypoglycemia. Because GRP78 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, inhibitors such as VCD might harbor cancer therapeutic potential. We therefore sought to characterize VCD's anticancer activity in vitro. Triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 were treated with VCD under different conditions known to trigger increased expression of GRP78, and a variety of cellular processes were analyzed. We show that VCD was highly cytotoxic only under hypoglycemic conditions, but not in the presence of normal glucose levels, and VCD blocked GRP78 expression only when glycolysis was impaired (due to hypoglycemia or the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, but not when GRP78 was induced by other means (hypoxia, thapsigargin, tunicamycin. However, VCD's strictly hypoglycemia-specific toxicity was not due to the inhibition of GRP78. Rather, VCD blocked mitochondrial energy production via inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. As a result, cellular ATP levels were quickly depleted under hypoglycemic conditions, and common cellular functions, including general protein synthesis, deteriorated and resulted in cell death. Altogether, our study identifies mitochondria as the primary target of VCD. The possibility that other purported GRP78 inhibitors (arctigenin, biguanides, deoxyverrucosidin, efrapeptin, JBIR, piericidin, prunustatin, pyrvinium, rottlerin, valinomycin, versipelostatin might act in a similar GRP78-independent fashion will be discussed.

  13. AR-12 suppresses dengue virus replication by down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and GRP78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Chien-Chin; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Po-Chun; Lu, Zi-Yi; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Chih-Peng

    2017-06-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection has become a public health issue of worldwide concern and is a serious health problem in Taiwan, yet there are no approved effective antiviral drugs to treat DENV. The replication of DENV requires both viral and cellular factors. Targeting host factors may provide a potential antiviral strategy. It has been known that up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 by DENV infection supports its replication. AR-12, a celecoxib derivative with no inhibiting activity on cyclooxygenase, shows potent inhibitory activities on both PI3K/AKT signaling and GRP78 expression levels, and recently has been found to block the replication of several hemorrhagic fever viruses. However the efficacy of AR-12 in treating DENV infection is still unclear. Here, we provide evidence to show that AR-12 is able to suppress DENV replication before or after virus infection in cell culture and mice. The antiviral activities of AR-12 are positive against infection of the four different DENV serotypes. AR-12 significantly down-regulates the PI3K/AKT activity and GRP78 expression in DENV infected cells whereas AKT and GRP78 rescue are able to attenuate anti-DENV effect of AR-12. Using a DENV-infected suckling mice model, we further demonstrate that treatment of AR-12 before or after DENV infection reduces virus replication and mice mortality. In conclusion, we uncover the potential efficacy of AR-12 as a novel drug for treating dengue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Converging Wages, Diverging GRP: Directed Technical Change and Endogenous Growth. Empirical Analysis of Growth Patterns across Kazakh regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alisher Aldashev

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes unequal regional development in Kazakhstan. Applying the nonlinear least squares method in presence of spatial correlation we estimate the convergence rate of wages across Kazakh regions for the period 2003-2009. The estimated convergence rate is about 3% which is somewhat higher than estimates obtained for the USA and Europe. At the same time there is slight divergence in the GRP per capita. It is argued that convergence in wages which coincides with divergence in the per ...

  15. Hypoxic Preconditioning Promotes the Bioactivities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via the HIF-1?-GRP78-Akt Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jun Hee; Yoon, Yeo Min; Lee, Sang Hun

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are ideal materials for stem cell-based therapy. As MSCs reside in hypoxic microenvironments (low oxygen tension of 1% to 7%), several studies have focused on the beneficial effects of hypoxic preconditioning on MSC survival; however, the mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. This study aimed to uncover the potential mechanism involving 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) to explain the enhanced MSC bioactivity and survival in hindlimb ischemia. ...

  16. Binding to membrane proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum cannot explain the retention of the glucose-regulated protein GRP78 in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, A; Colman, A

    1988-03-01

    We have studied the compartmentation and movement of the rat 78-kd glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and other secretory and membrane proteins in Xenopus oocytes. Full length GRP78, normally found in the lumen of rat endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is localized to a membraneous compartment in oocytes and is not secreted. A truncated GRP78 lacking the C-terminal (KDEL) ER retention signal is secreted, although at a slow rate. When the synthesis of radioactive GRP78 is confined to a polar (animal or vegetal) region of the oocyte and the subsequent movement across the oocyte monitored, we find that both full-length and truncated GRP78 move at similar rates and only slightly slower than a secretory protein, chick ovalbumin. In contrast, a plasma membrane protein (influenza haemagglutinin) and two ER membrane proteins (rotavirus VP10 and a mutant haemagglutinin) remained confined to their site of synthesis. We conclude that the retention of GRP78 in the ER is not due to its tight binding to a membrane-bound receptor.

  17. Enhanced Anti-Tumoral Activity of Methotrexate-Human Serum Albumin Conjugated Nanoparticles by Targeting with Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Azade; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Farank Salman; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Borougeni, Atefeh Taheri; Mansoori, Pooria

    2011-01-01

    Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in many cancer cells as compared to normal cells, LHRH was used as the targeting ligand in this study. LHRH was conjugated to MTX-HSA nanoparticles via a cross-linker. Three types of LHRH targeted nanoparticles with a mean particle size between 120–138 nm were prepared. The cytotoxicity of LHRH targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were determined on the LHRH positive and negative cell lines. The internalization of the targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles in LHRH receptor positive and negative cells was investigated using flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the LHRH targeted nanoparticles on the LHRH receptor positive cells were significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. LHRH targeted nanoparticles were also internalized by LHRH receptor positive cells significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. There were no significant differences between the uptake of targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles to the LHRH receptor negative cells. The active targeting procedure using LHRH targeted MTX-HSA nanoparticles could increase the anti-tumoral activity of MTX. PMID:21845098

  18. Avian reovirus S1133-induced apoptosis is associated with Bip/GRP79-mediated Bim translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Yuan; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chang, Ching-Dong; Chen, Yo-Chia; Chang, Chi-I; Shih, Wen-Ling

    2015-04-01

    In this study the mechanism of avian reovirus (ARV) S1133-induced pathogenesis was investigated, with a focus on the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis. Our results showed that upregulation of the ER stress response protein, as well as caspase-3 activation, occurred in ARV S1133-infected cultured cells and in SPF White Leghorn chicks organs. Upon infection, Bim was translocated specifically to the ER, but not mitochondria, in the middle to late infectious stages. In addition, ARV S1133 induced JNK phosphorylation and promoted JNK-Bim complex formation, which correlated with the Bim translocation and apoptosis induction that was observed at the same time point. Knockdown of BiP/GRP78 by siRNA and inhibition of BiP/GRP78 using EGCG both abolished the formation of the JNK-Bim complex, caspase-3 activation, and subsequent apoptosis induction by ARV S1133 efficiently. These results suggest that BiP/GRP78 played critical roles and works upstream of JNK-Bim in response to the ARV S1133-mediated apoptosis process.

  19. Inhibition of casein kinase 2 modulates XBP1-GRP78 arm of unfolded protein responses in cultured glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available Stress signals cause abnormal proteins to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Such stress is known as ER stress, which has been suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR to reduce levels of abnormal proteins by inducing the production of chaperon proteins such as GRP78, and to attenuate translation through the phosphorylation of eIF2α. However, excessive stress leads to apoptosis by generating transcription factors such as CHOP. Casein kinase 2 (CK2 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating neoplasia, cell survival and viral infections. In the present study, we investigated a possible linkage between CK2 and ER stress using mouse primary cultured glial cells. 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB, a CK2-specific inhibitor, attenuated ER stress-induced XBP-1 splicing and subsequent induction of GRP78 expression, but was ineffective against ER stress-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Similar results were obtained when endogenous CK2 expression was knocked-down by siRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that CK2 was present at the ER. These results indicate CK2 to be linked with UPR and to resist ER stress by activating the XBP-1-GRP78 arm of UPR.

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors; Biocinetica y dosimetria en humanos de {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-Bombesina: imagenes de receptores GRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C L [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [{sup 99m}Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys{sup 3}-bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red

  1. Biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys3]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A de; Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the 99- mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3 ]-Bombesin ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38±1.68, 0.59±0.08, 2.07±0.60, 0.58±0.1, 0.75±0.09 and 0.43±0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64±0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the 99m Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  2. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-HYNIC-Lys3-Bombesin: images of GRP receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C. L.

    2007-01-01

    The bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is expressed in several normal human tissues and is over-expressed in various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently [ 99m Tc]EDDA/HYNIC-Lys 3 -bombesin ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN) was reported as a radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-r binding and rapid cell internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN to image GRP-r and to assess the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics and dosimetry in 4 breast cancer patients and in 7 healthy women. Methods: Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 11 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN time-activity curves in each organ in order to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions, according with MIRD methodology. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Results: Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with renal excretion as predominant route. 99m Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in cancer mammary glands and well differentiated from the ubiquitous GRP-r expression in normal breast, lungs and airways. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the radiation absorbed doses between cancer patients and healthy women. The average equivalent doses (n=11) for a study using 740 MBq were 24.8 +- 8.8 mSv (kidneys), 7.3 +- 1.8 mSv (lungs), 6.5 +- 4.0 mSv (breast) 2.0 +- 0.3 mSv (pancreas), 1.6 +- 0.3 mSv (liver), 1.2 +- 0.2 mSv (ovaries) and 1.0 +- 0.2 mSv (red marrow). The mean effective dose

  3. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-based targeting using bombesin analogues is superior to metabolism-based targeting using choline for in vivo imaging of human prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Rogier P.J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Urology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Weerden, W.M. van; Bangma, C.H.; Reneman, S. [Erasmus MC, Department of Urology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, E.P.; Berndsen, S.; Grievink-de Ligt, C.H.; Groen, H.C.; Blois, E. de; Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a major health problem. Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in PC, but not in the hyperplastic prostate, provides a promising target for staging and monitoring of PC. Based on the assumption that cancer cells have increased metabolic activity, metabolism-based tracers are also being used for PC imaging. We compared GRPR-based targeting using the {sup 68}Ga-labelled bombesin analogue AMBA with metabolism-based targeting using {sup 18}F-methylcholine ({sup 18}F-FCH) in nude mice bearing human prostate VCaP xenografts. PET and biodistribution studies were performed with both {sup 68}Ga-AMBA and {sup 18}F-FCH in all VCaP tumour-bearing mice, with PC-3 tumour-bearing mice as reference. Scanning started immediately after injection. Dynamic PET scans were reconstructed and analysed quantitatively. Biodistribution of tracers and tissue uptake was expressed as percent of injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g). All tumours were clearly visualized using {sup 68}Ga-AMBA. {sup 18}F-FCH showed significantly less contrast due to poor tumour-to-background ratios. Quantitative PET analyses showed fast tumour uptake and high retention for both tracers. VCaP tumour uptake values determined from PET at steady-state were 6.7 {+-} 1.4%ID/g (20-30 min after injection, N = 8) for {sup 68}Ga-AMBA and 1.6 {+-} 0.5%ID/g (10-20 min after injection, N = 8) for {sup 18}F-FCH, which were significantly different (p <0.001). The results in PC-3 tumour-bearing mice were comparable. Biodistribution data were in accordance with the PET results showing VCaP tumour uptake values of 9.5 {+-} 4.8%ID/g (N = 8) for {sup 68}Ga-AMBA and 2.1 {+-} 0.4%ID/g (N = 8) for {sup 18}F-FCH. Apart from the GRPR-expressing organs, uptake in all organs was lower for {sup 68}Ga-AMBA than for {sup 18}F-FCH. Tumour uptake of {sup 68}Ga-AMBA was higher while overall background activity was lower than observed for {sup 18}F-FCH in the same PC-bearing mice. These results

  4. POSSIBILITIES OF THE USE OF GRP PIPING IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF ENGINEERING NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today in modern construction new technologies and materials are used for the manufacture of pipelines for water supply and sanitation. They are supposed to operate for at least 50 years. Unlike plastic pipes, fiberglass ones may be made of larger sizes — up to 3700 mm in diameter. They are produced using the technology of optical fiber winding, which is carried out according to modern international standards of quality. The basic raw materials — fiberglass and resin — are produced in Russia, but their production is limited, so they are purchased abroad, which increases the cost of manufacture of this type of piping. However, due to the necessity of laying pipelines of large diameter, which cannot be made with plastic pipes, the manufacture of GRP pipes will increase. The experience of laying and constructing this type of pipelines, for example, in the areas of hot water supply allows concluding that they are able to withstand the temperatures of up to 150 °C, while their weight is four times less than the weight of steel pipes (they are easily installed with the help of small lifting equipment and by a team of six people. It should be noted that the use of fiberglass pipes helps to reduce the costs of system operation, because this type of piping is not subject to corrosion and encrustation of the inner surface, since it has a low level of roughness, which, for example, is 0.013 for a steel pipe, and 0.01 for fiberglass pipe. Thus, it is not necessary to put protective corrosion-resistant coatings and to provide an expensive protection against electrochemical corrosion. Piping made of fiberglass pipes can be designed as underground, above-ground with stacking or raised on poles. It is possible to combine these options.

  5. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Lan [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Wang, Yongsheng [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma.

  6. Differential regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Lan; Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora; Qiao, Jingbo; Wang, Yongsheng; Chung, Dai H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •GRP-R signaling differentially regulated the expression of p21 and p27. •Silencing GRP/GRP-R downregulated p21, while p27 expression was upregulated. •Inhibition of GRP/GRP-R signaling enhanced PTEN expression, correlative to the increased expression of p27. •PTEN and p27 co-localized in cytoplasm and silencing PTEN decreased p27 expression. -- Abstract: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) are highly expressed in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and they play critical roles in oncogenesis. We previously reported that GRP activates the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Conversely, GRP-R silencing induces cell cycle arrest. Here, we speculated that GRP/GRP-R signaling induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that GRP/GRP-R differentially induced expressions of p21 and p27. Silencing GRP/GRP-R decreased p21, but it increased p27 expressions in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we found that the intracellular localization of p21 and p27 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, respectively. In addition, we found that GRP/GRP-R silencing increased the expression and accumulation of PTEN in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells where it co-localized with p27, thus suggesting that p27 promotes the function of PTEN as a tumor suppressor by stabilizing PTEN in the cytoplasm. GRP/GRP-R regulation of CDK inhibitors and tumor suppressor PTEN may be critical for tumoriogenesis of neuroblastoma

  7. Cardioprotective peptides from marine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnedy, Padraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure or hypertension is one of the fastest growing health problems worldwide. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, dietary factors play an important role. With the high costs and adverse side-effects associated with synthetic antihypertensive drugs and the awareness of the link between diet and health there has been increased focus on identification of food components that may contribute to cardiovascular health. In recent years special interest has been paid to the cardioprotective activity of peptides derived from food proteins including marine proteins. These peptides are latent within the sequence of the parent protein and only become active when released by proteolytic digestion during gastrointestinal digestion or through food processing. Current data on antihypertensive activity of marine-derived protein hydrolysates/peptides in animal and human studies is reviewed herein. Furthermore, products containing protein hydrolysates/peptides from marine origin with antihypertensive effects are discussed.

  8. Novel targeted nuclear imaging agent for gastric cancer diagnosis: glucose-regulated protein 78 binding peptide-guided 111In-labeled polymeric micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Chia Cheng,1,2,* Chiung-Fang Huang,3,4,* Ai-Sheng Ho,5 Cheng-Liang Peng,6 Chun-Chao Chang,7,8 Fu-Der Mai,1,9 Ling-Yun Chen,10 Tsai-Yueh Luo,2 Jungshan Chang1,11,121Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 2Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, 3School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 4Division of Family and Operative Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, 5Division of Gastroenterology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, 6Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 7Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 9Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 10Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 11Neuroscience Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, 12Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Increased expression of cellular membrane bound glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 is considered to be one of the biomarkers for gastric cancers. Therefore, peptides or molecules with specific recognition to GRP78 can act as a guiding probe to direct conjugated imaging agents to localized cancers. Based on this rationale, GRP78-guided polymeric micelles were designed and manufactured for nuclear imaging detection of tumors. Thiolated GRP78 binding peptide (GRP78BP was first labeled with maleimide-terminated poly(ethylene glycol–poly(ε-caprolactone and then mixed with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA-linked poly(ethylene glycol–poly(ε-caprolactone to form DTPA/GRP78BP-conjugated micelles. The coupling efficiency of micelles with

  9. Peripheral T-Cell Reactivity to Heat Shock Protein 70 and Its Cofactor GrpE from Tropheryma whipplei Is Reduced in Patients with Classical Whipple's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Lucia; Weigt, Kathleen; Schinnerling, Katina; Geelhaar-Karsch, Anika; Oelkers, Gerrit; Biagi, Federico; Corazza, Gino Roberto; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Erben, Ulrike; Moos, Verena

    2017-08-01

    Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) is characterized by the lack of specific Th1 response toward Tropheryma whipplei in genetically predisposed individuals. The cofactor GrpE of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) from T. whipplei was previously identified as a B-cell antigen. We tested the capacity of Hsp70 and GrpE to elicit specific proinflammatory T-cell responses. Peripheral mononuclear cells from CWD patients and healthy donors were stimulated with T. whipplei lysate or recombinant GrpE or Hsp70 before levels of CD40L, CD69, perforin, granzyme B, CD107a, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were determined in T cells by flow cytometry. Upon stimulation with total bacterial lysate or recombinant GrpE or Hsp70 of T. whipplei , the proportions of activated effector CD4 + T cells, determined as CD40L + IFN-γ + , were significantly lower in patients with CWD than in healthy controls; CD8 + T cells of untreated CWD patients revealed an enhanced activation toward unspecific stimulation and T. whipplei -specific degranulation, although CD69 + IFN-γ + CD8 + T cells were reduced upon stimulation with T. whipplei lysate and recombinant T. whipplei -derived proteins. Hsp70 and its cofactor GrpE are immunogenic in healthy individuals, eliciting effective responses against T. whipplei to control bacterial spreading. The lack of specific T-cell responses against these T. whipplei -derived proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CWD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Synthesis of peptide thioacids at neutral pH using bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido peptide precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Silvain L; Boll, Emmanuelle; Melnyk, Oleg

    2013-10-18

    Reaction of bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amido (SEA) peptides with triisopropylsilylthiol in water at neutral pH yields peptide thiocarboxylates. An alkylthioester derived from β-alanine was used to trap the released bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amine and displace the equilibrium toward the peptide thiocarboxylate.

  11. The Noncaloric Sweetener Rebaudioside A Stimulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Release and Increases Enteroendocrine Cell Numbers in 2-Dimensional Mouse Organoids Derived from Different Locations of the Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, Nikkie; Ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Muckenschnabl, Susanne; Pieters, Raymond; Hendriks, Henk Fj; Witkamp, Renger F; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is

  12. The noncaloric sweetener rebaudioside a stimulates glucagon-like peptide 1 release and increases enteroendocrine cell numbers in 2-dimensional mouse organoids derived from different locations of the intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der Nikkie; Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Muckenschnabl, Susanne; Pieters, Raymond; Hendriks, Henk F.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine

  13. Field survey and laboratory tests on composite materials case of GRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester tubes for water suply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hariga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Moldova land, were made two lines of water adduction, having 6000 m length and 40 m slope, or 1/150 slope. The water supply component tubes were disposed under the plant: The tubes are made of glass – reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP. After about 180 days of operation, one of the lines showed severe deterioration of the quality pipe components. This paper deals with some laboratory tests in order to detect the failure cases of the pipelines components.

  14. Selective in vitro targeting of GRP and NMB receptors in human tumours with the new bombesin tracer 177Lu-AMBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waser, Beatrice; Eltschinger, Veronique; Reubi, Jean C.; Linder, Karen; Nunn, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro binding properties of a novel radiolabelled bombesin analogue, 177 Lu-AMBA, in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues selected for their expression of the bombesin receptor subtypes GRP-R, NMB-R and BRS-3. In vitro receptor autoradiography was performed in cancers expressing the various bombesin receptor subtypes. The novel radioligand 177 Lu-AMBA was used and compared with established bombesin radioligands such as 125 I-Tyr 4 -bombesin and 125 I-[D-Tyr 6 ,β-Ala 11 ,Phe 13 ,Nle 14 ]-bombesin(6-14). In vitro incidence of detection of each of the three bombesin receptor subtypes was evaluated in each tumour. 177 Lu-AMBA identified all GRP-R-expressing tumours, such as prostatic, mammary and renal cell carcinomas as well as gastrointestinal stromal tumours. 177 Lu-AMBA also identified all NMB-expressing tumours, but did not detect BRS-3-expressing tumours or BRS-3-expressing pancreatic islets. GRP-R-expressing peritumoural vessels were heavily labelled with 177 Lu-AMBA. In contrast to the strongly GRP-R-positive mouse pancreas, the human pancreas was not labelled with 177 Lu-AMBA unless chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. In general, the sensitivity was slightly better with 177 Lu-AMBA than with the conventional bombesin radioligands. The present in vitro study suggests that 177 Lu-AMBA may be a very useful in vivo targeting agent for GRP-R-expressing tumours, NMB-R-expressing tumours and GRP-R-expressing neoangiogenic vessels. (orig.)

  15. Selective in vitro targeting of GRP and NMB receptors in human tumours with the new bombesin tracer {sup 177}Lu-AMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Eltschinger, Veronique; Reubi, Jean C. [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, P.O. Box 62, Bern (Switzerland); Linder, Karen; Nunn, Adrian [Bracco Research USA Inc, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    To investigate the in vitro binding properties of a novel radiolabelled bombesin analogue, {sup 177}Lu-AMBA, in human neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues selected for their expression of the bombesin receptor subtypes GRP-R, NMB-R and BRS-3. In vitro receptor autoradiography was performed in cancers expressing the various bombesin receptor subtypes. The novel radioligand {sup 177}Lu-AMBA was used and compared with established bombesin radioligands such as {sup 125}I-Tyr{sup 4}-bombesin and {sup 125}I-[D-Tyr{sup 6},{beta}-Ala{sup 11},Phe{sup 13},Nle{sup 14}]-bombesin(6-14). In vitro incidence of detection of each of the three bombesin receptor subtypes was evaluated in each tumour. {sup 177}Lu-AMBA identified all GRP-R-expressing tumours, such as prostatic, mammary and renal cell carcinomas as well as gastrointestinal stromal tumours. {sup 177}Lu-AMBA also identified all NMB-expressing tumours, but did not detect BRS-3-expressing tumours or BRS-3-expressing pancreatic islets. GRP-R-expressing peritumoural vessels were heavily labelled with {sup 177}Lu-AMBA. In contrast to the strongly GRP-R-positive mouse pancreas, the human pancreas was not labelled with {sup 177}Lu-AMBA unless chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. In general, the sensitivity was slightly better with {sup 177}Lu-AMBA than with the conventional bombesin radioligands. The present in vitro study suggests that {sup 177}Lu-AMBA may be a very useful in vivo targeting agent for GRP-R-expressing tumours, NMB-R-expressing tumours and GRP-R-expressing neoangiogenic vessels. (orig.)

  16. RNAi silenced Dd-grp94 (Dictyostelium discoideum glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa) cell lines in Dictyostelium exhibit marked reduction in growth rate and delay in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviskar, Sandhya N; Shields, Malcolm S

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-regulated 94 kDa protein (Grp94) is a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of multicellular eukaryotes. It is a constitutively expressed protein that is overexpressed in certain abnormal conditions of the cell such as depletion of glucose and calcium, and low oxygen and pH. The protein is also implicated in diseased conditions like cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the consequences of downregulation of Grp94 were investigated at both unicellular and multicellular stages of Dictyostelium discoideum. Previous studies have shown the expression of Dd-Grp94 (Dictyostelium discoideum glucose-regulated 94 kDa protein) in wild-type cells varies during development, and overexpression of Dd-Grp94 leads to abnormal cell shape and inhibition of development (i.e., formation of fruiting bodies). Grp94 is a known calcium binding protein and an efficient calcium buffer. Therefore, in the present study we hypothesized that downregulation of Dd-Grp94 protein would affect Dictyostelium cell structure, growth, and development. We found that Dd-grp94 RNAi recombinants exhibited reduced growth rate, cell size, and a subtle change in cell motility compared to the parental cells. The recombinants also exhibited a delay in development and small fruiting bodies. These results establish that Dd-grp94 plays a crucial role in determining normal cell structure, growth and differentiation.

  17. Conformational Aspects of High Content Packing of Antimicrobial Peptides in Polymer Microgels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shalini; Datta, Aritreyee; Borro, Bruno C

    2017-01-01

    Successful use of microgels as delivery systems of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires control of factors determining peptide loading and release to/from the microgels as well as of membrane interactions of both microgel particles and released peptides. Addressing these, we here investigate ef...

  18. Delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Randi; Malmsten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly increasing resistance development against conventional antibiotics, finding novel approaches for the treatment of infections has emerged as a key health issue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted interest in this context, and there is by now a considerable literature...... on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems...... are likely to play a key role in the development of potent and safe AMP-based therapeutics, e.g., through reducing chemical or biological degradation of AMPs either in the formulation or after administration, by reducing adverse side-effects, by controlling AMP release rate, by promoting biofilm penetration...

  19. Continuous high expression of XBP1 and GRP78 is important for the survival of bone marrow cells in CCl4-treated cirrhotic liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumoto, Yoshio; Terai, Shuji; Urata, Yohei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Mizunaga, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Jin, Haiyan; Fujisawa, Koichi; Murata, Tomoaki; Shinoda, Koh; Nishina, Hiroshi; Sakaida, Isao

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that infusion of bone marrow cells (BMC) improves CCl 4 -induced cirrhosis. However, it is unclear why the injected BMC are resistant to CCl 4 damage and subsequently improve the local microenvironment in damaged liver. To analyze the cellular phenomena involved in this process, we studied the damaged liver using electron microscopy. We found that CCl 4 caused rough endoplasmic reticula to swell in hepatocytes. To analyze the gene expression patterns associated with this process, we conducted PCR-selected suppressive subtractive hybridization. We found that expression levels of HSP84, HSP40, and XBP1 differed markedly between control liver and liver infused with BMC. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that expression levels of HSP84 and HSP40 were markedly higher in the early phase of differentiation immediately after BMC infusion, but decreased over time. XBP1 expression remained high during the late phase, and GRP78 expression increased with XBP1 activation. We also found that GFP-positive BMC expressed XBP1 and GRP78. XBP1 and GRP78 are associated with ER stress. Thus, continuous high XBP1 and GRP78 expression might be essential for the survival and proliferation of BMC in a CCl 4 -induced persistent liver damage environment

  20. Efficacy of the Group Music and Imagery method (GrpMI) for women suffering from fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess...... the efficacy of Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI), including relaxation, music listening and spontaneous imagery, for subjective psychological wellbeing, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety and depression in women with FM. Methods: Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM...... groups found a significant increase in psychological wellbeing and a reduction in the rest of the variables, whereas the control groups only showed decreases in trait anxiety and trait depression. No significant differences were observed in the control groups at the follow-up, while the experimental...

  1. Identification of anti-HBV activities in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. using GRP78 as a drug target on Herbochip®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Iao-Fai; Huang, Min; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tysr; Yao, Pei-Wun; Chou, Yu-Ting; Ng, Sim-Kun; Tsai, Ying-Lin; Lin, Yu-Chang; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2017-01-01

    Herbochip ® technology is a high throughput drug screening platform in a reverse screening manner, in which potential chemical leads in herbal extracts are immobilized and drug target proteins can be used as probes for screening process [BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:146]. While herbal medicines represent an ideal reservoir for drug screenings, here a molecular chaperone GRP78 is demonstrated to serve as a potential target for antiviral drug discovery. We cloned and expressed a truncated but fully functional form of human GRP78 (hGRP78 1-508 ) and used it as a probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-HBV activity of the herbal extracts were evaluated by MTT and ELISA assays, respectively. Finally, anti-HBV activity was confirmed by in vivo assay using DHBV DNA levels in DHBV-infected ducklings as a model. Primary screenings using GRP78 on 40 herbochips revealed 11 positives. Four of the positives, namely Dioscorea bulbifera , Lasiosphaera fenzlii , Paeonia suffruticosa and Polygonum cuspidatum were subjected to subsequent assays. None of the above extracts was cytotoxic to AML12 cells, but P. cuspidatum extract (PCE) was found to be cytotoxic to HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Both PCE and P. suffruticosa extract (PSE) suppressed secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The anti-HBV activity of PSE was further confirmed in vivo. We have demonstrated that GRP78 is a valid probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. We have also shown that PSE, while being non-cytotoxic, possesses in vitro and in vivo anti-HBV activities. Taken together, our data suggest that PSE may be a potential anti-HBV agent for therapeutic use.

  2. Decreased cell survival and DNA repair capacity after UVC irradiation in association with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP in human RSa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ling; Kita, Kazuko; Wano, Chieko; Wu Yuping; Sugaya, Shigeru; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on the roles of molecular chaperones, such as heat shock proteins, there are only a few reports about the roles of GRP78/BiP, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced molecular chaperone, in mammalian cell responses to DNA-damaging stresses. To investigate whether GRP78/BiP is involved in resistance to a DNA-damaging agent, UVC (principally 254 nm in wavelength), we established human cells with down-regulation of GRP78/BiP by transfection of human RSa cells with antisense cDNA for GRP78/BiP. We found that the transfected cells showed higher sensitivity to UVC-induced cell death than control cells transfected with the vector alone. In the antisense-cDNA transfected cells, the removal capacities of the two major types of UVC-damaged DNA (thymine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts) in vivo and DNA synthesis activity of whole cell extracts to repair UVC-irradiated plasmids in vitro were remarkably decreased compared with those in the control cells. Furthermore, the antisense-cDNA transfected cells also showed slightly higher sensitivity to cisplatin-induced cell death than the control cells. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage is primarily repaired by nucleotide excision repair, like UVC-induced DNA damage. The present results suggest that GRP78/BiP plays a protective role against UVC-induced cell death possibly via nucleotide excision repair, at least in the human RSa cells tested

  3. The Craterostigma plantagineum glycine-rich protein CpGRP1 interacts with a cell wall-associated protein kinase 1 (CpWAK1) and accumulates in leaf cell walls during dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Valentino; Krey, Stephanie; von den Driesch, Barbara; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-04-01

    Craterostigma plantagineum tolerates extreme desiccation. Leaves of this plant shrink and extensively fold during dehydration and expand again during rehydration, preserving their structural integrity. Genes were analysed that may participate in the reversible folding mechanism. Analysis of transcripts abundantly expressed in desiccated leaves identified a gene putatively coding for an apoplastic glycine-rich protein (CpGRP1). We studied the expression, regulation and subcellular localization of CpGRP1 and its ability to interact with a cell wall-associated protein kinase (CpWAK1) to understand the role of CpGRP1 in the cell wall during dehydration. The CpGRP1 protein accumulates in the apoplast of desiccated leaves. Analysis of the promoter revealed that the gene expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) and involves a drought-responsive cis-element (DRE). CpGRP1 interacts with CpWAK1 which is down-regulated in response to dehydration. Our data suggest a role of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex in dehydration-induced morphological changes in the cell wall during dehydration in C. plantagineum. Cell wall pectins and dehydration-induced pectin modifications are predicted to be involved in the activity of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Photosystem Inspired Peptide Hybrid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    materials defined at the molecular level. We propose a novel way to make hybrid catalyst composed of inorganic nanomaterials and peptides. The...Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR)/ IOA Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY SNUR&DB FOUNDATION RESEARCH PARK CENTER SEOUL, 151742 KR 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  5. Intracellular Signalling by C-Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hills

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available C-peptide, a cleavage product of the proinsulin molecule, has long been regarded as biologically inert, serving merely as a surrogate marker for insulin release. Recent findings demonstrate both a physiological and protective role of C-peptide when administered to individuals with type I diabetes. Data indicate that C-peptide appears to bind in nanomolar concentrations to a cell surface receptor which is most likely to be G-protein coupled. Binding of C-peptide initiates multiple cellular effects, evoking a rise in intracellular calcium, increased PI-3-kinase activity, stimulation of the Na+/K+ ATPase, increased eNOS transcription, and activation of the MAPK signalling pathway. These cell signalling effects have been studied in multiple cell types from multiple tissues. Overall these observations raise the possibility that C-peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment or prevention of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

  6. Peptide-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Prepared through Coacervation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gallarate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared according to a new technique, called coacervation. The main goal of this experimental work was the entrapment of peptide drugs into SLN, which is a difficult task, since their chemical characteristics (molecular weight, hydrophilicity, and stability hamper peptide-containing formulations. Insulin and leuprolide, chosen as model peptide drugs, were encapsulated within nanoparticles after hydrophobic ion pairing with anionic surfactants. Peptide integrity was maintained after encapsulation, and nanoparticles can act in vitro as a sustained release system for peptide.

  7. Diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer with PET/CT imaging using the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist {sup 68}Ga-RM2: Preliminary results in patients with negative or inconclusive [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethylcholine-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, Gesche; Bartholomae, Mark [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Popp, Ilinca; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center - Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Christian Rischke, H. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center - Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Drendel, Vanessa [University of Freiburg, Institute for Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York, NY (United States); Mansi, Rosalba [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Wetterauer, Ulrich; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Jilg, Cordula Annette [University of Freiburg, Department of Urology, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Partner Site Freiburg, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    [{sup 18}F]fluoroethylcholine ({sup 18}FECH) has been shown to be a valuable PET-tracer in recurrent prostate cancer (PCa), but still has limited accuracy. RM2 is a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) antagonist that binds to GRPr on PCa cells. Recent studies suggest that GRPr imaging with PET/CT is a promising technique for staging and restaging of PCa. We explore the value of GRPr-PET using the {sup 68}Ga-labeled GRPr antagonist RM2 in a selected population of patients with biochemically recurrent PCa and a negative/inconclusive {sup 18}FECH-PET/CT. In this retrospective study 16 men with biochemical PCa relapse and negative (n = 14) or inconclusive (n = 2) {sup 18}FECH-PET/CT underwent whole-body {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT. Mean time from {sup 18}FECH-PET/CT to {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT was 6.1 ± 6.8 months. Primary therapies in these patients were radical prostatectomy (n = 13; 81.3%) or radiotherapy (n = 3; 18.7%). 14/16 patients (87.5%) had already undergone salvage therapies because of biochemical relapse prior to {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT imaging. Mean ± SD PSA at {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT was 19.4 ± 53.5 ng/ml (range 1.06-226.4 ng/ml). {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT showed at least one region with focal pathological uptake in 10/16 patients (62.5%), being suggestive of local relapse (n = 4), lymph node metastases (LNM; n = 4), bone metastases (n = 1) and lung metastasis with hilar LNM (n = 1). Seven of ten positive {sup 68}Ga-RM2 scans were positively confirmed by surgical resection and histology of the lesions (n = 2), by response to site-directed therapies (n = 2) or by further imaging (n = 3). Patients with a positive {sup 68}Ga-RM2-scan showed a significantly higher median PSA (6.8 ng/ml, IQR 10.2 ng/ml) value than those with a negative scan (1.5 ng/ml, IQR 3.1 ng/ml; p = 0.016). Gleason scores or concomitant antihormonal therapy had no apparent impact on the detection of recurrent disease. Even in this highly selected population of patients with known biochemical

  8. Down-regulation of GRP78 is associated with the sensitivity of chemotherapy to VP-16 in small cell lung cancer NCI-H446 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yingyan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Siyan; Wang, Jiarui; Shao, Shujuan; Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, plays a critical role in chemotherapy resistance in some cancers. However, whether the suppression of the chaperone can enhance the sensitivity of chemotherapy in SCLC is still unclear. The SCLC NCI-H446 cells were divided into three groups: BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated group, A23187-treated group and control-group. Immunofluorescence, western blot and RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of GRP78 at both protein and mRNA levels. Cell apoptosis and the cell cycle distributions of the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in order to evaluate the therapeutic sensitivity to VP-16. The expression of GRP78 at both protein and mRNA levels in the BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated cells dramatically decreased as compared to that in both A23187-treated and control groups. After treatment by VP-16, the percentage of apoptotic cells in BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated cells were: 33.4 ± 1.01%, 48.2 ± 1.77%, 53.0 ± 1.43%, 56.5 ± 2.13%, respectively, corresponding to the concentrations of BAPTA-AM 10, 15, 25, 40 μM, which was statistically significant high in comparison with the A23187-treated group and untreated-group (7.18 ± 1.03% and 27.8 ± 1.45%, respectively, p < 0.05). The results from analysis of cell cycle distribution showed that there was a significantly decreased in G 1 phase and a dramatically increased in S phase for the BAPTA-AM→A23187-treated cells as compared with the untreated cells. BAPTA-AM is a strong inhibitor of GRP78 in the NCI-H446 cell line, the down-regulation of GRP78 can significantly increase the sensitivity to VP-16. The suppression of GRP78 may offer a new surrogated therapeutic approach to the clinical management of lung cancer

  9. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  10. Dual integrin and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor targeted tumor imaging using 18F-labeled PEGylated RGD-bombesin heterodimer 18F-FB-PEG3-Glu-RGD-BBN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaofei; Yan, Yongjun; Chin, Frederic T; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-22

    Radiolabeled RGD and bombesin peptides have been extensively investigated for tumor integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and GRPR imaging, respectively. Due to the fact that many tumors are both integrin and GRPR positive, we designed and synthesized a heterodimeric peptide Glu-RGD-BBN, which is expected to be advantageous over the monomeric peptides for dual-receptor targeting. A PEG(3) spacer was attached to the glutamate alpha-amino group of Glu-RGD-BBN to enhance the (18)F labeling yield and to improve the in vivo kinetics. PEG(3)-Glu-RGD-BBN possesses the comparable GRPR and integrin alpha(v)beta(3) receptor-binding affinities as the corresponding monomers, respectively. The dual-receptor targeting properties of (18)F-FB-PEG(3)-Glu-RGD-BBN were observed in PC-3 tumor model. (18)F-FB-PEG(3)-Glu-RGD-BBN with high tumor contrast and favorable pharmacokinetics is a promising PET tracer for dual integrin and GRPR positive tumor imaging. This heterodimer strategy may also be an applicable method to develop other molecules with improved in vitro and in vivo characterizations for tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Initiation of lambda DNA replication. The Escherichia coli small heat shock proteins, DnaJ and GrpE, increase DnaK's affinity for the lambda P protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Georgopoulos, C; Zylicz, M

    1993-03-05

    It is known that the initiation of bacteriophage lambda replication requires the orderly assembly of the lambda O.lambda P.DnaB helicase protein preprimosomal complex at the ori lambda DNA site. The DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE heat shock proteins act together to destabilize the lambda P.DnaB complex, thus freeing DnaB and allowing it to unwind lambda DNA near the ori lambda site. The first step of this disassembly reaction is the binding of DnaK to the lambda P protein. In this report, we examined the influence of the DnaJ and GrpE proteins on the stability of the lambda P.DnaK complex. We present evidence for the existence of the following protein-protein complexes: lambda P.DnaK, lambda P.DnaJ, DnaJ.DnaK, DnaK.GrpE, and lambda P.DnaK.GrpE. Our results suggest that the presence of GrpE alone destabilizes the lambda P.DnaK complex, whereas the presence of DnaJ alone stabilizes the lambda P.DnaK complex. Using immunoprecipitation, we show that in the presence of GrpE, DnaK exhibits a higher affinity for the lambda P.DnaJ complex than it does alone. Using cross-linking with glutaraldehyde, we show that oligomeric forms of DnaK exhibit a higher affinity for lambda P than monomeric DnaK. However, in the presence of GrpE, monomeric DnaK can efficiently bind lambda P protein. These findings help explain our previous results, namely that in the GrpE-dependent lambda DNA replication system, the DnaK protein requirement can be reduced up to 10-fold.

  12. Developing a Dissociative Nanocontainer for Peptide Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kelly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The potency, selectivity, and decreased side effects of bioactive peptides have propelled these agents to the forefront of pharmacological research. Peptides are especially promising for the treatment of neurological disorders and pain. However, delivery of peptide therapeutics often requires invasive techniques, which is a major obstacle to their widespread application. We have developed a tailored peptide drug delivery system in which the viral capsid of P22 bacteriophage is modified to serve as a tunable nanocontainer for the packaging and controlled release of bioactive peptides. Recent efforts have demonstrated that P22 nanocontainers can effectively encapsulate analgesic peptides and translocate them across blood-brain-barrier (BBB models. However, release of encapsulated peptides at their target site remains a challenge. Here a Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP reaction is applied to trigger P22 nanocontainer disassembly under physiological conditions. Specifically, the ROMP substrate norbornene (5-Norbornene-2-carboxylic acid is conjugated to the exterior of a loaded P22 nanocontainer and Grubbs II Catalyst is used to trigger the polymerization reaction leading to nanocontainer disassembly. Our results demonstrate initial attempts to characterize the ROMP-triggered release of cargo peptides from P22 nanocontainers. This work provides proof-of-concept for the construction of a triggerable peptide drug delivery system using viral nanocontainers.

  13. Solid-phase peptide quantitation assay using labeled monoclonal antibody and glutaraldehyde fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk, P.G.; Cuttitta, F.; Avis, I.; Nakanishi, Y.; Treston, A.; Wong, H.; Walsh, J.H.; Mulshine, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay utilizing iodinated peptide-specific monoclonal antibody as a detection system instead of labeled peptide has been developed. Regional specific monoclonal antibodies to either gastrin-releasing peptide or gastrin were used as models to validate the general application of our modified assay. Conditions for radioactive labeling of the monoclonal antibody were determined to minimize oxidant damage, which compromises the sensitivity of other reported peptide quantitation assays. Pretreatment of 96-well polyvinyl chloride test plates with a 5% glutaraldehyde solution resulted in consistent retention of sufficient target peptide on the solid-phase matrix to allow precise quantitation. This quantitative method is completed within 1 h of peptide solid phasing. Pretreatment of assay plates with glutaraldehyde increased binding of target peptide and maximized antibody binding by optimizing antigen presentation. The hypothesis that glutaraldehyde affects both peptide binding to the plate and orientation of the peptide was confirmed by analysis of several peptide analogs. These studies indicate that peptide binding was mediated through a free amino group leaving the carboxy-terminal portion of the target peptide accessible for antibody binding. It was observed that the length of the peptide also affects the amount of monoclonal antibody that will bind. Under the optimal conditions, results from quantitation of gastrin-releasing peptide in relevant samples agree well with those from previously reported techniques. Thus, we report here a modified microplate assay which may be generally applied for the rapid and sensitive quantitation of peptide hormones

  14. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  15. Biokinetics and dosimetry of {sup 99m} Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-bombesin in humans: imaging of GRP receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C.L.; Ferro F, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A de [INCMNSZ, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cardena, E.; Pichardo R, P. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Oncologia Centro Medico Siglo XXI, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Bombesin (BN) receptor subtype 2 (GRP-r) is over-expressed on various human tumors including breast, prostate, small cell lung and pancreatic cancer. Recently we reported the {sup 99-}mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys{sup 3}]-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN) complex as a new radiopharmaceutical with high stability in human serum, specific cell GRP-receptor binding and rapid internalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN biokinetics and dosimetry in 5-healthy and 3-breast cancer women. Whole-body images were acquired at 20, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN administration. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source' organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all 8 scans and the cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN time activity curves in each organ, to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed a rapid radiopharmaceutical blood clearance with predominantly renal excretion and minimal hepatobiliary elimination. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-BN exhibited high in vivo affinity for GRP-r over-expression successfully visualized in breast cancer lesions and well differentiated from GRP-r expression in lungs and airways with normal GRP-r density (ratio 3:1). The equivalent doses for a study using 370 MBq were 7.38{+-}1.68, 0.59{+-}0.08, 2.07{+-}0.60, 0.58{+-}0.1, 0.75{+-}0.09 and 0.43{+-}0.07 mSv for kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas and red marrow respectively. The effective dose was 1.64{+-}0.25 mSv which is comparable with the doses known for most of the {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceutical studies in nuclear medicine. (Author)

  16. Screening of large panel of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels is not adapted for the evaluation of digestive damage following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Dudoignon, N.; Monti, P.; Combes, O.; Wysocki, J.; Grison, S.; Baudelin, C.; Griffiths, N.M.; Scanff, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of gastrointestinal peptide plasma levels as biomarkers of radiation-induced digestive tract damage. To this end, plasma levels of substance P, GRP, motilin, PYY, somatostatin-28, gastrin, and neurotensin were followed for up to 5 days in pigs after a 16-Gy whole-body X-irradiation, completed by a histopathological study performed at 5 days. Each peptide gave a specific response to irradiation. The plasma levels of GRP and substance P were not modified by irradiation exposure; neither were those of motilin and PYY. Concerning gastrin, a 2-3-fold increase of plasma concentration was observed in pig, which presented the most important histological alterations of the stomach. The plasma levels of somatostatin, unchanged from 1 to 4 days after irradiation, was also increased by 130% at 5 days. In contrast, a diminution of neurotensin plasma levels was noted, firstly at 1 day (-88%), and from 3 days after exposure (-50%). The present study suggested that changes in gastrin and neurotensin plasma levels were associated with structural alterations of the stomach and ileum, respectively, indicating that they may be relevant biological indicators of radiation-induced digestive damage to these segments. (author)

  17. PeptideAtlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — PeptideAtlas is a multi-organism, publicly accessible compendium of peptides identified in a large set of tandem mass spectrometry proteomics experiments. Mass...

  18. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a

  19. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  20. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  4. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  5. Joining of hybrid AA6063-6SiCp-3Grp composite and AISI 1030 steel by friction welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajesh Jesudoss Hynes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining of metals and aluminium hybrid metal matrix composites has significant applications in aviation, ship building and automotive industries. In the present work, investigation is carried out on Friction Welding of AISI 1030 steel and hybrid AA6063-6SiCp-3Grpcomposite, that are difficult to weld by fusion welding technique. Silicon carbide and graphite particle reinforced AA6063 matrix hybrid composite was developed successfully using stir casting method and the joining feasibility of AISI1030 steel with AA6063-6SiCp-3Grp hybrid composite was tried out by friction stud welding technique. During friction stage of welding process, the particulates (SiC & Graphite used for reinforcement, tend to increase the viscosity and lead to improper mixing of matrix and reinforcement. This eventually results in lower strength in dissimilar joints. To overcome this difficulty AA1100 interlayer is used while joining hybrid composite to AISI 1030 steel. Experimentation was carried out using Taguchi based design of experiments (DOE technique. Multiple regression methods were applied to understand the relationship between process parameters of the friction stud welding process. Micro structural examination reveals three separate zones namely fully plasticized zone, partially deformed zone and unaffected base material zone. Ultra fine dynamically recrystallized grains of about 341 nm were observed at the fully plasticized zone. EDX analysis confirms the presence of intermetallic compound Fe2Al5 at the joint interface. According to the experimental analysis using DOE, rotational speed and interlayer sheet thickness contribute about 39% and 36% respectively in determining the impact strength of the welded joints. It is found that joining with 0.5 mm interlayer sheet provides efficient joints. Developed regression model could be used to predict the axial shortening distance and impact strength of the welded joint with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  7. Effect of the peptide Tat(49-57) on the bio-distribution and similar radiopharmaceuticals dosimetry of the bombesin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos C, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is over-expressed in prostate and breast cancer. 99m Tc-Bombesin ( 99m Tc-Bn) has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with specific cell GRP-r binding. The HIV Tat(49-57)-derived peptide has been used to deliver a large variety of molecules to cell nuclei. New hybrid radiopharmaceuticals of type 99m Tc-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn ( 99m Tc-Tat-Bn) and 188 Re-N 2 S 2 -Tat(49-57)-Lys 3 -Bn ( 188 Re-Tat-Bn), would increase cell uptake and internalized in cancer cell nuclei could act as an effective system of targeted radiotherapy using Auger and internal conversion (I C) electron emissions near DNA. The aim of this research was to prepare and assess in vitro and in vivo uptake kinetics in cancer cells of 99m Tc/ 188 Re-Tat-Bn and the in vitro nucleus and cytoplasm internalization kinetics in GRP receptor-positive cancer cells as well as to evaluate the subcellular-level radiation absorbed dose associated with the observed effect on cancer cell DNA proliferation. Structures of N 2 S 2 -Tat-Bn and Tc/Re(O)N 2 S 2 -Tat-Bn were calculated by an Mm procedure. 99m Tc-Tat-Bn and 188 Re-Tat-Bn were synthesized and stability studies carried out by HPLC and I TLC-Sg analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer Pc 3 cells and breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-Mb 231 and MCF 7. Nuclei from cells were isolated using a nuclear extraction kit. Total disintegrations in each subcellular compartment were calculated by integration of experimental time activity kinetic curves. Nucleus internalization was corroborated by con focal microscopy images using immunofluorescent labelled Tat-Bn. Biodistribution was determined in Pc 3 tumor-bearing nude mice. The Penelope code was used to simulate and calculate the absorbed dose by contribution of β, Auger and I C electrons in the cytoplasm and nucleus using geometric models built from immunofluorescent cell images. A cell proliferation

  8. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  9. Biosynthesis and release of beta-endorphin-, N-acetyl beta-endorphin-, beta-endorphin-(1-27)-, and N-acetyl beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like peptides by rat pituitary neurointermediate lobe: beta-endorphin is not further processed by anterior lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liotta, A.S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Krieger, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous labeling and pulse-chase techniques were employed to study the synthesis and secretion of multiple forms of immunoreactive beta-endorphin by cultured dispersed rat anterior lobe cells and intact neurointermediate pituitary lobe. Intact neurointermediate lobes incorporated radiolabeled amino acids into four to six forms of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Four of these forms were physicochemically similar to authentic beta-endorphin, N-acetylated beta-endorphin, beta-endorphin-(1-27), and N-acetylated beta-endorphin-(1-27). Pulse-chase studies indicated that a beta-lipotropin-like molecule served as a metabolic intermediate for a beta-endorphin-like molecule. As beta-endorphin-like material accumulated in the cell, some of it was N-acetylated (approximately 18% at 2 hr chase and approximately 65% at 18 hr chase). At later chase times, beta-endorphin-(1-27)- and N-acetylated beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like peptides were the predominant molecular species detected. All endorphin forms were detected in unlabeled tissue maintained in culture or tissue continuously labeled for 72 hr and were released into the medium under basal, stimulatory (10(-8) M norepinephrine), or inhibitory (10(-7) M dopamine) incubation conditions. In all cases, beta-endorphin-(1-27)-like species were the predominant forms (more than 70% of total) present in the cells and released into the medium. In contrast, approximately 90% of radiolabeled immunoreactive beta-endorphin extracted from anterior lobe cells and medium similarly incubated appeared to represent the authentic beta-endorphin molecule. Continuous labeling (72 hr) revealed the beta-lipotropin/beta-endorphin molar ratio to be approximately 4. We conclude that, in anterior lobe, most of the beta-endorphin is not processed further and is released intact, while in neurointermediate lobe, it serves as a biosynthetic intermediate

  10. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-08-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of one of them, designated msgB. The msgB gene maps at approximately 53 min on the E. coli chromosome. The minimal gene possesses an open reading frame that encodes a protein with a predicted size of 41,269 M(r). This open reading frame was confirmed the correct one by direct amino-terminal sequence analysis of the overproduced msgB gene product. Genetic experiments demonstrated that msgB is essential for E. coli growth in the temperature range of 22 to 37 degrees C. Through a sequence homology search, MsgB was shown to be identical to N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (the dapE gene product), which participates in the diaminopimelic acid-lysine pathway involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Consistent with this finding, the msgB null allele mutant is viable only when the growth medium is supplemented with diaminopimelic acid. These results suggest that GrpE may have a previously unsuspected function(s) in cell wall biosynthesis in E. coli.

  11. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  13. Secretion of intact proteins and peptide fragments by lysosomal pathways of protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenman, L.D.; Dice, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    We report that degradation of proteins microinjected into human fibroblasts is accompanied by release into the culture medium of peptide fragments and intact proteins as well as single amino acids. For the nine proteins and polypeptides microinjected, acid-precipitable radioactivity, i.e. peptide fragments and/or intact proteins, ranged from 10 to 67% of the total released radioactivity. Peptide fragments and/or intact protein accounted for 60% of the radioactivity released into the medium by cells microinjected with ribonuclease A. Two major radiolabeled peptide fragments were found, and one was of an appropriate size to function as an antigen in antigen-presenting cells. The peptides released from microinjected ribonuclease A were derived from lysosomal pathways of proteolysis based on several lines of evidence. Previous studies have shown that microinjected ribonuclease A is degraded to single amino acids entirely within lysosomes. We show that release of free amino acids and peptide fragments and/or intact protein was equivalently stimulated by serum deprivation and equivalently inhibited by NH4Cl. We also show that lysosomal degradation of endocytosed [3H]ribonuclease A was accompanied by the release of two peptide fragments similar in size and charge to those from microinjected [ 3 H]ribonuclease A. These findings demonstrate that degradation within lysosomes occurs in a manner that spares specific peptides; they also suggest a previously unsuspected pathway by which cells can secrete cytosol-derived polypeptides

  14. Enhancement of anti-tumor activity of hybrid peptide in conjugation with carboxymethyl dextran via disulfide linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaowa, Arong; Horibe, Tomohisa; Kohno, Masayuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-05-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide, we prepared peptide-modified dextran conjugates with the disulfide bonds between thiolated carboxymethyl dextran (CMD-Cys) and cysteine-conjugated peptide (EGFR2R-lytic-Cys). In vitro release studies showed that the peptide was released from the CMD-s-s-peptide conjugate in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of glutathione (GSH, 2μM-2mM). The CMD-s-s-peptide conjugate exhibited a similar cytotoxic activity with free peptide alone against human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that the CMD-s-s-peptide conjugates were highly accumulated in tumor tissue in a mouse xenograft model using BxPC-3 cells, and the anti-tumor activity of the conjugate was more effective than that of the free peptide. In addition, the plasma concentrations of peptide were moderately increased and the elimination half-life of the peptide was prolonged after intravenous injection of CMD-s-s-peptide conjugates. These results demonstrated that the conjugate based on thiolated CMD polymer would be potentially useful carriers for the sustained release of the hybrid peptide in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Insulin C-peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-peptide ... the test depends on the reason for the C-peptide measurement. Ask your health care provider if ... C-peptide is measured to tell the difference between insulin the body produces and insulin someone injects ...

  16. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory C. F. De Brito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  17. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  19. A Review of the Latest Advances in Encrypted Bioactive Peptides from Protein-Rich Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are considered the new generation of biologically active regulators that not only prevent the mechanism of oxidation and microbial degradation in foods but also enhanced the treatment of various diseases and disorders, thus increasing quality of life. This review article emphasizes recent advances in bioactive peptide technology, such as: (i new strategies for transforming bioactive peptides from residual waste into added-value products; (ii nanotechnology for the encapsulation, protection and release of controlled peptides; and (iii use of techniques of large-scale recovery and purification of peptides aiming at future applications to pharmaceutical and food industries.

  20. Anxiety, Depression, and the Microbiome: A Role for Gut Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Gilliard; Schellekens, Harriet; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2018-01-01

    The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling. Given the emerging role of the gut-brain axis in a variety of brain disorders, such as anxiety and depression, it is important to understand the contribution of bidirectional interactions between peptide hormones released from the gut and intestinal bacteria in the context of this axis. Indeed, the gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in mammals, secreting dozens of different signaling molecules, including peptides. Gut peptides in the systemic circulation can bind cognate receptors on immune cells and vagus nerve terminals thereby enabling indirect gut-brain communication. Gut peptide concentrations are not only modulated by enteric microbiota signals, but also vary according to the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we will discuss the gut microbiota as a regulator of anxiety and depression, and explore the role of gut-derived peptides as signaling molecules in microbiome-gut-brain communication. Here, we summarize the potential interactions of the microbiota with gut hormones and endocrine peptides, including neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide, corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and ghrelin in microbiome-to-brain signaling. Together, gut peptides are important regulators of microbiota-gut-brain signaling in health and stress-related psychiatric illnesses.

  1. Calcium ions effectively enhance the effect of antisense peptide nucleic acids conjugated to cationic tat and oligoarginine peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Peter E

    2005-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to improve cellular delivery of a variety of proteins and antisense agents. However, recent studies indicate that such cationic peptides are predominantly entering cells via an endosomal pathway. We now show that the nuclear antisense effect in He......La cells of a variety of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) peptide conjugates is significantly enhanced by addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) (as well as by the lysosomotrophic agent chloroquine). In particular, the antisense activities of Tat(48-60) and heptaarginine-conjugated PNAs were increased 44-fold and 8.5-fold......, respectively. Evidence is presented that the mechanism involves endosomal release. The present results show that Ca(2+) can be used as an effective enhancer for in vitro cellular delivery of cationic peptide-conjugated PNA oligomers, and also emphasize the significance of the endosomal escape route...

  2. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amphiphilic cationic peptides mediate cell adhesion to plastic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, D C; Lambert, M; Kendall, D A; Moe, G R; Osterman, D G; Tao, H P; Weinstein, I B; Kaiser, E T

    1985-09-01

    Four amphiphilic peptides, each with net charges of +2 or more at neutrality and molecular weights under 4 kilodaltons, were found to mediate the adhesion of normal rat kidney fibroblasts to polystyrene surfaces. Two of these peptides, a model for calcitonin (peptide 1, MCT) and melittin (peptide 2, MEL), form amphiphilic alpha-helical structures at aqueous/nonpolar interfaces. The other two, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone model (peptide 3, LHM) and a platelet factor model (peptide 4, MPF) form beta-strand structures in amphiphilic environments. Although it contains only 10 residues, LHM mediated adhesion to surfaces coated with solutions containing as little as 10 pmoles/ml of peptide. All four of these peptides were capable of forming monolayers at air-buffer interfaces with collapse pressures greater than 20 dynes/cm. None of these four peptides contains the tetrapeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which has been associated with fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Ten polypeptides that also lacked the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser but were nonamphiphilic and/or had net charges less than +2 at neutrality were all incapable of mediating cell adhesion (Pierschbacher and Ruoslahti, 1984). The morphologies of NRK cells spread on polystyrene coated with peptide LHM resemble the morphologies on fibronectin-coated surfaces, whereas cells spread on surfaces coated with MCT or MEL exhibit strikingly different morphologies. The adhesiveness of MCT, MEL, LHM, and MPF implies that many amphiphilic cationic peptides could prove useful as well defined adhesive substrata for cell culture and for studies of the mechanism of cell adhesion.

  4.  Pleiotropic action of proinsulin C-peptid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Usarek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Proinsulin C-peptide, released in equimolar amounts with insulin by pancreatic β cells, since its discovery in 1967 has been thought to be devoid of biological functions apart from correct insulin processing and formation of disulfide bonds between A and B chains. However, in the last two decades research has brought a substantial amount of data indicating a crucial role of C-peptide in regulating various processes in different types of cells and organs. C-peptide acts presumably via either G-protein-coupled receptor or directly inside the cell, after being internalized. However, a receptor binding this peptide has not been identified yet. This peptide ameliorates pathological changes induced by type 1 diabetes mellitus, including glomerular hyperfiltration, vessel endothelium inflammation and neuron demyelinization. In diabetic patients and diabetic animal models, C-peptide substitution in physiological doses improves the functional and structural properties of peripheral neurons and protects against hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis, promoting neuronal development, regeneration and cell survival. Moreover, it affects glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles. In vitro C-peptide promotes disaggregation of insulin oligomers, thus enhancing its bioavailability and effects on metabolism. There are controversies concerning the biological action of C-peptide, particularly with respect to its effect on Na /K -ATPase activity. Surprisingly, the excess of circulating peptide associated with diabetes type 2 contributes to atherosclerosis development. In view of these observations, long-term, large-scale clinical investigations using C-peptide physiological doses need to be conducted in order to determine safety and health outcomes of long-term administration of C-peptide to diabetic patients.

  5. Diversity-oriented peptide stapling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thu Phuong; Larsen, Christian Ørnbøl; Røndbjerg, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    as a powerful method for peptide stapling. However, to date CuAAC stapling has not provided a simple method for obtaining peptides that are easily diversified further. In the present study, we report a new diversity-oriented peptide stapling (DOPS) methodology based on CuAAC chemistry. Stapling of peptides...

  6. The insulin/IGF signaling regulators cytohesin/GRP-1 and PIP5K/PPK-1 modulate susceptibility to excitotoxicity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Tehrani

    Full Text Available During ischemic stroke, malfunction of excitatory amino acid transporters and reduced synaptic clearance causes accumulation of Glutamate (Glu and excessive stimulation of postsynaptic neurons, which can lead to their degeneration by excitotoxicity. The balance between cell death-promoting (neurotoxic and survival-promoting (neuroprotective signaling cascades determines the fate of neurons exposed to the excitotoxic insult. The evolutionary conserved Insulin/IGF Signaling (IIS cascade can participate in this balance, as it controls cell stress resistance in nematodes and mammals. Blocking the IIS cascade allows the transcription factor FoxO3/DAF-16 to accumulate in the nucleus and activate a transcriptional program that protects cells from a range of insults. We study the effect of IIS cascade on neurodegeneration in a C. elegans model of excitotoxicity, where a mutation in a central Glu transporter (glt-3 in a sensitizing background causes Glu-Receptor -dependent neuronal necrosis. We expand our studies on the role of the IIS cascade in determining susceptibility to excitotoxic necrosis by either blocking IIS at the level of PI3K/AGE-1 or stimulating it by removing the inhibitory effect of ZFP-1 on the expression of PDK-1. We further show that the components of the Cytohesin/GRP-1, Arf, and PIP5K/PPK-1 complex, known to regulate PIP2 production and the IIS cascade, modulate nematode excitotoxicity: mutations that are expected to reduce the complex's ability to produce PIP2 and inhibit the IIS cascade protect from excitotoxicity, while overstimulation of PIP2 production enhances neurodegeneration. Our observations therefore affirm the importance of the IIS cascade in determining the susceptibility to necrotic neurodegeneration in nematode excitotoxicity, and demonstrate the ability of Cytohesin/GRP-1, Arf, and PIP5K/PPK-1 complex to modulate neuroprotection.

  7. Endogenous opioid peptides as neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid peptides as neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus was investigated by using extracellular recording and radioligand binding techniques in the hippocampal slice preparation. Synaptic conductances from endogenously released opioid peptides have been difficult to detect. This problem was approach by designing a novel assay of opioid peptide release, in which release was detected by measuring binding competition between endogenous opioids and added radioligand. Membrane depolarization displaced [ 3 H]-diprenorphine binding in a transient, calcium-dependent, and peptidase-sensitive manner. Autoradiographic localization of the sites of [ 3 H]-diprenorphine binding displacement showed that significant opioid peptide release and receptor occupancy occurred in each major subregion of the hippocampal slices. This assay method can not be used to define optimal electrical stimulation conditions for releasing endogenous opioids. The binding displacement method was extended to the study of the sigma receptor. Depolarization of hippocampal slices was found to reduce the binding of the sigma-selective radioligand [ 3 H]-ditolylguanidine in a transient and calcium-dependent manner with no apparent direct effects on sigma receptor affinity

  8. PNA Peptide chimerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Næsby, M.; Wittung, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive labelling of PNA has been performed try linking a peptide segment to the PNA which is substrate for protein kinase A. The enzymatic phosphorylation proceeds in almost quantitative yields....

  9. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  10. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  11. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of bacterial peptide deformylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D J; Gordon Green, B; O'Connell, J F; Grant, S K

    1999-07-15

    Bacterial peptide deformylases (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-formyl groups from N-blocked methionine polypeptides. Peptide aldehydes containing a methional or norleucinal inhibited recombinant peptide deformylase from gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor was calpeptin, N-CBZ-Leu-norleucinal, which was a competitive inhibitor of the zinc-containing metalloenzymes, E. coli and B. subtilis PDF with Ki values of 26.0 and 55.6 microM, respectively. Cobalt-substituted E. coli and B. subtilis deformylases were also inhibited by these aldehydes with Ki values for calpeptin of 9.5 and 12.4 microM, respectively. Distinct spectral changes were observed upon binding of calpeptin to the Co(II)-deformylases, consistent with the noncovalent binding of the inhibitor rather than the formation of a covalent complex. In contrast, the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline caused the time-dependent inhibition of B. subtilis Co(II)-PDF activity with the loss of the active site metal. The fact that calpeptin was nearly equipotent against deformylases from both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial sources lends further support to the idea that a single deformylase inhibitor might have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. The membranotropic activity of N-terminal peptides from the pore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    how these water-soluble proteins bind, oligomerize and eventually disrupt target .... Creek, CA, USA), using UV detection at 220 nm. The identity of the peptides ... leakage of dye was negligible under these conditions. Maximum release was ...

  13. Peptidomics and processing of regulatory peptides in the fruit fly Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Pauls

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade has passed since the release of the Drosophila melanogaster genome and the first predictions of fruit fly regulatory peptides (neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Since then, mass spectrometry-based methods have fuelled the chemical characterisation of regulatory peptides, from 7 Drosophila peptides in the pre-genomic area to more than 60 today. We review the development of fruit fly peptidomics, and present a comprehensive list of the regulatory peptides that have been chemically characterised until today. We also summarise the knowledge on peptide processing in Drosophila, which has strongly profited from a combination of MS-based techniques and the genetic tools available for the fruit fly. This combination has a very high potential to study the functional biology of peptide signalling on all levels, especially with the ongoing developments in quantitative MS in Drosophila.

  14. De novo design and engineering of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhüyük, Kenan A. J.; Fleischhacker, Florian; Linck, Annabell; Wesche, Frank; Tietze, Andreas; Niesert, Claus-Peter; Bode, Helge B.

    2018-03-01

    Peptides derived from non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) represent an important class of pharmaceutically relevant drugs. Methods to generate novel non-ribosomal peptides or to modify peptide natural products in an easy and predictable way are therefore of great interest. However, although the overall modular structure of NRPSs suggests the possibility of adjusting domain specificity and selectivity, only a few examples have been reported and these usually show a severe drop in production titre. Here we report a new strategy for the modification of NRPSs that uses defined exchange units (XUs) and not modules as functional units. XUs are fused at specific positions that connect the condensation and adenylation domains and respect the original specificity of the downstream module to enable the production of the desired peptides. We also present the use of internal condensation domains as an alternative to other peptide-chain-releasing domains for the production of cyclic peptides.

  15. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegbrant, J.; Thysell, H.; Ekmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of nine gastrointestinal regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 13 stable patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly and compared with those of ten healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of gastrin-releasing peptide, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of gastrin was not statistically different from that of the control (p=0.077). It is concluded that patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly, have increased concentrations of eight of nine measured gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of gastrointestinal peptides in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to uremic gastrointestinal symptoms and dysfunctions. It is necessary to make a renal function evaluation before interpreting measured plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. 62 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Bioactive Properties of Maillard Reaction Products Generated From Food Protein-derived Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, K; Zhou, L; Ohata, M

    Food protein-derived peptides are promising food ingredients for developing functional foods, since various bioactive peptides are released from food proteins. The Maillard reaction, which plays an important role in most processed foods, generates various chemical components during processing. Although changes of amino acids or proteins and reduced sugars by the Maillard reaction have been studied extensively, such changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction are still not resolved enough. Since food protein-derived peptides are widely utilized in many processed foods, it deserves concern and research on the changes of peptides by the Maillard reaction in foods during processing or storage. This chapter initially overviewed food protein-derived bioactive peptides. Then, Maillard reaction products generated from peptides are discussed. We focused particularly on their bioactivities. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin release by glucagon and secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Andreu, D; Thams, P

    1988-01-01

    Secretin and glucagon potentiate glucose-induced insulin release. We have compared the effects of secretin and glucagon with that of four hybrid molecules of the two hormones on insulin release and formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. All six peptides potentiated...... the release of insulin at 10 mM D-glucose, and their effects were indistinguishable with respect to the dynamics of release, dose-response relationship, and glucose dependency. However, measurements of cAMP accumulation in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (10(-4) M...... potentiating effects of secretin and glucagon on glucose-induced insulin release, their modes of action may be different....

  18. Peptide Integrated Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2018-02-01

    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  20. Regulation of the mesolimbic dopamine circuit by feeding peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Borgland, S L

    2015-03-19

    Polypeptides produced in the gastrointestinal tract, stomach, adipocytes, pancreas and brain that influence food intake are referred to as 'feeding-related' peptides. Most peptides that influence feeding exert an inhibitory effect (anorexigenic peptides). In contrast, only a few exert a stimulating effect (orexigenic peptides), such as ghrelin. Homeostatic feeding refers to when food consumed matches energy deficits. However, in western society where access to palatable energy-dense food is nearly unlimited, food is mostly consumed for non-homeostatic reasons. Emerging evidence implicates the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as a key substrate for non-homeostatic feeding. VTA dopamine neurons encode cues that predict rewards and phasic release of dopamine in the ventral striatum motivates animals to forage for food. To elucidate how feeding-related peptides regulate reward pathways is of importance to reveal the mechanisms underlying non-homeostatic or hedonic feeding. Here, we review the current knowledge of how anorexigenic peptides and orexigenic peptides act within the VTA. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Light-modulated release of RFamide-like neuropeptides from nervus terminalis axon terminals in the retina of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A J; Stell, W K

    1997-03-01

    The nervus terminalis of teleosts, a cranial nerve anatomically associated with the olfactory system, projects to visual system targets including retina and optic tectum. It is known to contain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and RFamide-like peptides, but its function remains unknown. We have probed nervus terminalis function in goldfish by measuring peptide content in retina and tectum with a radioimmunoassay for A18Famide (neuropeptide AF; bovine morphine-modulating peptide). We found that retinal peptide content increased in the dark and decreased in the light, whereas tectal peptide content decreased in the dark and increased in the light. In addition, RFamide-like peptide content in the retina was transiently decreased by severing both olfactory tracts, increased in light-adapted eyes treated with a GABAergic agonist (isoguvacine), and decreased in dark-adapted eyes treated with GABAergic antagonists (bicuculline and picrotoxin). We also found that RFamide-like peptide release could be induced in dark-adapted isolated-superfused retinas by exposure to light or a high concentration (102.5 mM) of potassium ions. We interpret the increase and decrease in peptide content as reflecting a decrease and increase, respectively, in rate of peptide release. We propose that the release and accumulation of RFamide-like peptides in axon terminals of nervus terminalis processes in the retina are modulated primarily by neurons intrinsic to the retina and regulated by light. Peptide release appears to be inhibited tonically in the dark by GABA acting through GABAA receptors; light facilitates peptide release by disinhibition due to a reduction in GABA release. In addition, we propose that electrical signals originating outside the retina can override these intrinsic release-modulating influences.

  2. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    ) , which promotes intestinal growth and is used to treat bowel disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases and short bowel syndrome, and the 32 amino acid salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium and is employed in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. The two...... peptides are similar in size and structure, but oppositely charged at physiological pH. Both peptides were acylated with linear acyl chains of systematically increasing length, where sCT was furthermore acylated at two different positions on the peptide backbone. For GLP-2, we found that increasing acyl...... remained optimal overall. The results indicate that rational acylation of GLP-2 can increase its in vitro intestinal absorption, alone or in combination with permeation enhancers, and are consistent with the initial project hypothesis. For sCT, an unpredicted effect of acylation largely superseded...

  3. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  4. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    of these are currently being used in quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) studies for AMP optimization. Additionally, some key commercial computational tools are discussed, and both successful and less successful studies are referenced, illustrating some of the challenges facing AMP scientists. Through...... examples of different peptide QSAR studies, this review highlights some of the missing links and illuminates some of the questions that would be interesting to challenge in a more systematic fashion. Expert opinion: Computer-aided peptide QSAR using molecular descriptors may provide the necessary edge...

  5. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-MOF motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface gradients created via peptide self-assembly around nanopores of MOFs, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnet fast enough to generate electric power of 0.1 µW. To make the peptide-MOF generator recyclable, a new MOF is applied as a host motor engine, which has a more rigid framework with higher H2O affinity so that peptide release occurs more efficiently via guest exchange without the destruction of MOF. PMID:25418936

  6. Enzyme-Assisted Discovery of Antioxidant Peptides from Edible Marine Invertebrates: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Law, Yew-Chye; Wong, Fai-Chu; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2017-02-16

    Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Antioxidant peptides have potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. In this review, we first give a brief overview of the current state of progress of antioxidant peptide research, with special attention to marine antioxidant peptides. We then focus on 22 investigations which identified 32 antioxidant peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates. Strategies adopted by various research groups in the purification and identification of the antioxidant peptides will be summarized. Structural characteristic of the peptide sequences in relation to their antioxidant activities will be reviewed. Potential applications of the peptide sequences and future research prospects will also be discussed.

  7. Gastrointestinal Endogenous Proteins as a Source of Bioactive Peptides - An In Silico Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A.; Montoya, Carlos A.; Rutherfurd, Shane M.; Moughan, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins are known to contain bioactive peptides that are released during digestion. Endogenous proteins secreted into the gastrointestinal tract represent a quantitatively greater supply of protein to the gut lumen than those of dietary origin. Many of these endogenous proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract but the possibility that these are also a source of bioactive peptides has not been considered. An in silico prediction method was used to test if bioactive peptides could be derived from the gastrointestinal digestion of gut endogenous proteins. Twenty six gut endogenous proteins and seven dietary proteins were evaluated. The peptides present after gastric and intestinal digestion were predicted based on the amino acid sequence of the proteins and the known specificities of the major gastrointestinal proteases. The predicted resultant peptides possessing amino acid sequences identical to those of known bioactive peptides were identified. After gastrointestinal digestion (based on the in silico simulation), the total number of bioactive peptides predicted to be released ranged from 1 (gliadin) to 55 (myosin) for the selected dietary proteins and from 1 (secretin) to 39 (mucin-5AC) for the selected gut endogenous proteins. Within the intact proteins and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide sequences were the most frequently observed in both the dietary and endogenous proteins. Among the dietary proteins, after in silico simulated gastrointestinal digestion, myosin was found to have the highest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (49 peptides), while for the gut endogenous proteins, mucin-5AC had the greatest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (38 peptides). Gut endogenous proteins may be an important source of bioactive peptides in the gut particularly since gut endogenous proteins represent a quantitatively large and consistent source of protein. PMID:24901416

  8. Gastrointestinal endogenous proteins as a source of bioactive peptides--an in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins are known to contain bioactive peptides that are released during digestion. Endogenous proteins secreted into the gastrointestinal tract represent a quantitatively greater supply of protein to the gut lumen than those of dietary origin. Many of these endogenous proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract but the possibility that these are also a source of bioactive peptides has not been considered. An in silico prediction method was used to test if bioactive peptides could be derived from the gastrointestinal digestion of gut endogenous proteins. Twenty six gut endogenous proteins and seven dietary proteins were evaluated. The peptides present after gastric and intestinal digestion were predicted based on the amino acid sequence of the proteins and the known specificities of the major gastrointestinal proteases. The predicted resultant peptides possessing amino acid sequences identical to those of known bioactive peptides were identified. After gastrointestinal digestion (based on the in silico simulation), the total number of bioactive peptides predicted to be released ranged from 1 (gliadin) to 55 (myosin) for the selected dietary proteins and from 1 (secretin) to 39 (mucin-5AC) for the selected gut endogenous proteins. Within the intact proteins and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptide sequences were the most frequently observed in both the dietary and endogenous proteins. Among the dietary proteins, after in silico simulated gastrointestinal digestion, myosin was found to have the highest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (49 peptides), while for the gut endogenous proteins, mucin-5AC had the greatest number of ACE-inhibitory peptide sequences (38 peptides). Gut endogenous proteins may be an important source of bioactive peptides in the gut particularly since gut endogenous proteins represent a quantitatively large and consistent source of protein.

  9. The role of antimicrobial peptides in animal defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert E. W.; Scott, Monisha G.

    2000-08-01

    It is becoming clear that the cationic antimicrobial peptides are an important component of the innate defenses of all species of life. Such peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced by bacteria or their products. The best peptides have good activities vs. a broad range of bacterial strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates. They kill very rapidly, do not easily select resistant mutants, are synergistic with conventional antibiotics, other peptides, and lysozyme, and are able to kill bacteria in animal models. It is known that bacterial infections, especially when treated with antibiotics, can lead to the release of bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid, resulting in potentially lethal sepsis. In contrast to antibiotics, the peptides actually prevent cytokine induction by bacterial products in tissue culture and human blood, and they block the onset of sepsis in mouse models of endotoxemia. Consistent with this, transcriptional gene array experiments using a macrophage cell line demonstrated that a model peptide, CEMA, blocks the expression of many genes whose transcription was induced by LPS. The peptides do this in part by blocking LPS interaction with the serum protein LBP. In addition, CEMA itself has a direct effect on macrophage gene expression. Because cationic antimicrobial peptides are induced by LPS and are able to dampen the septic response of animal cells to LPS, we propose that, in addition to their role in direct and lysozyme-assisted killing of microbes, they have a role in feedback regulation of cytokine responses. We are currently developing variant peptides as therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant infections.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Evan F; Mansour, Sarah C; Hancock, Robert E W

    2017-01-01

    The "golden era" of antibiotic discovery has long passed, but the need for new antibiotics has never been greater due to the emerging threat of antibiotic resistance. This urgency to develop new antibiotics has motivated researchers to find new methods to combat pathogenic microorganisms resulting in a surge of research focused around antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; also termed host defense peptides) and their potential as therapeutics. During the past few decades, more than 2000 AMPs have been identified from a diverse range of organisms (animals, fungi, plants, and bacteria). While these AMPs share a number of common features and a limited number of structural motifs; their sequences, activities, and targets differ considerably. In addition to their antimicrobial effects, AMPs can also exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-biofilm, and anticancer activities. These diverse functions have spurred tremendous interest in research aimed at understanding the activity of AMPs, and various protocols have been described to assess different aspects of AMP function including screening and evaluating the activities of natural and synthetic AMPs, measuring interactions with membranes, optimizing peptide function, and scaling up peptide production. Here, we provide a general overview of AMPs and introduce some of the methodologies that have been used to advance AMP research.

  11. Development and application of graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite for electrochemical determination of dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Fátima Giarola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an amperometric sensor based on graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite has been successfully prepared for dopamine (DA determination in real samples. The electrochemical behavior of DA at the GRP-SiAlNb-MB has been evaluated by employing cyclic voltammetry. The best ratio (m/m of GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite was found to be 1:0.54. Under optimized conditions (pH 7.5 in 0.15 mol L−1 phosphate buffer the amperometry method responds linearly to DA from 5.0 up to 500.0 μmol L−1 (r = 0.995 with limits of detection and quantification of 1.49 and 4.97 μmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for DA determination in real samples of pharmaceutical formulations and can be used for routine quality control analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing DA. The use of inorganic matrix SiAlNb was found to be very useful to adsorb MB in the composite material with further improvement of the anodic peak current of DA.

  12. Anti-pancreatic cancer activity of ONC212 involves the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is reduced by IGF1-R and GRP78/BIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti R; Wagner, Jessica; Ralff, Marie D; Kiehl, Joshua B; Zhou, Yan; Benes, Cyril H; Prabhu, Varun V; Oster, Wolfgang; Astsaturov, Igor; Dicker, David T; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-10-10

    Pancreatic cancer is chemo-resistant and metastasizes early with an overall five-year survival of ∼8.2%. First-in-class imipridone ONC201 is a small molecule in clinical trials with anti-cancer activity. ONC212, a fluorinated-ONC201 analogue, shows preclinical efficacy in melanoma and hepatocellular-cancer models. We investigated efficacy of ONC201 and ONC212 against pancreatic cancer cell lines ( N =16 including 9 PDX-cell lines). We demonstrate ONC212 efficacy in 4 in-vivo models including ONC201-resistant tumors. ONC212 is active in pancreatic cancer as single agent or in combination with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin or RTK inhibitor crizotinib. Based on upregulation of pro-survival IGF1-R in some tumors, we found an active combination of ONC212 with inhibitor AG1024, including in vivo . We show a rationale for targeting pancreatic cancer using ONC212 combined with targeting the unfolded-protein response and ER chaperones such as GRP78/BIP. Our results lay the foundation to test imipridones, anti-cancer agents, in pancreatic cancer, that is refractory to most drugs.

  13. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  14. Extraction of aggrecan-peptide from cartilage by tissue autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takuo; Srichamroen, Anchalee; Ozimek, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Aggrecan is a cartilage specific proteoglycan containing chondroitin sulfate (CS) and keratan sulfate (KS). CS is an acidic polysaccharide having wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. CS is extracted from cartilage by tissue proteolysis with an exogenous proteinase or by activating endogenous proteinases (autolysis) to release aggrecan-peptides from the tissue. This review is focused on the latter technique. Bovine nasal and tracheal cartilages, and broiler chicken sternum cartilage have been used for autolysis studies. To extract aggrecan-peptide, cartilage tissues are cut into small pieces, and incubated in a monovalent or divalent salt solution (e.g., 0.1 M sodium or calcium acetate) at pH 4.5 and 37 °C for 7 - 24 h. Most (~80% or more) of total tissue uronic acid, a constituent sugar of aggrecan, is extracted and released into the salt solution during incubation. Reextraction of the tissue residue results in release of a small amount of uronic acid. Aggrecan-peptides purified using anion exchange chromatography are large compounds containing CS and KS. On gel chromatography, they are excluded from the column of Sephacryl S-300. Chemical composition analysis demonstrated that aggrecan-peptides from either bovine or chicken cartilage contain >90% CS with small amount (autolysis has been used as a plate coating antigen in enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine KS.

  15. Neuroactive peptides as putative mediators of antiepileptic ketogenic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela eGiordano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various ketogenic diet (KD therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs. In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the

  16. Ligand-regulated peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell A

    2009-01-01

    The peptide aptamer approach employs high-throughput selection to identify members of a randomized peptide library displayed from a scaffold protein by virtue of their interaction with a target molecule. Extending this approach, we have developed a peptide aptamer scaffold protein that can impart small-molecule control over the aptamer-target interaction. This ligand-regulated peptide (LiRP) scaffold, consisting of the protein domains FKBP12, FRB, and GST, binds to the cell-permeable small-molecule rapamycin and the binding of this molecule can prevent the interaction of the randomizable linker region connecting FKBP12 with FRB. Here we present a detailed protocol for the creation of a peptide aptamer plasmid library, selection of peptide aptamers using the LiRP scaffold in a yeast two-hybrid system, and the screening of those peptide aptamers for a ligand-regulated interaction.

  17. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...... peptides has only been elucidated during the last decade. The cellular synthesis including amino acid modifications and proteolytic cleavages has proven considerably more complex than initially perceived. Consequently, the elimination phase of the peptide products in circulation is not yet well....... An inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...

  18. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  19. Toxicity of Biologically Active Peptides and Future Safety Aspects: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-02-18

    Peptides are fragments of proteins with significant biological activities. These peptides are encoded in the protein sequence. Initially, such peptides are inactive in their parental form, unless proteolytic enzymes are released. These peptides then exhibit various functions and play a therapeutic role in the body. Besides the therapeutic and physiological activities of peptides, the main purpose of this study was to highlight the safety aspects of peptides. We performed an organized search of available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, Reaxys and Scopus databases. All the relevant citations including research and review articles about the toxicity of biologically active peptides were evaluated and gathered in this study. Biological peptides are widely used in the daily routine ranging from food production to the cosmetics industry and also they have a beneficial role in the treatment and prevention of different diseases. These peptides are manufactured by both chemical and biotechnological techniques, which show negligible toxicity, however, some naturally occurring peptides and enzymes may induce high toxicity. Depending upon the demand and expected use in the food or pharmaceutical industry, we need different approaches to acertain the safety of these peptides preferentially through in silico methods. Intestinal wall disruption, erythrocytes and lymphocytes toxicity, free radical production, enzymopathic and immunopathic tissue damage and cytotoxicity due to the consumption of peptides are the main problems in the biological system that lead to various complicated disorders. Therefore, before considering biologically active peptides for food production and for therapeutic purpose, it is first necessary to evaluate the immunogenicity and toxicities of peptides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Fingerprinting Desmosine-Containing Elastin Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schräder, Christoph U.; Heinz, Andrea; Majovsky, Petra; Schmelzer, Christian E. H.

    2015-05-01

    Elastin is a vital protein of the extracellular matrix of jawed vertebrates and provides elasticity to numerous tissues. It is secreted in the form of its soluble precursor tropoelastin, which is subsequently cross-linked in the course of the elastic fiber assembly. The process involves the formation of the two tetrafunctional amino acids desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDES), which are unique to elastin. The resulting high degree of cross-linking confers remarkable properties, including mechanical integrity, insolubility, and long-term stability to the protein. These characteristics hinder the structural elucidation of mature elastin. However, MS2 data of linear and cross-linked peptides released by proteolysis can provide indirect insights into the structure of elastin. In this study, we performed energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation experiments of DES, IDES, their derivatives, and DES-/IDES-containing peptides to determine characteristic product ions. It was found that all investigated compounds yielded the same product ion clusters at elevated collision energies. Elemental composition determination using the exact masses of these ions revealed molecular formulas of the type CxHyN, suggesting that the pyridinium core of DES/IDES remains intact even at relatively high collision energies. The finding of these specific product ions enabled the development of a similarity-based scoring algorithm that was successfully applied on LC-MS/MS data of bovine elastin digests for the identification of DES-/IDES-cross-linked peptides. This approach facilitates the straightforward investigation of native cross-links in elastin.

  1. Cytosolic antibody delivery by lipid-sensitive endosomolytic peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishiba, Misao; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Kawaguchi, Yoshimasa; Sakamoto, Kentarou; Yu, Hao-Hsin; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Takatani-Nakase, Tomoka; Madani, Fatemeh; Gräslund, Astrid; Futaki, Shiroh

    2017-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in intracellular targeting using antibodies is their limited release from endosomes into the cytosol. Here we report an approach to deliver proteins, which include antibodies, into cells by using endosomolytic peptides derived from the cationic and membrane-lytic spider venom peptide M-lycotoxin. The delivery peptides were developed by introducing one or two glutamic acid residues into the hydrophobic face. One peptide with the substitution of leucine by glutamic acid (L17E) was shown to enable a marked cytosolic liberation of antibodies (immunoglobulins G (IgGs)) from endosomes. The predominant membrane-perturbation mechanism of this peptide is the preferential disruption of negatively charged membranes (endosomal membranes) over neutral membranes (plasma membranes), and the endosomolytic peptide promotes the uptake by inducing macropinocytosis. The fidelity of this approach was confirmed through the intracellular delivery of a ribosome-inactivation protein (saporin), Cre recombinase and IgG delivery, which resulted in a specific labelling of the cytosolic proteins and subsequent suppression of the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription. We also demonstrate the L17E-mediated cytosolic delivery of exosome-encapsulated proteins.

  2. Glucagon and glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    amino acid precursor, proglucagon, leaving behind proglucagon fragments (PG 1-30 and PG 72-158, the so-called major proglucagon fragment (MPGF)) that are probably inactive, the intestinal processing leads to the formation of glicentin (PG 1-69; action uncertain) and glucagon-like peptides 1 (PG 78....... After their release, the hormones are eliminated mainly in the kidneys, but both GLP-2 and in particular GLP-1, but not glucagon, are metabolized both locally and in the circulation and liver by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) which inactivates the peptides, suggesting that GLP-1 acts locally rather than...

  3. The Role Of Milk Peptide As Antimicrobial Agent In Supporting Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusumaningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptide is commonly present in all species as a component of their innate immune defense against infection. Antimicrobial peptides derived from milk such as isracidin, casocidin, casecidin and other fragments with variety of amino acid sequence are released upon enzymatic hydrolysis from milk protein К-casein, α-casein, β-casein, α-lactalbumin and β- lactoglobulin. These peptides were produced by the activity of digestive or microbial protease such as trypsin, pepsin, chymosin or alcalase. The mode of action of these peptides is by interaction of their positive with negative charge of target cell membrane leading to disruption of membrane associated with physiological event such as cell division or translocation of peptide across the membrane to interact with cytoplasmic target. Modification of charged or nonpolar aliphatic residues within peptides can enhance or reduce the activities of the peptides against a number of microbial strains and it seems to be strain dependent. Several peptides act not only as an antimicrobial but also as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, antioxidant, immunomodulator, antiinflamation, food and feed preservative. Although the commercial production of these peptides is still limited due to lack of suitable large-scale technologies, fast development of some methods for peptide production will hopefully increase the possibility for mass production.

  4. Membrane interactions and biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from Australian scorpion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Jiménez-Vargas, Juana María; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E; Possani, Lourival D; Separovic, Frances

    2014-09-01

    UyCT peptides are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of the Australian scorpion. The activity of the UyCT peptides against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and red blood cells was determined. The membrane interactions of these peptides were evaluated by dye release (DR) of the fluorophore calcein from liposomes and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC); and their secondary structure was determined by circular dichroism (CD). Three different lipid systems were used to mimic red blood cells, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus membranes. UyCT peptides exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with low MIC for S. aureus and multi-drug resistant Gram negative strains. Peptide combinations showed some synergy enhancing their potency but not hemolytic activity. The UyCT peptides adopted a helical structure in lipid environments and DR results confirmed that the mechanism of action is by disrupting the membrane. ITC data indicated that UyCT peptides preferred prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic membranes. The overall results suggest that UyCT peptides could be pharmaceutical leads for the treatment of Gram negative multiresistant bacterial infections, especially against Acinetobacter baumanni, and candidates for peptidomimetics to enhance their potency and minimize hemolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. © 2013.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  6. Peptides for Specific Intracellular Delivery and Targeting of Nanoparticles: Implications for Developing Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    less in size and span an array of compositions including met- als, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), oxides, polymers , vesicles (e.g., micelles...93,98] Polymers Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(amido amine) and dendrimers Biocompatibility, biodegradability and controlled release High drug...Secondary interactions Covalent atachment to surface ligand Thiolated peptide Biotinylated peptide Aminated peptide Sulfo-NHS Tetravalent streptavidin

  7. Effect of the peptide Tat(49-57) on the bio-distribution and similar radiopharmaceuticals dosimetry of the bombesin; Efecto del peptido TAT(49-57) sobre la biodistribucion y dosimetria de radiofarmacos analogos de la bombesina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos C, C. L.

    2011-07-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-r) is over-expressed in prostate and breast cancer. {sup 99m}Tc-Bombesin ({sup 99m}Tc-Bn) has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with specific cell GRP-r binding. The HIV Tat(49-57)-derived peptide has been used to deliver a large variety of molecules to cell nuclei. New hybrid radiopharmaceuticals of type {sup 99m}Tc-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn ({sup 99m}Tc-Tat-Bn) and {sup 188}Re-N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat(49-57)-Lys{sup 3}-Bn ({sup 188}Re-Tat-Bn), would increase cell uptake and internalized in cancer cell nuclei could act as an effective system of targeted radiotherapy using Auger and internal conversion (I C) electron emissions near DNA. The aim of this research was to prepare and assess in vitro and in vivo uptake kinetics in cancer cells of {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 188}Re-Tat-Bn and the in vitro nucleus and cytoplasm internalization kinetics in GRP receptor-positive cancer cells as well as to evaluate the subcellular-level radiation absorbed dose associated with the observed effect on cancer cell DNA proliferation. Structures of N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-Bn and Tc/Re(O)N{sub 2}S{sub 2}-Tat-Bn were calculated by an Mm procedure. {sup 99m}Tc-Tat-Bn and {sup 188}Re-Tat-Bn were synthesized and stability studies carried out by HPLC and I TLC-Sg analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer Pc 3 cells and breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-Mb 231 and MCF 7. Nuclei from cells were isolated using a nuclear extraction kit. Total disintegrations in each subcellular compartment were calculated by integration of experimental time activity kinetic curves. Nucleus internalization was corroborated by con focal microscopy images using immunofluorescent labelled Tat-Bn. Biodistribution was determined in Pc 3 tumor-bearing nude mice. The Penelope code was used to simulate and calculate the absorbed dose by contribution of {beta}, Auger and I C electrons in the cytoplasm and

  8. [Ala12]MCD peptide: a lead peptide to inhibitors of immunoglobulin E binding to mast cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A; Condie, B A; Price, J A; Mezei, M

    2005-09-01

    An effort was made to discover mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide analogs that bind with high affinity to mast cell receptors without triggering secretion of histamine or other mediators of the allergic reaction initiated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) after mast cell activation. Such compounds could serve as inhibitors of IgE binding to mast cell receptors. An alanine scan of MCD peptide reported previously showed that the analog [Ala12]MCD was 120-fold less potent in histamine-releasing activity and fivefold more potent in binding affinity to mast cell receptors than the parent MCD peptide. Because this analog showed marginal intrinsic activity and good binding affinity it was subsequently tested in the present study as an IgE inhibitor. In contrast to MCD peptide, [Ala12]MCD showed a 50% inhibition of IgE binding to the Fc epsilon RI alpha mast cell receptor by using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and fluorescence polarization. Furthermore, in a beta-hexosaminidase secretory assay, the peptide also showed a 50% inhibition of the secretion of this enzyme caused by IgE. An attempt was made to relate structural changes and biologic differences between the [Ala12]MCD analog and the parent MCD peptide. The present results show that [Ala12]MCD may provide a base for designing agents to prevent IgE/Fc epsilon RI alpha interactions and, consequently, allergic conditions.

  9. Synergistic gene and drug tumor therapy using a chimeric peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Chen, Si; Chen, Wei-Hai; Lei, Qi; Liu, Yun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-06-01

    Co-delivery of gene and drug for synergistic therapy has provided a promising strategy to cure devastating diseases. Here, an amphiphilic chimeric peptide (Fmoc)2KH7-TAT with pH-responsibility for gene and drug delivery was designed and fabricated. As a drug carrier, the micelles self-assembled from the peptide exhibited a much faster doxorubicin (DOX) release rate at pH 5.0 than that at pH 7.4. As a non-viral gene vector, (Fmoc)(2)KH(7)-TAT peptide could satisfactorily mediate transfection of pGL-3 reporter plasmid with or without the existence of serum in both 293T and HeLa cell-lines. Besides, the endosome escape capability of peptide/DNA complexes was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). To evaluate the co-delivery efficiency and the synergistic anti-tumor effect of gene and drug, p53 plasmid and DOX were simultaneously loaded in the peptide micelles to form micelleplexes during the self-assembly of the peptide. Cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of gene and drug were studied by CLSM and flow cytometry respectively. And p53 protein expression was determined via Western blot analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo tumor inhibition effect were also studied. Results suggest that the co-delivery of gene and drug from peptide micelles resulted in effective cell growth inhibition in vitro and significant tumor growth restraining in vivo. The chimeric peptide-based gene and drug co-delivery system will find great potential for tumor therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative in vivo evaluation of two novel 99mTc labelled bombesin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourni, Eleni; Bouziotis, Penelope; Zikos, Christos; Loudos, George; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Fani, Melpomeni; Archimandritis, Spyridon C.; Varvarigou, Alexandra D.

    2006-01-01

    Bombesin (BN), a 14 amino acid peptide, is an analogue of human gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP) that binds to GRP receptors (GRP-R) with high affinity and specificity. In addition to this physiological role, GRP, through its interaction with GRP-R, promotes tumour growth in a number of human cancer cell lines. The GRP receptors are over-expressed on a variety of human cancer cells. Aim of the present work is the study of two novels BN-like peptides, by investigating the radiochemical and radiopharmacological behaviour of their complexes with metals. The derivatives under study are: Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-BN [2-14] where Aca: 6-amino-hexanoic acid. Pyroglutamic acid in the bombesin molecule has been replaced by the chemical group Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca, which bears an amino-acid combination capable of complexing a variety of radiometals. The other derivative under study is: Gly-Gly-Cys-Aca-BN [7-14]. This moiety of the peptide has been chosen because it has been proven to be a potent GRP agonist. The peptide derivatives were synthesized by SPPS, according to the Fmoc strategy and were identified by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Radiolabelling with 99m Tc was performed via the precursor 99m Tc-gluconate. The stability of the radiolabelled species was examined with time. In vivo studies of the two 99m Tc-labelled derivatives were performed, comparatively, in normal mice, attention being focused on GRP receptor-bearing organs, and in experimentally induced prostate cancer models. Experimental tumours were imaged in a small field-of-view animal gamma camera

  11. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  12. Crystal structure of a TAPBPR–MHC I complex reveals the mechanism of peptide editing in antigen presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiansheng; Natarajan, Kannan; Boyd, Lisa F.; Morozov, Giora I.; Mage, Michael G.; Margulies, David H. (NIH); (Hebrew)

    2017-10-12

    Central to CD8+ T cell–mediated immunity is the recognition of peptide–major histocompatibility complex class I (p–MHC I) proteins displayed by antigen-presenting cells. Chaperone-mediated loading of high-affinity peptides onto MHC I is a key step in the MHC I antigen presentation pathway. However, the structure of MHC I with a chaperone that facilitates peptide loading has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of MHC I in complex with the peptide editor TAPBPR (TAP-binding protein–related), a tapasin homolog. TAPBPR remodels the peptide-binding groove of MHC I, resulting in the release of low-affinity peptide. Changes include groove relaxation, modifications of key binding pockets, and domain adjustments. This structure captures a peptide-receptive state of MHC I and provides insights into the mechanism of peptide editing by TAPBPR and, by analogy, tapasin.

  13. New Milk Protein-Derived Peptides with Potential Antimicrobial Activity: An Approach Based on Bioinformatic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Dziuba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New peptides with potential antimicrobial activity, encrypted in milk protein sequences, were searched for with the use of bioinformatic tools. The major milk proteins were hydrolyzed in silico by 28 enzymes. The obtained peptides were characterized by the following parameters: molecular weight, isoelectric point, composition and number of amino acid residues, net charge at pH 7.0, aliphatic index, instability index, Boman index, and GRAVY index, and compared with those calculated for known 416 antimicrobial peptides including 59 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs from milk proteins listed in the BIOPEP database. A simple analysis of physico-chemical properties and the values of biological activity indicators were insufficient to select potentially antimicrobial peptides released in silico from milk proteins by proteolytic enzymes. The final selection was made based on the results of multidimensional statistical analysis such as support vector machines (SVM, random forest (RF, artificial neural networks (ANN and discriminant analysis (DA available in the Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (CAMP database. Eleven new peptides with potential antimicrobial activity were selected from all peptides released during in silico proteolysis of milk proteins.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release of hormones from the pancreas, gut, and hypothalamus, and increasing the amount of water and electrolytes ... the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Pancreatic Cancer Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  15. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part II - cell cycle inhibitory peptides and apoptosis-inducing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucher, Drazen; Moktan, Shama; Massodi, Iqbal; Bidwell, Gene L

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that arrest the cell cycle by mimicking CDK inhibitors or induce apoptosis directly are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation directly using peptides that arrest the cell cycle or induce apoptosis is a promising strategy. Peptides can be designed that interact very specifically with cyclins and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and with members of apoptotic cascades. Use of these peptides is not limited by their design, as a rational approach to peptide design is much less challenging than the design of small molecule inhibitors of specific protein-protein interactions. However, the limitations of peptide therapy lie in the poor pharmacokinetic properties of these large, often charged molecules. Therefore, overcoming the drug delivery hurdles could open the door for effective peptide therapy, thus making an entirely new class of molecules useful as anticancer drugs.

  16. LEDGF/p75 Overexpression Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Necrosis and Upregulates the Oxidoreductase ERP57/PDIA3/GRP58 in Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Basu

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa mortality is driven by highly aggressive tumors characterized by metastasis and resistance to therapy, and this aggressiveness is mediated by numerous factors, including activation of stress survival pathways in the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LEDGF/p75, also known as the DFS70 autoantigen, is a stress transcription co-activator implicated in cancer, HIV-AIDS, and autoimmunity. This protein is targeted by autoantibodies in certain subsets of patients with PCa and inflammatory conditions, as well as in some apparently healthy individuals. LEDGF/p75 is overexpressed in PCa and other cancers, and promotes resistance to chemotherapy-induced cell death via the transactivation of survival proteins. We report in this study that overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells attenuates oxidative stress-induced necrosis but not staurosporine-induced apoptosis. This finding was consistent with the observation that while LEDGF/p75 was robustly cleaved in apoptotic cells into a p65 fragment that lacks stress survival activity, it remained relatively intact in necrotic cells. Overexpression of LEDGF/p75 in PCa cells led to the upregulation of transcript and protein levels of the thiol-oxidoreductase ERp57 (also known as GRP58 and PDIA3, whereas its depletion led to ERp57 transcript downregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcription reporter assays showed LEDGF/p75 binding to and transactivating the ERp57 promoter, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly elevated co-expression of these two proteins in clinical prostate tumor tissues. Our results suggest that LEDGF/p75 is not an inhibitor of apoptosis but rather an antagonist of oxidative stress-induced necrosis, and that its overexpression in PCa leads to ERp57 upregulation. These findings are of significance in clarifying the role of the LEDGF/p75 stress survival pathway in PCa.

  17. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects...... of weight loss surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY......; as demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight...

  18. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective.......This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  19. Anticancer peptides from bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz M. Karpiński

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. The rapid development of medicine and pharmacology allows to create new and effective anticancer drugs. Among modern anticancer drugs are bacterial proteins. Until now has been shown anticancer activity among others azurin and exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pep27anal2 from Streptococcus pneumoniae, diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and recently discovered Entap from Enterococcus sp. The study presents the current data regarding the properties, action and anticancer activity of listed peptides.

  20. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN-PEPTIDE COMPLEX IN THE TREATMENT OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS INEFFICIENCY OF SLOW-RELEASE ORAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (THE MULTICENTER OPEN-LABEL STUDY PRIMULA: USE OF RUMALON® WITH INITIALLY SMALL SUCCESS IN THE TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex (GPC (Rumalon® is an injectable slow-release anti-inflammatory agent (SRIA that has complex anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects. GPC has been successfully used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA for several decades. The agent now returns again to Russian clinical practice. Objective: to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GPC in patients with knee OA, in whom other SRIAs have been previously ineffective.Subjects and methods. A study group consisted of 104 patients (92.3% women (mean age, 63.2±8.5 years; body mass index (BMI, 28.5±5.4 kg/m2 with severe joint pain (≥40 mm on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS and/or the need to regularly use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. All the patients received oral SRIAs in the last 6 months and had no improvement. At baseline, VAS pain intensity was 59.4±13.1 mm; the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC pain was 227.3±90.8; WOMAC stiffness, 97.9±42.1; WOMAC function, 769.2±326.1; total WOMAC scores, 1095.1±426.6. GPC was used by the standard scheme: 25 intramuscular injections every other day per treatment cycle; the results of treatment were assessed at 8 and 12 weeks by VAS and WOMAC pain scores, needs for NSAIDs, satisfaction with treatment (measured on a 1- to 5-pont scale where 1 = no improvement or deterioration and 5 = the best result.Results and discussion. At 8 and 12 weeks, VAS pain scores decreased by 30.1±18.3% and 36.9±16.9%, respectively; the reductions in WOMAC pain scores were 29.8±16.3 and 38.2±23.4%; WOMAC stiffness scores, 29.2±15.4 and 31.6±17.4%; WOMAC function scores, 27.7±14.7 and 30.6±18.4%; and total WOMAC scores, 27.2±13.5 and 33.6±18.0%. The changes in pain intensity and WOMAC scores were statistically significant in both followup periods (p<0.001. The majority of patients rated their treatment result as good or excellent: 70.2% at 8 weeks and 75.9% at 12 weeks. 31

  1. Structure-activity studies and therapeutic potential of host defense peptides of human thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasetty, Gopinath; Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Rydengård, Victoria; Mörgelin, Matthias; Albiger, Barbara; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-06-01

    Peptides of the C-terminal region of human thrombin are released upon proteolysis and identified in human wounds. In this study, we wanted to investigate minimal determinants, as well as structural features, governing the antimicrobial and immunomodulating activity of this peptide region. Sequential amino acid deletions of the peptide GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE (GKY25), as well as substitutions at strategic and structurally relevant positions, were followed by analyses of antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Candida albicans. Furthermore, peptide effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, lipoteichoic acid-, or zymosan-induced macrophage activation were studied. The thrombin-derived peptides displayed length- and sequence-dependent antimicrobial as well as immunomodulating effects. A peptide length of at least 20 amino acids was required for effective anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage models, as well as optimal antimicrobial activity as judged by MIC assays. However, shorter (>12 amino acids) variants also displayed significant antimicrobial effects. A central K14 residue was important for optimal antimicrobial activity. Finally, one peptide variant, GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVI (GKY20) exhibiting improved selectivity, i.e., low toxicity and a preserved antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory effect, showed efficiency in mouse models of LPS shock and P. aeruginosa sepsis. The work defines structure-activity relationships of C-terminal host defense peptides of thrombin and delineates a strategy for selecting peptide epitopes of therapeutic interest.

  2. Meat and fermented meat products as a source of bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Joanna; Kęska, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are short amino acid sequences, that upon release from the parent protein may play different physiological roles, including antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and other bioactivities. They have been identified from a range of foods, including those of animal origin, e.g., milk and muscle sources (with pork, beef, or chicken and various species of fish and marine organism). Bioactive peptides are encrypted within the sequence of the parent protein molecule and latent until released and activated by enzymatic proteolysis, e.g. during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. Bioactive peptides derived from food sources have the potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the muscle-derived bioactive peptides, especially those of fermented meats and the potential benefits of these bioactive compounds to human health.

  3. Combined Cell Culture-Biosensing Platform Using Vertically Aligned Patterned Peptide Nanofibers for Cellular Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskin, Mehmet B.; Sasso, Luigi; Dimaki, Maria

    2013-01-01

    it possible to avoid a loss of sensitivity because of the diffusion of the sample. The obtained results showed that the peptide nanofibers were suitable as a cell culturing substrate for PC12 cells. The peptide nanofibers could be employed as an alternative biological material to increase the adherence......This Article presents the development of a combined cell culture–biosensing platform using vertically aligned self-assembled peptide nanofibers. Peptide nanofibers were patterned on a microchip containing gold microelectrodes to provide the cells with a 3D environment enabling them to grow...... and proliferate. Gold microelectrodes were functionalized with conductive polymers for the electrochemical detection of dopamine released from PC12 cells. The combined cell culture–biosensing platform assured a close proximity of the release site, the cells and the active surface of the sensor, thereby rendering...

  4. Sperm-attractant peptide influences the spermatozoa swimming behavior in internal fertilization in Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisa, Emilia; Salzano, Anna Maria; Moccia, Francesco; Scaloni, Andrea; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2013-06-15

    Marine invertebrates exhibit both chemokinesis and chemotaxis phenomena, induced in most cases by the release of water-borne peptides or pheromones. In mollusks, several peptides released during egg-laying improve both male attraction and mating. Unlike other cephalopods, Octopus vulgaris adopts an indirect internal fertilization strategy. We here report on the identification and characterization of a chemoattractant peptide isolated from mature eggs of octopus females. Using two-chamber and time-lapse microscopy assays, we demonstrate that this bioactive peptide is able to increase sperm motility and induce chemotaxis by changing the octopus spermatozoa swimming behavior in a dose-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that chemotaxis in the octopus requires the presence of extracellular calcium and membrane protein phophorylation at tyrosine. This study is the first report on a sperm-activating factor in a non-free-spawning marine animal.

  5. Human antimicrobial peptides and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ge; Weinberg, Aaron

    2018-05-30

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been a topic of interest for entomologists, biologists, immunologists and clinicians because of these agents' intriguing origins in insects, their ubiquitous expression in many life forms, their capacity to kill a wide range of bacteria, fungi and viruses, their role in innate immunity as microbicidal and immunoregulatory agents that orchestrate cross-talk with the adaptive immune system, and, most recently, their association with cancer. We and others have theorized that surveillance through epithelial cell-derived AMPs functions to keep the natural flora of microorganisms in a steady state in different niches such as the skin, the intestines, and the mouth. More recently, findings related to specific activation pathways of some of these AMPs have led investigators to associate them with pro-tumoral activity; i.e., contributing to a tumorigenic microenvironment. This area is still in its infancy as there are intriguing yet contradictory findings demonstrating that while some AMPs have anti-tumoral activity and are under-expressed in solid tumors, others are overexpressed and pro-tumorigenic. This review will introduce a new paradigm in cancer biology as it relates to AMP activity in neoplasia to address the following questions: Is there evidence that AMPs contribute to tumor promoting microenvironments? Can an anti-AMP strategy be of use in cancer therapy? Do AMPs, expressed in and released from tumors, contribute to compositional shifting of bacteria in cancerous lesions? Can specific AMP expression characteristics be used one day as early warning signs for solid tumors? Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thiomers: potential excipients for non-invasive peptide delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Krauland, Alexander H; Leitner, Verena M; Palmberger, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    In recent years thiolated polymers or so-called thiomers have appeared as a promising alternative in the arena of non-invasive peptide delivery. Thiomers are generated by the immobilisation of thiol-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of these polymers are improved up to 130-fold. Due to formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, dosage forms such as tablets or microparticles display strong cohesive properties resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled release of the embedded peptide drug. The permeation of peptide drugs through mucosa can be improved by the use of thiolated polymers. Additionally some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in non-invasive peptide delivery could be demonstrated by various in vivo studies. Tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin, for instance, resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Furthermore, a pharmacological efficacy of 1.3% was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Human growth hormone in a thiomer-gel was applied nasally to rats and led to a bioavailability of 2.75%. In all these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. According to these results drug carrier systems based on thiomers seem to be a promising tool for non-invasive peptide drug delivery.

  7. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  8. The role of chitosan on oral delivery of peptide-loaded nanoparticle formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Y; Al-Salami, Hani; Dass, Crispin R

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic peptides are conventionally administered via subcutaneous injection. Chitosan-based nanoparticles are gaining increased attention for their ability to serve as a carrier for oral delivery of peptides and vaccination. They offered superior biocompatibiltiy, controlled drug release profile and facilitated gastrointestinal (GI) absorption. The encapsulated peptides can withstand enzymatic degradation and various pH. Chitosan-based nanoparticles can also be modified by ligand conjugation to the surface of nanoparticle for transcellular absorption and specific-targeted delivery of macromolecules to the tissue of interest. Current research suggests that chitosan-based nanoparticles can deliver therapeutic peptide for the treatment of several medical conditions such as diabetes, bacterial infection and cancer. This review summarises the role of chitosan in oral nanoparticle delivery and identifies the clinical application of peptide-loaded chitosan-based nanoparticles.

  9. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  10. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  11. Peptide radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, D.; Vermeij, P.; Feitsma, R.I.J.; Pauwels, E.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the labelling of peptides that are recognised to be of interest for nuclear medicine or are the subject of ongoing nuclear medicine research. Applications and approaches to the labelling of peptide radiopharmaceuticals are discussed, and drawbacks in their development considered. (orig.)

  12. Isolation of biologically active peptides from the venom of Japanese carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hiroko; Goto, Shin G; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Shigeri, Yasushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Hidetoshi; Shinada, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-guided venom peptide profiling is a powerful tool to explore novel substances from venomous animals in a highly sensitive manner. In this study, this peptide profiling approach is successfully applied to explore the venom peptides of a Japanese solitary carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae: Anthophila: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini). Although interesting biological effects of the crude venom of carpenter bees have been reported, the structure and biological function of the venom peptides have not been elucidated yet. The venom peptide profiling of the crude venom of X. appendiculata was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. The venom was purified by a reverse-phase HPLC. The purified peptides were subjected to the Edman degradation, MS/MS analysis, and/or molecular cloning methods for peptide sequencing. Biological and functional characterization was performed by circular dichroism analysis, liposome leakage assay, and antimicrobial, histamine releasing and hemolytic activity tests. Three novel peptides with m / z 16508, 1939.3, and 1900.3 were isolated from the venom of X. appendiculata . The peptide with m / z 16508 was characterized as a secretory phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) homolog in which the characteristic cysteine residues as well as the active site residues found in bee PLA 2 s are highly conserved. Two novel peptides with m/z 1939.3 and m/z 1900.3 were named as Xac-1 and Xac-2, respectively. These peptides are found to be amphiphilic and displayed antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The potency was almost the same as that of mastoparan isolated from the wasp venom. We found three novel biologically active peptides in the venom of X. appendiculata and analyzed their molecular functions, and compared their sequential homology to discuss their molecular diversity. Highly sensitive mass analysis plays an important role in this study.

  13. Vascular targeting with peptide libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, R. [La Jolla Cancer Research Center The Burnham Inst., La Jolla CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The authors have developed an 'in vivo' selection system in which phage capable of selective homing to different tissues are recovered from a phage display peptide library following intravenous administration. Using this strategy, they have isolate several organ and tumor-homing peptides. They have shown that each of those peptides binds of different receptors that are selectively expressed on the vasculature of the target tissue. The tumor-homing peptides bind to receptors that are up regulated in tumor angiogenic vasculature. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin to angiogenic vasculature using these peptides in animals models decrease toxicity and increased the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Vascular targeting may facilitate the development of other treatment strategies that rely on inhibition of angio genesis and lead to advances to extend the potential for targeting of drugs, genes and radionuclides in the context of many diseases.

  14. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  15. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  16. Incretin physiology beyond glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: cholecystokinin and gastrin peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F

    2011-01-01

    and neonatal islets express significant amounts of gastrin, and human as well as porcine islet cells express the gastrin/CCK-B receptor abundantly. Therefore, exogenous gastrin and CCK peptides stimulate insulin and glucagon secretion in man. Accordingly, endogenous hypergastrinaemia is accompanied by islet...... cell hyperplasia and increased insulin secretion. Conventionally, the effect of gastrointestinal hormones on insulin secretion (the incretin effect) has been defined and quantified in relation to oral versus intravenous glucose loadings. Under these unphysiological conditions, the release of gastrin...

  17. Unprecedented high insulin secretion in a healthy human subject after intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Lund, Asger; Madsbad, Sten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut-derived incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, are released in response to ingestion of nutrients. Both hormones are highly insulinotropic in strictly glucose-dependent fashions and glucagon-like peptide-1 is often referred...... to as one of the most insulinotropic substances known. CASE PRESENTATION: Plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in a healthy Caucasian male (age: 53 years; body mass index: 28.6 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose: 5.7 mM; 2 h plasma glucose value following 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test: 3...

  18. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronheim, S.; Sheppard, M.C.; Pimstone, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  19. Purification and use of E. coli peptide deformylase for peptide deprotection in chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Toma, Claudia; Sonke, Theo; Quaedflieg, Peter J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    Peptide deformylases (PDFs) catalyze the removal of the formyl group from the N-terminal methionine residue in nascent polypeptide chains in prokaryotes. Its deformylation activity makes PDF an attractive candidate for the biocatalytic deprotection of formylated peptides that are used in

  20. Cathepsin-Mediated Cleavage of Peptides from Peptide Amphiphiles Leads to Enhanced Intracellular Peptide Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Handan [Institute; Department; Samaeekia, Ravand [Institute; Department; Schnorenberg, Mathew R. [Institute; Department; Medical; Sasmal, Dibyendu K. [Institute; Huang, Jun [Institute; Tirrell, Matthew V. [Institute; Institute; LaBelle, James L. [Department

    2017-08-24

    Peptides synthesized in the likeness of their native interaction domain(s) are natural choices to target protein protein interactions (PPIs) due to their fidelity of orthostatic contact points between binding partners. Despite therapeutic promise, intracellular delivery of biofunctional peptides at concentrations necessary for efficacy remains a formidable challenge. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) provide a facile method of intracellular delivery and stabilization of bioactive peptides. PAs consisting of biofunctional peptide headgroups linked to hydrophobic alkyl lipid-like tails prevent peptide hydrolysis and proteolysis in circulation, and PA monomers are internalized via endocytosis. However, endocytotic sequestration and steric hindrance from the lipid tail are two major mechanisms that limit PA efficacy to target intracellular PPIs. To address these problems, we have constructed a PA platform consisting of cathepsin-B cleavable PAs in which a selective p53-based inhibitory peptide is cleaved from its lipid tail within endosomes, allowing for intracellular peptide accumulation and extracellular recycling of the lipid moiety. We monitor for cleavage and follow individual PA components in real time using a resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tracking system. Using this platform, components in real time using a Forster we provide a better understanding and quantification of cellular internalization, trafficking, and endosomal cleavage of PAs and of the ultimate fates of each component.

  1. Monitoring multiple myeloma by idiotype-specific peptide binders of tumor-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccino, Enrico; Mimmi, Selena; Dattilo, Vincenzo; Marino, Fabiola; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Loria, Antonio; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pisano, Antonio; Albano, Francesco; Vecchio, Eleonora; Ceglia, Simona; Golino, Gaetanina; Lupia, Antonio; Fiume, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2017-10-13

    Tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play a pivotal role in tumor establishment and progression, and are emerging biomarkers for tumor diagnosis in personalized medicine. To date, there is a lack of efficient technology platforms for exosome isolation and characterization. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy due to the rapid development of drug-resistance. MM-released exosomes express the immunoglobulin B-cell receptor (Ig-BCR) of the tumor B-cells, which can be targeted by Idiotype-binding peptides (Id-peptides). In this study, we analyzed the production of MM-released exosomes in the murine 5T33MM multiple myeloma model as biomarkers of tumor growth. To this end, we selected Id-peptides by screening a phage display library using as bait the Ig-BCR expressed by 5T33MM cells. By FACS, the FITC-conjugated Id-peptides detected the MM-released exosomes in the serum of 5T33MM-engrafted mice, levels of which are correlated with tumor progression at an earlier time point compared to serum paraprotein. These results indicate that Id-peptide-based recognition of MM-released exosomes may represent a very sensitive diagnostic approach for clinical evaluation of disease progression.

  2. Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides in Vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrios are associated with a broad diversity of hosts that produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs as part of their defense against microbial infections. In particular, vibrios colonize epithelia, which function as protective barriers and express AMPs as a first line of chemical defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown they can also colonize phagocytes, key components of the animal immune system. Phagocytes infiltrate infected tissues and use AMPs to kill the phagocytosed microorganisms intracellularly, or deliver their antimicrobial content extracellularly to circumvent tissue infection. We review here the mechanisms by which vibrios have evolved the capacity to evade or resist the potent antimicrobial defenses of the immune cells or tissues they colonize. Among their strategies to resist killing by AMPs, primarily vibrios use membrane remodeling mechanisms. In particular, some highly resistant strains substitute hexaacylated Lipid A with a diglycine residue to reduce their negative surface charge, thereby lowering their electrostatic interactions with cationic AMPs. As a response to envelope stress, which can be induced by membrane-active agents including AMPs, vibrios also release outer membrane vesicles to create a protective membranous shield that traps extracellular AMPs and prevents interaction of the peptides with their own membranes. Finally, once AMPs have breached the bacterial membrane barriers, vibrios use RND efflux pumps, similar to those of other species, to transport AMPs out of their cytoplasmic space.

  3. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  4. Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fani, Melpomeni; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Receptor targeting with radiolabelled peptides has become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in the past few years. The overexpression of many peptide receptors in numerous cancers, compared to their relatively low density in physiological organs, represents the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled peptide-based probes. The prototypes are analogs of somatostatin which are routinely used in the clinic. More recent developments include somatostatin analogs with a broader receptor subtype profile or with antagonistic properties. Many other peptide families such as bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) etc. have been explored during the last few years and quite a number of potential radiolabelled probes have been derived from them. On the other hand, a variety of strategies and optimized protocols for efficient labelling of peptides with clinically relevant radionuclides such as {sup 99m}Tc, M{sup 3+} radiometals ({sup 111}In, {sup 86/90}Y, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 67/68}Ga), {sup 64/67}Cu, {sup 18}F or radioisotopes of iodine have been developed. The labelling approaches include direct labelling, the use of bifunctional chelators or prosthetic groups. The choice of the labelling approach is driven by the nature and the chemical properties of the radionuclide. Additionally, chemical strategies, including modification of the amino acid sequence and introduction of linkers/spacers with different characteristics, have been explored for the improvement of the overall performance of the radiopeptides, e.g. metabolic stability and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we discuss the development of peptides as radiopharmaceuticals starting from the choice of the labelling method and the conditions to the design and optimization of the peptide probe, as well as some recent developments, focusing on a selected list of peptide families, including somatostatin

  5. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  6. A high-resolution map of the Grp1 locus on chromosome V of potato harbouring broad-spectrum resistance to the cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Danan, Sarah; van Dijk, Thijs; Beyene, Amelework; Bouwman, Liesbeth; Overmars, Hein; van Eck, Herman; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Bakker, Erin

    2009-06-01

    The Grp1 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis and is located in the GP21-GP179 interval on the short arm of chromosome V of potato. A high-resolution map has been developed using the diploid mapping population RHAM026, comprising 1,536 genotypes. The flanking markers GP21 and GP179 have been used to screen the 1,536 genotypes for recombination events. Interval mapping of the resistances to G. pallida Pa2 and G. rostochiensis Ro5 resulted in two nearly identical LOD graphs with the highest LOD score just north of marker TG432. Detailed analysis of the 44 recombinant genotypes showed that G. pallida and G. rostochiensis resistance could not be separated and map to the same location between marker SPUD838 and TG432. It is suggested that the quantitative resistance to both nematode species at the Grp1 locus is mediated by one or more tightly linked R genes that might belong to the NBS-LRR class.

  7. Peptide-LNA oligonucleotide conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup; Vester, Birte

    2013-01-01

    properties, peptides were introduced into oligonucleotides via a 2'-alkyne-2'-amino-LNA scaffold. Derivatives of methionine- and leucine-enkephalins were chosen as model peptides of mixed amino acid content, which were singly and doubly incorporated into LNA/DNA strands using highly efficient copper......(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click" chemistry. DNA/RNA target binding affinity and selectivity of the resulting POCs were improved in comparison to LNA/DNA mixmers and unmodified DNA controls. This clearly demonstrates that internal attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides can significantly...

  8. New vasoactive peptides in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Goetze, Jens Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis have substantial circulatory imbalance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilating forces. The study of circulatory vasoactive peptides may provide important pathophysiological information. This study aimed to assess concentrations, organ extraction and relations...... to haemodynamic changes in the pro-peptides copeptin, proadrenomedullin and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) in patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four cirrhotic patients and 15 controls were characterized haemodynamically during a liver vein catheterization. Copeptin, proadrenomedullin...... pressure (R=0·32, P0·31, Ppeptide is elevated in cirrhosis. Copeptin, proadrenomedullin and proANP are related to portal pressure and seem associated with systemic haemodynamics. These propeptides may...

  9. Peptide profiling and the bioactivity character of yogurt in the simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Yu, Yang; Qi, Yanxia; Wang, Fangjun; Yan, Jiaze; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between peptide profiles and the bioactivity character of yogurt in simulated gastrointestinal trials. A total of 250, 434 and 466 peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS analyses of yogurt, gastric digest and pancreatic digest. Forty peptides of yogurt survived in gastrointestinal digestion. κ-CN and β-CN contributed the diversity of peptides during the fermentation process and gastrointestinal digestion, respectively. The favorite of κ-CN by lactic acid bacteria complemented gut digestion by hydrolyzing κ-CN, the low abundance milk proteins. The potential bioactivities were evaluated by in vitro ACE and DPP-IV inhibition assays. The ACE inhibition rate of the pancreatic digests was ~4 - and ~2 - fold greater than that of yogurt and the gastric digests. The ACE inhibitory peptides generated during gastrointestinal digestion improved the ACE inhibitory activity of the gastric and pancreatic digests. The DPP-IV inhibition rate of the pancreatic digest was ~6 - and ~3 - fold greater than that of yogurt and the gastric digest. The numbers of potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were positively correlated to the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the gastric and pancreatic digests. The present study describes the characters and bioactivities of peptides from yogurt in a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The number of peptides identified from yogurt and gastrointestinal digests by LC-MS/MS increased in the simulated gastrointestinal trials. The in vitro ACE and DPP-IV inhibition bioactivities revealed that the bioactivity of yogurt was enhanced during gastrointestinal digestion. The correlation between peptides and bioactivity in vitro indicated that not only the peptides amount but also the proportion of peptides with high bioactivities contributed to increased bioactivity during gastrointestinal digestion. The study of peptides identified from yogurt and digests revealed that the number of released peptides was not determined

  10. Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Tchoumi Neree

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the potential usage of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs for the intracellular delivery of various molecules has prompted the identification of novel peptidic identities. However, cytotoxic effects and unpredicted immunological responses have often limited the use of various CPP sequences in the clinic. To overcome these issues, the usage of endogenous peptides appears as an appropriate alternative approach. The hormone pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38 has been recently identified as a novel and very efficient CPP. This 38-residue polycationic peptide is a member of the secretin/glucagon/growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH superfamily, with which PACAP38 shares high structural and conformational homologies. In this study, we evaluated the cell-penetrating ability of cationic peptide hormones in the context of the expression of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Our results indicated that among all peptides evaluated, PACAP38 was unique for its potent efficiency of cellular uptake. Interestingly, the abilities of the peptides to reach the intracellular space did not correlate with their binding affinities to sulfated GAGs, but rather to their capacity to clustered heparin in vitro. This study demonstrates that the uptake efficiency of a given cationic CPP does not necessarily correlate with its affinity to sulfated GAGs and that its ability to cluster GAGs should be considered for the identification of novel peptidic sequences with potent cellular penetrating properties.

  11. Characterization and identification of novel antidiabetic and anti-obesity peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Priti; Kamal, Hina; Yuen, Gan Chee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-09-01

    In-vitro inhibitory properties of peptides released from camel milk proteins against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) were studied. Results revealed that upon hydrolysis by different enzymes, camel milk proteins displayed dramatic increase in inhibition of DPP-IV and PPL, but slight improvement in PPA inhibition was noticed. Peptide sequencing revealed a total of 20 and 3 peptides for A9 and B9 hydrolysates respectively, obtained the score of 0.8 or more on peptide ranker and were categorized as potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. KDLWDDFKGL in A9 and MPSKPPLL in B9 were identified as most potent PPA inhibitory peptide. For PPL inhibition only 7 and 2 peptides qualified as PPL inhibitory peptides from hydrolysates A9 and B9, respectively. The present study report for the first time PPA and PPL inhibitory and only second for DPP-IV inhibitory potential of protein hydrolysates from camel milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  13. Concomitant expression of several peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumours: molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Waser, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    Peptide receptors have been found to represent excellent targets for in vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recent in vitro studies have shown that many cancers can overexpress not only one but several peptide receptors concomitantly. One of the challenges for nuclear medicine in this field in the coming decade will be to take advantage of the co-expression of peptide receptors for multireceptor tumour targeting. In vitro receptor studies can reveal which peptide receptor is overexpressed in which tumour and which receptors are co-expressed in an individual tumour; such knowledge is a prerequisite for successful in vivo development. One group of tumours of particular interest in this respect is the neuroendocrine tumours, which have previously been shown often to express peptide receptors. This review summarises our investigations of the concomitant expression of 13 different peptide receptors, in more than 100 neuroendocrine tumours of the human intestine, pancreas and lung, using in vitro receptor autoradiography with subtype-selective ligands. The incidence and density of the somatostatin receptors sst 1 -sst 5 , the VIP receptors VPAC 1 and VPAC 2 , the CCK 1 and CCK 2 receptors, the three bombesin receptor subtypes BB 1 (NMB receptor), BB 2 (GRP receptor) and BB 3 , and GLP-1 receptors were evaluated. While the presence of VPAC 1 and sst 2 was detected in the majority of these neuroendocrine tumours, the other receptors, more differentially expressed, revealed a characteristic receptor pattern in several tumour types. Ileal carcinoids expressed sst 2 and VPAC 1 receptors in virtually all cases and had CCK 1 , CCK 2 , sst 1 or sst 5 in approximately half of the cases; they were the only tumours of this series to express NMB receptors. Insulinomas were characterised by a very high incidence of GLP-1, CCK 2 and VPAC 1 receptors, with the GLP-1 receptors expressed in a particularly high density; they expressed sst 2 in two-thirds and sst 1 in approximately half of

  14. Concomitant expression of several peptide receptors in neuroendocrine tumours: molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Waser, Beatrice [Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, University of Berne, Murtenstrasse 31, PO Box 62, 3010, Berne (Switzerland)

    2003-05-01

    Peptide receptors have been found to represent excellent targets for in vivo cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recent in vitro studies have shown that many cancers can overexpress not only one but several peptide receptors concomitantly. One of the challenges for nuclear medicine in this field in the coming decade will be to take advantage of the co-expression of peptide receptors for multireceptor tumour targeting. In vitro receptor studies can reveal which peptide receptor is overexpressed in which tumour and which receptors are co-expressed in an individual tumour; such knowledge is a prerequisite for successful in vivo development. One group of tumours of particular interest in this respect is the neuroendocrine tumours, which have previously been shown often to express peptide receptors. This review summarises our investigations of the concomitant expression of 13 different peptide receptors, in more than 100 neuroendocrine tumours of the human intestine, pancreas and lung, using in vitro receptor autoradiography with subtype-selective ligands. The incidence and density of the somatostatin receptors sst{sub 1}-sst{sub 5}, the VIP receptors VPAC{sub 1} and VPAC{sub 2}, the CCK{sub 1} and CCK{sub 2} receptors, the three bombesin receptor subtypes BB{sub 1} (NMB receptor), BB{sub 2} (GRP receptor) and BB{sub 3}, and GLP-1 receptors were evaluated. While the presence of VPAC{sub 1} and sst{sub 2} was detected in the majority of these neuroendocrine tumours, the other receptors, more differentially expressed, revealed a characteristic receptor pattern in several tumour types. Ileal carcinoids expressed sst{sub 2} and VPAC{sub 1} receptors in virtually all cases and had CCK{sub 1}, CCK{sub 2}, sst{sub 1} or sst{sub 5} in approximately half of the cases; they were the only tumours of this series to express NMB receptors. Insulinomas were characterised by a very high incidence of GLP-1, CCK{sub 2} and VPAC{sub 1} receptors, with the GLP-1 receptors expressed in a

  15. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  17. Production and characterization of peptide antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Hansen, Paul Robert; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies...... are powerful tools in experimental biology and are easily produced to any peptide of choice. A widely used approach for production of peptide antibodies is to immunize animals with a synthetic peptide coupled to a carrier protein. Very important is the selection of the synthetic peptide, where factors......, including solid-phase peptide-carrier conjugation and peptide-carrier conjugation in solution. Upon immunization, adjuvants such as Al(OH)(3) are added together with the immunogenic peptide-carrier conjugate, which usually leads to high-titred antisera. Following immunization and peptide antibody...

  18. Mannosylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Based Macrophage-Targeting Gene Delivery System Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Improved Transfection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yixing; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Bo; Zong, Li

    2015-04-01

    Gene transfer mediated by mannosylated chitosan (MCS) is a safe and promising approach for gene and vaccine delivery. MCS nanoparticles based gene delivery system showed high in vivo delivery efficiency and elicited strong immune responses in mice. However, little knowledge about the cell binding, transfection efficiency and intracellular trafficking of MCS nanoparticles had been acquired. In this study, using gastrin-releasing peptide as a model plasmid (pGRP), the binding of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles to macrophages and the intracellular trafficking of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages were investigated. MCS-mediated transfection efficiency in macrophages was also evaluated using pGL-3 as a reporter gene. The results showed that the binding and transfection efficiency of MCS nanoparticles in macrophages was higher than that of CS, which was attributed to the interaction between mannose ligands in MCS and mannose receptors on the surface of macrophages. Observation with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated the cellular uptake of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were more than that of CS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages. MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages and most of them were entrapped in endosomal/lysosomal compartments. After the nanoparticles escaping from endosomal/lysosomal compartments, naked pGRP entered the nucleus, and a few MCS might enter the nucleus in terms of nanoparticles. Overall, MCS has the potential to be an excellent macrophage-targeting gene delivery carrier.

  19. Exploring the role of peptides in polymer-based gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanping; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunxi; Yang, Tianzhi; Cai, Cuifang; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Yang, Li; Ding, Pingtian

    2017-09-15

    Polymers are widely studied as non-viral gene vectors because of their strong DNA binding ability, capacity to carry large payload, flexibility of chemical modifications, low immunogenicity, and facile processes for manufacturing. However, high cytotoxicity and low transfection efficiency substantially restrict their application in clinical trials. Incorporating functional peptides is a promising approach to address these issues. Peptides demonstrate various functions in polymer-based gene delivery systems, such as targeting to specific cells, breaching membrane barriers, facilitating DNA condensation and release, and lowering cytotoxicity. In this review, we systematically summarize the role of peptides in polymer-based gene delivery, and elaborate how to rationally design polymer-peptide based gene delivery vectors. Polymers are widely studied as non-viral gene vectors, but suffer from high cytotoxicity and low transfection efficiency. Incorporating short, bioactive peptides into polymer-based gene delivery systems can address this issue. Peptides demonstrate various functions in polymer-based gene delivery systems, such as targeting to specific cells, breaching membrane barriers, facilitating DNA condensation and release, and lowering cytotoxicity. In this review, we highlight the peptides' roles in polymer-based gene delivery, and elaborate how to utilize various functional peptides to enhance the transfection efficiency of polymers. The optimized peptide-polymer vectors should be able to alter their structures and functions according to biological microenvironments and utilize inherent intracellular pathways of cells, and consequently overcome the barriers during gene delivery to enhance transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  1. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  3. Flanking signal and mature peptide residues influence signal peptide cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal peptides (SPs mediate the targeting of secretory precursor proteins to the correct subcellular compartments in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identifying these transient peptides is crucial to the medical, food and beverage and biotechnology industries yet our understanding of these peptides remains limited. This paper examines the most common type of signal peptides cleavable by the endoprotease signal peptidase I (SPase I, and the residues flanking the cleavage sites of three groups of signal peptide sequences, namely (i eukaryotes (Euk (ii Gram-positive (Gram+ bacteria, and (iii Gram-negative (Gram- bacteria. Results In this study, 2352 secretory peptide sequences from a variety of organisms with amino-terminal SPs are extracted from the manually curated SPdb database for analysis based on physicochemical properties such as pI, aliphatic index, GRAVY score, hydrophobicity, net charge and position-specific residue preferences. Our findings show that the three groups share several similarities in general, but they display distinctive features upon examination in terms of their amino acid compositions and frequencies, and various physico-chemical properties. Thus, analysis or prediction of their sequences should be separated and treated as distinct groups. Conclusion We conclude that the peptide segment recognized by SPase I extends to the start of the mature protein to a limited extent, upon our survey of the amino acid residues surrounding the cleavage processing site. These flanking residues possibly influence the cleavage processing and contribute to non-canonical cleavage sites. Our findings are applicable in defining more accurate prediction tools for recognition and identification of cleavage site of SPs.

  4. Nonpeptide and peptide growth hormone secretagogues act both as ghrelin receptor agonist and as positive or negative allosteric modulators of ghrelin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Brandt, Erik; Bach, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Two nonpeptide (L692,429 and MK-677) and two peptide [GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 and ghrelin] agonists were compared in binding and in signal transduction assays: calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate turnover, cAMP-responsive element (CRE), and serum-responsive element (SRE) controlled tra...

  5. Yak milk casein as potential precursor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides based on in silico proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Zhang, Lan-Wei; Han, Xue; Xin, Liang; Meng, Zhao-Xu; Gong, Pi-Min; Cheng, Da-You

    2018-07-15

    Yak milk casein was selected as a potential precursor of bioactive peptides based on in silico analysis. Most notable among these are the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides. First, yak milk casein has high homology with cow milk casein by homologous analysis. The potential of yak milk casein for the releasing bioactive peptides was evaluated by determining the frequency of occurrence of fragments with a given activity. Through the BIOPEP database analysis, there are many bioactive peptides in yak milk casein sequences. Then, an in silico proteolysis using single or combined enzymes to obtained ACE inhibitory peptides was investigated. Cytotoxicity analysis using the online toxic prediction tool ToxinPred revealed that all in silico proteolysis derived ACE inhibitory peptides are non-cytotoxic. Overall, the present study highlights a in silico proteolysis approach to assist the yak milk casein releasing ACE inhibitory peptides and provides a guidance for the actual hydrolysis of proteins for the production of bioactive peptides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct roles of exogenous opioid agonists and endogenous opioid peptides in the peripheral control of neuropathy-triggered heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Dominika; Celik, Melih Ö; Zimmer, Andreas; Machelska, Halina

    2016-09-08

    Neuropathic pain often results from peripheral nerve damage, which can involve immune response. Local leukocyte-derived opioid peptides or exogenous opioid agonists inhibit neuropathy-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models. Since neuropathic pain can also be augmented by heat, in this study we investigated the role of opioids in the modulation of neuropathy-evoked heat hypersensitivity. We used a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, and tested opioid effects in heat and mechanical hypersensitivity using Hargreaves and von Frey tests, respectively. We found that although perineural exogenous opioid agonists, including peptidergic ligands, were effective, the endogenous opioid peptides β-endorphin, Met-enkephalin and dynorphin A did not alleviate heat hypersensitivity. Specifically, corticotropin-releasing factor, an agent triggering opioid peptide secretion from leukocytes, applied perineurally did not attenuate heat hypersensitivity in wild-type mice. Exogenous opioids, also shown to release opioid peptides via activation of leukocyte opioid receptors, were equally analgesic in wild-type and opioid peptide-knockout mice, indicating that endogenous opioids do not contribute to exogenous opioid analgesia in heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, exogenously applied opioid peptides were ineffective as well. Conversely, opioid peptides relieved mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, both opioid type and sensory modality may determine the outcome of neuropathic pain treatment.

  7. Construction of hybrid peptide synthetases by module and domain fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, H D; Schwarzer, D; Marahiel, M A

    2000-05-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are modular enzymes that assemble peptides of diverse structures and important biological activities. Their modular organization provides a great potential for the rational design of novel compounds by recombination of the biosynthetic genes. Here we describe the extension of a dimodular system to trimodular ones based on whole-module fusion. The recombinant hybrid enzymes were purified to monitor product assembly in vitro. We started from the first two modules of tyrocidine synthetase, which catalyze the formation of the dipeptide dPhe-Pro, to construct such hybrid systems. Fusion of the second, proline-specific module with the ninth and tenth modules of the tyrocidine synthetases, specific for ornithine and leucine, respectively, resulted in dimodular hybrid enzymes exhibiting the combined substrate specificities. The thioesterase domain was fused to the terminal module. Upon incubation of these dimodular enzymes with the first tyrocidine module, TycA, incorporating dPhe, the predicted tripeptides dPhe-Pro-Orn and dPhe-Pro-Leu were obtained at rates of 0.15 min(-1) and 2.1 min(-1). The internal thioesterase domain was necessary and sufficient to release the products from the hybrid enzymes and thereby facilitate a catalytic turnover. Our approach of whole-module fusion is based on an improved definition of the fusion sites and overcomes the recently discovered editing function of the intrinsic condensation domains. The stepwise construction of hybrid peptide synthetases from catalytic subunits reinforces the inherent potential for the synthesis of novel, designed peptides.

  8. Peptides and Anti-peptide Antibodies for Small and Medium Scale Peptide and Anti-peptide Affinity Microarrays: Antigenic Peptide Selection, Immobilization, and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Briones, Andrea; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of selection of antigenic peptides for the development of anti-peptide antibodies for use in microarray-based multiplex affinity assays and also with mass-spectrometry detection. The methods described here are mostly applicable to small to medium scale arrays. Although the same principles of peptide selection would be suitable for larger scale arrays (with 100+ features) the actual informatics software and printing methods may well be different. Because of the sheer number of proteins/peptides to be processed and analyzed dedicated software capable of processing all the proteins and an enterprise level array robotics may be necessary for larger scale efforts. This report aims to provide practical advice to those who develop or use arrays with up to ~100 different peptide or protein features.

  9. The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Hellström, Per M; Näslund, Erik; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups. No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis to obtain therapeutic peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mäde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The great versatility and the inherent high affinities of peptides for their respective targets have led to tremendous progress for therapeutic applications in the last years. In order to increase the drugability of these frequently unstable and rapidly cleared molecules, chemical modifications are of great interest. Automated solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS offers a suitable technology to produce chemically engineered peptides. This review concentrates on the application of SPPS by Fmoc/t-Bu protecting-group strategy, which is most commonly used. Critical issues and suggestions for the synthesis are covered. The development of automated methods from conventional to essentially improved microwave-assisted instruments is discussed. In order to improve pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, lipidation and PEGylation are described as covalent conjugation methods, which can be applied by a combination of automated and manual synthesis approaches. The synthesis and application of SPPS is described for neuropeptide Y receptor analogs as an example for bioactive hormones. The applied strategies represent innovative and potent methods for the development of novel peptide drug candidates that can be manufactured with optimized automated synthesis technologies.

  11. Negative Energy Balance Blocks Neural and Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress by “Silencing” Central Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Signaling in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Maniscalco, James W.; Zheng, Huiyuan; Gordon, Patrick J.; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that caloric restriction attenuates anxiety and other behavioral responses to acute stress, and blunts the ability of stress to increase anterior pituitary release of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Since hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons and noradrenergic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) neurons participate in behavioral and endocrine stress responses, and are sensitive to the metabolic state, we examined whether overnight food deprivation blunts stre...

  12. What peptides these deltorphins be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, L H; Bryant, S D; Cooper, P S; Salvadori, S

    1999-02-01

    The deltorphins are a class of highly selective delta-opioid heptapeptides from the skin of the Amazonian frogs Phyllomedusa sauvagei and P. bicolor. The first of these fascinating peptides came to light in 1987 by cloning of the cDNA of from frog skins, while the other members of this family were identified either by cDNA or isolation of the peptides. The distinctive feature of deltorphins is the presence of a naturally occurring D-enantiomer at the second position in their common N-terminal sequence, Tyr-D-Xaa-Phe, comparable to dermorphin, which is the prototype of a group of mu-selective opioids from the same source. The D-amino acid and the anionic residues, either Glu or Asp, as well as their unique amino acid compositions are responsible for the remarkable biostability, high delta-receptor affinity, bioactivity and peptide conformation. This review summarizes a decade of research from many laboratories that defined which residues and substituents in the deltorphins interact with the delta-receptor and characterized pharmacological and physiological activities in vitro and in vivo. It begins with a historical description of the topic and presents general schema for the synthesis of peptide analogues of deltorphins A, B and C as a means to document the methods employed in producing a myriad of analogues. Structure activity studies of the peptides and their pharmacological activities in vitro are detailed in abundantly tabulated data. A brief compendium of the current level of knowledge of the delta-receptor assists the reader to appreciate the rationale for the design of these analogues. Discussion of the conformation of these peptides addresses how structure leads to further hypotheses regarding ligand receptor interaction. The review ends with a broad discussion of the potential applications of these peptides in clinical and therapeutic settings.

  13. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V.; Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A.; Prudchenko, Igor A.; Shtilman, Mikhail I.; Markvicheva, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable

  14. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: sukhanovat@mail.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Cell Interactions, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Prudchenko, Igor A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Peptide Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtilman, Mikhail I. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory Polymers for Biology, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable.

  15. Delivery of bioactive peptides and proteins across oral (buccal) mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, S; Kremer, M; Nagy, K; Squier, C

    2001-06-01

    The identification of an increasing array of highly potent, endogenous peptide and protein factors termed cytokines, that can be efficiently synthesized using recombinant DNA technology, offers exciting new approaches for drug therapy. However, the physico-chemical and biological properties of these agents impose limitations in formulation and development of optimum drug delivery systems as well as on the routes of delivery. Oral mucosa, including the lining of the cheek (buccal mucosa), floor of mouth and underside of tongue (sublingual mucosa) and gingival mucosa, has received much attention in the last decade because it offers excellent accessibility, is not easily traumatized and avoids degradation of proteins and peptides that occurs as a result of oral administration, gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass hepatic metabolism. Peptide absorption occurs across oral mucosa by passive diffusion and it is unlikely that there is a carrier-mediated transport mechanism. The principal pathway is probably via the intercellular route where the major permeability barrier is represented by organized array of neutral lipids in the superficial layers of the epithelium. The relative role of aqueous as opposed to the lipid pathway in drug transport is still under investigation; penetration is not necessarily enhanced by simply increasing lipophilicity, for other effects, such as charge and molecular size, also play an important role in absorption of peptide and protein drugs. Depending on the pharmacodynamics of the peptides, various oral mucosal delivery systems can be designed. Delivery of peptide/protein drugs by conventional means such as solutions has some limitations. The possibility of excluding a major part of drug from absorption by involuntary swallowing and the continuous dilution due to salivary flow limits a controlled release. However these limitations can be overcome by adhesive dosage forms such as gels, films, tablets, and patches. They can localize the

  16. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of ≅72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO 4 /PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation