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Sample records for releasing factor test

  1. Application of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin release test in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Ma Yongxiu; Duan Wenruo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin release test (IRT) in understanding the extent of damage to ability of reducing blood sugar in different types of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in selection of treatment plan and adjustment of using drugs. OGTT, IRT and determination of IGF-I level of 67 normal subjects and 217 DM patients were performed. The result was analyzed comparatively. The level of IGF-I was negatively correlated with the level of fasting blood sugar, and positively correlated with the level of fasting insulin. Our conclusions are: There are two ways of reducing blood sugar: one is by insulin, and the other is by IGF-I. IRT can reflect the former better, and IGF-I the latter. The combination of these two is of significant value in diagnosis and treatment of DM

  2. Factors that predict a positive response on gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwan Suh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rapid increase in the incidence of precocious puberty in Korea has clinical and social significance. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is required to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP, however this test is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify factors that can predict a positive response to the GnRH stimulation test.MethodsClinical and laboratory parameters, including basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and estradiol (E2, were measured in 540 girls with clinical signs of CPP.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-nine of 540 girls with suspected CPP had a peak serum LH level higher than 5 IU/L (the CPP group. The CPP group had advanced bone age (P<0.001, accelerated yearly growth rate (P<0.001, increased basal levels of LH (P=0.02, FSH (P<0.001, E2 (P=0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels (P<0.001 compared to the non-CPP group. In contrast, body weight (P<0.001 and body mass index (P<0.001 were lower in the CPP group. Although basal LH was significantly elevated in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group, there was considerable overlap between the 2 groups. Cutoff values of basal LH (0.22 IU/L detected CPP with 87.8% sensitivity and 20.9% specificity.ConclusionNo single parameter can predict a positive response on the GnRH stimulation test with both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, multiple factors should be considered in evaluation of sexual precocity when deciding the timing of the GnRH stimulation test.

  3. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  4. Comparison of interferon {gamma} release assays and conventional screening tests before tumour necrosis factor {alpha} blockade in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of two interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and conventional screening tests in patients with inflammatory arthritis undergoing screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) compounds. METHODS: Successive patients were subjected to conventional LTBI screening, including a tuberculin skin test (TST). The T-SPOT.TB test was performed on all patients and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test was performed on a large subset. The results of the IGRAs were compared with the results of conventional screening tests. RESULTS: A total 150 patients were evaluated. The majority (57.9%) had rheumatoid arthritis. Previous vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin was confirmed in 82% of patients. No patient had received prior anti-TB treatment. A total of 57 patients (38.0%) had at least one positive conventional risk factor. In contrast, an unequivocally positive T-SPOT.TB test was seen in only 14\\/143 (9.8%). There was 98.2% agreement between the two IGRAs. Statistically significant associations were found between each of the IGRAs and both TST and risk history, but not chest x-ray (CXR). A positive IGRA result was significantly associated with increased age. TB was not reactivated in any patient during the follow-up period. Interpretation: This study suggests that IGRAs may be useful when screening for LTBI before anti-TNFalpha therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The observations reported here also highlight the inadequate performance of CXR as a marker of LTBI.

  5. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  6. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  7. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods for extended-release parenteral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in-vitro drug release testing of extended-release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in-situ depot-forming systems and implants. Extended-release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, 'real-time' in-vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in-vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in-vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended-release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in-vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended-release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable; however, for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  9. 21 CFR 211.165 - Testing and release for distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Laboratory Controls § 211.165 Testing and release for distribution. (a) For each batch of drug product, there shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and release for distribution. 211.165...

  10. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Testing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Tumor Marker AMAS Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Ammonia Amniocentesis Amylase ANCA/MPO/ ... Beta-2 Microglobulin Kidney Disease Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases ...

  11. Investigation of the effects of certain formulation factors on release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the effects of three formulation variables (PVP, stearic acid and Avicel PH101) on disintegration time and release properties of paracetamol tablets using a 23 factorial experimental design. Methodology: Three formulation variables; Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (factor A), Stearic acid (factor B) and Avicel PH 101 ...

  12. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  13. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-01-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as ≥ 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was ≤ 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of ≥ 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions

  14. Savannah River release: test of the new ARAC capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Working jointly from opposite sides of the nation Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) and the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) quickly assessed the consequences of an early-morning tritium release in May 1974 from the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina. Measurements confirmed the accuracy of the LLL predictions. Due to the small quantity involved and to the release location (well within the plant confines), the release was not dangerous to the public. The emergency provided a dramatic test of procedures and capabilities of the new Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) center at Livermore, which was not yet operational, demonstrating the capacity for quick response, and the feasibility of real-time data acquisition and transmittal across the continent

  15. ACRR fission product release tests: ST-1 and ST-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Stockman, H.W.; Reil, K.O.; Grimley, A.J.; Camp, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments (ST-1 and ST-2) have been performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) to obtain time-resolved data on the release of fission products from irradiated fuels under light water reactor (LWR) severe accident conditions. Both experiments were conducted in a highly reducing environment at maximum fuel temperatures of greater than 2400 K. These experiments were designed specifically to investigate the effect of increased total pressure on fission product release; ST-1 was performed at approximately 0.16 MPa and ST-2 was run at 1.9 MPa, whereas other parameters were matched as closely as possible. Release rate data were measured for Cs, I, Ba, Sr, Eu, Te, and U. The release rates were higher than predicted by existing codes for Ba, Sr, Eu, and U. Te release was very low, but Te did not appear to be sequestered by the zircaloy cladding; it was evenly distributed in the fuel. In addition, in posttest analysis a unique fuel morphology (fuel swelling) was observed which may have enhanced fission product release, especially in the high pressure test (ST-2). These data are compared with analytical results from the CORSOR correlation and the VICTORIA computer model

  16. Uniformity of Peptide Release Is Maintained by Methylation of Release Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Pierson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Termination of protein synthesis on the ribosome is catalyzed by release factors (RFs, which share a conserved glycine-glycine-glutamine (GGQ motif. The glutamine residue is methylated in vivo, but a mechanistic understanding of its contribution to hydrolysis is lacking. Here, we show that the modification, apart from increasing the overall rate of termination on all dipeptides, substantially increases the rate of peptide release on a subset of amino acids. In the presence of unmethylated RFs, we measure rates of hydrolysis that are exceptionally slow on proline and glycine residues and approximately two orders of magnitude faster in the presence of the methylated factors. Structures of 70S ribosomes bound to methylated RF1 and RF2 reveal that the glutamine side-chain methylation packs against 23S rRNA nucleotide 2451, stabilizing the GGQ motif and placing the side-chain amide of the glutamine toward tRNA. These data provide a framework for understanding how release factor modifications impact termination.

  17. Enhancing human islet transplantation by localized release of trophic factors from PLG scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavaty, K A; Gibly, R F; Zhang, X; Rives, C B; Graham, J G; Lowe, W L; Luo, X; Shea, L D

    2014-07-01

    Islet transplantation represents a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, yet the clinical approach of intrahepatic delivery is limited by the microenvironment. Microporous scaffolds enable extrahepatic transplantation, and the microenvironment can be designed to enhance islet engraftment and function. We investigated localized trophic factor delivery in a xenogeneic human islet to mouse model of islet transplantation. Double emulsion microspheres containing exendin-4 (Ex4) or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were incorporated into a layered scaffold design consisting of porous outer layers for islet transplantation and a center layer for sustained factor release. Protein encapsulation and release were dependent on both the polymer concentration and the identity of the protein. Proteins retained bioactivity upon release from scaffolds in vitro. A minimal human islet mass transplanted on Ex4-releasing scaffolds demonstrated significant improvement and prolongation of graft function relative to blank scaffolds carrying no protein, and the release profile significantly impacted the duration over which the graft functioned. Ex4-releasing scaffolds enabled better glycemic control in animals subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Scaffolds releasing IGF-1 lowered blood glucose levels, yet the reduction was insufficient to achieve euglycemia. Ex4-delivering scaffolds provide an extrahepatic transplantation site for modulating the islet microenvironment to enhance islet function posttransplant. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Andreas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lammel, Justus; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Cremer, Jochen; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs) or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF?) came recently into the physicians' focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiatio...

  19. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    the correlations between HR test results and demographic features, quality of life, disease activity, clinical course, and autologous serum and plasma skin tests (ASST and APST). Results. All patients with positive HR test (9/9, 100%) had a more severe disease activity at onset (urticaria activity score, UAS > 2......Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...... with a positive HR test had a significant reduction of disease activity (p = 0.003) whereas patients with a negative HR test did not (p > 0.05), leading to disease remission and antihistamine treatment withdrawal in 67% (6/9) of positive HR test patients versus 18% (2/11) of negative HR test patients (p = 0...

  20. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  1. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Jana, E-mail: jana.freund@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  2. Tritium transport calculations for the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Jana; Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Franza, Fabrizio; Kondo, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Delivery of material data for the tritium balance in the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module. • Description of the topological models in TMAP and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). • Computation of release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas. • Computation of the loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line. - Abstract: The IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) is projected to measure online the tritium release from breeder ceramics and beryllium pebble beds under high energy neutron irradiation. Tritium produced in the pebble bed of TRTM is swept out continuously by a purge gas flow, but can also permeate into the module's metal structures, and can be lost by permeation to the environment. According analyses on the tritium inventory are performed to support IFMIF plant safety studies, and to support the experiment planning. This paper describes the necessary elements for calculation of the tritium transport in the Tritium Release Test Module as follows: (i) applied equations for the tritium balance, (ii) material data from literature and (iii) the topological models and the computation of the five different cases; namely release of tritium from the breeder solid material into the purge gas, loss of tritium over the capsule wall, rig hull, container wall and purge gas return line in detail. The problem of tritium transport in the TRTM has been studied and analyzed by the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) and the adapted fusion-devoted Tritium Permeation Code (FUS-TPC). TMAP has been developed at INEEL and now exists in Version 7. FUS-TPC Code was written in MATLAB with the original purpose to study the tritium transport in Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) blanket and in a later version the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket by [6] (Franza, 2012). This code has been further modified to be applicable to the TRTM. Results from the

  3. Possibilities for in-vitro testing of controlled-release parenterals.

    OpenAIRE

    Kožák, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to start with the development of a gel-based medium simulating intramuscular environment for in-vitro drug release testing as an alternative to currently used water-based media. A pork meat was selected as a model of the muscle tissue. At the first part of the study, diffusion rate was proposed as the most determining factor of drug release in gel-based medium. Consequently, the diffusion rate of sodium fluorescein in pork meat was compared with the diffusion r...

  4. Hypothalamic growth hormone releasing factor deficiency following cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of synthetic human pancreatic tumour GH releasing factor (hp GRF1-44) on GH release has been studied in 10 patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency and four normal subjects. All 10 patients showed subnormal GH responses to both an ITT (median peak GH 3.2 mU/1) and to arginine stimulation (median peak GH 2.9 mU/1), although the remainder of pituitary function was intact. Following an acute intravenous bolus (100 μg) of hp GRF1-44, there was no GH response in two patients and a subnormal but definite GH response in a further four. The remaining four patients showed a significant GH response (median peak GH level 29 mU/1; range 22-57 mU/1) to hp GRF1-44, similar in magnitude and timing to that seen in th four normals. This strongly suggests that in these four subjects, the discrepancy in GH responses to hp GRF1-44, ITT and to arginine was a result of radiation-induced hypothalamic damage leading to a deficiency of endogenous GRF. The availability of synthetic hp GRF capable of stimulating GH secretion means that the distinction between hypothalamic and pituitary causes of GH deficiency will be of considerable therapeutic importance in the future. (author)

  5. Applied field test procedures on petroleum release sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, G.; Nichols, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effective remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and ground water is a significant issue for Williams Pipe Line Co. (Williams): costing $6.8 million in 1994. It is in the best interest, then, for Williams to adopt approaches and apply technologies that will be both cost-effective and comply with regulations. Williams has found the use of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS) field test procedures at the onset of a petroleum release investigation/remediation accomplish these goals. This paper focuses on the application of AS/SVE as the preferred technology to a specific type of remediation: refined petroleum products. In situ field tests are used prior to designing a full-scale remedial system to first validate or disprove initial assumptions on applicability of the technology. During the field test, remedial system design parameters are also collected to tailor the design and operation of a full-scale system to site specific conditions: minimizing cost and optimizing effectiveness. In situ field tests should be designed and operated to simulate as close as possible the operation of a full-scale remedial system. The procedures of an in situ field test will be presented. The results of numerous field tests and the associated costs will also be evaluated and compared to full-scale remedial systems and total project costs to demonstrate overall effectiveness. There are many advantages of As/SVE technologies over conventional fluid extraction or SVE systems alone. However, the primary advantage is the ability to simultaneously reduce volatile and biodegradable compound concentrations in the phreatic, capillary fringe, and unsaturated zones

  6. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lammel, Justus; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Cremer, Jochen; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs) or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF®) came recently into the physicians' focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiation status of skin wounds in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the expression of early (keratin 1 and keratin 10) and late (transglutaminase-1 and involucrin) differentiation markers. PRGF treatment of primary human keratinocytes decreased keratin 1 and keratin 10 gene expression but induced involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression in an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR-) dependent manner. In concordance with these results, microscopic analyses revealed that PRGF-treated human keratinocytes displayed morphological features typical of keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In vivo treatment of artificial human wounds with Vivostat PRF revealed a significant induction of involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression. Together, our results indicate that PRGF and Vivostat PRF induce terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. This potential mechanism may contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates in vivo. PMID:28808357

  7. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF® came recently into the physicians’ focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiation status of skin wounds in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the expression of early (keratin 1 and keratin 10 and late (transglutaminase-1 and involucrin differentiation markers. PRGF treatment of primary human keratinocytes decreased keratin 1 and keratin 10 gene expression but induced involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression in an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR- dependent manner. In concordance with these results, microscopic analyses revealed that PRGF-treated human keratinocytes displayed morphological features typical of keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In vivo treatment of artificial human wounds with Vivostat PRF revealed a significant induction of involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression. Together, our results indicate that PRGF and Vivostat PRF induce terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. This potential mechanism may contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates in vivo.

  8. Factors controlling alkalisalt deposition in recovery boiler- release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kylloenen, H.; Kurkela, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1996-12-01

    As part of a cooperative effort to develop a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers, an experimental investigation of the release of sulphur during black liquor pyrolysis has been undertaken. Previous to these studies, the mechanisms of sulphur release and the reasons for the observed effects of process conditions on sulphur release were very poorly understood. On the basis of the experimental results, the main reactions leading to sulphur release have been elucidated with a fair degree of certainty. Logical explanations for the variations of sulphur release with temperature and with liquor solids content have been proposed. The influence of pressure has been investigated in order to gain insights into the effects of mass transfer on the sulphur-release rate. In the near future, the research will be aimed at generating the kinetic data necessary for modelling the release of sulphur in the recovery furnace. (author)

  9. Zero-Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard D. Boardman; John A. Deldebbio; Robert J. Kirkham; Martin K. Clemens; Robert Geosits; Ping Wan

    2004-01-01

    A zero-release off-gas cleaning system for mixed-waste thermal treatment processes has been evaluated through experimental scoping tests and process modeling. The principles can possibly be adapted to a fluidized-bed calcination or stream reforming process, a waste melter, a rotary kiln process, and possibly other waste treatment thermal processes. The basic concept of a zero-release off-gas cleaning system is to recycle the bulk of the off-gas stream to the thermal treatment process. A slip stream is taken off the off-gas recycle to separate and purge benign constituents that may build up in the gas, such as water vapor, argon, nitrogen, and CO2. Contaminants are separated from the slip stream and returned to the thermal unit for eventual destruction or incorporation into the waste immobilization media. In the current study, a standard packed-bed scrubber, followed by gas separation membranes, is proposed for removal of contaminants from the off-gas recycle slipstream. The scrub solution is continuously regenerated by cooling and precipitating sulfate, nitrate, and other salts that reach a solubility limit in the scrub solution. Mercury is also separated by the scrubber. A miscible chemical oxidizing agent was shown to effectively oxidize mercury and also NO, thus increasing their removal efficiency. The current study indicates that the proposed process is a viable option for reducing off-gas emissions. Consideration of the proposed closed-system off-gas cleaning loop is warranted when emissions limits are stringent, or when a reduction in the total gas emissions volume is desired. Although the current closed-loop appears to be technically feasible, economical considerations must be also be evaluated on a case-by-case basis

  10. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ''Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988'', and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases

  11. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ``Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988``, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases.

  12. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  14. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and

  15. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.; Hauger, R.L.; Catt, K.J.; Aguilera, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and properties of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) were analyzed in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys. Binding of [ 125 I]tyrosine-labeled ovine CRF to frontal cortex and amygdala membrane-rich fractions was saturable, specific, and time- and temperature-dependent, reaching equilibrium in 30 min at 23 0 C. Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated one class of high-affinity sites with a K/sub d/ of 1 nM and a concentration of 125 fmol/mg. As in the rat pituitary and brain, CRF receptors in monkey cerebral cortex and amygdala were coupled to adenylate cyclase. Autoradiographic analysis of specific CRF binding in brain sections revealed that the receptors were widely distributed in the cerebral cortex and limbic system. Receptor density was highest in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary and throughout the cerebral cortex, specifically in the prefrontal, frontal, orbital, cingulate, insular, and temporal areas, and in the cerebellar cortex. A low binding density was present in the superior colliculus, locus coeruleus, substantia gelatinosa, preoptic area, septal area, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These data demonstrate that receptors for CRF are present within the primate brain at areas related to the central control of visceral function and behavior, suggesting that brain CRF may serve as a neurotransmitter in the coordination of endocrine and neural mechanisms involved in the response to stress

  16. An interferon-gamma release assay test performs well in routine screening for tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Danielsen, Allan; Fløe, Andreas; Lillebæk, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is regarded as proof of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We conducted an evaluation of the IGRA test “T-SPOT.TB” to test its performance during clinical routine use by analysing the positivity rate and odds, effect of season...... and sensitivity. Material and methods: Data from T-SPOT.TB testing together with age and test indications (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) candidate, contact investigation or suspicion of tuberculosis (TB)) were combined with mycobac­teria culture results. Results: A total of 1,809 patients were tested....... Conclusive results were achieved for 1,780 patients (98.4%). Among these, 4.6% of anti-TNFα candidates, 19.3% of contacts and 24.4% of TB suspects tested positive. Compared with anti-TNFα candidates, the odds for a positive result were significantly higher for contact investigations (odds ratio (OR), mean...

  17. Controlled release of free-falling test models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, W. J.; Holway, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Releasing device, powered by a drill motor through an adjustable speed reducer, has a spinning release head with three retractable spring-loaded fingers. The fingers are retracted by manual triggering of a cable at the motor end of the unit.

  18. Development and evaluation of accelerated drug release testing methods for a matrix-type intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Eggenreich, Karin; Eder, Simone; Mohr, Stefan; Nickisch, Klaus; Klein, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated drug release testing is a valuable quality control tool for long-acting non-oral extended release formulations. Currently, several intravaginal ring candidates designed for the long-term delivery of steroids or anti-infective drugs are being in the developing pipeline. The present article addresses the demand for accelerated drug release methods for these formulations. We describe the development and evaluation of accelerated release methods for a steroid releasing matrix-type intravaginal ring. The drug release properties of the formulation were evaluated under real-time and accelerated test conditions. Under real-time test conditions drug release from the intravaginal ring was strongly affected by the steroid solubility in the release medium. Under sufficient sink conditions that were provided in release media containing surfactants drug release was Fickian diffusion driven. Both temperature and hydro-organic dissolution media were successfully employed to accelerate drug release from the formulation. Drug release could be further increased by combining the temperature effect with the application of a hydro-organic release medium. The formulation continued to exhibit a diffusion controlled release kinetic under the investigated accelerated conditions. Moreover, the accelerated methods were able to differentiate between different prototypes of the intravaginal ring that exhibited different release profiles under real-time test conditions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that both temperature and hydro-organic release media are valid parameters for accelerating drug release from the intravaginal ring. Variation of either a single or both parameters yielded release profiles that correlated well with real-time release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of "host release factor" on carbon release by zooxanthellae isolated from fed and starved Aiptasia pallida (Verrill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Cook, C B

    2001-06-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) typically respond to extracts of host tissue with enhanced release of short-term photosynthetic products. We examined this "host release factor" (HRF) response using freshly isolated zooxanthellae of differing nutritional status. The nutritional status was manipulated by either feeding or starving the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida (Verrill). The release of fixed carbon from isolated zooxanthellae was measured using 14C in 30 min experiments. Zooxanthellae in filtered seawater alone released approximately 5% of photosynthate irrespective of host feeding history. When we used a 10-kDa ultrafiltrate of A. pallida host tissue as a source of HRF, approximately 14% of photosynthate was released to the medium. This increased to over 25% for zooxanthellae from anemones starved for 29 days or more. The cell-specific photosynthetic rate declined with starvation in these filtrate experiments, but the decline was offset by the increased percentage release. Indeed, the total amount of released photosynthate remained unchanged, or even increased, as zooxanthellae became more nutrient deficient. Similar trends were also observed when zooxanthellae from A. pallida were incubated in a 3-kDa ultrafiltrate of the coral Montastraea annularis, suggesting that HRF in the different filtrates operated in a similar manner. Our results support the suggestion that HRF diverts surplus carbon away from storage compounds to translocated compounds such as glycerol.

  20. 77 FR 4227 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Factor Analog-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... extends the slaughter interval for intact male swine injected with gonadotropin releasing factor analog...-322 for IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) Sterile Solution...

  1. 76 FR 27888 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Gonadotropin Releasing Factor-Diphtheria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Factor-Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. [[Page... veterinary prescription use of gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid conjugate by subcutaneous... provides for the veterinary prescription use of IMPROVEST (gonadotropin releasing factor-diphtheria toxoid...

  2. Influence of environmental factors on mercury release in hydroelectric reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, K.; Therien, N.

    1991-04-01

    Due to increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydro-electric reservoirs after flooding, a study was carried out to evaluate the release and transformation of mercury due to vegetation and soil flooded as a result of reservoir creation. Samples of vegetation and soils were immersed in water and concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury and nutrients were followed. The effects of anoxia, pH and temperature on release and transformation were examined. An existing dynamic model of decomposition of flooded materials in reservoirs was modified to include mercury release and transformation, and was calibrated to the experimental data. Amounts of mercury released by the different substrates was of the same order of magnitude. Tree species contributed to the greatest amounts of methylmercury per unit biomass, but the biomass used for these was twigs and foliage. Soil released significant amounts of mercury, but methylation was very low. The model was able to fit well for all substrates except lichen. The model can be adapted to proposed reservoirs to predict nutrient and mecury release and transformation. 175 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs.

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELEASE RATE OF A HIGHLY SOLUBLE DRUG FROM A PROGRAMMED RELEASE MEGALOPOROUS SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, C; MENGER, NR; LERK, CF

    The present study reports on the successful incorporation of a highly soluble drug, procaine HCl, in a programmed-release megaloporous system. This solid two-phase system is composed of housing phase matrix granules (HMG), controlling liquid penetration into the system, and of restraining phase

  4. Factors controlling alkali salt deposition in recovery boilers. Release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P; Kurkela, M; Kylloenen, H; Tapola, E [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1997-10-01

    The research was part of an ongoing cooperative research effort aimed at developing a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers. During 1996 experimental investigations of sulphur release were continued. Experiments at elevated pressures and employing larger particle sizes were performed in order to gain information about mass transfer effects. The first experiments yielding data on the rates of the sulphur-release reactions were performed. This data will be used as the basis of a drop model for sulphur release being developed in cooperation with another research group. The other part of the work during 1996 explored the possibility of using chemical equilibrium calculations to predict the release of sodium, potassium and chlorine in the recovery furnace. The approach is essentially different from that employed in earlier studies in that the effects of fume formation are taken into account. So far, the predictions of the chemical equilibrium release model have, in no way, conflicted with field measurements. (orig.)

  5. [Studies on preparation and dissolution test in vitro of sustained-release dropping pills of curcumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Xiang, Bai; Pan, Zhen-Hua; Cao, De-Ying

    2010-01-01

    To study the prescription and technique of sustained-release dropping pills of curcumin and inspect their release property in vitro. The orthogonal test was used to screen the prescription and technique which were definited with the colligation evaluation of release and formation of dropping pills. The optimization of prescription and technique were as follows: stearic acid 70 mg, glycery monostearate 25 mg, solutol 6 mg, viscosity of cooling liquid was 100 mm2/s; the temperature of material liquid was 80 degrees C; the cooling temperature was 30 - 0 degrees C; the dropping speed was (21 +/- 2) dripping/min. The release behavior of sustained-release dropping pills of curcumin coincidented with Higuchi equation well and the character of sustained-release was transparent. The sustained-release dropping pills of curcumin have good property of sustained-release in vitro and their release behavior in vivo need to be inspected.

  6. 21 CFR 610.1 - Tests prior to release required for each lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1 Section 610.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... release required for each lot. No lot of any licensed product shall be released by the manufacturer prior... considered in determining whether or not the test results meet the test objective, except that a test result...

  7. CONTROLLED RELEASE, BLIND TEST OF DNAPL REMEDIATION BY ETHANOL FLUSHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone was established within a sheet-pileisolated cell through a controlled release of perchloroethylene (PCE) to evaluate DNAPLremediation by in-situ cosolvent flushing. Ethanol was used as the cosolvent, and the main remedia...

  8. Investigating the feasibility of temperature-controlled accelerated drug release testing for an intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Clark, Meredith R; Friend, David R; Klein, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if temperature can be utilized to accelerate drug release from Nuvaring®, a reservoir type intravaginal ring based on polyethylene vinyl acetate copolymer that releases a constant dose of contraceptive steroids over a duration of 3 weeks. The reciprocating holder apparatus (USP 7) was utilized to determine real-time and accelerated etonogestrel release from ring segments. It was demonstrated that drug release increased with increasing temperature which can be attributed to enhanced drug diffusion. An Arrhenius relationship of the zero-order release constants was established, indicating that temperature is a valid parameter to accelerate drug release from this dosage form and that the release mechanism is maintained under these accelerated test conditions. Accelerated release tests are particularly useful for routine quality control to assist during batch release of extended release formulations that typically release the active over several weeks, months or even years, since they can increase the product shelf life. The accelerated method should therefore be able to discriminate between formulations with different release characteristics that can result from normal manufacturing variance. In the case of Nuvaring®, it is well known that the process parameters during the extrusion process strongly influence the polymeric structure. These changes in the polymeric structure can affect the permeability which, in turn, is reflected in the release properties. Results from this study indicate that changes in the polymeric structure can lead to a different temperature dependence of the release rate, and as a consequence, the accelerated method can become less sensitive to detect changes in the release properties. When the accelerated method is utilized during batch release, it is therefore important to take this possible restriction into account and to evaluate the accelerated method with samples from non

  9. Behavior of fission products released from severely damaged fuel during the PBF severe fuel damage tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Broughton, J.M.; Rest, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of fission product release behavior during the first two Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are presented. Measured fission product release is compared with calculated release using temperature dependent release rate correlations and FASTGRASS analysis. The test results indicate that release from fuel of the high volatility fission products (Xe, Kr, I, Cs, and Te) is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature; namely fuel/fission product morphology, fuel and cladding oxidation state, extent of fuel liquefaction, and quench induced fuel shattering. Fission product transport from the test fuel through the sample system was strongly influenced by chemical effects. Holdup of I and Cs was affected by fission product chemistry, and transport time while Te release was primarily influenced by the extent of zircaloy oxidation. Analysis demonstrates that such integral test data can be used to confirm physical, chemical, and mechanistic models of fission product behavior for severe accident conditions

  10. Application of reaction type of C-peptide release test in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dong; Duan Wenruo; He Juan; Lu Zhenfang

    2001-01-01

    The author is to confirm the effect of C-peptide release test and types of release reaction in appraisal of pancreas function of β-cell and selection of treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The serum C-peptide release test of 67 normal controls and 217 DM patients were determined by RIA, and the results were analyzed and compared. C-peptide release test can reflect the pancreas function of β-cell better, the peak of C-peptide ≥ 0.6 nmol/L after lunch can be the limit of whether to reduce the level of blood glucose only by oral drug. The authors should adjust the treatment through analyzing the type of C-peptide release reaction. C-peptide release test is very important in evaluating the pancreas function of β-cell, classifying the type of DM and selecting the treatment

  11. Code of practice for the release of hydrostatic test water from hydrostatic testing of petroleum liquid and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This booklet describes a series of administrative procedures regarding the code of practice in Alberta for the release of hydrostatic test water from hydrostatic testing of petroleum liquid and gas pipelines. The topics covered include the registration process, the type and quality of water to use during the test, and the analytical methods to be used. Reporting schedule and record keeping information are also covered. Schedule 1 discusses the requirements for the release of hydrostatic test water to land, while Schedule 2 describes the requirements for the release of hydrostatic test water to receiving water. 3 tabs

  12. LOFT/LP-FP-2, Loss of Fluid Test, Fission Product Release from Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: The eighth OECD LOFT experiment was conducted on 7 March 1985. It was the second of the two experiments to be performed in the LOFT facility with intentional release of fission products. Its principal objectives were to determine the fission product release from the fuel during a severe fuel damage scenario and the subsequent transport of these fission products in a predominantly vapor/aerosol environment. This was the largest severe fuel damage experiment ever conducted, and serves as an important benchmark between smaller scale tests and the TMI-2 accident. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  13. LOFT/LP-FP-1B, Loss of Fluid Test, Fission Product Release Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: The seventh OECD LOFT experiment was conducted on 19 December 1984. It was the first of the two experiments to be performed in the LOFT facility with intentional release of fission products. Its objectives were to obtain data on fission product release from the fuel-cladding gap into vapor and reflood water and to collect data on transport of these fission products through and out of the reactor coolant system. The experiment was initiated by a reactor scram with one second delayed opening of the quick-opening blowdown valves. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  14. Comparison of the release of constituents from granular materials under batch and column testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Meza, Sarynna; Garrabrants, Andrew C; van der Sloot, Hans; Kosson, David S

    2008-01-01

    Column leaching testing can be considered a better basis for assessing field impact data than any other available batch test method and thus provides a fundamental basis from which to estimate constituent release under a variety of field conditions. However, column testing is time-intensive compared to the more simplified batch testing, and may not always be a viable option when making decisions for material reuse. Batch tests are used most frequently as a simple tool for compliance or quality control reasons. Therefore, it is important to compare the release that occurs under batch and column testing, and establish conservative interpretation protocols for extrapolation from batch data when column data are not available. Five different materials (concrete, construction debris, aluminum recycling residue, coal fly ash and bottom ash) were evaluated via batch and column testing, including different column flow regimes (continuously saturated and intermittent unsaturated flow). Constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. Results showed no significant difference between the column flow regimes when constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. In most cases batch and column testing agreed when presented in the form of cumulative release. For arsenic in carbonated materials, however, batch testing underestimates the column constituent release for most LS ratios and also on a cumulative basis. For cases when As is a constituent of concern, column testing may be required.

  15. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank (UST) release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of each hydrocarbon release has not been documented, therefore, this report addresses the remedial activities completed for each release site. The hydrocarbon release associated with each tank site within CAU 450 was remediated by excavating the impacted soil. Clean closure of the release was verified through soil sample analysis by an off-site laboratory. All release closure activities were completed following standard environmental and regulatory guidelines. Based upon site observations during the remedial activities and the soil sample analytical results, which indicated that soil concentrations were below the Nevada Administrative code (NAC) Action Level of 100 mg/kg, it is anticipated that each of the release CASs be closed without further action

  16. Accelerated in vitro release testing method for naltrexone loaded PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhariya, Janki V; Choi, Stephanie; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yuan; Burgess, Diane J; Shen, Jie

    2017-03-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated release testing method for naltrexone loaded parenteral polymeric microspheres. The commercially available naltrexone microsphere product (Vivitrol ® ) was used as the testing formulation in the in vitro release method development, and both sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4 methods were investigated. Following an in vitro drug stability study, frequent media replacement and addition of anti-oxidant in the release medium were used to prevent degradation of naltrexone during release testing at "real-time" (37°C) and "accelerated" (45°C), respectively. The USP apparatus 4 method was more reproducible than the sample-and-separate method. In addition, the accelerated release profile obtained using USP apparatus 4 had a shortened release duration (within seven days), and good correlation with the "real-time" release profile. Lastly, the discriminatory ability of the developed accelerated release method was assessed using compositionally equivalent naltrexone microspheres with different release characteristics. The developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 release method was able to detect differences in the release characteristics of the prepared naltrexone microspheres. Moreover, a linear correlation was observed between the "real-time" and accelerated release profiles of all the formulations investigated, suggesting that the release mechanism(s) may be similar under both conditions. These results indicate that the developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 method has the potential to be an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting naltrexone PLGA microspheres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Summary of accidental releases of radioactivity detected off the Nevada Test Site, 1963--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Phillips, W.G.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Costa, C.F.

    1988-08-01

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these 23, 4 were detectable off the NTS only by aircraft while the remainder were detectable by ground monitoring instruments. Since the Baneberry venting of December 1970, only two tests released radioactivity that was detectable off the NTS, and this was a seepage of radioactive noble gases. None of these releases from underground tests designed for complete containment caused exposure of the population living in the area that exceeded standards recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. This report summarizes the releases from each of the tests, describes the monitoring that was conducted, and lists the location of the maximum exposure

  18. Factors affecting calculations of dose resulting from a tritium release into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.; Easterly, C.E.; Booth, R.S.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tritium releases in the form of HT represent a lower hazard to man than releases as HTO. However, during movement in the environment, HT is converted into HTO. The effects of the conversion rate on calcultions of dose are described, and a general method is presented for determining the dose from tritium for various conversion rates and relative HTO/HT risk factors

  19. In Situ Loading of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Within Porous Silica Nanoparticles for a Prolonged Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postovit Lynne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, a protein, plays a key role in wound healing and blood vessel regeneration. However, bFGF is easily degraded in biologic systems. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs with well-tailored porous structure have been used for hosting guest molecules for drug delivery. Here, we report an in situ route to load bFGF in MSNs for a prolonged release. The average diameter (d of bFGF-loaded MSNs is 57 ± 8 nm produced by a water-in-oil microemulsion method. The in vitro releasing profile of bFGF from MSNs in phosphate buffer saline has been monitored for 20 days through a colorimetric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The loading efficiency of bFGF in MSNs is estimated at 72.5 ± 3%. In addition, the cytotoxicity test indicates that the MSNs are not toxic, even at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. It is expected that the in situ loading method makes the MSNs a new delivery system to deliver protein drugs, e.g. growth factors, to help blood vessel regeneration and potentiate greater angiogenesis.

  20. Growth factor delivery: How surface interactions modulate release in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William J.; Krebsbach, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively used to deliver growth factors to induce new bone formation. The pharmacokinetics of growth factor delivery has been a critical regulator of their clinical success. This review will focus on the surface interactions that control the non-covalent incorporation of growth factors into scaffolds and the mechanisms that control growth factor release from clinically relevant biomaterials. We will focus on the delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 from materials currently used in the clinical practice, but also suggest how general mechanisms that control growth factor incorporation and release delineated with this growth factor could extend to other systems. A better understanding of the changing mechanisms that control growth factor release during the different stages of preclinical development could instruct the development of future scaffolds for currently untreatable injuries and diseases. PMID:22433783

  1. Optimal integration and test plans for software releases of lithographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumen, R.; Jong, de I.S.M.; Mortel - Fronczak, van de J.M.; Rooda, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine the optimal integration and test plan for embedded systems software releases. The method consists of four steps: 1)describe the integration and test problem in an integration and test model which is introduced in this paper, 2) determine possible test

  2. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  3. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  4. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-11-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release at 0.5 ppm without interference from other pure metals, alloys, or leather. A market survey using the test showed no chromium(VI) release from work tools (0/100). However, chromium(VI) release from metal screws (7/60), one earring (1/50), leather shoes (4/100) and leather gloves (6/11) was observed. We found no false-positive test reactions. Confirmatory testing was performed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and spectrophotometrically on extraction fluids. The use of DPC as a colorimetric spot test reagent appears to be a good and valid test method for detecting the release of chromium(VI) ions from leather and metal articles. The spot test has the potential to become a valuable screening tool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  6. Coagulation Factor Tests: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Coagulation Factor Assay; 156–7 p. ...

  7. Release of Growth Factors into Root Canal by Irrigations in Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qian; Nguyen, Sean; Zhang, Hongming; Chebrolu, Hari Priya; Alzebdeh, Dalia; Badi, Mustafa A; Kim, Jong Ryul; Ling, Junqi; Yang, Maobin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the release of growth factors into root canal space after the irrigation procedure of regenerative endodontic procedure. Sixty standardized root segments were prepared from extracted single-root teeth. Nail varnish was applied to all surfaces except the root canal surface. Root segments were irrigated with 1.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, 17% EDTA, or deionized water. The profile of growth factors that were released after irrigation was studied by growth factor array. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) at 4 hours, 1 day, and 3 days after irrigation. The final concentrations were calculated on the basis of the root canal volume measured by cone-beam computed tomography. Dental pulp stem cell migration on growth factors released from root segments was measured by using Transwell assay. Total of 11 of 41 growth factors were detected by growth factors array. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that TGF-β1 was released in all irrigation groups. Compared with the group with 17% EDTA (6.92 ± 4.49 ng/mL), the groups with 1.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA had significantly higher release of TGF-β1 (69.04 ± 30.41 ng/mL and 59.26 ± 3.37 ng/mL, respectively), with a peak release at day 1. The release of bFGF was detected at a low level in all groups (0 ng/mL to 0.43 ± 0.22 ng/mL). Migration assay showed the growth factors released from root segments induced dental pulp stem cell migration. The root segment model in present study simulated clinical scenario and indicated that the current irrigation protocol released a significant amount of TGF-β1 but not bFGF. The growth factors released into root canal space induced dental pulp stem cell migration. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fission Product Release from Molten Pool: ceramic melt tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Yu.B.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu. [AO ' NP Sintez' , St. Petersburg (RU)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    Experimental results are presented on the volatilisation of UO{sub 2{+-}}{sub x}, SrO, BaO, CeO{sub 2} from corium melts. Corium melts were generated by high frequency induction melting in a cold crucible. The surface temperature of the melts was in the range from 1753 to 3023 K. Some results of the tests are discussed and a comparison with published data is made. (author)

  9. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit...... exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release...

  10. Quick test for durability factor estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) is considering the use of the AASHTO T 161 Durability Factor (DF) as an endresult : performance specification criterion for evaluation of paving concrete. However, the test method duration can exceed ...

  11. Influence of factors on release of antimicrobials from antimicrobial packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Chang-Ying; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-05-03

    Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food, such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g., beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food. The optimum rate is defined as target release rate (TRR). To achieve TRR, the influencing factors of the release rate should be considered. Herein we reviewed for the first time these factors and their influence on the release. These factors mainly include the AMs, food (or food simulant), packaging materials, the interactions among them, the temperature and environmental relative humidity (RH).

  12. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Mediates Pain-Induced Anxiety through the ERK1/2 Signaling Cascade in Locus Coeruleus Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gisela Patrícia; Micó, Juan Antonio; Neto, Fani Lourença

    2015-01-01

    Background: The corticotropin-releasing factor is a stress-related neuropeptide that modulates locus coeruleus activity. As locus coeruleus has been involved in pain and stress-related patologies, we tested whether the pain-induced anxiety is a result of the corticotropin-releasing factor released in the locus coeruleus. Methods: Complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced monoarthritis was used as inflammatory chronic pain model. α-Helical corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist was microinjected into the contralateral locus coeruleus of 4-week-old monoarthritic animals. The nociceptive and anxiety-like behaviors, as well as phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors expression, were quantified in the paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus. Results: Monoarthritic rats manifested anxiety and increased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 levels in the locus coeruleus and paraventricular nucleus, although the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors was unaltered. α-Helical corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist administration reversed both the anxiogenic-like behavior and the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 levels in the locus coeruleus. Conclusions: Pain-induced anxiety is mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission in the locus coeruleus through extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 signaling cascade. PMID:25716783

  13. Scaffolds for Controlled Release of Cartilage Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morille, Marie; Venier-Julienne, Marie-Claire; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cell-based therapies using adult stem cells have attracted considerable interest in regenerative medicine. A tissue-engineered construct for cartilage repair should provide a support for the cell and allow sustained in situ delivery of bioactive factors capable of inducing cell differentiation into chondrocytes. Pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made of biodegradable and biocompatible poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA), are a unique system which combines these properties in an adaptable and simple microdevice. This device relies on nanoprecipitation of proteins encapsulated in polymeric microspheres with a solid in oil in water emulsion-solvent evaporation process, and their subsequent coating with extracellular matrix protein molecules. Here, we describe their preparation process, and some of their characterization methods for an application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  14. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  15. Mast Cells Synthesize, Store, and Release Nerve Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A.; Buriani, A.; dal Toso, R.; Fabris, M.; Romanello, S.; Aloe, L.; Levi-Montalcini, R.

    1994-04-01

    Mast cells and nerve growth factor (NGF) have both been reported to be involved in neuroimmune interactions and tissue inflammation. In many peripheral tissues, mast cells interact with the innervating fibers. Changes in the behaviors of both of these elements occur after tissue injury/inflammation. As such conditions are typically associated with rapid mast cell activation and NGF accumulation in inflammatory exudates, we hypothesized that mast cells may be capable of producing NGF. Here we report that (i) NGF mRNA is expressed in adult rat peritoneal mast cells; (ii) anti-NGF antibodies clearly stain vesicular compartments of purified mast cells and mast cells in histological sections of adult rodent mesenchymal tissues; and (iii) medium conditioned by peritoneal mast cells contains biologically active NGF. Mast cells thus represent a newly recognized source of NGF. The known actions of NGF on peripheral nerve fibers and immune cells suggest that mast cell-derived NGF may control adaptive/reactive responses of the nervous and immune systems toward noxious tissue perturbations. Conversely, alterations in normal mast cell behaviors may provoke maladaptive neuroimmune tissue responses whose consequences could have profound implications in inflammatory disease states, including those of an autoimmune nature.

  16. Accelerated in vitro release testing of implantable PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-01-17

    Dexamethasone loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites have been investigated as an outer drug-eluting coating for implantable devices such as glucose sensors to counter negative tissue responses to implants. The objective of this study was to develop a discriminatory, accelerated in vitro release testing method for this drug-eluting coating using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4. Polymer degradation and drug release kinetics were investigated under "real-time" and accelerated conditions (i.e. extreme pH, hydro-alcoholic solutions and elevated temperatures). Compared to "real-time" conditions, the initial burst and lag phases were similar using hydro-alcoholic solutions and extreme pH conditions, while the secondary apparent zero-order release phase was slightly accelerated. Elevated temperatures resulted in a significant acceleration of dexamethasone release. The accelerated release data were able to predict "real-time" release when applying the Arrhenius equation. Microsphere batches with faster and slower release profiles were investigated under "real-time" and elevated temperature (60°C) conditions to determine the discriminatory ability of the method. The results demonstrated both the feasibility and the discriminatory ability of this USP apparatus 4 method for in vitro release testing of drug loaded PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites. This method may be appropriate for similar drug/device combination products and drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Calculations of Fission Gas Release During Ramp Tests Using Copernic Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liu [Nuclear Fuel R and D Center, China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPRI) (China)

    2013-03-15

    The report performed under IAEA research contract No.15951 describes the results of fuel performance evaluation of LWR fuel rods operated at ramp conditions using the COPERNIC code developed by AREVA. The experimental data from the Third Riso Fission Gas Project and the Studsvik SUPER-RAMP Project presented in the IFPE database of the OECD/NEA has been utilized for assessing the code itself during simulation of fission gas release (FGR). Standard code models for LWR fuel were used in simulations with parameters set properly in accordance with relevant test reports. With the help of data adjustment, the input power histories are restructured to fit the real ones, so as to ensure the validity of FGR prediction. The results obtained by COPERNIC show that different models lead to diverse predictions and discrepancies. By comparison, the COPERNIC V2.2 model (95% Upper bound) is selected as the standard FGR model in this report and the FGR phenomenon is properly simulated by the code. To interpret the large discrepancies of some certain PK rods, the burst effect of FGR which is taken into consideration in COPERNIC is described and the influence of the input power histories is extrapolated. In addition, the real-time tracking capability of COPERNIC is tested against experimental data. In the process of investigation, two main dominant factors influencing the measured gas release rate are described and different mechanisms are analyzed. With the limited predicting capacity, accurate predictions cannot be carried out on abrupt changes of FGR during ramp tests by COPERNIC and improvements may be necessary to some relevant models. (author)

  18. Tests on the release of fission and activation products during core meltdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H; Krause, W; Wild, H

    1976-01-01

    The first available results are related to tests in which the release of the main components of the core melt, namely the steel, zircaloy and uranium components, was determined using ThO/sub 2/ crucibles. The release products are dispersed onto the pipe walls of the transport system and the measuring filters which were installed at about 1 m distance from the melt crucibles. Of these, only the precipitates on the filters have been analyzed so far. In the tests under air, the release was clearly dependent on the maximum temperature reached. The release values for Mo and Mn were the highest with 5-10%; uranium with 0.1% on the other hand, was the lowest. In a steam atmosphere over the melt, the analysis of the filter precipitates for all elements gave considerably lower values than with the tests in air.

  19. Platelet-rich plasma stimulated by pulse electric fields: Platelet activation, procoagulant markers, growth factor release and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, A L; Torres, A S; Caiafa, A; Morton, C A; Berny-Lang, M A; Gerrits, A J; Carmichael, S L; Neculaes, V B; Michelson, A D

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic use of activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been explored for wound healing, hemostasis and antimicrobial wound applications. Pulse electric field (PEF) stimulation may provide more consistent platelet activation and avoid complications associated with the addition of bovine thrombin, the current state of the art ex vivo activator of therapeutic PRP. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of PEF, bovine thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) to activate human PRP, release growth factors and induce cell proliferation in vitro. Human PRP was prepared in the Harvest SmartPreP2 System and treated with vehicle, PEF, bovine thrombin, TRAP or Triton X-100. Platelet activation and procoagulant markers and microparticle generation were measured by flow cytometry. Released growth factors were measured by ELISA. The releasates were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture. PEF produced more platelet-derived microparticles, P-selectin-positive particles and procoagulant annexin V-positive particles than bovine thrombin or TRAP. These differences were associated with higher levels of released epidermal growth factor after PEF than after bovine thrombin or TRAP but similar levels of platelet-derived, vascular-endothelial, and basic fibroblast growth factors, and platelet factor 4. Supernatant from PEF-treated platelets significantly increased cell proliferation compared to plasma. In conclusion, PEF treatment of fresh PRP results in generation of microparticles, exposure of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, differential release of growth factors compared to bovine thrombin and TRAP and significant cell proliferation. These results, together with PEF's inherent advantages, suggest that PEF may be a superior alternative to bovine thrombin activation of PRP for therapeutic applications.

  20. Functional Testing Differences in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patients Released Versus Not Released to Return to Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Stephanie W; Queen, Robin M; Taylor, Dean; Moorman, Claude T; Toth, Allison P; Garrett, William E; Butler, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    No standardized return-to-activity or sport guidelines currently exist after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Isokinetic testing and unilateral hop testing, which have construct validity, are often used to make the determination of when a patient is ready to return to sport. Neither of these measures has been reported to be predictive of subsequent injuries. To compare the performance on 2 functional tests of ACL reconstruction patients released to return to activity versus those who have not been released based on clinical impairment measures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 98 patients were examined by the treating orthopaedic surgeon 6 months after ACL reconstruction for traditional impairment measures, including swelling, range of motion, strength, and graft stability. After this examination, all subjects completed the functional testing, consisting of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ), by an experienced tester who was blinded to the results of the clinical examination. On the basis of the clinical examination, all patients were grouped as being ready to return to sport or not being ready. Performance on the functional tests, as measured by overall performance and side-to-side asymmetry, was compared between the 2 groups using independent-samples t tests (P < .05). No difference existed between the groups with regard to the descriptive characteristics, with the exception that the group not cleared was younger (21.0 ± 7.4 years) than the group that was cleared (25.6 ± 13.2 years). Performance on the YBT-LQ revealed that no differences existed between groups when examining reach symmetry for any of the reach directions. In addition, no differences were found between groups when looking at the average reach score normalized to limb length for either the surgical or nonsurgical leg. Patients in the cleared group exhibited a similar score on the FMS (12.7 ± 2.9) compared with the

  1. Immunochemical determination of cellular content of translation release factor RF4 in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1999-01-01

    The biosynthesis of proteins in prokaryotes is terminated when a stop codon is present in the A-site of the 70S ribosomal complex. Four different translation termination factors are known to participate in the termination process. Release factor RF1 and RF2 are responsible for the recognition of ...

  2. LMFBR safety: Interim test report for the characterization of released particle tests conducted at INEL during FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Nelson, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    Two additional atmospheric sodium release tests were jointly conducted by ESG and ARL at INEL. These tests were conducted under very stable (Pasquill E and G) meteorological conditions where the natural humidity content was high (47 and 96% RH). Sufficient experimental data was obtained on Test 7 to quantitatively qualify the formation of Na 2 CO 3 in the open atmosphere from primary sodium combustion products. These data show that a maximum concentration of approx. 60% Na 2 CO 3 is reached with the plume 100 meters from the release point. This concentration increases slightly as the plume is dispersed beyond 2400 meters. The available particle fallout data is consistent with predictions

  3. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO(3)) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mm, 25 mm, and 100 mm. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO(3) concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO(3) substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fission product release measured during fuel damage tests at the Power Burst Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid quench and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations are offered for the probable reasons for the observed differences and recommendations for further studies are given

  5. Heat and mass release for some transient fuel source fires: A test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1986-10-01

    Nine fire tests using five different trash fuel source packages were conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. This report presents the findings of these tests. Data reported includes heat and mass release rates, total heat and mass release, plume temperatures, and average fuel heat of combustion. These tests were conducted as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored fire safety research program. Data from these tests were intended for use in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment fire analyses. The results were also used as input to a fire test program at Sandia investigating the vulnerability of electrical control cabinets to fire. The fuel packages tested were chosen to be representative of small to moderately sized transient trash fuel sources of the type that would be found in a nuclear power plant. The highest fire intensity encountered during these tests was 145 kW. Plume temperatures did not exceed 820 0 C

  6. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  7. Improving the quality of EMI Releases by leveraging the EMI Testing Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Ceccanti, A; Dongiovanni, D; Giacomini, F; Meglio, A Di

    2012-01-01

    What is an EMI Release? What is its life cycle? How is its quality assured through a continuous integration and large scale acceptance testing? These are the main questions that this article will answer, by presenting the EMI release management process with emphasis on the role played by the Testing Infrastructure in improving the quality of the middleware provided by the project. The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) is a close collaboration of four major European technology providers: ARC, gLite, UNICORE and dCache. Its main objective is to deliver a consolidated set of components for deployment in EGI (as part of the Unified Middleware Distribution, UMD), PRACE and other DCIs. The harmonized set of EMI components thus enables the interoperability and integration between Grids. EMI aims at creating an effective environment that satisfies the requirements of the scientific communities relying on it. The EMI distribution is organized in periodic major releases whose development and maintenance follow a 5-phase yearly cycle: i) requirements collection and analysis; ii) development and test planning; iii) software development, testing and certification; iv) release certification and validation and v) release and maintenance. In this article we present in detail the implementation of operational and infrastructural resources supporting the certification and validation phase of the release. The main goal of this phase is to harmonize into a single release the strongly inter-dependent products coming from various development teams through parallel certification paths. To achieve this goal the continuous integration and large scale acceptance testing performed on the EMI Testing Infrastructure plays a key role. The purpose of this infrastructure is to provide a system where both the production and the release candidate product versions are deployed. On this system inter-component testing by different product team testers can concurrently take place. The Testing

  8. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptors Modulate Oxytocin Release in the Dorsolateral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (BNST in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Martinon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT plays an important role in the regulation of social and anxiety-like behavior. Our previous studies have shown that OT neurons send projections from the hypothalamus to the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl, a forebrain region critically involved in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, these OT terminals in the BNSTdl express presynaptic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2. This suggests that CRFR2 might be involved in the modulation of OT release. To test this hypothesis, we measured OT content in microdialysates collected from the BNSTdl of freely-moving male Sprague-Dawley rats following the administration of a selective CRFR2 agonist (Urocortin 3 or antagonist (Astressin 2B, As2B. To determine if type 1 CRF receptors (CRFR1 are also involved, we used selective CRFR1 antagonist (NBI35965 as well as CRF, a putative ligand of both CRFR1 and CRFR2. All compounds were delivered directly into the BNSTdl via reverse dialysis. OT content in the microdialysates was measured with highly sensitive and selective radioimmunoassay. Blocking CRFR2 with As2B caused an increase in OT content in BNSTdl microdialysates, whereas CRFR2 activation by Urocortin 3 did not have an effect. The As2B-induced increase in OT release was blocked by application of the CRFR1 antagonist demonstrating that the effect was dependent on CRFR1 transmission. Interestingly, CRF alone caused a delayed increase in OT content in BNSTdl microdialysates, which was dependent on CRF2 but not CRF1 receptors. Our results suggest that members of the CRF peptide family modulate OT release in the BNSTdl via a fine-tuned mechanism that involves both CRFR1 and CRFR2. Further exploration of mechanisms by which endogenous OT system is modulated by CRF peptide family is needed to better understand the role of these neuropeptides in the regulation of anxiety and the stress response.

  9. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  10. Results of aerosol code comparisons with releases from ACE MCCI tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.; Corradini, M.; Hidaka, A.; Hontanon, E.; Mignanelli, M.A.; Schroedl, E.; Strizhov, V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of aerosol release calculations by six groups from six countries are compared with the releases from ACE MCCI Test L6. The codes used for these calculations included: SOLGASMIX-PV, SOLGASMIX Reactor 1986, CORCON.UW, VANESA 1.01, and CORCON mod2.04/VANESA 1.01. Calculations were performed with the standard VANESA 1.01 code and with modifications to the VANESA code such as the inclusion of various zirconium-silica chemical reactions. Comparisons of results from these calculations were made with Test L6 release fractions for U, Zr, Si, the fission-product elements Te, Ba, Sr, Ce, La, Mo and control materials Ag, In, and Ru. Reasonable agreement was obtained between calculations and Test L6 results for the volatile elements Ag, In and Te. Calculated releases of the low volatility fission products ranged from within an order of magnitude to five orders of magnitude of Test L6 values. Releases were over and underestimated by calculations. Poorest agreements were obtained for Mo and Si

  11. The application and evaluation of insulin release test and quantitative parameter in diabetic type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenggang; Chen Xiaoyan; Guan Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the curve of Insulin Release Test (IRT) about the patients whit type II diabetes, to evaluate β-cell function and the sensitivity of body to Insulin using Insulin Release Index (IRI) and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), and to probe the value for clinical therapy. Methods: 1) Have a IRT of 396 cases with type II diabetes and 17 normal bodies and acquire the IRT curve, 2) Design the count methods about IRI and ISI, IRI = Ins max/Ins FBI x Δ Ins max/T max (minute), ISI=(Ins max-Ins FBI)/(Ins 180'-Ins FBI), 3) Compare IRI Changes of before and after treatment for 12 cases with no insulin release and 9 cases with less insulin release. Results: IRT curve type (No release type 21.0%, less release type 33.3%, peak delay type 36.9%, high insulin type 6.0%, release delay type 2.8%); respective IRI, ISI compared to normal, P<0.01; IRI of before and after treatment with insulin P<0.01. Conclusions: IRT Curve combining IRI and ISI can reflect accurately β-cell function with type II diabetes and the sensitivity of body to insulin, Also it has some reference value for clinical therapy

  12. Development of a Smart Release Algorithm for Mid-Air Separation of Parachute Test Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently developing an autonomous method to separate a capsule-shaped parachute test vehicle from an air-drop platform for use in the test program to develop and validate the parachute system for the Orion spacecraft. The CPAS project seeks to perform air-drop tests of an Orion-like boilerplate capsule. Delivery of the boilerplate capsule to the test condition has proven to be a critical and complicated task. In the current concept, the boilerplate vehicle is extracted from an aircraft on top of a Type V pallet and then separated from the pallet in mid-air. The attitude of the vehicles at separation is critical to avoiding re-contact and successfully deploying the boilerplate into a heatshield-down orientation. Neither the pallet nor the boilerplate has an active control system. However, the attitude of the mated vehicle as a function of time is somewhat predictable. CPAS engineers have designed an avionics system to monitor the attitude of the mated vehicle as it is extracted from the aircraft and command a release when the desired conditions are met. The algorithm includes contingency capabilities designed to release the test vehicle before undesirable orientations occur. The algorithm was verified with simulation and ground testing. The pre-flight development and testing is discussed and limitations of ground testing are noted. The CPAS project performed a series of three drop tests as a proof-of-concept of the release technique. These tests helped to refine the attitude instrumentation and software algorithm to be used on future tests. The drop tests are described in detail and the evolution of the release system with each test is described.

  13. A Web Based Framework for Pre-release Testing of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming an integral part of daily life and of business’s marketing plan. They are helpful in promoting for the business, attracting and retaining customers. Software testing is vital to ensure the delivery of high quality mobile applications that could be accessed across different platforms and meet business and technical requirements. This paper proposes a web based tool, namely Pons, for the distribution of pre-release mobile applications for the purpose of manual testing. Pons facilities building, running, and manually testing Android applications directly in the browser. It gets the developers and end users engaged in testing the applications in one place, alleviates the tester’s burden of installing and maintaining testing environments, and provides a platform for developers to rapidly iterate on the software and integrate changes over time. Thus, it speeds up the pre-release testing process, reduces its cost and increases customer satisfaction.

  14. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, R.H.; Schriock, E.A.; Kaplan, S.L.; Grumbach, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation

  15. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Swanson, L W; Vale, W

    1986-01-01

    The mitogenic effect of the hypothalamic peptides growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on cultured growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs) was studied. Using autoradiographic detection of [3H]thymidine uptake and immunocytochemical identification of GH-producing cells...

  16. Localization and functional roles of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 in the cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gounko, Natalia V.; Gramsbergen, Albert; van der Want, Johannes J. L.

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 receptor has three splice variants alpha, beta, and gamma. In the rodent brain only CRF-R2 alpha is present. In the cerebellum, CRF-R2 alpha has two different isoforms: a full-length form (fl) and truncated (tr). Both forms CRF-R2 have a unique

  17. Nanodiamond-based injectable hydrogel for sustained growth factor release: Preparation, characterization and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Settimio; Acosta, Francisca; Chakravarti, Aparna R; Samanta, Saheli G; Whitlow, Jonathan; Modaresi, Saman; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Rajasingh, Johnson; Paul, Arghya

    2017-08-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) represent an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials that possess favorable physical and chemical properties to be used as multifunctional carriers for a variety of bioactive molecules. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a new injectable ND-based nanocomposite hydrogel which facilitates a controlled release of therapeutic molecules for regenerative applications. In particular, we have formulated a thermosensitive hydrogel using gelatin, chitosan and NDs that provides a sustained release of exogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for wound healing applications. Addition of NDs improved the mechanical properties of the injectable hydrogels without affecting its thermosensitive gelation properties. Biocompatibility of the generated hydrogel was verified by in vitro assessment of apoptotic gene expressions and anti-inflammatory interleukin productions. NDs were complexed with VEGF and the inclusion of this complex in the hydrogel network enabled the sustained release of the angiogenic growth factor. These results suggest for the first time that NDs can be used to formulate a biocompatible, thermosensitive and multifunctional hydrogel platform that can function both as a filling agent to modulate hydrogel properties, as well as a delivery platform for the controlled release of bioactive molecules and growth factors. One of the major drawbacks associated with the use of conventional hydrogels as carriers of growth factors is their inability to control the release kinetics of the loaded molecules. In fact, in most cases, a burst release is inevitable leading to diminished therapeutic effects and unsuccessful therapies. As a potential solution to this issue, we hereby propose a strategy of incorporating ND complexes within an injectable hydrogel matrix. The functional groups on the surface of the NDs can establish interactions with the model growth factor VEGF and promote a prolonged release from the polymer network

  18. What factors influence the decisions of mental health professionals to release service users from seclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Haley; Baker, John; Berzins, Kathyrn

    2018-06-22

    Mental health policy stipulates seclusion should only be used as an intervention of last resort and for the minimum possible duration. Current evidence details which service users are more likely to be secluded, why they are secluded, and what influences the decision to seclude them. However, very little is known about the decision to release service users from seclusion. An integrative review was undertaken to explore the decision-making processes of mental health professionals which guide the ending of seclusion. The review used a systematic approach to gather and thematically analyse evidence within a framework approach. The twelve articles identified generated one overriding theme, maintaining safety. In addition, several subthemes emerged including the process of risk assessing which was dependent upon interaction and control, mediated by factors external to the service user such as the attitude and experience of staff and the acuity of the environment. Service users were expected to demonstrate compliance with the process ultimately ending in release and reflection. Little evidence exists regarding factors influencing mental health professionals in decisions to release service users from seclusion. There is no evidence-based risk assessment tool, and service users are not routinely involved in the decision to release them. Support from experienced professionals is vital to ensure timely release from seclusion. Greater insight into influences upon decisions to discontinue episodes may support initiatives aimed at reducing durations and use of seclusion. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Private sector tuberculosis prevention in the US: Characteristics associated with interferon-gamma release assay or tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, Erica L; Miller, Thaddeus L; Carlson, Erin K; Ho, Christine

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether latent tuberculosis infection risk factors are associated with an increased likelihood of latent tuberculosis infection testing in the US private healthcare sector. A national sample of medical and pharmacy claims representing services rendered January 2011 through December 2013 for 3,997,986 commercially insured individuals in the US who were 0 to 64 years of age. We used multivariable logistic regression models to determine whether TB/LTBI risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) or Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) testing in the private sector. 4.31% (4.27-4.34%) received at least one TST/IGRA test between 2011 and 2013 while 1.69% (1.67-1.72%) received a TST/IGRA test in 2013. Clinical risk factors associated with a significantly increased likelihood of testing included HIV, immunosuppressive therapy, exposure to tuberculosis, a history of tuberculosis, diabetes, tobacco use, end stage renal disease, and alcohol use disorder. Other significant variables included gender, age, asthma, the state tuberculosis rate, population density, and percent of foreign-born persons in a county. Private sector TST/IGRA testing is not uncommon and testing varies with clinical risk indicators. Thus, the private sector can be a powerful resource in the fight against tuberculosis. Analyses of administrative data can inform how best to leverage private sector healthcare toward tuberculosis prevention activities.

  20. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Results of fission product release from intermediate-scale MCCI [molten core-concrete interaction] tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Thompson, D.H.; Fink, J.K.; Gunther, W.H.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    A program of reactor-material molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) tests and related analyses are under way at Argonne National Laboratory under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The particular objective of these tests is to provide data pertaining to the release of nonvolatile fission products such as La, Ba, and Sr, plus other aerosol materials, from the coupled thermal-hydraulic and chemical processes of the MCCI. The first stages of the program involving small and intermediate-scale tests have been completed. Three small-scale tests (/approximately/5 kg corium) and nine intermediate-scale tests (/approximately/30 kg corium) were performed between September 1985 and September 1987. Real reactor materials were used in these tests. Sustained internal heat generation at nominally 1 kW per kg of melt was provided by direct electrical heating of the corium mixture. MCCI tests were performed with both fully and partially oxidized corium mixtures that contained a variety of nonradioactive materials such as La 2 O 3 , BaO, and SrO to represent fission products. Both limestone/common sand and basaltic concrete basemats were used. The system was instrumented for characterization of the thermal hydraulic, chemical, gas release, and aerosol release processes

  2. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations...

  3. Gaia Data Release 1. Testing parallaxes with local Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaia Collaboration, [Unknown; Clementini, G.; Eyer, L.; Ripepi, V.; Marconi, M.; Muraveva, T.; Garofalo, A.; Sarro, L. M.; Palmer, M.; Luri, X.; Molinaro, R.; Rimoldini, L.; Szabados, L.; Musella, I.; Anderson, R. I.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Mignard, F.; Panem, C.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Perryman, M.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lorenz, D.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Wevers, T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark†, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Ocvirk, P.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels†, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). Aims: In order to test these first parallax

  4. Cardiac regeneration by pharmacologically active microcarriers releasing growth factors and/or transporting adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Savi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that cardiac regeneration through local delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, activation of resident cardiac stem cells via growth factors (GFs [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1:GFs] or both, are improved by pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs interacting with cells/molecules conveyed on their surface. Rats with one-month old myocardial infarction were treated with ASCs, ASCs+PAMs, GF-releasing PAMs, ASCs+GF-releasing PAMs or vehicle. Two weeks later, hemodynamic function and inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs were assessed. Eventually, the hearts were subjected to anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses. A significant ASCs engraftment and the largest improvement in cardiac mechanics occurred in ASC+GF-releasing PAM rats which by contrast were more vulnerable to VAs. Thus, PAMs may improve cell/GF-based cardiac regeneration although caution should be paid on the electrophysiological impact of their physical interaction with the myocardium.

  5. A reproducible accelerated in vitro release testing method for PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Lee, Kyulim; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

    2016-02-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated in vitro release method for long-acting PLGA microspheres with inner structure/porosity differences. Risperidone was chosen as a model drug. Qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent PLGA microspheres with different inner structure/porosity were obtained using different manufacturing processes. Physicochemical properties as well as degradation profiles of the prepared microspheres were investigated. Furthermore, in vitro release testing of the prepared risperidone microspheres was performed using the most common in vitro release methods (i.e., sample-and-separate and flow through) for this type of product. The obtained compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres had similar drug loading but different inner structure/porosity. When microsphere particle size appeared similar, porous risperidone microspheres showed faster microsphere degradation and drug release compared with less porous microspheres. Both in vitro release methods investigated were able to differentiate risperidone microsphere formulations with differences in porosity under real-time (37 °C) and accelerated (45 °C) testing conditions. Notably, only the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method showed good reproducibility for highly porous risperidone microspheres. These results indicated that the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method is an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting PLGA microspheres (even with porous structures). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles As Novel Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Michiyo; Kori, Masakuni; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yano, Takahiko; Sako, Yuu; Tanaka, Maiko; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Gyorkos, Albert C; Corrette, Christopher P; Cho, Suk Young; Pratt, Scott A; Aso, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-24

    Benzazole derivatives with a flexible aryl group bonded through a one-atom linker as a new scaffold for a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We expected that structural diversity could be expanded beyond that of reported CRF1 receptor antagonists. In a structure-activity relationship study, 4-chloro-N(2)-(4-chloro-2-methoxy-6-methylphenyl)-1-methyl-N(7),N(7)-dipropyl-1H-benzimidazole-2,7-diamine 29g had the most potent binding activity against a human CRF1 receptor and the antagonistic activity (IC50 = 9.5 and 88 nM, respectively) without concerns regarding cytotoxicity at 30 μM. Potent CRF1 receptor-binding activity in brain in an ex vivo test and suppression of stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were also observed at 138 μmol/kg of compound 29g after oral administration in mice. Thus, the newly designed benzimidazole 29g showed in vivo CRF1 receptor antagonistic activity and good brain penetration, indicating that it is a promising lead for CRF1 receptor antagonist drug discovery research.

  7. Immunochemical determination of cellular content of translation release factor RF4 in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1999-01-01

    of the stop codons, and RF3 is known to accelerate the overall termination process. Release factor RF4 is a protein involved in the release of the mRNA and tRNA from the ribosomal complex. Furthermore, RF4 is involved in the proofreading in the elongation step of protein biosynthesis. The cellular contents...... of RF1, RF2, and RF3 were determined earlier. Here we report the cellular content of RF4 in Escherichia coli to be approximately 16,500 molecules per cell. The cells were grown in a rich medium and harvested in the beginning of the exponential growth phase. The quantifications were performed by using...

  8. Mast Cell Proteases 6 and 7 Stimulate Angiogenesis by Inducing Endothelial Cells to Release Angiogenic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devandir Antonio de Souza Junior

    Full Text Available Mast cell proteases are thought to be involved with tumor progression and neo-vascularization. However, their exact role is still unclear. The present study was undertaken to further elucidate the function of specific subtypes of recombinant mouse mast cell proteases (rmMCP-6 and 7 in neo-vascularization. SVEC4-10 cells were cultured on Geltrex® with either rmMCP-6 or 7 and tube formation was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the capacity of these proteases to induce the release of angiogenic factors and pro and anti-angiogenic proteins was analyzed. Both rmMCP-6 and 7 were able to stimulate tube formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that incubation with the proteases induced SVEC4-10 cells to invade the gel matrix. However, the expression and activity of metalloproteases were not altered by incubation with the mast cell proteases. Furthermore, rmMCP-6 and rmMCP-7 were able to induce the differential release of angiogenic factors from the SVEC4-10 cells. rmMCP-7 was more efficient in stimulating tube formation and release of angiogenic factors than rmMCP-6. These results suggest that the subtypes of proteases released by mast cells may influence endothelial cells during in vivo neo-vascularization.

  9. Conversion factors for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-02-01

    Conversion factors necessary for estimating release rate of gaseous radioactivity by an aerial survey are presented. The conversion factors were determined based on calculation assuming a Gaussian plume model as a function of atmospheric stability, down-wind distance and flight height. First, the conversion factors for plumes emitting mono-energy gamma rays were calculated, then, conversion factors were constructed through convolution for the radionuclides essential in an accident of a nuclear reactor, and for mixtures of these radionuclides considering elapsed time after shutdown. These conversion factors are shown in figures, and also polynomial expressions of the conversion factors as a function of height have been decided with the least-squares method. A user can easily obtain proper conversion factors from data shown here. (author)

  10. Membrane-bound transcription factors: regulated release by RIP or RUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, T; Rape, M; Jentsch, S

    2001-06-01

    Regulated nuclear transport of transcription factors from cytoplasmic pools is a major route by which eukaryotes control gene expression. Exquisite examples are transcription factors that are kept in a dormant state in the cytosol by membrane anchors; such proteins are released from membranes by proteolytic cleavage, which enables these transcription factors to enter the nucleus. Cleavage can be mediated either by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) catalysed by specific membrane-bound proteases or by regulated ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP). In both cases processing can be controlled by cues that originate at or in the vicinity of the membrane.

  11. Factors affecting accelerated testing of polymer photostability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Pilař, Jan; Billingham, N. C.; Marek, Antonín; Horák, Zdeněk; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-422 ISSN 0141-3910. [International Conference on Modification, Degradation, Stabilization Conference /3./. Lyon, 29.08.2004-02.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1243; GA ČR GA202/01/0518; GA MŠk ME 543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photodegradation * photostabilization * testing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2006

  12. Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 4 regulates gene expression via transcription factor release in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Jin-Long; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Petersen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    kinase 4 (MPK4) exists in nuclear complexes with the WRKY33 transcription factor. This complex depends on the MPK4 substrate MKS1. Challenge with Pseudomonas syringae or flagellin leads to the activation of MPK4 and phosphorylation of MKS1. Subsequently, complexes with MKS1 and WRKY33 are released from...... MPK4, and WRKY33 targets the promoter of PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT3 (PAD3) encoding an enzyme required for the synthesis of antimicrobial camalexin. Hence, wrky33 mutants are impaired in the accumulation of PAD3 mRNA and camalexin production upon infection. That WRKY33 is an effector of MPK4 is further...... supported by the suppression of PAD3 expression in mpk4-wrky33 double mutant backgrounds. Our data establish direct links between MPK4 and innate immunity and provide an example of how a plant MAP kinase can regulate gene expression by releasing transcription factors in the nucleus upon activation....

  13. Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone: 10. Release of Factors from Ozonated Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valacchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3, promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-8(IL-8 are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limbischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT.

  14. MCNP(TM) Release 6.1.1 beta: Creating and Testing the Code Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-12

    This report documents the preparations for and testing of the production release of MCNP6™1.1 beta through RSICC at ORNL. It addresses tests on supported operating systems (Linux, MacOSX, Windows) with the supported compilers (Intel, Portland Group and gfortran). Verification and Validation test results are documented elsewhere. This report does not address in detail the overall packaging of the distribution. Specifically, it does not address the nuclear and atomic data collection, the other included software packages (MCNP5, MCNPX and MCNP6) and the collection of reference documents.

  15. Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...... the procedures to be the same, discrepancies were observed, possibly due to the use of different animal strains, test concentrations and vehicles. The sensitizing potential was in general found to be stronger in Stockholm compared to Copenhagen: formaldehyde sensitized 50% of the guinea pigs in Copenhagen and 95...

  16. Accelerated dissolution testing for controlled release microspheres using the flow-through dissolution apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jarrod W; Thakare, Mohan; Garner, Solomon T; Israel, Bridg'ette; Ahmed, Hisham; Granade, Saundra; Strong, Deborah L; Price, James C; Capomacchia, A C

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline controlled release capsules (THEO-24 CR) were used as a model system to evaluate accelerated dissolution tests for process and quality control and formulation development of controlled release formulations. Dissolution test acceleration was provided by increasing temperature, pH, flow rate, or adding surfactant. Electron microscope studies on the theophylline microspheres subsequent to each experiment showed that at pH values of 6.6 and 7.6 the microspheres remained intact, but at pH 8.6 they showed deterioration. As temperature was increased from 37-57 degrees C, no change in microsphere integrity was noted. Increased flow rate also showed no detrimental effect on integrity. The effect of increased temperature was determined to be the statistically significant variable.

  17. Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy (BARDS): A rapid test for enteric coating thickness and integrity of controlled release pellet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarsi, Anas; Dillon, Amy; McSweeney, Seán; Krüse, Jacob; Griffin, Brendan; Devine, Ken; Sherry, Patricia; Henken, Stephan; Fitzpatrick, Stephen; Fitzpatrick, Dara

    2018-04-12

    There are no rapid dissolution based tests for determining coating thickness, integrity and drug concentration in controlled release pellets either during production or post-production. The manufacture of pellets requires several coating steps depending on the formulation. The sub-coating and enteric coating steps typically take up to six hours each followed by additional drying steps. Post production regulatory dissolution testing also takes up to six hours to determine if the batch can be released for commercial sale. The thickness of the enteric coating is a key factor that determines the release rate of the drug in the gastro-intestinal tract. Also, the amount of drug per unit mass decreases with increasing thickness of the enteric coating. In this study, the coating process is tracked from start to finish on an hourly basis by taking samples of pellets during production and testing those using BARDS (Broadband Acoustic Resonance Dissolution Spectroscopy). BARDS offers a rapid approach to characterising enteric coatings with measurements based on reproducible changes in the compressibility of a solvent due to the evolution of air during dissolution. This is monitored acoustically via associated changes in the frequency of induced acoustic resonances. A steady state acoustic lag time is associated with the disintegration of the enteric coatings in basic solution. This lag time is pH dependent and is indicative of the rate at which the coating layer dissolves. BARDS represents a possible future surrogate test for conventional USP dissolution testing as its data correlates directly with the thickness of the enteric coating, its integrity and also with the drug loading as validated by HPLC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site. This report contains remedial verification of the soil sample analytical results for the following: Area 11 Tweezer facility; Area 12 boiler house; Area 12 service station; Area 23 bypass yard; Area 23 service station; Area 25 power house; Area 25 tech. services building; Area 25 tech. operations building; Area 26 power house; and Area 27 boiler house

  19. The design and testing of a memory metal actuated boom release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, D. G.; Brook, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    A boom latch and release mechanism was designed, manufactured and tested, based on a specification for the ISEE-B satellite mechanism. From experimental results obtained, it is possible to calculate the energy available and the operating torques which can be achieved from a torsional shape memory element in terms of the reversible strain induced by prior working. Some guidelines to be followed when designing mechanisms actuated by shape memory elements are included.

  20. Gaia Data Release 1. Testing the parallaxes with local Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia Collaboration; Clementini, G.; Eyer, L.; Ripepi, V.; Marconi, M.; Muraveva, T.; Garofalo, A.; Sarro, L. M.; Palmer, M.; Luri, X.; Molinaro, R.; Rimoldini, L.; Szabados, L.; Musella, I.; Anderson, R. I.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the HIPPARCOS and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). Aims. In order to test these first parallax measurements of the primary standard candles of the cosmological distance ladder, which involve astrometry collected by Gaia during the initial 14 months of science operation, we compared them with l...

  1. Performance characteristics of UV imaging instrumentation for diffusion, dissolution and release testing studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrine S; Jensen, Henrik; Goodall, David M

    2016-01-01

    UV imaging is capable of providing spatially and temporally resolved absorbance measurements, which is highly beneficial in drug diffusion, dissolution and release testing studies. For optimal planning and design of experiments, knowledge about the capabilities and limitations of the imaging syst...... mainly to depend on collimation of light, the light path, the positioning of the object relative to the line of 100μm fibres which forms the light source, and the distance of the object from the sensor surface....

  2. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Modulate the Secretion of Cytokines in Synoviocytes under Inflammatory Joint Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuo, Biljana; Hock, Jennifer Vanessa Phi; Kweider, Nisreen; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas; Lippross, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are marked by a complex interplay of various cell populations and is mediated by different signaling pathways. Traditionally, therapies have primarily focused on pain relief, reducing inflammation and the recovery of joint function. More recently, however, researchers have discussed the therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The main objective of this work is to examine the influences of platelet-released growth factor (PRGF) on human synoviocytes under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, it is checked to which extend treatment with platelet concentrate influences the release of cytokines form synoviocytes. For this purpose, an in vitro RA model was created by stimulating the cells with the TNF-α. The release of cytokines was measured by ELISA. The cytokine gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. It has been observed that the stimulation concentration of 10 ng/ml TNF-α resulted in a significantly increased endogenous secretion and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of PRGF could be confirmed through significant reduction of TNF-α and IL-1β. An induced inflammatory condition seems to cause PRGF to inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Further study is required to understand the exact effect mechanism of PRGF on synoviocytes. PMID:29348703

  3. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Modulate the Secretion of Cytokines in Synoviocytes under Inflammatory Joint Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersedeh Tohidnezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA are marked by a complex interplay of various cell populations and is mediated by different signaling pathways. Traditionally, therapies have primarily focused on pain relief, reducing inflammation and the recovery of joint function. More recently, however, researchers have discussed the therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP. The main objective of this work is to examine the influences of platelet-released growth factor (PRGF on human synoviocytes under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, it is checked to which extend treatment with platelet concentrate influences the release of cytokines form synoviocytes. For this purpose, an in vitro RA model was created by stimulating the cells with the TNF-α. The release of cytokines was measured by ELISA. The cytokine gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. It has been observed that the stimulation concentration of 10 ng/ml TNF-α resulted in a significantly increased endogenous secretion and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of PRGF could be confirmed through significant reduction of TNF-α and IL-1β. An induced inflammatory condition seems to cause PRGF to inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Further study is required to understand the exact effect mechanism of PRGF on synoviocytes.

  4. Outrage Factors in Government Press Releases of Food Risk and Their Influence on News Media Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Youngkee; Lim, Jeongsub; Shim, Minsun; You, Myoungsoon

    2015-08-01

    An appropriate level of risk perception should be a critical issue in modern "risk society." There have been many studies on the influences on risk perception. This study investigates whether risk communication scholar Dr. Peter Sandman's outrage factors intensify journalistic attention to health risks from food consumption. A content analysis of a health institution's press releases was conducted to examine 15 outrage factors of food risks conveyed in the governmental risk communication. In addition, the news stories covering the food risks informed by the press releases were calculated to evaluate the relation between outrage factors of a risk and the number of news stories covering the risk. Results showed that controllability was the most salient outrage factor, followed by trust, voluntariness, familiarity, and human origin; the greater the outrage score of a risk, the more news stories of the risk. For individual outrage factors, a risk with an implication of catastrophic potential was associated with an increase of news stories. Food providers' distrustful behaviors also influenced journalistic attention to the food risks. The implication of the findings to health message designers is discussed.

  5. Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Shouta; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable and a progressive muscle wasting disease, is caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, leading to recurrent muscle fiber damage during contraction. The inflammatory response to fiber damage is a compelling candidate mechanism for disease exacerbation. The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects. Recent reports show the therapeutic potential of inhibiting or enhancing pro- or anti-inflammatory factors released from DMD skeletal muscles, resulting in significant recovery from muscle atrophy and dysfunction. We discuss and review the recent findings of DMD inflammation and opportunities for drug development targeting specific releasing factors from skeletal muscles. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeting specific inflammatory factors are more effective and have less side effects for DMD compared with steroidal drugs. For example, calcium channels, reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor-κB signaling factors are the most promising targets as master regulators of inflammatory response in DMD skeletal muscles. If they are combined with an oligonucleotide-based exon skipping therapy to restore dystrophin expression, the anti-inflammatory drug therapies may address the present therapeutic limitation of low efficiency for DMD.

  6. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Increases Growth Factor Release from Equine Platelet-Rich Plasma In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Seabaugh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionExtracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT and platelet-rich plasma (PRP are common treatments for soft tissue injuries in horses. Shockwave triggers cell specific responses to promote healing. Growth factors released from PRP also promote healing. It has been hypothesized that greater growth factor release would amplify the healing process. The combination of ESWT and PRP could promote healing in injured tendons and ligaments in the horse. The objective of this study was to determine if application of shockwaves to PRP samples increases the concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor ββ (PDGF-ββ released from the platelets in vitro.Materials and methodsPRP was produced from blood drawn from six horses. The PRP from each horse was exposed to the following treatments: (1 positive control (freeze-thaw cycle, (2 untreated negative control, or shockwaves with either (3 a “standard probe” (ESWT-S with a 2 cm focal width and medium energy density or (4 a “power probe” (ESWT-P with a 1 cm focal width and high energy density. After each treatment, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was harvested. The supernatant was then used for growth factor quantification via commercially available ELISA kits for TGF-β1 and PDGF-ββ.ResultsConcentrations of TGF-β1 and PDGF-ββ in PRP that underwent a freeze-thaw cycle were significantly increased compared with all other treatments. Both ESWT-S and ESWT-P resulted in significantly increased TGF-β1 concentrations, 46 and 33%, respectively, when compared with the negative control. Both ESWT-S and ESWT-P resulted in significantly increased PDGF-ββ concentrations, 219 and 190%, respectively, when compared with the negative control.DiscussionThese data indicate that the application of ESWT to PRP increases the expression of growth factors in vitro. This suggests that the combination therapy of local PRP injection followed by ESWT

  7. Development and validation of a dissolution test for diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Ferreira Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development and validation of a dissolution test for 60 mg of diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules. The best dissolution in vitro profile was achieved using potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 as the dissolution medium and paddle as the apparatus at 50 rpm. The drug concentrations in the dissolution media were determined by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC and a statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between HPLC and spectrophotometry. This study illustrates the importance of an official method for the dissolution test, since there is no official monograph for diltiazem hydrochloride in capsules.

  8. Electrically induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor release from Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Beier; Huang, Jinghui; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Regulating the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for their application in traumatic nerve injury, neurodegenerative disorders, and demyelination disease in both central and peripheral nervous systems. The present study investigated the possibility of using electrical stimulation (ES) to activate SCs to release BDNF. We found that short-term ES was capable of promoting BDNF production from SCs, and the maximal BDNF release was achieved by ES at 6 V (3 Hz, 30 min). We further examined the involvement of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) in the ES-induced BDNF production in SCs by pharmacological studies. We found that the ES-induced BDNF release required calcium influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) and calcium mobilization from internal calcium stores, including inositol triphosphate-sensitive stores and caffeine/ryanodine-sensitive stores. In addition, calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were found to play important roles in the ES-induced BDNF release from SCs. In conclusion, ES is capable of activating SCs to secrete BDNF, which requires the involvement of calcium influx through T-type VGCC and calcium mobilization from internal calcium stores. In addition, activation of CaMK IV, MAPK, and CREB were also involved in the ES-induced BDNF release. The findings indicate that ES can improve the neurotrophic ability in SCs and raise the possibility of developing electrically stimulated SCs as a source of cell therapy for nerve injury in both peripheral and central nervous systems. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Release of Immunosuppressive Factor(s) in Young Males Following Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tom K.; Baker, Julien S.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years) were taken befo...

  10. The release of immunosuppressive factor(s) in young males following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tom K; Baker, Julien S

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years) were taken before and immediately after ten sets of exercise consisting of 15 free and 30 10-kg loaded squat jumps in each set. The suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was analysed with high pressure liquid chromatography. It was noted from the result of gel chromatography columns that the post-exercise values of the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, in comparison to corresponding pre-exercise values, were generally greater with significant differences observed in 7.5th-9th min post-exercise eluates (P exercise may lead to generation of immunosuppressive factor(s) in young males.

  11. The Release of Immunosuppressive Factor(s in Young Males Following Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien S. Baker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years were taken before and immediately after ten sets of exercise consisting of 15 free and 30 10-kg loaded squat jumps in each set. The suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was analysed with high pressure liquid chromatography. It was noted from the result of gel chromatography columns that the post-exercise values of the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, in comparison to corresponding pre-exercise values, were generally greater with significant differences observed in 7.5th–9th min post-exercise eluates (P < 0.05. Such findings suggest that intense eccentric type exercise may lead to generation of immunosuppressive factor(s in young males.

  12. Evidence for a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from the brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice; Adser, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has an important role in regulating maintenance, growth and survival of neurons. However, the main source of circulating BDNF in response to exercise is unknown. To identify whether the brain is a source of BDNF during exercise, eight volunteers rowed for 4...... h while simultaneous blood samples were obtained from the radial artery and the internal jugular vein. To further identify putative cerebral region(s) responsible for BDNF release, mouse brains were dissected and analysed for BDNF mRNA expression following treadmill exercise. In humans, a BDNF...... release from the brain was observed at rest (P BDNF, while that contribution decreased following 1 h of recovery. In mice, exercise induced a three...

  13. Atmospheric dilution factors for radioactive releases from Inshas research reactor, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aal, M.M.; Aly, A.I.M.; Tawfik, F.S.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of assessing the suitability of Inshas site for constructing a new research reactor 20 MW, the meteorological condition are analyzed to determine the most affected population sectors. The atmospheric stability classes are estimated by a developed computer program in which the meteorological data for one year are used as input data. The results indicate that stability class F (moderately stable) is predominant one. The dilution factor is calculated using the computer code XOQDOQ for meteorological evaluation of routine effluent releases at nuclear power stations, which implements regulatory Guide 1.111 for both normal and desert conditions and for ground and elevated releases. The concentration isopleths are plotted and the most affected sector is the southern one with higher values for desert condition than the corresponding normal condition at same distance from the source. 4 fig., 3 tab

  14. Site Release Report for C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks Test Site, and 29 GSF Test Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.E. Rasmuson

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to reclaim lands disturbed by site characterization at Yucca Mountain. Long term goals of the program are to re-establish processes on disturbed sites that will lead to self-sustaining plant communities. The Biological Opinion for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Studies required that the U.S. Department of Energy develop a Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan to evaluate the success of reclamation efforts. According to the Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan, reclaimed sites will be monitored periodically, remediated if necessary, and eventually compared to an appropriate reference area to determine whether reclamation goals have been achieved and the site can be released from further monitoring. Plant cover, density, and species richness (success parameters) on reclaimed sites are compared to 60 percent of the values (success criteria) for the same parameters on the reference area. Small sites (less than 0.1 ha) are evaluated for release using qualitative methods while large sites (greater than 0.1 ha) are evaluated using quantitative methods. In the summer of 2000, 31 small sites reclaimed in 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for reclamation success and potential release from further monitoring. Plant density, cover, and species richness were estimated on the C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks test site, and 29 ground surface facility test pits. Evidence of erosion, reproduction and natural recruitment, exotic species abundance, and animal use (key attributes) also were recorded for each site and used in success evaluations. The C-Well Pipeline and ground surface facility test pits were located in a ''Larrea tridentata - Ephedra nevadensis'' vegetation association while the UE-25 Large Rocks test site was located in an area dominated by ''Coleogyne ramosissima and Ephedra nevadensis''. Reference areas in the same vegetation associations with similar slope and aspect were chosen for comparison to

  15. Site Release Reports for C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks Test Site, and 29 GSF Test Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.E. Rasmuson

    2002-04-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to reclaim lands disturbed by site characterization at Yucca Mountain. Long term goals of the program are to re-establish processes on disturbed sites that will lead to self-sustaining plant communities. The Biological Opinion for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Studies required that the U.S. Department of Energy develop a Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan to evaluate the success of reclamation efforts. According to the Reclamation Standards and Monitoring Plan, reclaimed sites will be monitored periodically, remediated if necessary, and eventually compared to an appropriate reference area to determine whether reclamation goals have been achieved and the site can be released from further monitoring. Plant cover, density, and species richness (success parameters) on reclaimed sites are compared to 60 percent of the values (success criteria) for the same parameters on the reference area. Small sites (less than 0.1 ha) are evaluated for release using qualitative methods while large sites (greater than 0.1 ha) are evaluated using quantitative methods. In the summer of 2000, 31 small sites reclaimed in 1993 and 1994 were evaluated for reclamation success and potential release from further monitoring. Plant density, cover, and species richness were estimated on the C-Well Pipeline, UE-25 Large Rocks test site, and 29 ground surface facility test pits. Evidence of erosion, reproduction and natural recruitment, exotic species abundance, and animal use (key attributes) also were recorded for each site and used in success evaluations. The C-Well Pipeline and ground surface facility test pits were located in a ''Larrea tridentata - Ephedra nevadensis'' vegetation association while the UE-25 Large Rocks test site was located in an area dominated by ''Coleogyne ramosissima and Ephedra nevadensis''. Reference areas in the same vegetation associations with similar slope

  16. Use of the Dexamethasone-Corticotrophin Releasing Hormone Test to Assess Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function may be abnormal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A pilot study in 7 patients suggested impaired glucocorticoid feedback in some patients after the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH test. This study aimed to investigate the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing factor test in a larger group of patients and relate the results to characteristics of the disease. Methods. Outpatients with active RA (≥3 swollen and tender joints and C-reactive protein > 10 mg/L took dexamethasone (1.5 mg at 23:00 hour in the evening. Next day, baseline saliva and plasma samples were collected, CRH was infused at 11:00 hour, and 4 serial blood and saliva samples were collected. Plasma samples were stored at −80∘C and a radioimmunoassay performed for saliva and plasma cortisol. Results. All 20 participants showed normal dexamethasone suppression and mounted no response to the CRH challenge. In samples with measurable cortisol, there was a strong correlation between saliva and plasma values (r = 0.876, n = 26, P<.01. Conclusion. No abnormalities were found in the Dexamethasone-CRH test in RA patients in contrast to a previous pilot study. Salivary cortisol measurement may offer an alternative noninvasive technique to plasma cortisol in RA patients in future studies.

  17. A prospective study of prognostic factors for duration of sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Jesper

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic carpal tunnel release with a single portal technique has been shown to reduce sick leave compared to open carpal tunnel release, claiming to be a less invasive procedure and reducing scar tenderness leading to a more rapid return to work, and the purpose of this study was to identify prognostic factors for prolonged sick leave after endoscopic carpal tunnel release in a group of employed Danish patients. Methods The design was a prospective study including 75 employed patients with carpal tunnel syndrome operated with ECTR at two hospitals. The mean age was 46 years (SD 10.1, the male/female ratio was 0.42, and the mean preoperative duration of symptoms 10 months (range 6-12. Only 21 (28% were unable to work preoperatively and mean sick leave was 4 weeks (range 1-4. At base-line and at the 3-month follow-up, a self-administered questionnaire was collected concerning physical, psychological, and social circumstances in relation to the hand problem. Data from a nerve conduction examination were collected at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. Significant prognostic factors were identified through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results After the operation, the mean functional score was reduced from 2.3 to 1.4 (SD 0.8 and the mean symptom score from 2.9 to 1.5 (SD 0.7. The mean sick leave from work after the operation was 19.8 days (SD 14.3. Eighteen patients (24% had more than 21 days of sick leave. Two patients (3% were still unable to work after 3 months. Significant prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis for more than 21 days of postoperative sick leave were preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem and a preoperative distal motor latency. Conclusion Preoperative sick leave, blaming oneself for the hand problem, and a preoperative distal nerve conduction motor latency were prognostic factors for postoperative work absence of more than 21 days. Other factors may be important

  18. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  19. Effect of trehalose coating on basic fibroblast growth factor release from tailor-made bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Lee, Jongil; Igawa, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Shigeki; Mochizuki, Manabu; Nishimura, Ryohei; Chung, Ung-il; Sasaki, Nobuo

    2011-12-01

    Artificial bone implants are often incorporated with osteoinductive factors to facilitate early bone regeneration. Calcium phosphate, the main component in artificial bone implants, strongly binds these factors, and in a few cases, the incorporated proteins are not released from the implant under conditions of physiological pH, thereby leading to reduction in their osteoinductivity. In this study, we coated tailor-made bone implants with trehalose to facilitate the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). In an in vitro study, mouse osteoblastic cells were separately cultured for 48 hr in a medium with a untreated implant (T-), trehalose-coated implant (T+), bFGF-incorporated implant (FT-), and bFGF-incorporated implant with trehalose coating (FT+). In the FT+ group, cell viability was significantly higher than that in the other groups (Pbone implant without affecting the crystallinity or the mechanical strength of the artificial bone implant. These results suggest that coating artificial bone implants with trehalose could limit the binding of bFGF to calcium phosphate.

  20. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... induction of c-fos mRNA was observed 20-60 min after stimulation with 5 nM GRF, returning to basal levels after 2 h. Somatostatin-14 (5 nM) partially inhibited the GRF induced c-fos expression. Forskolin and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate induced c-fos gene in cultured primary pituitary cells with similar...

  1. Adenohypophysial changes in mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefaneanu, L; Kovacs, K; Horvath, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of protracted GH-releasing factor (GRF) stimulation on adenohypophysial morphology was investigated in six mice transgenic for human GRF (hGRF). All animals had significantly higher plasma levels of GH and GRF and greater body weights than controls. Eight-month-old mice were killed...... of their ultrastructural features, contained secretory granules heavily labeled for GH by immunogold technique; PRL labeling varied from cell to cell, with the predominance of a weak immunostaining and was colocalized with GH in secretory granules. These results indicate that chronic exposure to GRF excess leads...

  2. Injectable Biodegradable Polyurethane Scaffolds with Release of Platelet-derived Growth Factor for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Andrea E.; Li, Bing; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Guelcher, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of triisocyanate composition on the biological and mechanical properties of biodegradable, injectable polyurethane scaffolds for bone and soft tissue engineering. Methods Scaffolds were synthesized using reactive liquid molding techniques, and were characterized in vivo in a rat subcutaneous model. Porosity, dynamic mechanical properties, degradation rate, and release of growth factors were also measured. Results Polyurethane scaffolds were elastomers with tunable damping properties and degradation rates, and they supported cellular infiltration and generation of new tissue. The scaffolds showed a two-stage release profile of platelet-derived growth factor, characterized by a 75% burst release within the first 24 h and slower release thereafter. Conclusions Biodegradable polyurethanes synthesized from triisocyanates exhibited tunable and superior mechanical properties compared to materials synthesized from lysine diisocyanates. Due to their injectability, biocompatibility, tunable degradation, and potential for release of growth factors, these materials are potentially promising therapies for tissue engineering. PMID:18516665

  3. Orexin–Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area as Targets for Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A.; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.

    2015-01-01

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R–OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R–OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R–CRF1R–OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A–CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. PMID:25926444

  4. Orexin-corticotropin-releasing factor receptor heteromers in the ventral tegmental area as targets for cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; McCormick, Peter J

    2015-04-29

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R-OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R-OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R-CRF1R-OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A-CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356639-15$15.00/0.

  5. Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Localization of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor: Mechanistic Implications for Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Woon Yu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1-dependent cell death (known as parthanatos plays a pivotal role in many clinically important events including ischaemia/reperfusion injury and glutamate excitotoxicity. A recent study by us has shown that uncleaved AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor, but not calpain-hydrolysed truncated-AIF, was rapidly released from the mitochondria during parthanatos, implicating a second pool of AIF that might be present in brain mitochondria contributing to the rapid release. In the present study, a novel AIF pool is revealed in brain mitochondria by multiple biochemical analyses. Approx. 30% of AIF loosely associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane on the cytosolic side, in addition to its main localization in the mitochondrial intermembrane space attached to the inner membrane. Immunogold electron microscopic analysis of mouse brain further supports AIF association with the outer, as well as the inner, mitochondrial membrane in vivo. In line with these observations, approx. 20% of uncleaved AIF rapidly translocates to the nucleus and functionally causes neuronal death upon NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate treatment. In the present study we show for the first time a second pool of AIF in brain mitochondria and demonstrate that this pool does not require cleavage and that it contributes to the rapid release of AIF. Moreover, these results suggest that this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF is sufficient to cause cell death during parthanatos. Interfering with the release of this outer mitochondrial pool of AIF during cell injury paradigms that use parthanatos hold particular promise for novel therapies to treat neurological disorders.

  6. Suckling induced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) release in mother rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lékó, András H; Cservenák, Melinda; Dobolyi, Árpád

    2017-12-01

    Lactation involves significant neuroendocrine changes. The elevated prolactin (PRL) release from the pituitary, induced markedly by suckling, is the most relevant example. Suckling also causes a significant and rapid elevation in growth hormone (GH) levels. GH is necessary for milk synthesis as milk yield is stopped completely in the absence of PRL and GH, while the absence of PRL alone causes only a 50% reduction. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in the GH axis. GH exerts its effects through IGF-1 in the periphery, for example in the mammary gland. In addition, IGF-1 is responsible for the long-loop feedback control of GH secretion. IGF-1 secretion has not been established yet in mothers. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of suckling on serum IGF-1 level in rat mothers and correlated it with serum PRL levels. We examined a potential mechanism of the regulation of IGF-1 level during suckling by administering IGF-1 into the lateral ventricle of rat mothers continuously for 12days, or acutely, right before the start of suckling. We described that suckling affected IGF-1 release based on one-way repeated measures ANOVA (F=10.8 and pIGF-1 level 30min after the start of suckling (pIGF-1 release. The prolonged central IGF-1 administration diminished the suckling-induced IGF-1 surge (F=9.19 and pIGF-1 release either by elevating PRL or GH. Long-loop feedback via IGF-1 in the GH axis can diminish this action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyatake S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shouta Miyatake,1 Yuko Shimizu-Motohashi,2 Shin’ichi Takeda,1 Yoshitsugu Aoki1 1Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Child Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, an incurable and a progressive muscle wasting disease, is caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, leading to recurrent muscle fiber damage during contraction. The inflammatory response to fiber damage is a compelling candidate mechanism for disease exacerbation. The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects. Recent reports show the therapeutic potential of inhibiting or enhancing pro- or anti-inflammatory factors released from DMD skeletal muscles, resulting in significant recovery from muscle atrophy and dysfunction. We discuss and review the recent findings of DMD inflammation and opportunities for drug development targeting specific releasing factors from skeletal muscles. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeting specific inflammatory factors are more effective and have less side effects for DMD compared with steroidal drugs. For example, calcium channels, reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor-κB signaling factors are the most promising targets as master regulators of inflammatory response in DMD skeletal muscles. If they are combined with an oligonucleotide-based exon skipping therapy to restore dystrophin expression, the anti-inflammatory drug therapies may address the present therapeutic limitation of low efficiency for DMD. Keywords: calcium channels, ryanodine receptor 1, exon skipping, NF-κB, myokine, ROS

  8. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  9. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Release of Radioactive Scrap Metal/Scrap Metal (RSM/SM) at Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. (REECo) is the prime contractor to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in providing service and support for NTS operations. Mercury Base Camp is the main control point for the many forward areas at NTS, which covers 1,350 square miles. The forward areas are where above-ground and underground nuclear tests have been performed over the last 41 years. No metal (or other material) is returned to Mercury without first being tested for radioactivity. No radioactive metals are allowed to reenter Mercury from the forward areas, other than testing equipment. RAMATROL is the monitor check point. They check material in various ways, including swipe tests, and have a large assortment of equipment for testing. Scrap metal is also checked to address Resource Conservation and Recovery Act concerns. After addressing these issues, the scrap metals are categorized. Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are followed by REECo. The nonradioactive scrap material is sold through the GSA on a scheduled basis. Radioactive scrap metal are presently held in forward areas where they were used. REECo has gained approval of their Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325 application, which will allow disposal on site, when RSM is declared a waste. The guideline that REECo uses for release limits is DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Works, Attachment 2, Surface Radioactivity Guides, of this order, give release limits for radioactive materials. However, the removal of radioactive materials from NTS require approval by DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) on a case-by-case basis. Requirements to consider before removal are found in DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management

  11. Effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 from collagen gel on neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Hao; Chang, Jun; Ma, Guangwen; Yin, Zongsheng

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to examine the effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from collagen gel on rat neural stem cells (NSCs). With three groups of collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel as controls, BDNF and NT-3 were tested in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group at different time points. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that BDNF and NT-3 were steadily released from collagen gels for 10 days. The cell viability test and the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay showed that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel supported the survival and proliferation of NSCs. The results also showed that the length of processes was markedly longer and differentiation percentage from NSCs into neurons was much higher in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group than those in the collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel groups. These findings suggest that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel could significantly improve the ability of NSCs proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required

  13. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and α 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paula E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2013-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the early symptoms of opioid withdrawal and contributes to continued drug use and relapse. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a component of anxiety that has been shown to increase during opioid withdrawal in both humans and animals. We investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE), two key mediators of the brain stress system, on acute heroin withdrawal-potentiated ASR. Rats injected with heroin (2 mg/kg s.c.) displayed an increased ASR when tested 4 h after heroin treatment. A similar increase in ASR was found in rats 10-20 h into withdrawal from extended access (12 h) to i.v. heroin self-administration, a model that captures several aspects of heroin addiction in humans. Both the α 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (10 μg/kg s.c.) and CRF1 receptor antagonist N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine (MPZP; 20 mg/kg s.c.) blocked heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle. To investigate the relationship between CRF1 and α 2 adrenergic receptors in the potentiation of the ASR, we tested the effect of MPZP on yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg s.c.)-potentiated startle and clonidine on CRF (2 μg i.c.v.)-potentiated startle. Clonidine blocked CRF-potentiated startle, whereas MPZP partially attenuated but did not reverse yohimbine-potentiated startle, suggesting that CRF may drive NE release to potentiate startle. These results suggest that CRF1 and α 2 receptors play an important role in the heightened anxiety-like behaviour observed during acute withdrawal from heroin, possibly via CRF inducing the release of NE in stress-related brain regions.

  14. Alveolar macrophage release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in chronic alcoholics without liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, K; Casey, R; Nelson, S; Olariu, R; Shellito, J E

    1998-05-01

    Alcohol is an immunosuppressive drug, and chronic abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of infections, including bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis. Alveolar macrophages are the resident phagocytes of the lung and play a central role in lung host defenses against infection ranging from direct antibacterial activity to the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). TNFalpha, in particular, plays a key role in the development of the early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on alveolar macrophage release of TNFalpha in vitro. We prospectively studied lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of TNFalpha from alveolar macrophages obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in 22 alcoholic (18 smokers, 4 nonsmokers) and 7 nondrinking healthy volunteers (3 smokers, 4 nonsmokers). The total number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their differential distribution were not significantly different in alcoholics versus controls (43 +/- 8 x 10(6) and 39 +/- 13 x 10(6), respectively). However, the total number of cells recovered from BALF was significantly higher in smokers (51 +/- 8 x 10(6)) than in nonsmokers (19 +/- 5 x 10(6)). Spontaneous (basal) release of TNFalpha by alveolar macrophages was the same in alcoholics and controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated release of TNFalpha was significantly suppressed in alcoholics compared with that of controls (1343 +/- 271 vs. 3806 +/- 926 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells, respectively, p < 0.015). When controlled for smoking, LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was suppressed in alcoholic nonsmokers (563 +/- 413 U TNF/ml/10(6)) compared with control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6)). LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production was also less in control smokers (2063 +/- 386 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells) than in control nonsmokers (5113 +/- 1264 U TNF/ml/10(6) cells). There was no difference

  15. Assessment of nickel release from earrings randomly purchased in China and Thailand using the dimethylglyoxime test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan J; Hamann, Quinlan J; Hamann, Curtis P; Boonchai, Waranya; Li, Lin-Feng; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-04-01

    China and Thailand produce large amounts of jewellery that are sold domestically and abroad. To identify nickel release and metal content in earrings purchased in China and Thailand. A total of 557 earrings were randomly purchased from vendors in 11 markets located in Beijing, Chengdu, Bangkok, Patong Beach, and Hat Yai. Earrings were subjected to dimethylglyoxime (DMG) tests and 26 of the DMG negative earrings were further evaluated qualitatively for major and minor metal content using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A total of 314 Chinese earrings (31.5%) and 243 Thai earrings (29.2%) were DMG test positive. Three (11.5%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a major component; 7 (26.9%) of 29 DMG negative earrings contained nickel as a minor component. Excessive nickel release was frequent. This may contribute to the high prevalence of nickel allergy in both countries. Increased public education together with the adoption of a regulatory intervention in Thailand may be warranted. In China, enforcement of the 2002 Chinese National Standard GB 11887 may assist in reducing sensitization. These initiatives may eventually result in decreased morbidity among the Chinese and Thai citizens, but can potentially benefit recipient countries of these important earring producing countries.

  16. Pituitary Apoplexy After Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in a Patient with Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Fang Wang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare complication of pituitary tumors. We report a case of a 41-year-old female with acromegaly due to a pituitary macroadenoma, who developed pituitary apoplexy after a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH 200 mg intravenous injection stimulation test. Neither emergency computed tomography (CT scans nor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, performed 6 hours and 12 hours, respectively, after the active episode, disclosed the evidence of acute hemorrhage or infarction. Two days later, the pituitary mass, removed by transsphenoidal approach, showed ischemic necrosis and acute hemorrhage. The TRH test is generally safe for evaluating pituitary function, but pituitary apoplexy may occur after the procedure. CT and MRI may miss the diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy, especially if performed immediately after the acute episode.

  17. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  18. HSV Serologic Testing for Pregnant Women: Willingness to Be Tested and Factors Affecting Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate pregnant women's willingness to undergo HSV type-specific serologic testing and factors affecting willingness in an obstetrics/gynecology ambulatory unit. Methods. At prenatal Visit 1, pregnant women (n=303 with no history of HSV-2 were tested for HSV-1/HSV-2 before and after they received counseling on genital and neonatal herpes. Results. In both the Unwilling Subgroup and the group that changed from being willing to being unwilling, the most common reasons for choosing not to be tested were not being at risk for genital herpes, being tested is too personal, and concern about what will be done with the results. Of the 134 participants in the Willing/Tested Subgroup, 27 (20% were HSV-2 seropositive and 81 (60% were HSV-1 seropositive. Conclusions. These results support the feasibility of HSV serologic testing and counseling in pregnant women.

  19. A method to evaluate fission gas release during irradiation testing of spherical fuel - HTR2008-58184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Merwet, H.; Venter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of fission gas release from spherical fuel during irradiation testing is critical to understand expected fuel performance under real reactor conditions. Online measurements of Krypton and Xenon fission products explain coated particle performance and contributions from graphitic matrix materials used in fuel manufacture and irradiation rig materials. Methods that are being developed to accurately evaluate fission gas release are described here together with examples of evaluations performed on irradiation tests HFR-K5, -K6 and EU1bis. (authors)

  20. Assessment of chromium(VI) release from 848 jewellery items by use of a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Hamann, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    We recently evaluated and validated a diphenylcarbazide(DPC)-based screening spot test that can detect the release of chromium(VI) ions (≥0.5 ppm) from various metallic items and leather goods (1). We then screened a selection of metal screws, leather shoes, and gloves, as well as 50 earrings......, and identified chromium(VI) release from one earring. In the present study, we used the DPC spot test to assess chromium(VI) release in a much larger sample of jewellery items (n=848), 160 (19%) of which had previously be shown to contain chromium when analysed with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (2)....

  1. A leukocyte activation test identifies food items which induce release of DNA by innate immune peripheral blood leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Irma; Weiss, Theresa R; Yousaf, Muhammad N; Ali, Ather; Mehal, Wajahat Z

    2018-01-01

    Leukocyte activation (LA) testing identifies food items that induce a patient specific cellular response in the immune system, and has recently been shown in a randomized double blinded prospective study to reduce symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We hypothesized that test reactivity to particular food items, and the systemic immune response initiated by these food items, is due to the release of cellular DNA from blood immune cells. We tested this by quantifying total DNA concentration in the cellular supernatant of immune cells exposed to positive and negative foods from 20 healthy volunteers. To establish if the DNA release by positive samples is a specific phenomenon, we quantified myeloperoxidase (MPO) in cellular supernatants. We further assessed if a particular immune cell population (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) was activated by the positive food items by flow cytometry analysis. To identify the signaling pathways that are required for DNA release we tested if specific inhibitors of key signaling pathways could block DNA release. Foods with a positive LA test result gave a higher supernatant DNA content when compared to foods with a negative result. This was specific as MPO levels were not increased by foods with a positive LA test. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors resulted in inhibition of positive food stimulated DNA release. Positive foods resulted in CD63 levels greater than negative foods in eosinophils in 76.5% of tests. LA test identifies food items that result in release of DNA and activation of peripheral blood innate immune cells in a PKC dependent manner, suggesting that this LA test identifies food items that result in release of inflammatory markers and activation of innate immune cells. This may be the basis for the improvement in symptoms in IBS patients who followed an LA test guided diet.

  2. Mercury flow tests (first report). Wall friction factor measurement tests and future tests plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro; Sudo, Yukio

    1999-07-01

    In the neutron science project at JAERI, we plan to inject a pulsed proton beam of a maximum power of 5 MW from a high intense proton accelerator into a mercury target in order to produce high energy neutrons of a magnitude of ten times or more than existing facilities. The neutrons produced by the facility will be utilized for advanced field of science such as the life sciences etc. An urgent issue in order to accomplish this project is the establishment of mercury target technology. With this in mind, a mercury experimental loop with the capacity to circulate mercury up to 15 L/min was constructed to perform thermal hydraulic tests, component tests and erosion characteristic tests. A measurement of the wall friction factor was carried out as a first step of the mercury flow tests, while testing the characteristic of components installed in the mercury loop. This report presents an outline of the mercury loop and experimental results of the wall friction factor measurement. From the wall friction factor measurement, it was made clear that the wettability of the mercury was improved with an increase of the loop operation time and at the same time the wall friction factors were increased. The measured wall friction factors were much lower than the values calculated by the Blasius equation at the beginning of the loop operation because of wall slip caused by a non-wetted condition. They agreed well with the values calculated by the Blasius equation within a deviation of 10% when the sum of the operation time increased more than 11 hours. This report also introduces technical problems with a mercury circulation and future tests plan indispensable for the development of the mercury target. (author)

  3. Testing for time-varying loadings in dynamic factor models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jakob Guldbæk

    Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for time-varying factor loadings in factor models. The test is simple to compute and is constructed from estimated factors and residuals using the principal components estimator. The hypothesis is tested by regressing the squared residuals on the squared...... there is evidence of time-varying loadings on the risk factors underlying portfolio returns for around 80% of the portfolios....

  4. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  5. Corticotropin-releasing factor peptide antagonists: design, characterization and potential clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Jean E; Rivier, Catherine L

    2014-04-01

    Elusive for more than half a century, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was finally isolated and characterized in 1981 from ovine hypothalami and shortly thereafter, from rat brains. Thirty years later, much has been learned about the function and localization of CRF and related family members (Urocortins 1, 2 and 3) and their 2 receptors, CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) and CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2). Here, we report the stepwise development of peptide CRF agonists and antagonists, which led to the CRFR1 agonist Stressin1; the long-acting antagonists Astressin2-B which is specific for CRFR2; and Astressin B, which binds to both CRFR1 and CRFR2.This analog has potential for the treatment of CRF-dependent diseases in the periphery, such as irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Neurocircuitry and Neuropharmacology in Alcohol Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Allyson L; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2018-01-28

    Alcohol use is pervasive in the United States. In the transition from nonhazardous drinking to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder, neuroadaptations occur within brain reward and brain stress systems. One brain signaling system that has received much attention in animal models of excessive alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence is corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The CRF system is composed of CRF, the urocortins, CRF-binding protein, and two receptors - CRF type 1 and CRF type 2. This review summarizes how acute, binge, and chronic alcohol dysregulates CRF signaling in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain regions and how this dysregulation may contribute to changes in alcohol reinforcement, excessive alcohol consumption, symptoms of negative affect during withdrawal, and alcohol relapse. In addition, it summarizes clinical work examining CRF type 1 receptor antagonists in humans and discusses why the brain CRF system is still relevant in alcohol research.

  7. Role of Histamine Release Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions to Clavulanic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, F.; Ariza, A.; Mayorga, C.

    2015-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to clavulanic acid (CLV) seem to be on the increase. Diagnosis is mainly based on skin testing and the drug provocation test (DPT), procedures that are not risk free. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the histamine release test (HRT) could help eva...

  8. Opportunities and challenges of real-time release testing in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mo; Severson, Kristen A; Love, John Christopher; Madden, Helena; Swann, Patrick; Zang, Li; Braatz, Richard D

    2017-11-01

    Real-time release testing (RTRT) is defined as "the ability to evaluate and ensure the quality of in-process and/or final drug product based on process data, which typically includes a valid combination of measured material attributes and process controls" (ICH Q8[R2]). This article discusses sensors (process analytical technology, PAT) and control strategies that enable RTRT for the spectrum of critical quality attributes (CQAs) in biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Case studies from the small-molecule and biologic pharmaceutical industry are described to demonstrate how RTRT can be facilitated by integrated manufacturing and multivariable control strategies to ensure the quality of products. RTRT can enable increased assurance of product safety, efficacy, and quality-with improved productivity including faster release and potentially decreased costs-all of which improve the value to patients. To implement a complete RTRT solution, biologic drug manufacturers need to consider the special attributes of their industry, particularly sterility and the measurement of viral and microbial contamination. Continued advances in on-line and in-line sensor technologies are key for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry to achieve the potential of RTRT. Related article: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bit.26378/full. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Expression and hypophysiotropic actions of corticotropin-releasing factor in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorse, Graham C; Denver, Robert J

    2004-07-01

    Members of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides play pivotal roles in the regulation of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to physical and emotional stress. In amphibian tadpoles, CRF-like peptides stimulate both thyroid and interrenal (adrenal) hormone secretion, and can thereby modulate the rate of metamorphosis. To better understand the regulation of expression and actions of CRF in amphibians we developed a homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for Xenopus laevis CRF (xCRF). We validated this RIA and tissue extraction procedure for the measurement of brain CRF content in tadpoles and juveniles. We show that the CRF-binding protein, which is highly expressed in X. laevis brain, is largely removed by acid extraction and does not interfere in the RIA. We analyzed CRF peptide content in five microdissected brain regions in prometamorphic tadpoles and juveniles. CRF was detected throughout the brain, consistent with its role as both a hypophysiotropin and a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. CRF content was highest in the region of the preoptic area (POa) and increased in all brain regions after metamorphosis. Exposure to 4h of handling/shaking stress resulted in increased CRF peptide content in the POa in juvenile frogs. Injections of xCRF into prometamorphic tadpoles increased whole body corticosterone and thyroxine content, thus supporting findings in other anuran species that this peptide functions as both a corticotropin- and a thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing factor. Furthermore, treatment of cultured tadpole pituitaries with xCRF (100nM for 24h) resulted in increased medium content, but decreased pituitary content of TSHbeta-immunoreactivity. Our results support the view that CRF functions as a stress neuropeptide in X. laevis as in other vertebrates. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a dual hypophysiotropic action of CRF on the thyroid and interrenal axes in X. laevis as has been shown previously in other amphibian species.

  10. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present energy supply resources problem is important. Nuclear reactors can, of course, solve this problem, but at the same time there is another issue, concerning safety exploitation of nuclear reactors. That is why, for the last seven years, such experiments as 'Investigation of the processes, conducting severe accidents with core melting' are being carried out at our IGR (impulse graphite reactor) reactor. Leaving out other difficulties of such experiments, it is necessary to notice, that such experiments require more accurate IGR core energy release calculations. The final aim of the present research is verification and correction of the existing method or creation of new method of IGR core energy release calculation. IGR reactor is unique and there is no the same reactor in the world. Therefore, application of the other research reactor methods here is quite useful. This work is based on evaluation of factors affecting core energy release (physical weight of experimental device, different configuration of reactor core, i.e. location of absorbers, initial temperature of core, etc), as well as interference of absorbers group. As it is known, energy release is a value of integral reactor power. During experiments with rays, Reactor power depends on currents of ion production chambers (IPC), located round the core. It is worth to notice that each ion production chamber (IPC) in the same start-up has its own ratio coefficient between IPC current and reactor present power. This task is complicated due to 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients, that change continuously, probably, because of new loading of experimental facility and different position of control rods. That is why, in order to try about reactor power, before every start-up, we have to re-determine the 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients for each ion production chamber (IPC). Therefore, the present work will investigate the behavior of ratio coefficient within the

  11. Stress, sex, and addiction: potential roles of corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisagno, Verónica; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2014-09-01

    Stress sensitivity and sex are predictive factors for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Life stresses are not only risk factors for the development of addiction but also are triggers for relapse to drug use. Therefore, it is imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between stress and drug abuse, as an understanding of this may help in the development of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches to block the clinical manifestations of drug addiction. The development and clinical course of addiction-related disorders do appear to involve neuroadaptations within neurocircuitries that modulate stress responses and are influenced by several neuropeptides. These include corticotropin-releasing factor, the prototypic member of this class, as well as oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin that play important roles in affiliative behaviors. Interestingly, these peptides function to balance emotional behavior, with sexual dimorphism in the oxytocin/arginine-vasopressin systems, a fact that might play an important role in the differential responses of women and men to stressful stimuli and the specific sex-based prevalence of certain addictive disorders. Thus, this review aims to summarize (i) the contribution of sex differences to the function of dopamine systems, and (ii) the behavioral, neurochemical, and anatomical changes in brain stress systems.

  12. Comparing Titanium Release from Ceramic Tiles using a waste material characterization test - Influence of Calcium and Organic Matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are beneficial in the building industry to enhance or add certain features to commonly used materials. One example is the use of nano-titanium dioxide in the surface coating of ceramic tiles, to make the tiles surface self-cleaning. At the end of life stage, ceramic tiles might...... to assess if nano-titanium dioxide coated ceramic tiles are suitable for depositing in a landfill or not. Specifically, we used compliance batch test method, which is a simple test evaluating the release from a solid material to an aqueous media during 24 hrs. If nano-Ti particles are released from solid...... immediately after the 24 hrs. test using single particle ICPMS and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging. The preliminary results suggest that nanoparticulate titanium is released from both tiles – with and without nano-titanium dioxide coating. The size distributions of the released particles are similar...

  13. Factors influencing Haemagglutination Tests with Tetanus Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, A. J.

    1959-01-01

    The agglutinin titres of tetanus antitoxins tested with preserved sheep cells sensitized with tetanus toxoid have been found to be inversely proportional to the cell concentration used. The agglutinin titres per international unit of antitoxin were widely different among various electrophoretically separated globulin fractions of tetanus antitoxin. There were smaller differences between the agglutinating capacity of γ-globulin fractions of sera from different horses. With haemagglutination inhibition tests there was always a relative increase in test dose between the LA and LA/100 level of test. This relative increase was greatest where the sensitivity of the cell suspensions was high. Increased suspension sensitivity may be the result of treatment of cells with greater quantities of sensitizing antigen or of reduction in the concentration of sensitized cells in the suspension. A greater volume of serum was required to give a standard end point, when mixed with a test dose (LA) of toxin, if the mixtures were allowed to stand for increasing periods of time. These observations have been discussed. PMID:13653730

  14. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne

    2009-01-01

    the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  15. Factors influencing immediate post-release survival of spectacled eiders following surgical implantation of transmitters with percutaneous antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, Matthew G.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Spriggs, Maria; Myers, Gwen E.

    2014-01-01

    Surgically implanted transmitters are a common method for tracking animal movements. Immediately following surgical implantation, animals pass through a critical recovery phase when behaviors may deviate from normal and the likelihood of individual survival may be reduced. Therefore, data collected during this period may be censored to minimize bias introduced by surgery-related behaviors or mortality. However, immediate post-release mortalities negate a sampling effort and reduce the amount of data potentially collected after the censoring period. Wildlife biologists should employ methods to support an animal’s survival through this period, but factors contributing to immediate post-release survival have not been formally assessed. We evaluated factors that potentially influenced the immediate post-release survival of 56 spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) marked with coelomically implanted satellite transmitters with percutaneous antennae in northern Alaska in 2010 and 2011. We modeled survival through the first 14 days following release and assessed the relative importance and effect of 15 covariates hypothesized to influence survival during this immediate post-release period. Estimated daily survival rate increased over the duration of the immediate post-release period; the probability of mortality was greatest within the first 5 days following release. Our top-ranking model included the effect of 2 blood analytes, pH and hematocrit, measured prior to surgical implantation of a transmitter. We found a positive response to pH; eiders exhibiting acidemia (low pH) prior to surgery were less likely to survive the immediate post-release period. We found a curvilinear response to hematocrit; eiders exhibiting extremely low or high pre-surgery hematocrit were also less likely to survive the immediate post-release period. In the interest of maximizing the survival of marked birds following release, hematological data obtained prior to surgical implantation of

  16. Platelet-released growth factors can accelerate tenocyte proliferation and activate the anti-oxidant response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidnezhad, M; Varoga, D; Wruck, C J; Brandenburg, L O; Seekamp, A; Shakibaei, M; Sönmez, T T; Pufe, Thomas; Lippross, S

    2011-05-01

    Little is know about the pathophysiology of acute and degenerative tendon injuries. Although most lesions are uncomplicated, treatment is long and unsatisfactory in a considerable number of cases. Besides the common growth factors that were shown to be relevant for tendon integrity more recently protection against oxidative stress was shown to promote tendon healing. To improve tendon regeneration, many have advocated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a thrombocyte concentrate that can serve as an autologous source of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the effect of platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) on tenocytes. Tenocytes were isolated from the Achilles tendon of postnatal rats. Tenocyte cell cultures were stimulated with PRGF. We used a CyQuant assay and WST assay to analyse tendon cell growth and viability in different concentrations of PRGF. Migration and proliferation of cells grown in PRGF were assessed by a scratch test. A dual-luciferase assay was used to demonstrate the activation of the anti-oxidant response element (ARE) in tenocytes. A positive effect of PRGF could be shown on tendon cell growth and migratory capacity. PRGF activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence of a biological effect of PRGF on tenocytes by the promotion of tenocyte growth and activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. This is a novel aspect of the action of platelet concentrates on tendon growth.

  17. Dual growth factor delivery from biofunctionalized allografts: Sequential VEGF and BMP-2 release to stimulate allograft remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Farzana; McDermott, Casey; Lieberman, Jay; Sanjay, Archana; Khan, Yusuf

    2017-05-01

    Autografts have been shown to stimulate osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and angiogenesis, and subsequent rapid graft incorporation. Large structural allografts, however, suffer from limited new bone formation and remodeling, both of which are directly associated with clinical failure due to non-unions, late graft fractures, and infections, making it a priority to improve large structural allograft healing. We have previously shown the osteogenic ability of a polymer-coated allograft that delivers bone morphogenetic protein-2 both in vitro and in vivo through both burst release and sustained release kinetics. In this study, we have demonstrated largely sequential delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor from the same coated allograft. Release data showed that loading both growth factors onto a polymeric coating with two different techniques resulted in short-term (95% release within 2 weeks) and long-term (95% release within 5 weeks) delivery kinetics. We have also demonstrated how released VEGF, traditionally associated with angiogenesis, can also provide a stimulus for allograft remodeling via resorption. Bone marrow derived mononuclear cells were co-cultured with VEGF released from the coated allograft and showed a statistically significant (p exposed to VEGF released from the allografts over controls (p < 0.05). These results indicate that by using different loading protocols temporal control can be achieved when delivering multiple growth factors from a polymer-coated allograft. Further, released VEGF can also stimulate osteoclastogenesis that may enhance allograft incorporation, and thus mitigate long-term clinical complications. © 2017 Orthopedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1086-1095, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of leaching tests to determine and quantify the release of inorganic contaminants in demolition waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, Markus; Lager, Tanja; Schulz, Horst D.; Frimmel, Fritz H.

    2007-01-01

    The changes in waste management policy caused by the massive generation of waste materials (e.g. construction and demolition waste material, municipal waste incineration products) has led to an increase in the reuse and recycling of waste materials. For environmental risk assessment, test procedures are necessary to examine waste materials before they can be reused. In this article, results of column and lysimeter leaching tests having been applied to inorganic compounds in a reference demolition waste material are presented. The results show a good agreement between the leaching behaviour determined with the lysimeter unit and the column units used in the laboratory. In view of less time and system requirements compared to lysimeter systems, laboratory column units can be considered as a practicable instrument to assess the time-dependent release of inorganic compounds under conditions similar to those encountered in a natural environment. The high concentrations of elements in the seepage water at the initial stage of elution are reflected by the laboratory column leaching tests. In particular, authorities or laboratories might benefit and have an easy-to-use, but nevertheless reliable, method to serve as a basis for decision-making

  19. Expression and Regulation of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Type 2 beta in Developing and Mature Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperman, Yael; Issler, Orna; Vaughan, Joan; Bilezikjian, Louise; Vale, Wylie; Chen, Alon

    Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle (SM) tissue where it is suggested to inhibit interactions between insulin signaling pathway components affecting whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, little is known about factors regulating SM CRFR2

  20. Factors of progress in reading literacy test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vitomir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to identify the factors which are most associated with the progress in reading literacy assessed in the PISA survey. In the preliminary sample, students from ten schools (N=235 were retested two years after the 2009 PISA original study. There were measured intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, school self-efficacy, epistemological beliefs, metacognitive strategies, socio-economic status, enjoyment and preference for reading and motivation and self-regulation. The examined factors explain 27% of the variance in reading literacy progress. Factors that contribute most to this progress are school self-efficacy, proper use of metacognitive strategies and low extrinsic motivation. Socio-economic status explained a negligible amount of variance, while some effect of type of school on progress in reading literacy (η2=7% was observed. Achievement in reading literacy is correlated with school marks. Students who attend secondary schools are more likely to make progress in reading literacy than those who attend vocational schools. An attempt was made to formulate the implications for education policy based on this research.

  1. Functional Impact of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Exposure on Tau Phosphorylation and Axon Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Le

    Full Text Available Stress exposure or increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF induce hippocampal tau phosphorylation (tau-P in rodent models, a process that is dependent on the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1. Although these preclinical studies on stress-induced tau-P provide mechanistic insight for epidemiological work that identifies stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD, the actual impact of stress-induced tau-P on neuronal function remains unclear. To determine the functional consequences of stress-induced tau-P, we developed a novel mouse neuronal cell culture system to explore the impact of acute (0.5hr and chronic (2hr CRF treatment on tau-P and integral cell processes such as axon transport. Consistent with in vivo reports, we found that chronic CRF treatment increased tau-P levels and caused globular accumulations of phosphorylated tau in dendritic and axonal processes. Furthermore, while both acute and chronic CRF treatment led to significant reduction in CREB activation and axon transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, this was not the case with mitochondrial transport. Acute CRF treatment caused increased mitochondrial velocity and distance traveled in neurons, while chronic CRF treatment modestly decreased mitochondrial velocity and greatly increased distance traveled. These results suggest that transport of cellular energetics may take priority over growth factors during stress. Tau-P was required for these changes, as co-treatment of CRF with a GSK kinase inhibitor prevented CRF-induced tau-P and all axon transport changes. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insight into the consequences of stress peptide-induced tau-P and provide an explanation for how chronic stress via CRF may lead to neuronal vulnerability in AD.

  2. Involvement of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Receptors in Immune Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanand Chatoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder defined by ROME IV criteria as pain in the lower abdominal region, which is associated with altered bowel habit or defecation. The underlying mechanism of IBS is not completely understood. IBS seems to be a product of interactions between various factors with genetics, dietary/intestinal microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and stress playing a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The crosstalk between the immune system and stress in IBS mechanism is increasingly recognized. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, a major mediator in the stress response, is involved in altered function in GI, including inflammatory processes, colonic transit time, contractile activity, defecation pattern, pain threshold, mucosal secretory function, and barrier functions. This mini review focuses on the recently establish local GI-CRF system, its involvement in modulating the immune response in IBS, and summarizes current IBS animal models and mapping of CRF, CRFR1, and CRFR2 expression in colon tissues. CRF and receptors might be a key molecule involving the immune and movement function via brain–gut axis in IBS.

  3. Influence of different test parameters on in vitro drug release from topical diclofenac formulations in a vertical diffusion cell setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S

    2013-07-01

    In the past decades, the vertical diffusion cell has emerged as a useful device for testing drug release of topical dosage forms. However, to date neither a general USP method nor formulation-related monographs have been published in international pharmacopoeia. The purpose of the present work was to examine the influence of different test parameters in a vertical diffusion cell setup on in vitro drug release from semi-solid preparations for cutaneous application. Diclofenac was selected as the model compound. Release experiments were performed in a 7 ml Microett vertical diffusion cell system. Various test parameters, including the media composition and pH, degassing, membrane material and pore size, stirring speed and stirrer type, were varied. Results obtained with different test parameter settings clearly indicate that both drug properties and instrumental details can have a huge impact on the outcome of in vitro diffusion/drug release studies with the vertical diffusion cell. Thus, the selection of adequate test parameters is crucial for the success of the release experiments and, as shown in the present study, optimal test parameters/conditions need to be established and validated on a case by case study.

  4. Gaia Data Release 1. Testing parallaxes with local Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia Collaboration; Clementini, G.; Eyer, L.; Ripepi, V.; Marconi, M.; Muraveva, T.; Garofalo, A.; Sarro, L. M.; Palmer, M.; Luri, X.; Molinaro, R.; Rimoldini, L.; Szabados, L.; Musella, I.; Anderson, R. I.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Mignard, F.; Panem, C.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Perryman, M.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lorenz, D.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Wevers, T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Ocvirk, P.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). Aims: In order to test these first parallax measurements of the primary standard candles of the cosmological distance ladder, which involve astrometry collected by Gaia during the initial 14 months of science operation, we compared them with literature estimates and derived new period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) relations for classical and Type II Cepheids and infrared PL, PL-metallicity (PLZ), and optical luminosity-metallicity (MV-[Fe/H]) relations for the RR Lyrae stars, with zero points based on TGAS. Methods: Classical Cepheids were carefully selected in order to discard known or suspected binary systems. The final sample comprises 102 fundamental mode pulsators with periods ranging from 1.68 to 51.66 days (of which 33 with σϖ/ϖimpressive. Conclusions: TGAS parallaxes bring a significant added value to the previous Hipparcos estimates. The relations presented in this paper represent the first Gaia-calibrated relations and form a work-in-progress milestone report in the wait for Gaia-only parallaxes of which a first solution will become available with Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) in 2018. Full Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A79

  5. Testing the accelerating moment release (AMR) hypothesis in areas of high stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Aurélie; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Ali, Syed Tabrez

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective analyses have proposed that significant increases in moment release occurred prior to many large earthquakes of recent times. However, the finding of accelerating moment release (AMR) strongly depends on the choice of three parameters: (1) magnitude range, (2) area being considered surrounding the events and (3) the time period prior to the large earthquakes. Consequently, the AMR analysis has been criticized as being a posteriori data-fitting exercise with no new predictive power. As AMR has been hypothesized to relate to changes in the state of stress around the eventual epicentre, we compare here AMR results to models of stress accumulation in California. Instead of assuming a complete stress drop on all surrounding fault segments implied by a back-slip stress lobe method, we consider that stress evolves dynamically, punctuated by the occurrence of earthquakes, and governed by the elastic and viscous properties of the lithosphere. We study the seismicity of southern California and extract events for AMR calculations following the systematic approach employed in previous studies. We present several sensitivity tests of the method, as well as grid-search analyses over the region between 1955 and 2005 using fixed magnitude range, radius of the search area and period of time. The results are compared to the occurrence of large events and to maps of Coulomb stress changes. The Coulomb stress maps are compiled using the coseismic stress from all M > 7.0 earthquakes since 1812, their subsequent post-seismic relaxation, and the interseismic strain accumulation. We find no convincing correlation of seismicity rate changes in recent decades with areas of high stress that would support the AMR hypothesis. Furthermore, this indicates limited utility for practical earthquake hazard analysis in southern California, and possibly other regions.

  6. 49 CFR 40.323 - May program participants release drug or alcohol test information in connection with legal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May program participants release drug or alcohol... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING... information pertaining to an employee's drug or alcohol test without the employee's consent in certain legal...

  7. Role of platelet-released growth factors in detoxification of reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Wruck, Christoph-Jan; Slowik, Alexander; Kweider, Nisreen; Beckmann, Rainer; Bayer, Andreas; Houben, Astrid; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove; Varoga, Deike; Sönmez, Tolga-Taha; Stoffel, Marcus; Jahr, Holger; Lippross, Sebastian; Pufe, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Oxidative stress can impair fracture healing. To protect against oxidative damage, a system of detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes works to reduce the cellular stress. The transcription of these enzymes is regulated by antioxidant response element (ARE). The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like2 (Nrf2) plays a major role in transcriptional activation of ARE-driven genes. Recently it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) prevents oxidative damage via activation of the Nrf2 pathway in vitro. Platelet-released growth factor (PRGF) is a mixture of autologous proteins and growth factors, prepared from a determined volume of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). It has already used to enhance fracture healing in vitro. The aim of the present study was to elucidate if platelets can lead to upregulation of VEGF and if platelets can regulate the activity of Nrf2-ARE system in primary human osteoblast (hOB) and in osteoblast-like cell line (SAOS-2). Platelets and PRGF were obtained from healthy human donors. HOB and SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line were used. The ARE activity was analysed using a dual luciferase reporter assay system. We used Western blot to detect the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the amount of cytosolic antioxidant Thioredoxin Reductase-1 (TXNRD-1), Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). Gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT PCR. ELISA was used for the quantification of growth factors. The activity of ARE was increased in the presence of PRGF up to 50%. Western blotting demonstrated enhanced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. This was followed by an increase in the protein expression of the aforementioned downstream targets of Nrf2. Real-time RT PCR data showed an upregulation in the gene expression of the VEGF after PRGF treatment. This was confirmed by ELISA, where the treatment with PRGF induced the protein level of VEGF in both cells. These results provide a new insight into PRGF's mode of

  8. In-pile test of tritium release from tritium breeding materials (VOM-21H experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi.

    1986-10-01

    Material development and blanket design of lithium-based ceramics such as lithium oxide, lithium aluminate, lithium silicate and lithium zirconate have been performed in Japan, United State of America and Europian Communities. Lithium oxide is a most attractive candidate for tritium breeding materials because of its high lithium density, high thermal conductivity and good tritium release performance. This work has been done to clarify the characteristics of tritium release and recovery from Li 2 O by means of in-situ tritium release measurement. The effects of temperature and sweep gas composition on the tritium release were investigated in this VOM-21H Experiment. Good measurement of tritium release was achieved but there were uncertainties in reproduciblity of data. The experimental results show that the role of surface adsorption/desorption makes a significant contribution to the tritium release and tritium inventory. Also, it is necessary to define the rate limiting process either diffusion or surface adsorption/desorption. (author)

  9. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this study to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results are close to the actual data

  10. Elevated CSF Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Concentrations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Licinio, Julio; Darnell, Adam; Krystal, John H.; Owens, Michael J.; Southwick, Steven M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and somatostatin both play important roles in mediating responses to acute and chronic stress. The purpose of this study was to measure CSF concentrations of CRF and somatostatin in patients with chronic combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comparison subjects. Method Lumbar punctures for collection of CSF were performed in Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD (N=11) and comparison subjects (N=17). CSF concentrations of CRF and somatostatin were compared between the two groups. Results CSF concentrations of CRF were higher in the PTSD patients than in the comparison subjects (mean=29.0 pg/ml, SD=7.8, versus mean=21.9 pg/ml, SD=6.0). This group difference remained significant after covariance for age. CSF somatostatin concentrations in PTSD patients were higher than those of the comparison subjects (mean=19.9 pg/ml, SD=5.4, versus mean=13.7 pg/ml, SD=8.0). However, covarying for age reduced the level of significance. Conclusions Higher CSF CRF concentrations in patients with PTSD may reflect alterations in stress-related neurotransmitter systems. The higher CSF CRF concentrations may play a role in disturbances of arousal in patients with PTSD. PMID:9137116

  11. Platelet-released growth factors inhibit proliferation of primary keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Andreas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Berndt, Rouven; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Cremer, Jochen; Rademacher, Franziska; Simanski, Maren; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates as platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) or Vivostat Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF ® ) represent important tools in modern wound therapy, especially in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal or infected wounds. Nevertheless, underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial clinical effects of a local wound therapy with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that PRGF induces antimicrobial peptides in primary keratinocytes and accelerates keratinocytes' differentiation. In the present study we analyzed the influence of PRGF on primary human keratinocytes' proliferation. Using the molecular proliferation marker Ki-67 we observed a concentration- and time dependent inhibition of Ki-67 gene expression in PRGF treated primary keratinocytes. These effects were independent from the EGFR- and the IL-6-R pathway. Inhibition of primary keratinocytes' proliferation by PRGF treatment was confirmed in colorimetric cell proliferation assays. Together, these data indicate that the clinically observed positive effects of autologous thrombocytes concentrates in the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal wounds are not based on an increased keratinocytes proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioautographic study of binding and internalization of corticotropin-releasing factor by rat anterior pituitary corticotrophs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1984-01-01

    In order to identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, radioautography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after intracarotid injection of [ 125 I]iodo-CRF into intact and adrenalectomized female rats. In intact animals, all corticotrophs were labeled, whereas in the adrenalectomized animals about 80% of the hypertrophied corticotrophs (adrenalectomy cells) were. In control animals injected with both iodinated CRF and an excess of unlabeled peptide, no specific reaction could be detected. The time-course study in intact animals showed that 2 min after injection most silver grains were found over or within 160 nm of the plasma membrane. At the 5-min time intervals, grains were observed both over the plasma membrane and within the cytoplasm, associated with lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus. Fifteen minutes after injection, grains were mostly found over lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus, whereas at the longest time intervals (30 and 60 min) almost no labeling could be detected. The results obtained in this study indicate that in the anterior pituitary CRF receptors are restricted to corticotrophs (as identified by electron microscopy) and that, after binding to the plasma membrane, CRF is rapidly internalized to Golgi elements and lysosomes

  13. Stress and addiction: contribution of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF system in neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L Haass-Koffler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF has been shown to induce various behavioral changes related to adaptation to stress. Dysregulation of the CRF system at any point can lead to a variety of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs. CRF has been associated with stress-induced drug reinforcement. Extensive literature has identified CRF to play an important role in the molecular mechanisms that lead to an increase in susceptibility that precipitates relapse to SUDs. The CRF system has a heterogeneous role in SUDs. It enhances the acute effects of drugs of abuse and is also responsible for the potentiation of drug-induced neuroplasticity evoked during the withdrawal period. We present in this review the brain regions and circuitries where CRF is expressed and may participate in stress-induced drug abuse. Finally, we attempt to evaluate the role of modulating the CRF system as a possible therapeutic strategy for treating the dysregulation of emotional behaviors that result from the acute positive reinforcement of substances of abuse as well as the negative reinforcement produced by withdrawal.

  14. Corticotropin-releasing factor: effect on cerebral blood flow in physiologic and ischaemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Manuela; Touzani, Omar; Foster, Alan C; Fieschi, Cesare; Sette, Giuliano; McCulloch, James

    2005-09-01

    The expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in cerebral arteries and arterioles suggests that CRF may modulate cerebral blood flow (CBF). In the present study, the effects of CRF, CRF-like peptides and the CRF broad spectrum antagonist DPhe-CRF on CBF have been investigated under normal physiologic conditions and in the margins of focal ischaemic insult. The experiments were carried out in anaesthetised and ventilated rats. Changes in CBF after subarachnoid microapplication of CRF and related peptides were assessed with a laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) probe. In the ischaemic animals, agents were injected approximately 60 minutes after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Microapplication of CRF and related peptides in normal rats into the subarachnoid space produced sustained concentration-dependent increases in CBF. This effect was attenuated by co-application with DPhe-CRF, which did not alter CBF itself. A second microapplication of CRF 30 min after the first failed to produce increases in CBF in normal animals. Microapplication of CRF in the subarachnoid space overlying the ischaemic cortex effected minor increases in CBF whereas D-Phe-CRF had no significant effect on CBF. Activation of the CRF peptidergic system increases CBF in the rat. Repeated activation of CRF receptors results in tachyphylaxis of the vasodilator response. CRF vasodilator response is still present after MCAo in the ischaemic penumbra, suggesting that the CRF peptidergic system may modulate CBF in ischaemic stroke.

  15. The effects of corticotrophin-releasing factor and two antagonists on breathing movements in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, L; Johnston, B M; Vale, W W; Gluckman, P D

    1990-01-01

    1. The respiratory effects of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and the CRF antagonists alpha-helical CRF 9-41 (alpha hCRF) and [DPhe 12, Nle 21-38] rCRF (12-41) (DPhe CRF) have been studied in unanaesthetized fetal lambs of 125-140 days gestation. 2. CRF when given as a 10 micrograms bolus followed by a 5 micrograms h-1 infusion into a lateral cerebral ventricle caused prolonged continuous fetal breathing movements which were stimulated in both amplitude and frequency but which did not persist during hypoxia. 3. Lower doses of CRF (20 ng bolus followed by 10 ng h-1) increased the amplitude but not the frequency of fetal breathing movements which did not become continuous. 4. At higher doses (20 micrograms bolus followed by 10-15 micrograms h-1) CRF induced cerebral convulsions which were also associated with fetal breathing movements of increased amplitude and frequency. 5. The CRF antagonists alpha hCRF and DPhe CRF both inhibited fetal breathing movements and induced a prolonged apnoea which was resistant to the stimulatory effects of 5-6% hypercapnia. 6. We conclude that CRF stimulates breathing movements in the fetal lamb. The finding that administration of the CRF antagonists alone cause apnoea suggests that CRF may have a tonic role in the regulation of fetal breathing movements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2348387

  16. Numerical Studies on Heat Release Rate in Room Fire on Liquid Fuel under Different Ventilation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat release rate (HRR of the design fire is the most important parameter in assessing building fire hazards. However, HRR in room fire was only studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD in most of the projects determining fire safety provisions by performance-based design. In contrast to ten years ago, officers in the Far East are now having better knowledge of CFD. Two common questions are raised on CFD-predicted results on describing free boundaries; and on computing grid size. In this work, predicting HRR by the CFD model was justified with experimental room pool fire data reported earlier. The software fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 5 was selected as the CFD simulation tool. Prescribed input heating rate based on the experimental results was used with the liquid fuel model in FDS. Five different free boundary conditions were investigated to predict HRR. Grid sensitivity study was carried out using one stretched mesh and multiple uniform meshes with different grid sizes. As it is difficult to have the entire set of CFD predicted results agreed with experiments, macroscopic flow parameters on the mass flow rate through door opening predicted by CFD were also justified by another four conditions with different ventilation factors.

  17. Sex differences in stress responses: a critical role for corticotropin-releasing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R

    2018-03-01

    Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depression are higher in women than in men. Another shared feature of these disorders is that dysregulation of the stress neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is thought to contribute to their pathophysiology. Therefore, sex differences in responses to CRF could contribute to this sex bias in disease prevalence. Here, we review emerging data from non-human animal models that reveal extensive sex differences in CRF functions ranging from its presynaptic regulation to its postsynaptic efficacy. Specifically, detailed are sex differences in the regulation of CRF-containing neurons and the amount of CRF that they produce. We also describe sex differences in CRF receptor expression, distribution, trafficking, and signaling. Finally, we highlight sex differences in the processes that mitigate the effects of CRF. In most cases, the identified sex differences can lead to increased stress sensitivity in females. Thus, the relevance of these differences for the increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders in women compared to men is also discussed.

  18. GHRELIN ACTIVATES HYPOPHYSIOTROPIC CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR NEURONS INDEPENDENTLY OF THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; Portiansky, Enrique; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perello, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established that the hormone ghrelin engages the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The neuronal circuitry that mediates this effect of ghrelin is currently unknown. Here, we show that ghrelin-induced activation of PVN CRF neurons involved inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inputs, likely via ghrelin binding sites that were localized at GABAergic terminals within the PVN. While ghrelin activated PVN CRF neurons in the presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor antagonists or in arcuate nucleus (ARC)-ablated mice, it failed to do it so in mice with ghrelin receptor expression limited to ARC agouti gene related protein (AgRP)/NPY neurons. These data support the notion that ghrelin activates PVN CRF neurons via inhibition of local GABAergic tone, in an ARC-independent manner. Furthermore, these data suggest that the neuronal circuits mediating ghrelin’s orexigenic action vs. its role as a stress signal are anatomically dissociated. PMID:26874559

  19. Molecular Recognition of Corticotropin releasing Factor by Its G protein-coupled Receptor CRFR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Parker, Naomi R.; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel)

    2009-01-15

    The bimolecular interaction between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide, and its type 1 receptor (CRFR1), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is crucial for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress, and has been a target of intense drug design for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and related disorders. As a class B GPCR, CRFR1 contains an N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) that provides the primary ligand binding determinants. Here we present three crystal structures of the human CRFR1 ECD, one in a ligand-free form and two in distinct CRF-bound states. The CRFR1 ECD adopts the alpha-beta-betaalpha fold observed for other class B GPCR ECDs, but the N-terminal alpha-helix is significantly shorter and does not contact CRF. CRF adopts a continuous alpha-helix that docks in a hydrophobic surface of the ECD that is distinct from the peptide-binding site of other class B GPCRs, thereby providing a basis for the specificity of ligand recognition between CRFR1 and other class B GPCRs. The binding of CRF is accompanied by clamp-like conformational changes of two loops of the receptor that anchor the CRF C terminus, including the C-terminal amide group. These structural studies provide a molecular framework for understanding peptide binding and specificity by the CRF receptors as well as a template for designing potent and selective CRFR1 antagonists for therapeutic applications.

  20. Bioresponsive release of insulin-like growth factor-I from its PEGylated conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Alexandra C; Gutmann, Marcus; Mueller, Thomas D; Lühmann, Tessa; Meinel, Lorenz

    2018-06-10

    PEGylation of protein ligands, the attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers to a therapeutic protein, increases therapeutics' half-life but frequently comes at the cost of reduced bioactivity. We are now presenting a bioinspired strategy leading out of this dilemma. To this end, we selected a position within insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) for decoration with a PEG 30kDa -modified protease-sensitive peptide linker (PSL) using a combination of enzymatic and chemical bioorthogonal coupling strategies. The PSL sequence responded to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) to provide a targeted release in diseased tissue. The IGF-PSL-PEG conjugate had different binding protein affinity, cell proliferation, and endocytosis patterns as compared to the wild type. Exposure of the conjugate to elevated levels of activated MMPs, as present in inflamed tissues, fully reestablished the wild type properties through effective PSL cleavage. In conclusion, this bioinspired approach provided a blueprint for PEGylated therapeutics combining the pharmacokinetic advantages of PEGylation, while locally restoring the full suite of biological potential of therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Sun, Tian-Hu; Wang, Ning; Ling, Hong-Qing; Lu, Shan; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Orange (Or) gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring β-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis for the effects of the Or gene mutation in on plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis eukaryotic release factor 1-2 (eRF1-2), a member of the eRF1 family, by yeast two-hybrid analysis and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Concomitantly, the Or mutant showed reduced expression of the BoeRF1 family genes. Transgenic cauliflower plants with suppressed expression of BoeRF1-2 and BoeRF1-3 were generated by RNA interference. Like the Or mutant, the BoeRF1 RNAi lines showed increased elongation of the leaf petiole. This long-petiole phenotype was largely caused by enhanced cell elongation, which resulted from increased cell length and elevated expression of genes involved in cell-wall loosening. These findings demonstrate that the cauliflower Or gene controls petiole elongation by suppressing the expression of eRF1 genes, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of leaf petiole regulation. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Hydrological and Mineralogical Factors Influencing Paradoxical Groundwater Arsenic Release in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, A.; Bostick, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    In South and Southeast Asia, the widespread contamination of groundwater arsenic (As) via microbial reduction of As-bearing iron (Fe) minerals in the subsurface results in toxic levels of arsenic above the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard of 10 ug/L. High groundwater arsenic levels are generally found in gray Holocene aquifers whereas orange-sanded Pleistocene aquifers are typically a safer, lower As alternative. In the Red River Delta of Vietnam and elsewhere, Pleistocene aquifers can also have elevated arsenic levels, often due to increased groundwater pumping from the growing Hanoi area drawing high As water from Holocene aquifers, or from reduction induced by advected groundwater and organic carbon from the Red River. To determine which factors threaten the Pleistocene aquifers, we critically examine the hydrological and geochemical factors that could influence arsenic levels in the area. Exploiting an asymmetry in the region just south of Hanoi, yearlong spatiotemporal measurements of dissolved arsenic levels reveals a paradox between a Pleistocene aquifer site in Yen My (west bank) with higher As concentrations than a Holocene site in Van Duc (east bank). We monitor the influence of local and regional hydrology via water table measurements, stable water isotopes and conservative anion concentrations linked to the release of aqueous As. Preliminary x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data point to As(V)/arsenic sulfide minerals in Yen My versus As(III) minerals in Van Duc. Coupled to hydrology, downcore Fe Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and As X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) stratigraphy and spatiotemporal dissolved organic carbon data serve to narrow down the possible sources of carbon and reductive processes that affect As speciation and transport. Overall, understanding sources that endanger the Pleistocene aquifers may elucidate important As cycling mechanisms at play that threatens water quality for

  3. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  4. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun

    2014-12-02

    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  5. Pore geometry of ceramic device: The key factor of drug release kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Release kinetics of tigecycline, a potential antibiotic in treatment of osteomyelitis, from calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA, as one of the most important ceramic materials in bone tissue engineering, was investigated in this study. Tigecycline, in solid state, was mixed with CHA powder and the obtained mixture was compressed into tablets using two different pressures. These tablets were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution and tigecycline release was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The total release time was 5 or 28 days, depending on the pressure applied during compression. It was shown that there is a close relationship between pore sizes and drug release rate. The drug release kinetics was interpreted on the base of pore sizes and pore size distribution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  6. Fuel behaviour and fission product release under realistic hydrogen conditions comparisons between HEVA 06 test results and Vulcain computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.M.; Lhiaubet, G.

    1989-07-01

    The HEVA 06 test was designed to simulate the conditions existing at the time when fission products are released from irradiated fuel under hydrogen conditions occurring in a PWR core at low pressure. The test conditions were defined from results provided by the core degradation module of the ESCADRE system (1): VULCAIN. This computer code has been recently used to analyse the early core degradation of a 900 MWe PWR in the AF accident sequence (as defined in WASH - 1400, USNRC - 1975). In this scenario, the core would begin to uncover about one day after scram with the system pressure at about 0.4 MPa. The fission product release starts 70 minutes after core dewatering. The F.P. are transferred to the core outlet in an increasingly hydrogen-rich steam atmosphere. The carrier gas is nearly pure hydrogen in the time period 100 - 130 minutes after core uncovering. A large release of F.P. is predicted in the upper part of the core when the steam starvation occurs. At that time, two thirds of the cladding have been oxidised on an average. Before each HEVA test a fuel sample with a burn-up of 36 GWd/tU is reirradiated in order to observe the release of short-lived fission products. A pre-oxidation was primarely conducted in the HEVA 06 test at a temperature of 1300 0 C and controlled to reach a 2/3 cladding oxidation state. Then the steam was progressively replaced by hydrogen and a heat-up rate of 1.5 0 C/s was induced to reach a temperature of 2100 0 C. The fuel was maintained at this temperature for half an hour in hydrogen. The volatile F.P. release kinetics were observed by on-line gamma spectrometry. Pre test calculations of F.P. release kinetics performed with the EMIS module based on the CORSOR models (3) are compared with the test results. Measured releases of cesium and iodine are really lower than those predicted. Axial and radial F.P. distributions in the fuel pellets are available from gamma tomography measurements performed after the test. Tellurium seems

  7. On the Factor Structure of a Reading Comprehension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…

  8. Free amino acids exhibit anthozoan "host factor" activity: they induce the release of photosynthate from symbiotic dinoflagellates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R D; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; McFall-Ngai, M J; Bil, K Y; Muscatine, L

    1995-08-01

    Reef-building corals and other tropical anthozoans harbor endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. It is now recognized that the dinoflagellates are fundamental to the biology of their hosts, and their carbon and nitrogen metabolisms are linked in important ways. Unlike free living species, growth of symbiotic dinoflagellates is unbalanced and a substantial fraction of the carbon fixed daily by symbiont photosynthesis is released and used by the host for respiration and growth. Release of fixed carbon as low molecular weight compounds by freshly isolated symbiotic dinoflagellates is evoked by a factor (i.e., a chemical agent) present in a homogenate of host tissue. We have identified this "host factor" in the Hawaiian coral Pocillopora damicornis as a set of free amino acids. Synthetic amino acid mixtures, based on the measured free amino acid pools of P. damicornis tissues, not only elicit the selective release of 14C-labeled photosynthetic products from isolated symbiotic dinoflagellates but also enhance total 14CO2 fixation.

  9. A test of Gaia Data Release 1 parallaxes: implications for the local distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casertano, Stefano; Riess, Adam G.; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Lattanzi, Mario G.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We present a comparison of Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) parallaxes with photometric parallaxes for a sample of 212 Galactic Cepheids at a median distance of 2 kpc, and explore their implications on the distance scale and the local value of the Hubble constant H0. Methods: The Cepheid distances are estimated from a recent calibration of the near-infrared period-luminosity (P-L) relation. The comparison is carried out in parallax space, where the DR1 parallax errors, with a median value of half the median parallax, are expected to be well-behaved. Results: With the exception of one outlier, the DR1 parallaxes are in very good global agreement with the predictions from a well-established P-L relation, with a possible indication that the published errors may be conservatively overestimated by about 20%. This confirms that the quality of DR1 parallaxes for the Cepheids in our sample is well within their stated errors. We find that the parallaxes of 9 Cepheids brighter than G = 6 may be systematically underestimated. If interpreted as an independent calibration of the Cepheid luminosities and assumed to be otherwise free of systematic uncertainties, DR1 parallaxes are in very good agreement (within 0.3%) with the current estimate of the local Hubble constant, and in conflict at the level of 2.5σ (3.5σ if the errors are scaled) with the value inferred from Planck cosmic microwave background data used in conjunction with ΛCDM. We also test for a zeropoint error in Gaia parallaxes and find none to a precision of 20 μas. We caution however that with this early release, the complete systematic properties of the measurements may not be fully understood at the statistical level of the Cepheid sample mean, a level an order of magnitude below the individual uncertainties. The early results from DR1 demonstrate again the enormous impact that the full mission will likely have on fundamental questions in astrophysics and cosmology.

  10. Update: Tests confirm no radioactivity release to environment from IAEA Seibersdorf Lab after 3 August incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Independent analysis has confirmed that there was no release of radioactive material to the environment following an incident at the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratory on 3 August. The test results were provided by the Austrian Research Centers (ARC), from analysis of soil, plant and water samples collected from outside the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf, where the incident occurred. The radiation protection experts of the ARC confirmed the initial findings from the laboratory's automatic monitoring system which indicated that there had been no release of radioactivity to the environment. Since the incident, constant air monitoring near the laboratory, undertaken by the IAEA, has also provided no evidence of any radioactive contamination. A tiny amount of plutonium contained in an acid solution spilled from five small glass vials when one of them burst after a build up of pressure in it. The vials were stored in a secure steel safe. In total there was less than one gram of plutonium in the five vials. The material was in the laboratory for scientific reference purposes and virtually all of the contamination was confined within the steel walled safe. As previously reported, the automatic alarm was triggered when highly sensitive detectors of the continuous air monitoring system identified minor amounts of radioactive aerosols in the storage room containing the safe. The air contamination was trapped entirely in the filters of the ventilation system. No one was working in the laboratory at the time of the accident, which occurred at 02:31. The IAEA emergency response team promptly secured and sealed off the windowless storage room. An investigation into the circumstances and causes of the incident is still underway. In the meantime the first stage of the clean-up of the storage room was successfully completed on Friday, 22 August. According to the IAEA's nuclear regulator's assessment of the incident, the lab's safety systems worked properly and

  11. Update: Tests confirm no radioactivity release to environment from IAEA Seibersdorf Lab after 3 August incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Independent analysis has confirmed that there was no release of radioactive material to the environment following an incident at the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratory on 3 August. The test results were provided by the Austrian Research Centers (ARC), from analysis of soil, plant and water samples collected from outside the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf, where the incident occurred. The radiation protection experts of the ARC confirmed the initial findings from the laboratory's automatic monitoring system which indicated that there had been no release of radioactivity to the environment. Since the incident, constant air monitoring near the laboratory, undertaken by the IAEA, has also provided no evidence of any radioactive contamination. A tiny amount of plutonium contained in an acid solution spilled from five small glass vials when one of them burst after a build up of pressure in it. The vials were stored in a secure steel safe. In total there was less than one gram of plutonium in the five vials. The material was in the laboratory for scientific reference purposes and virtually all of the contamination was confined within the steel walled safe. As previously reported, the automatic alarm was triggered when highly sensitive detectors of the continuous air monitoring system identified minor amounts of radioactive aerosols in the storage room containing the safe. The air contamination was trapped entirely in the filters of the ventilation system. No one was working in the laboratory at the time of the accident, which occurred at 02:31. The IAEA emergency response team promptly secured and sealed off the windowless storage room. An investigation into the circumstances and causes of the incident is still underway. In the meantime the first stage of the clean-up of the storage room was successfully completed on Friday, 22 August. According to the IAEA's nuclear regulator's assessment of the incident, the lab's safety systems worked properly and

  12. Measurement of the momentum transferred between contacting bodies during the LISA test-mass release phase—uncertainty estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cecco, M; Bortoluzzi, D; Da Lio, M; Baglivo, L; Benedetti, M

    2009-01-01

    The requirements for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) test-mass (TM) release phase are analysed in view of the building up of a testing facility aimed at on-Earth qualification of the release mechanism. Accordingly, the release of the TM to free-fall must provide a linear momentum transferred to the TM not exceeding 10 −5 kg m s −1 . In order to test this requirement, a double pendulum system has been developed. The mock-ups of the TM and the release-dedicated plunger are brought into contact and then the latter is quickly retracted. During and after release, the TM motion is measured by a laser interferometer. The transferred momentum is estimated from the free oscillations following the plunger retraction by means of a Wiener–Kolmogorov optimal filter. This work is aimed at modelling the measurement chain, taking into account procedure, instruments, mechanisms and data elaboration in order to estimate the uncertainty associated with the transferred momentum measurement by means of Monte Carlo simulation

  13. Nitric oxide-releasing agents enhance cytokine-induced tumor necrosis factor synthesis in human mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigler, A; Sinha, B; Endres, S

    1993-01-01

    In septic shock tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to increased nitric oxide (NO) production by induction of NO synthase. An inverse regulatory effect, the influence of NO on cytokine synthesis, has rarely been investigated. The present study assessed the influence of NO-releasing agents on TNF

  14. Low-molecular-weight organoiodine and organobromine compounds released by polar macroalgae--the influence of abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturnus, F; Giese, B; Wiencke, C; Adams, F C

    2000-01-01

    The influence of temperature, light, salinity and nutrient availability on the release of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons was investigated in the Antarctic red macroalgal species Gymnogongrus antarcticus Skottsberg. Compared to standard culture condition, an increase in the release rates of iodocompounds was generally found for the exposure of the alga to altered environmental conditions. Macroalgae exhibited higher release rates after adaptation for two months to the changed factors, than after short-term exposure. Monitoring the release rates during a 24 h incubation period (8.25 h light, 15.75 h darkness) showed that changes between light and dark periods had no influence on the release of volatile halocarbons. Compounds like bromoform and 1-iodobutane exhibited constant release rates during the 24 h period. The formation mechanisms and biological role of volatile organohalogens are discussed. Although marine macroalgae are not considered to be the major source of biogenically-produced volatile organohalogens, they contribute significantly to the bromine and iodine cycles in the environment. Under possible environmental changes like global warming and uncontrolled entrophication of the oceans their significance may be increase.

  15. Human interleukin for DA cells or leukemia inhibitory factor is released by Vero cells in human embryo coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaxanthos-Roche, A; Taupin, J L; Mayer, G; Daniel, J Y; Moreau, J F

    1994-09-01

    In the light of the newly discovered implications of human interleukin for DA cells and leukemia inhibitory factor in embryology, we searched for the presence of this soluble cytokine in the supernatant of Vero cell coculture systems. Using a bioassay as well as a specific ELISA, we demonstrated that Vero cells are able to release large quantities of human interleukin for DA cells and leukemia inhibitory factor in the embryo-growing medium of such cocultures.

  16. Plutonium in the environment: key factors related to impact assessment in case of an accidental atmospheric release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, P. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Moulin, V.; Reiller, P. [CEA Saclay, 91 (FR)] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with plutonium and key factors related to impact assessment. It is based on recent work performed by CEA which summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installations to the environment and man, and to report current knowledge on the different parameters used in models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. These key factors are illustrated through a case study based on an accidental atmospheric release of Pu in a nuclear facility. (orig.)

  17. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Common and divergent structural features of a series of corticotropin releasing factor-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Perrin, Marilyn H; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Vale, Wylie W; Rivier, Jean E; Riek, Roland

    2007-12-26

    Members of the corticoliberin family include the corticotropin releasing factors (CRFs), sauvagine, the urotensins, and urocortin 1 (Ucn1), which bind to both the CRF receptors CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and the urocortins 2 (Ucn2) and 3 (Ucn3), which are selective agonists of CRF-R2. Structure activity relationship studies led to several potent and long-acting analogues with selective binding to either one of the receptors. NMR structures of six ligands of this family (the antagonists astressin B and astressin2-B, the agonists stressin1, and the natural ligands human Ucn1, Ucn2, and Ucn3) were determined in DMSO. These six peptides show differences in binding affinities, receptor-selectivity, and NMR structure. Overall, their backbones are alpha-helical, with a small kink or a turn around residues 25-27, resulting in a helix-loop-helix motif. The C-terminal helices are of amphipathic nature, whereas the N-terminal helices vary in their amphipathicity. The C-terminal helices thereby assume a conformation very similar to that of astressin bound to the ECD1 of CRF-R2 recently reported by our group.1 On the basis of an analysis of the observed 3D structures and relative potencies of [Ala]-substituted analogues, it is proposed that both helices could play a crucial role in receptor binding and selectivity. In conclusion, the C-terminal helices may interact along their hydrophobic faces with the ECD1, whereas the entire N-terminal helical surface may be involved in receptor activation. On the basis of the common and divergent features observed in the 3D structures of these ligands, multiple binding models are proposed that may explain their plurality of actions.

  19. Effect of centrifugation time on growth factor and MMP release of an experimental platelet-rich fibrin-type product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Gülnihal; Gürkan, Ali; Atmaca, Harika; Dönmez, Ayhan; Atilla, Gül

    2016-07-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has a controlled release of growth factors due to the fibrin matrix structure. Different centrifugation protocols were suggested for PRF preparation. Since the derivation method of PRF can alter its contents, in the present study it is aimed to investigate the cell contents and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and-8 release from experimental PRF-type membranes obtained with different centrifugation times at 400 gravity. Three blood samples were collected from 20 healthy non-smoker volunteers. One tube was used for whole blood analyses. The other two tubes were centrifuged at 400 g for 10 minutes (group A) or 12 minutes (group B). Each experimental PRF-type membrane was placed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM)and at 1, 24 and 72 hours, TGF-β1, PDGF-AB, VEGF, MMP-1 and -8 release amounts were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The blood cell count of membranes was determined by subtracting plasma supernatant and red blood cell (RBC) mixture from the whole blood cell counts. At 72 hours, the VEGF level of group B was statistically higher than that of group A (p = 0.040). The centrifugation time was not found to influence the release of other growth factors, enzymes and cell counts. Within the limits of the present study, it might be suggested that centrifugation time at a constant gravity has a significant effect on the VEGF levels released from experimental PRF-type membrane. It can be concluded that due to the importance of VEGF in the tissue healing process, membranes obtained at 12-minute centrifugation time may show a superior potential in wound healing.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): (sm b ullet) CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  1. Development of test apparatus for fission product release from overheated fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, T.; Hirosawa, T.; Funabashi, H.; Miyahara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of the source term released to environment under the accident conditions is important to the safety evaluation and design of reactor containment vessel. However, available data related to FBR source term are very limited, especially for the FPs release data from overheated FBR fuel. The present, source term evaluation of FBR is based on assumption from that of LWR. Though, this evaluation is very conservative. Evaluation large scale FBR source term using this method is result in extremely conservative and lead construction of large scale plant becomes doubtful from the viewpoints of cost and safety system. Though, it is necessary to evaluate source term from the realistic and rational scenario considering a characteristic of FBR. Preparation of FPs release experiment from irradiated fuel is going on to investigate the FPs release and transport and to develop the analysis code for in-vessel source term evaluation. Fabrication of this apparatus was started in 1992, and the installation was completed in 1994. This apparatus passed the facility inspection by Science and Technology Agency in March 1995. This apparatus consists of a high frequency induction furnace, thermal gradient tube (TGT), sintered metal filters, cold traps, gas-analyzer, γ-ray spectrometry system and so on. In the experiment, FPs release rate and behavior will be investigated using gamma-ray spectrogram and FP gas analysis. Physical and chemical composition of released FP would be investigated from FPs deposited profiles on TGT. Now, cold experiment using simulant FP materials are conducted. (author)

  2. Factors influencing release of phosphorus from sediments in a high productive polymictic lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solim, S U; Wanganeo, A

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) release rates from bottom sediments are high (20.6 mg/m(2)/day) in Dal Lake (India), a polymictic hyper-eutrophic lake. These gross release rates occur over a period of 72 days during summer only. Likewise, a net internal load of 11.3 tons was obtained from mass balance estimates. Significant proportion i.e. approximately 80% of 287.3 tons/yr of nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load is either eliminated by denitrification or gets entrapped for a short period in high macrophyte biomass of 3.2 kg/m(2) f.w., which eventually get decomposed and nitrogen (N) is released back. These processes result in low lake water NO(3)-N concentrations which potentially influence sediment phosphorus (P) release. Especially, nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) 500 microg/L in the lake waters were associated with high P concentrations. Phosphorus was also observed to increase significantly in relation to temperature and pH, and it seems likely that release of phosphorus and ammonical nitrogen (NH(4)-N) depend on decomposition of rich reserves of organic matter (893 tons d.w. in superficial 10-cm bottom sediment layer). Lake P concentrations were significantly predicted by a multivariate regression model developed for the lake. This study describes significance of various lake water variables in relation to P-release from bottom sediments.

  3. The membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases epidermal growth factor from the kidney membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    shows that the membrane fraction of homogenized rat kidney contains an enzyme that releases immuno and receptor reactive EGF from the kidney membranes when incubated at 37 degrees C. Gel filtration shows that the EGF reactivity released from the membranes is similar to the EGF reactivity in rat urine......High levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) are excreted in the urine and high levels of mRNA for the EGF-precursor have been demonstrated in the kidney. The EGF-precursor is a membrane bound peptide in the kidney, but little is known about the renal processing of the precursor. The present study...

  4. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  5. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  6. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulkin Jay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 μl or amphetamine (20 μg/0.2 μl. Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Results Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng or amphetamine (20 μg selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress

  7. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Schulkin, Jay; Berridge, Kent C

    2006-04-13

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior). Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 microl) or amphetamine (20 microg/0.2 microl). Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng) or amphetamine (20 microg) selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress, or by persistent attempts to

  8. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : exogenous factors test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the exogenous factors test plan for the national evaluation of the Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The Minnesota UPA projects focus on reduc...

  9. Testing of self-repairing composite airplane components by use of CAI and the release of the repair chemicals from carefully inserted small tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2007-04-01

    The research on self repair of airplane components, under an SBIR phase II with Wright Patterson Air Force Base, has investigated the attributes and best end use applications for such a technology. These attributes include issues related to manufacturability, cost, potential benefits such as weight reduction, and cost reduction. The goal of our research has been to develop self-repairing composites with unique strength for air vehicles. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the composite matrix itself. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the composite senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the composite is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The advantages to the military would be safely executed missions, fewer repairs and eventually lighter vehicles. In particular the research has addressed the issues by correlating the impact of the various factors, such as 1) delivery vessel placement, shape/size and effect on composite strength, chemicals released and their effect on the matrix, release trigger and efficacy and any impact on matrix properties 2) impact of composite processing methods that involve heat and pressure on the repair vessels. Our self repairing system can be processed at temperatures of 300-350F, repairs in less than 30 seconds and does not damage the composite by repair fiber insertion or chemical release. Scaling up and manufacture of components has revealed that anticipating potential problems allowed us to avoid those associated with processing temperatures and pressures. The presentation will focus on compression after impact testing and the placement of repair fibers/tubes into prepreg

  10. Effect of power change on fission gas release. Re-irradiation tests of spent fuel at JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Jinichi; Shimizu, Michio; Ishii, Tadahiko; Endo, Yasuichi; Ohwada, Isao; Nabeya, Hideaki; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    A full length rod irradiated at Tsuruga unit 1 was refabricated to short length rods, and rod inner pressure gauges were re-instrumented to the rods. Re-irradiation tests to study the fission gas release during power change were carried out by means of BOCA/OSF-1 facility at the JMTR. In the tests, steady state operation at 40 kW/m and power cycling operations between 20 and 40 kW/m were conducted for the same high power holding time, and the rod inner pressure change during the tests was measured. The rod inner pressure increase was observed during power change, especially during power reduction. The rod inner pressure increase during a power cycling depended on the length of the high power operation just before the power cycling. The fission gas release during power reduction is estimated to be the release from fission gas bubbles on the grain boundary caused by the thermal stress in the pellet during power reduction. When steady state operation and power cycling were repeated at the power levels of 30, 35 and 40 kW/m, the power cycling accelerated the fission gas release compared with the steady state operation. (author)

  11. Potent and long-acting corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 selective peptide competitive antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, J; Gulyas, J; Kirby, D; Low, W; Perrin, M H; Kunitake, K; DiGruccio, M; Vaughan, J; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Koerber, S C; Martinez, V; Wang, L; Taché, Y; Vale, W

    2002-10-10

    We present evidence that members of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family assume distinct structures when interacting with the CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors. Predictive methods, physicochemical measurements, and structure-activity relationship studies have suggested that CRF, its family members, and competitive antagonists such as astressin [cyclo(30-33)[DPhe(12),Nle(21),Glu(30),Lys(33),Nle(38)]hCRF((12-41))] assume an alpha-helical conformation when interacting with their receptors. We had shown that alpha-helical CRF((9-41)) and sauvagine showed some selectivity for CRF receptors other than that responsible for ACTH secretion(1) and later for CRF2.(2) More recently, we suggested the possibility of a helix-turn-helix motif around a turn encompassing residues 30-33(3) that would confer high affinity for both CRF(1) and CRF(2)(2,4) in agonists and antagonists of all members of the CRF family.(3) On the other hand, the substitutions that conferred ca. 100-fold CRF(2) selectivity to the antagonist antisauvagine-30 [[DPhe(11),His(12)]sauvagine((11-40))] did not confer such property to the corresponding N-terminally extended agonists. We find here that a Glu(32)-Lys(35) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in hCRF and the corresponding Glu(31)-Lys(34) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in sauvagine yield potent ligands that are selective for CRF(2). Additionally, we introduced deletions and substitutions known to increase duration of action to yield antagonists such as cyclo(31-34)[DPhe(11),His(12),C(alpha)MeLeu(13,39),Nle(17),Glu(31),Lys(34)]Ac-sauvagine((8-40)) (astressin(2)-B) with CRF(2) selectivities greater than 100-fold. CRF receptor autoradiography was performed in rat tissue known to express CRF(2) and CRF(1) in order to confirm that astressin(2)-B could indeed bind to established CRF(2) but not CRF(1) receptor-expressing tissues. Extended duration of action of astressin(2)-B vs that of antisauvagine-30 is demonstrated in

  12. 21 CFR 864.7290 - Factor deficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factor deficiency test. 864.7290 Section 864.7290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7290 Factor deficiency...

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): (sm b ullet) CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge (sm b ullet) CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil (sm b ullet) CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  15. Chromium(III) release from chromium‐tanned leather elicits allergic contact dermatitis: a use test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Matura, Mihály; Lidén, Carola

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Chromium (Cr) is a common skin sensitizer. The use of Cr(VI) in leather is restricted in the EU, but that of Cr(III) is not. Objectives To assess whether prolonged exposure to Cr‐tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release may elicit allergic contact dermatitis in Cr‐allergic individuals. Method Ten Cr‐allergic subjects and 22 controls were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and with leather samples. They then conducted a use test with a Cr‐tanned and a Cr‐free leather bracelet over a period of 3 weeks, for 12 h per day. Cr deposited on the skin from the bracelets was measured in the controls, and the diphenylcarbazide test for Cr(VI) and extraction tests for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were conducted for the different leathers. Results Four of 10 Cr‐allergic subjects developed positive reactions to the Cr‐tanned bracelet within 7–21 days, whereas only 1 of 10 had a positive patch test reaction to this leather. Cr released from the Cr‐tanned leather was most probably entirely Cr(III), with a quantifiable amount being deposited on the skin. Conclusions This study strongly suggests that prolonged and repeated exposure to Cr‐tanned leather with mainly Cr(III) release is capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis in Cr‐allergic individuals. PMID:29322530

  16. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  17. A spot test for detection of cobalt release – early experience and findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P.; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is often difficult to establish clinical relevance of metal exposure in cobalt-allergic patients. Dermatologists and patients may incorrectly assume that many metallic items release cobalt at levels that may cause cobalt dermatitis. Cobalt-allergic patients may be unaware that they...

  18. Full scale ambient water flow tests of a 10-inch emergency release coupling for LNG transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, L.J. van der; Webber, T.; Bokhorst, E. van; Revell, C.

    2016-01-01

    For LNG transfer in ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore configurations emergency release couplings (F.RC) in combination with loading arms and multi-composite hoses are applied In view of a demand for increasing transfer flow rates in offshore LNG applications a 10-inch ERC has been developed intended

  19. A spot test for detection of cobalt release - early experience and findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to establish clinical relevance of metal exposure in cobalt-allergic patients. Dermatologists and patients may incorrectly assume that many metallic items release cobalt at levels that may cause cobalt dermatitis. Cobalt-allergic patients may be unaware that they are exposed...

  20. Neurobiology of stress adaptation in the mouse: Roles of corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körösi, Anikó

    2006-01-01

    The body's ability to adapt to stressors is essential for survival. Failure of stress adaptation may lead to the development of stress-related disorders. The traditionally known adaptation system in vertebrates, is the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis, in which corticotropin-releasing

  1. A photo-crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel growth factor release vehicle for wound healing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Sharon L.; Al-Khalili, Mohammad; Briggs, Tonye; Michniak, Bozena B.; Kohn, Joachim; Poole-Warren, Laura A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a hydrogel vehicle for sustained release of growth factors for wound healing applications. Hydrogels were fabricated using ultraviolet photo-crosslinking of acrylamide-functionalized nondegradable poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Protein permeability was initially assessed using trypsin inhibitor (TI), a 21 000 MW model protein drug. TI permeability was altered by changing the solids content of the gel and by adding hydrophilic PVA fillers. As...

  2. Basic fibroblast growth factor binds to subendothelial extracellular matrix and is released by heparitinase and heparin-like molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, P.; Doctrow, S.; Klagsbrun, M.; Svahn, C.M.; Folkman, J.; Vlodavsky, I.

    1989-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits specific binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured endothelial cells. Binding was saturable as a function both of time and of concentration of 125 I-bFGF. Scatchard analysis of FGF binding revealed the presence of about 1.5 x 10 12 binding sites/mm 2 ECM with an apparent k D of 610 nM. FGF binds to heparan sulfate (HS) in ECM as evidenced by (i) inhibition of binding in the presence of heparin or HS at 0.1-1 μg/mL, but not by chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid at 10 μg/mL, (ii) lack of binding to ECM pretreated with heparitinase, but not with chondroitinase ABC, and (iii) rapid release of up to 90% of ECM-bound FGF by exposure to heparin, HS, or heparitinase, but not to chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, or chondroitinase ABC. Oligosaccharides derived from depolymerized heparin, and as small as the tetrasaccharide, released the ECM-bound FGF, but there was little or no release of FGF by modified nonanticoagulant heparins such as totally desulfated heparin, N-desulfated heparin, and N-acetylated heparin. FGF released from ECM was biologically active, as indicated by its stimulation of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in vascular endothelial cells and 3T3 fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained in studies on release of endogenous FGF-like mitogenic activity from Descement's membranes of bovine corneas. It is suggested that ECM storage and release of bFGF provide a novel mechanism for regulation of capillary blood vessel growth. Whereas ECM-bound FGF may be prevented from acting on endothelial cells, its displacement by heparin-like molecules and/or HS-degrading enzymes may elicit a neovascular response

  3. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor types 1 and 2 are differentially expressed in pre- and post-synaptic elements in the post-natal developing rat cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinny, JD; Kalicharan, D; Blaauw, EH; Ijkema-Paassen, J; Shi, F; Gramsbergen, A; van der Want, JJL

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like proteins act via two G-protein-coupled receptors (CRF-R1 and CRF-R2) playing important neuromodulatory roles in stress responses and synaptic plasticity. The cerebellar expression of corticotropin-releasing factor-like ligands has been well documented, but

  4. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  5. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  6. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  7. Investigation of some factors affecting on release of radon-222 from phosphogypsum waste associated with phosphate ore processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, M A; El Afifi, E M; Nayl, A A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is oriented to investigate the influence of some physicochemical factors such as radium distribution, grain size, moisture content and chemical constituents on releases of radon-222 from the accumulated phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The emanation fraction, activity concentration in the pore and the surface exhalation rate of radon-222 in the bulk PG waste are 34.5 ± 0.3%, 238.6 ± 7.8 kBq m(-3) and 213 ± 6.9 mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. These values were varied and enhanced slightly in the fine grain sizes (F1 factor of 1.05 folds compared to the bulk residue. It was also found that release of radon from residue PG waste was controlled positively by radium (Ra-226), calcium (CaSO4) and strontium (SrO). About 67% of radon release attributed to the grain size below 0.5 mm, while 33% due to the large grain size above 0.5 mm. The emanation fraction of Rn-222 is increased with moisture content and the maximum emanation is ∼43% of moisture of 3-8%. It reduced slowly with the continuous increase in moisture till 20%. Due to PG waste in situ can be enhancing the background to the surround workers and/or public. Therefore, the environmental negative impacts due to release of Rn-222 can be minimized by legislation to restrict its civil uses, or increasing its moisture to ∼10%, or by the particle size separation of the fine fraction containing the high levels of Ra-226 followed by a suitable chemical treatment or disposal; whereas the low release amount can be diluted and used in cement industry, roads or dam construction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acceleration of aneurysm healing by P(DLLA-co-TMC)-coated coils enabling the controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiujing; Gao, Yuyuan; Sun, Xinlin; Ji, Bin; Cui, Xubo; Liu, Yaqi; Zheng, Tao; Chen, Chengwei; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zhu, Aiping; Quan, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the detachable coil in endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, the in-hospital mortality rate has been significantly decreased. Recurrence of the aneurysm remains the major drawback of using detachable coils. We prepared a bioactive coil coated with poly(d,l-lactide)-7co-(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) (P(DLLA-co-TMC)), a novel copolymer for controlling the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Platinum coils were prepared by successive coating with cationic P(DLLA-co-TMC) and anionic heparin. Then, recombinant human VEGF-165 (rhVEGF) was immobilized by affinity binding to heparin. The morphological characteristics and sustained in vitro release of rhVEGF were examined using scanning electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The efficacy of these novel coils modified by P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF was tested using a common carotid artery aneurysm model in rats. Experimental aneurysms were embolized with unmodified, P(DLLA-co-TMC)/heparin-coated or P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated platinum coils (n = 18). The coils were removed on days 15, 30 and 90 after insertion, and the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of factor VIII was performed to confirm the presence of endothelial cells in the organized area. In addition, the controlled in vivo release of VEGF was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The release of VEGF tended to increase during the whole period and no burst release was observed. In the group treated with P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated platinum coils, clot organization and endothelial cell proliferation were accelerated. The immunohistochemistry study showed that the expression of factor VIII was found in the P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated coil group but not in the other two groups. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis confirmed that the major released VEGF in the aneurysm sac was from the P(DLLA-co-TMC)/VEGF-coated coil. P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated platinum coils can

  9. Culicoides antigen extract stimulates equine blood mononuclear (BMN) cell proliferation and the release of eosinophil adherence-inducing factor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvie, J; Foster, A P; Hamblin, A S; Cunningham, F M

    2001-04-01

    Intradermal injection of a Culicoides antigen extract (CAgX) induces T lymphocyte and eosinophil accumulation in the skin of horses with sweet itch. Blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from normal ponies proliferate when stimulated by mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or antigen (tetanus toxoid, TT) and, as shown here, release soluble factor(s) that induce eosinophil adherence. CAgX also caused concentration dependent proliferation of BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies [stimulation index: 29 (13) and 17 (7) for BMN cells from sweet itch and normal ponies, respectively during the active phase of disease; 4 microg protein ml(-1)CAgX; 168 h]. A heat labile factor(s) which caused eosinophil adherence was also released [sweet itch ponies: 6.0 (1.6) per cent adherence versus 1.3 (0.4) per cent; normal ponies: 6.6 (0.5) per cent adherence versus 0.9 (0.1) per cent for supernatants from CAgX (4 microg protein ml(-1); 48 hours) stimulated versus unstimulated BMN cells, respectively]. These results suggest that soluble proteins released from T lymphocytes could affect eosinophil function in the lesional skin of sweet itch horses. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Test Factor Structure and Test Hierarchical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, William M.; Airasian, Peter W.

    The question of whether test factor structure is indicative of the test item hierarchy was examined. Data from 1,000 subjects on two sets of five bivalued Law School Admission Test items, which were analyzed with latent trait methods of Bock and Lieberman and of Christoffersson in Psychometrika, were analyzed with an ordering-theoretic method to…

  11. Determination of fission gas release of spent nuclear fuel in puncturing test and in leaching experiments under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Robles, E., E-mail: ernesto.gonzalez-robles@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Metz, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wegen, D.H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125, Karlsruhe (Germany); Herm, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Papaioannou, D. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bohnert, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gretter, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125, Karlsruhe (Germany); Müller, N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nasyrow, R.; Weerd, W. de; Wiss, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements (JRC-ITU), P.O. Box 2340, 76125, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kienzler, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    During reactor operation the fission gases Kr and Xe are formed within the UO{sub 2} matrix of nuclear fuel. Their quantification is important to evaluate their impact on critical parameters regarding the fuel behaviour during irradiation and (long-term) interim storage, such as internal pressure of the fuel rod and fuel swelling. Moreover the content of Kr and Xe in the plenum of a fuel rod and their content in the UO{sub 2} fuel itself are widely used as indicators for the release properties of {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and other safety relevant radionuclides with respect to final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The present study deals with the fission gas release from spent nuclear fuel exposed to simulated groundwater in comparison with the fission gas previously released to the fuel rod plenum during irradiation in reactor. In a unique approach we determined both the Kr and Xe inventories in the plenum by means of a puncturing test and in leaching experiments with a cladded fuel pellet and fuel fragments in bicarbonate water under 3.2 bar H{sub 2} overpressure. The fractional inventory of the fission gases released during irradiation into the plenum was (8.3 ± 0.9) %. The fraction of inventory of fission gases released during the leaching experiments was (17 ± 2) % after 333 days of leaching of the cladded pellet and (25 ± 2) % after 447 days of leaching of the fuel fragments, respectively. The relatively high release of fission gases in the experiment with fuel fragments was caused by the increased accessibility of water to the Kr and Xe occluded in the fuel.

  12. Release of radioactive materials in simulation test of a postulated solvent fire in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, G.; Hashimoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on small- and large-scale fire tests performed to examine the adequacy of a safety evaluation method for a solvent fire in the extraction process of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The test objectives were to obtain information on the confinement of radioactive materials during a 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate-n-dodecane fire while air ventilation is operating in the cell. The rates of release of cesium, strontium, cerium, ruthenium, and uranium from a burning solvent were determined. The quantities of species released were obtained from the solvent burning rate, smoke generation rate, partition coefficients of species between solvent and water, and coefficients of species entrainment to atmosphere in cell

  13. Evaluation of fuel release rate and mechanism tests under RBCB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    This task includes theoretical evaluation of fuel/fission product release behavior from failed LMFBR fuel elements as well as an on-going experimental investigation of the mechanism of oxide fuel dispersal into flowing liquid sodium. The primary objectives of this work are to develop a fuel source term that can be used in predictive models for primary heat transfer system contamination and to understand the separate influences of important system variables (such as flow rate, oxygen impurity level) on this source term. The present report is written in two parts: the first, in condensed form, is an updated evaluation of fuel (U,Pu) and fission product release data, and the second describes the current status of supporting experimental work at General Electric's Vallecitos Laboratory

  14. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Bayer; Justus Lammel; Mersedeh Tohidnezhad; Sebastian Lippross; Peter Behrendt; Tim Klüter; Thomas Pufe; Jochen Cremer; Holger Jahr; Franziska Rademacher; Regine Gläser; Jürgen Harder

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF?)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting acti...

  15. Enhanced phosphoserine insertion during Escherichia coli protein synthesis via partial UAG codon reassignment and release factor 1 deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Ilka U.; Rovner, Alexis J.; Aerni, Hans R.; Rogulina, Svetlana; Cheng, Laura; Olds, William; Fischer, Jonathan T.; Söll, Dieter; Isaacs, Farren J.; Rinehart, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Genetically encoded phosphoserine incorporation programmed by the UAG codon was achieved by addition of engineered elongation factor and an archaeal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase to the normal Escherichia coli translation machinery (Park (2011) Science 333, 1151). However, protein yield suffers from expression of the orthogonal phosphoserine translation system and competition with release factor 1 (RF-1). In a strain lacking RF-1, phosphoserine phosphatase, and where 7 UAG codons residing in essential genes were converted to UAA, phosphoserine incorporation into GFP and WNK4 was significantly elevated, but with an accompanying loss in cellular fitness and viability. PMID:22982858

  16. Isolation and amino acid sequence of corticotropin-releasing factor from pig hypothalami.

    OpenAIRE

    Patthy, M; Horvath, J; Mason-Garcia, M; Szoke, B; Schlesinger, D H; Schally, A V

    1985-01-01

    A polypeptide was isolated from acid extracts of porcine hypothalami on the basis of its high ability to stimulate the release of corticotropin from superfused rat pituitary cells. After an initial separation by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, further purification was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC. The isolated material was homogeneous chromatographically and by N-terminal sequencing. Based on automated gas-phase sequencing of the intact and CNBr-cleaved peptide and on carboxypeptidase ...

  17. Growth factor release by vesicular phospholipid gels: in-vitro results and application for rotator cuff repair in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Stefan; Sandmann, Gunther H; Walz, Lars; Reichel, Thomas; Beitzel, Knut; Wexel, Gabriele; Tian, Weiwei; Battmann, Achim; Vogt, Stephan; Winter, Gerhard; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2015-04-10

    Biological augmentation of rotator cuff repair is of growing interest to improve biomechanical properties and prevent re-tearing. But intraoperative single shot growth factor application appears not sufficient to provide healing support in the physiologic growth factor expression peaks. The purpose of this study was to establish a sustained release of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) from injectable vesicular phospholipid gels (VPGs) in vitro and to examine biocompatibility and influence on histology and biomechanical behavior of G-CSF loaded VPGs in a chronic supraspinatus tear rat model. G-CSF loaded VPGs were produced by dual asymmetric centrifugation. In vitro the integrity, stability and release rate were analyzed. In vivo supraspinatus tendons of 60 rats were detached and after 3 weeks a transosseous refixation with G-CSF loaded VPGs augmentation (n = 15; control, placebo, 1 and 10 μg G-CSF/d) was performed. 6 weeks postoperatively the healing site was analyzed histologically (n = 9; H&E by modified MOVIN score/Collagen I/III) and biomechanically (n = 6). In vitro testing revealed stable proteins after centrifugation and a continuous G-CSF release of up to 4 weeks. Placebo VPGs showed histologically no negative side effects on the healing process. Histologically in vivo testing demonstrated significant advantages for G-CSF 1 μg/d but not for G-CSF 10 μg/d in Collagen III content (p = 0.035) and a higher Collagen I/III ratio compared to the other groups. Biomechanically G-CSF 1 μg/d revealed a significant higher load to failure ratio (p = 0.020) compared to control but no significant differences in stiffness. By use of VPGs a continuous growth factor release could be obtained in vitro. The in vivo results demonstrate an improvement of immunohistology and biomechanical properties with a low dose G-CSF application via VPG. The VPG itself was well tolerated and had no negative influence on the healing behavior. Due to the favorable properties

  18. Baseline monitoring and simulated liquid release test report for Tank W-9, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with the baseline dry well conductivity monitoring data and simulated liquid release tests to support the use of Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) W-9 as a temporary consolidation tank during waste removal operations. Information provided in this report forms part of the technical basis for criticality safety, systems safety, engineering design and waste management as they apply to the GAAT treatability study and waste removal actions

  19. Antagonism of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in the fourth ventricle modifies responses to mild but not restraint stress

    OpenAIRE

    Miragaya, Joanna R.; Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated restraint stress (RRS; 3 h of restraint on 3 consecutive days) in rodents produces temporary hypophagia, but a long-term downregulation of body weight. The mild stress (MS) of an intraperitoneal injection of saline and housing in a novel room for 2 h also inhibits food intake and weight gain, but the effects are smaller than for RRS. Previous exposure to RRS exaggerates hypophagia, glucocorticoid release, and anxiety-type behavior caused by MS. Here we tested the involvement of brain...

  20. Factors affecting the efficiency of the sterile insect release method for tsetse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the levels of sterility, survival and competitiveness of Glossina males after irradiation with various gamma-ray doses delivered in air or nitrogen. A simple population model helps in the choice of the optimum dose. Field studies of mating competitiveness require a measure of the ratio of sterile to fertile males and of sterile to fertile matings, and both ratio estimates will be subject to sampling error. Data on multiple mating of female Glossina are reviewed. There is some degree of precedence for sperm from the first mating but sterile sperm are fully competitive for fertilization and, following the early death of an embryo, the timing of the next ovulation is only advanced to a slight extent. Thus in an isolated population the occurrence or non-occurrence of female polygamy would be of almost no consequence. Where mated females were immigrating into the release area female polygamy would be advantageous. The low recovery potential of tsetse populations is the main reason for thinking them suitable for control by the introduction of sterility. In trying to measure this recovery potential it is important to distinguish it from natural seasonal increase. If natural population fluctuations are studied to detect density dependent effects it is important not to confuse cause with effect. Non-isolation of the 'target' population is almost certainly the most serious obstacle to practical application of the sterile insect release method, and a steady 'rolling forward' of the release area may be a possible solution. (author)

  1. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  2. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  3. Behavioral and physiological responses to central administration of corticotropin-releasing factor in the bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Grober, Matthew S

    2012-07-16

    Central manipulation of neuromodulators is critical to establishing causal links between brain function and behavioral output. The absence of a rigorous method of evaluating intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection efficacy in small model organisms is one reason why peripheral administration of neuroactive substances is more common. We use the bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli), a small, highly social fish, to 1) validate our method of i.c.v. injection by testing the hypothesis that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) elevates ventilation rate (VR) and 2) propose a novel bioassay using basal physiology and behavior during recovery from anesthesia/i.c.v. administration to assess injection efficacy, neuromodulator activity, and procedural confounds. Central CRF administration significantly increased ventilation rate, demonstrating successful delivery of CRF to the brain. There were no significant differences in cortisol among treatments. The injection procedure did, however, decouple the temporal relationship between the initiation of ventilation and time to regain equilibrium present in control fish. Importantly, neither i.c.v. vehicle nor CRF injection affected the initiation of ventilation, disrupted the stereotyped recovery pattern following anesthesia, or initiated an endocrine stress response. Taken together, we suggest that 1) i.c.v. injection can be effectively used to manipulate central levels of CRF in L. dalli and 2) physiological and behavioral recovery from anesthesia may be used to evaluate injection/technique efficacy. We will use these data in future studies as a measure of effective CRF delivery, to allow for appropriate recovery from i.c.v. injection, and to better evaluate independent effects of CRF on social and/or sexual behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissociation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype involvement in sensitivity to locomotor effects of methamphetamine and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, William J; Mark, Gregory P; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-02-01

    Enhanced sensitivity to the euphoric and locomotor-activating effects of psychostimulants may influence an individual's predisposition to drug abuse and addiction. While drug-induced behaviors are mediated by the actions of several neurotransmitter systems, past research revealed that the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is important in driving the acute locomotor response to psychostimulants. We previously reported that genetic deletion of the CRF type-2 receptor (CRF-R2), but not the CRF type-1 receptor (CRF-R1) dampened the acute locomotor stimulant response to methamphetamine (1 mg/kg). These results contrasted with previous studies implicating CRF-R1 in the locomotor effects of psychostimulants. Since the majority of previous studies focused on cocaine, rather than methamphetamine, we set out to test the hypothesis that these drugs differentially engage CRF-R1 and CRF-R2. We expanded our earlier findings by first replicating our previous experiments at a higher dose of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg), and by assessing the effects of the CRF-R1-selective antagonist CP-376,395 (10 mg/kg) on methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity. Next, we used both genetic and pharmacological tools to examine the specific components of the CRF system underlying the acute locomotor response to cocaine (5-10 mg/kg). While genetic deletion of CRF-R2 dampened the locomotor response to methamphetamine (but not cocaine), genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of CRF-R1 dampened the locomotor response to cocaine (but not methamphetamine). These findings highlight the differential involvement of CRF receptors in acute sensitivity to two different stimulant drugs of abuse, providing an intriguing basis for the development of more targeted therapeutics for psychostimulant addiction.

  5. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung

    1995-02-01

    Software reliability is especially important to customers these days. The need to quantify software reliability of safety-critical systems has been received very special attention and the reliability is rated as one of software's most important attributes. Since the software is an intellectual product of human activity and since it is logically complex, the failures are inevitable. No standard models have been established to prove the correctness and to estimate the reliability of software systems by analysis and/or testing. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there are many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability, however. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, testing environment factor comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are defined in this work to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factor Test reliability can also be estimated with this approach without any model change. The application results are close to the actual data. The approach used in this thesis is expected to be applicable to ultra high reliable software systems that are used in nuclear power plants, airplanes, and other safety-critical applications

  6. Standard test method for accelerated leach test for diffusive releases from solidified waste and a computer program to model diffusive, fractional leaching from cylindrical waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

  7. Impacts of environmental factors on arsenate biotransformation and release in Microcystis aeruginosa using the Taguchi experimental design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Zhuanxi; Yan, Changzhou; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-07-01

    Very limited information is available on how and to what extent environmental factors influence arsenic (As) biotransformation and release in freshwater algae. These factors include concentrations of arsenate (As(V)), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and ambient pH. This study conducted a series of experiments using Taguchi methods to determine optimum conditions for As biotransformation. We assessed principal effective factors of As(V), N, P, and pH and determined that As biotransformation and release actuate at 10.0 μM As(V) in dead alga cells, the As efflux ratio and organic As efflux content actuate at 1.0 mg/L P, algal growth and intracellular arsenite (As(III)) content actuate at 10.0 mg/L N, and the total sum of As(III) efflux from dead alga cells actuates at a pH level of 10. Moreover, N is the critical component for As(V) biotransformation in M. aeruginosa, specifically for As(III) transformation, because N can accelerate algal growth, subsequently improving As(III) accumulation and its efflux, which results in an As(V) to As(III) reduction. Furthermore, low P concentrations in combination with high N concentrations promote As accumulation. Following As(V), P was the primary impacting factor for As accumulation. In addition, small amounts of As accumulation under low concentrations of As and high P were securely stored in living algal cells and were easily released after cell death. Results from this study will help to assess practical applications and the overall control of key environmental factors, particularly those associated with algal bioremediation in As polluted water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. B16-BL6 melanoma cells release inhibitory factor(s) of active pump activity in isolated lymph vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, K; Mizuno, R; Ohhashi, T

    2001-12-01

    We investigated whether supernatant cultured with melanoma cell lines B16-BL6 and K1735 or the Lewis lung carcinoma cell line (LLC) can regulate lymphatic pump activity with bioassay preparations isolated from murine iliac lymph vessels. B16-BL6 and LLC supernatants caused significant dilation of lymph microvessels with cessation of pump activity. B16-BL6 supernatant produced dose-related cessation of lymphatic pump activity. There was no significant tachyphylaxis in the supernatant-mediated inhibitory response of lymphatic pump activity. Pretreatment with 3 x 10(-5) M N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 10(-7) M or 10(-6) M glibenclamide and 5 x 10(-4) M 5-hydroxydecanoic acid caused significant reduction of supernatant-mediated inhibitory responses. Simultaneous treatment with 10(-3) M L-arginine and 3 x 10(-5) M L-NAME significantly lessened L-NAME-induced inhibition of the supernatant-mediated response, suggesting that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in supernatant-mediated inhibitory responses. Chemical treatment dialyzed substances of B16-BL6 cells may release nonpeptide substance(s) of <1,000 MW, resulting in significant cessation of lymphatic pump activity via production and release of endogenous NO and activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

  9. Bayes Factor Covariance Testing in Item Response Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Mulder, Joris; Sinharay, Sandip

    2017-12-01

    Two marginal one-parameter item response theory models are introduced, by integrating out the latent variable or random item parameter. It is shown that both marginal response models are multivariate (probit) models with a compound symmetry covariance structure. Several common hypotheses concerning the underlying covariance structure are evaluated using (fractional) Bayes factor tests. The support for a unidimensional factor (i.e., assumption of local independence) and differential item functioning are evaluated by testing the covariance components. The posterior distribution of common covariance components is obtained in closed form by transforming latent responses with an orthogonal (Helmert) matrix. This posterior distribution is defined as a shifted-inverse-gamma, thereby introducing a default prior and a balanced prior distribution. Based on that, an MCMC algorithm is described to estimate all model parameters and to compute (fractional) Bayes factor tests. Simulation studies are used to show that the (fractional) Bayes factor tests have good properties for testing the underlying covariance structure of binary response data. The method is illustrated with two real data studies.

  10. Screening health care workers with interferon-γ release assay versus tuberculin skin test: impact on costs and adherence to testing (the SWITCH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton-Smith, Peter; Sneed, Laurie; Humphrey, Frances; Tao, Xuguang; Bernacki, Edward

    2012-07-01

    To determine the price point at which an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) is less costly than a tuberculin skin test (TST) for health care employee tuberculosis screening. A multidecision tree-based cost model incorporating inputs gathered from time-motion studies and parallel testing by IGRA and TST was conducted in a subset of our employees. Administering a TST testing program costs $73.20 per person screened, $90.80 per new hire, and $63.42 per annual screen. Use of an IGRA for employee health testing is cost saving at an IGRA test cost of $54.83 or less per test and resulted in higher completion rates because of the elimination of the need for a second visit to interpret the TST. Using an IGRA for employee health screening can be an institutional cost saving and results in higher compliance rates.

  11. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures

  12. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  13. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  14. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  15. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  16. Materials interactions test methods to measure radionuclide release from waste forms under repository-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.; Erikson, R.L.; Shade, J.W.

    1984-10-01

    At the request of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Materials Characterization Center has collected and developed a set of procedures into a waste form compliance test method (MCC-14.4). The purpose of the test is to measure the steady-state concentrations of specified radionuclides in solutions contacting a waste form material. The test method uses a crushed waste form and basalt material suspended in a synthetic basalt groundwater and agitated for up to three months at 150 0 C under anoxic conditions. Elemental and radioisotopic analyses are made on filtered and unfiltered aliquots of the solution. Replicate experiments are performed and simultaneous tests are conducted with an approved test material (ATM) to help ensure precise and reliable data for the actual waste form material. Various features of the test method, equipment, and test conditions are reviewed. Experimental testing using actinide-doped borosilicate glasses are also discussed. 9 references, 2 tables

  17. Prediction of safety critical software operational reliability from test reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1999-01-01

    It has been a critical issue to predict the safety critical software reliability in nuclear engineering area. For many years, many researches have focused on the quantification of software reliability and there have been many models developed to quantify software reliability. Most software reliability models estimate the reliability with the failure data collected during the test assuming that the test environments well represent the operation profile. User's interest is however on the operational reliability rather than on the test reliability. The experiences show that the operational reliability is higher than the test reliability. With the assumption that the difference in reliability results from the change of environment, from testing to operation, testing environment factors comprising the aging factor and the coverage factor are developed in this paper and used to predict the ultimate operational reliability with the failure data in testing phase. It is by incorporating test environments applied beyond the operational profile into testing environment factors. The application results show that the proposed method can estimate the operational reliability accurately. (Author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Factors infuencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the factors influencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) by university students. This was done by undertaking an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The study revealed ...

  19. Endothelial stress induces the release of vitamin D-binding protein, a novel growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Marc-Andre; Desormeaux, Anik; Labelle, Andree; Soulez, Mathilde; Soulez, Gilles; Langelier, Yves; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V.; Hebert, Marie-Josee

    2005-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) under stress release paracrine mediators that facilitate accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSCM) at sites of vascular injury. We found that medium conditioned by serum-starved EC increase proliferation and migration of VSCM in vitro. Fractionation of the conditioned medium followed by mass spectral analysis identified one bioactive component as vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). DBP induced both proliferation and migration of VSMC in vitro in association with increased phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. PD 98059, a biochemical inhibitor of ERK 1/2, abrogated these proliferative and migratory responses in VSMC. DBP is an important carrier for the vitamin-D sterols, 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D. Both sterols inhibited the activity of DBP on VSMC, suggesting that vitamin D binding sites are important for initiating the activities of DBP on VSMC. Release of DBP at sites of endothelial injury represents a novel pathway favoring accumulation of VSMC at sites of vascular injury

  20. Prediction of software operational reliability using testing environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1995-01-01

    A number of software reliability models have been developed to estimate and to predict software reliability. However, there are no established standard models to quantify software reliability. Most models estimate the quality of software in reliability figures such as remaining faults, failure rate, or mean time to next failure at the testing phase, and they consider them ultimate indicators of software reliability. Experience shows that there is a large gap between predicted reliability during development and reliability measured during operation, which means that predicted reliability, or so-called test reliability, is not operational reliability. Customers prefer operational reliability to test reliability. In this study, we propose a method that predicts operational reliability rather than test reliability by introducing the testing environment factor that quantifies the changes in environments

  1. Results of Large-Scale Testing on Effects of Anti-Foam Agent on Gas Retention and Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Arm, Stuart T.; Butcher, Mark G.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Park, Walter R.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Su, Yin-Fong; Wend, Christopher F.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Cooley, Scott K.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Reid, Larry D.; Smith, Harry D.; Wells, Beric E.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2008-01-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection’s Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste treatment process in the pretreatment facility will mix both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries in large process tanks. Process vessels mixing non-Newtonian slurries will use pulse jet mixers (PJMs), air sparging, and recirculation pumps. An anti-foam agent (AFA) will be added to the process streams to prevent surface foaming, but may also increase gas holdup and retention within the slurry. The work described in this report addresses gas retention and release in simulants with AFA through testing and analytical studies. Gas holdup and release tests were conducted in a 1/4-scale replica of the lag storage vessel operated in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Applied Process Engineering Laboratory using a kaolin/bentonite clay and AZ-101 HLW chemical simulant with non-Newtonian rheological properties representative of actual waste slurries. Additional tests were performed in a small-scale mixing vessel in the PNNL Physical Sciences Building using liquids and slurries representing major components of typical WTP waste streams. Analytical studies were directed at discovering how the effect of AFA might depend on gas composition and predicting the effect of AFA on gas retention and release in the full-scale plant, including the effects of mass transfer to the sparge air. The work at PNNL was part of a larger program that included tests conducted at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is being reported separately. SRNL conducted gas holdup tests in a small-scale mixing vessel using the AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) chemical simulant to investigate the effects of different AFAs, their components, and of adding noble metals. Full-scale, single-sparger mass transfer tests were also conducted at SRNL in water and AZ-101 HLW simulant to provide data for PNNL

  2. Understanding Test-Takers' Perceptions of Difficulty in EAP Vocabulary Tests: The Role of Experiential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç Ertürk, Nesrin; Mumford, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    This study, conducted by two researchers who were also multiple-choice question (MCQ) test item writers at a private English-medium university in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context, was designed to shed light on the factors that influence test-takers' perceptions of difficulty in English for academic purposes (EAP) vocabulary, with the…

  3. Estimates of external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors for selected radionuclides released from fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu; Togawa, Orihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This report provides a tabulation of both external dose-rate conversion factors and internal dose conversion factors using radioactive decay data in the updated Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for selected 26 radionuclides and all their daughter radionuclides of potential importance in safety assessments of fusion facilities. The external dose-rate conversion factors for 21 target organs are tabulated for three exposure modes that are immersion in contaminated air, irradiation at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface and immersion contaminated water. For internal exposure, committed dose equivalents, based on the methodology of ICRP Publication 30, in the same target organs per intake of unit activity are given for the inhalation and ingestion exposure pathways. The data presented here is intended to be generally used for safety assessments of fusion reactors. Comparisons of external effective dose-rate conversion factors and committed effective dose equivalents are made with the previous data from the independent data bases to provide quality assurance on our calculated results. There is generally good agreement among data from the independent data bases. The differences in the values of both effective dose-rate and dose conversion factors appeared are primarily due to differences in calculational methodology, the use of different radioactive decay data, and compilation errors. (author)

  4. Novel drug delivery systems for releasing growth factors to the CNS: focus on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, E; Igartua, M; Pedraz, J L; Hernandez, R M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) represent the most common neurodegenerative disorders and affect more than 35 million people. Due to the limited effectiveness of available treatments in halting the neurodegenerative process, new therapies, such therapies based on growth factors (GFs), have been investigated. Nevertheless, the efficacies of these new treatments depend not only on the application of neurotrophins but also on the approaches used to deliver these proteins such that they can reach the brain. This review summarises the most widely used drug delivery systems (DDSs) for releasing GFs as possible treatments for AD and PD.

  5. Handbook for the Release of Test Data. The Office of Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    Several questions are frequently asked by parents and news media regarding the purpose, content, and interpretation of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS)--the achievement battery currently used in South Carolina assessment programs. Proper interpretation of the CTBS, or any school district testing program, requires a sound…

  6. Presence of corticotrophin-releasing factor and/or tyrosine hydroxylase in cells of a neural brain-testicular pathway that are labelled by a transganglionic tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P; Rivier, C; Lee, S

    2008-02-01

    Our laboratory has shown that male testosterone levels are not solely controlled by the release of hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and pituitary luteinising hormone, but are also regulated by a multisynaptic pathway connecting the brain and the testis that interferes with the testosterone response to gonadotrophins. This pathway, which is independent of the pituitary gland, is activated by an i.c.v. injection of either the stress-related peptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) or of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, both of which alter androgen release and decrease levels of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein within Leydig cells. Our original studies used the retrograde transganglionic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) to map progression of the virus from the testes to upper brain levels. The present study aimed to extend this work by identifying the regions where CRF and catecholamine neurones represented components of the stress-activated, brain-testicular pathway that prevents testosterone increases. To this end, anaesthetised adult male rats received an intra-testicular injection of PRV. Using immunofluorescence, we identified co-labelling of PRV and either CRF or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme responsible for biogenic amine synthesis. Co-labelling of PRV and CRF was found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central amygdala. Co-labelling of PRV and TH was found in the PVN, substantia nigra, A7/Kölliker-Fuse area, area of A5, locus coeruleus, nucleus of solitary tract, area of C3, area of C2 and the area of C1/A1. These results indicate that most cell groups of the ventral noradrenergic pathway have neurones that are a part of the brain-testicular pathway. This suggests that the stress hormones CRF and catecholamines may act as neurotransmitters that signal the pathway to inhibit increases in plasma testosterone levels.

  7. Analysis of factors affecting the LOCA test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu

    2008-01-01

    Localization of nuclear safety-related equipment has become an important way of nuclear power development in China. To meet this demand, the competence should be promoted in the following two areas, one is to develop the capability of R and D and manufacturing of nuclear safety-related equipment, the other is to implement equipment qualification according to relevant codes and standards. As LOCA test is one of the most important parts in the qualification test of nuclear safety-related equipment, the main factors related with the quality of the LOCA test are analyzed in this paper, and this may be a reference to improve the skills in designing, constructing and operating LOCA test devices. (authors)

  8. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  9. Improved wound healing in pressure-induced decubitus ulcer with controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Wang Hailun; Jin Faguang; Yu Chunyan; Chu Dongling; Wang Lin; Lu Xian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of the wound dressing containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded microspheres on promoting healing in pressure-induced decubitus ulcer. In this study, the pressure-induced ulcer in swine was used as a model to demonstrate the hypothesis that controlled release of bFGF has the potential to provide optimal healing milieu for chronic wounds in the repair process. Average size of the microspheres was 14.36 ± 3.56 μm and the network gelatin sponges were characterized with an average pore size of 80-160 μm. Both the in vitro release efficiency and the protein bioactivity revealed that bFGF was released from the microspheres in a controlled manner and it was biologically active as assessed by its ability to induce the proliferation of fibroblasts. Pressure-induced ulcer was created at 500 g/cm 2 pressure loaded on swine dorsal skin 12 h daily for 2 consecutive days. After removal of the pressure load, the gelatin sponge containing bFGF gelatin microspheres or bFGF in solution was implanted into the wound. Swine were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 21 days after implantation, and a full-thickness biopsy was taken and stained for histological analysis. It was observed that controlled release of bFGF provided an accelerated recovery in the wound areas. Histological investigations showed that the dressings were biocompatible and had capability of proliferating fibroblasts and inducing neovascularisation. The present study implied the clinical potential of gelatin sponge with bFGF microspheres to promote the healing in pressure-induced decubitus ulcer

  10. Improved wound healing in pressure-induced decubitus ulcer with controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wei [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Hailun [Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Faguang [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: nidewenzhang@163.com; Yu Chunyan [Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Chu Dongling [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Lin [Department of Internal Medicine, 316 Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100093 (China); Lu Xian [93942 Unit Hospital of PLA, Xianyang 710012 (China)

    2008-07-14

    The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of the wound dressing containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-loaded microspheres on promoting healing in pressure-induced decubitus ulcer. In this study, the pressure-induced ulcer in swine was used as a model to demonstrate the hypothesis that controlled release of bFGF has the potential to provide optimal healing milieu for chronic wounds in the repair process. Average size of the microspheres was 14.36 {+-} 3.56 {mu}m and the network gelatin sponges were characterized with an average pore size of 80-160 {mu}m. Both the in vitro release efficiency and the protein bioactivity revealed that bFGF was released from the microspheres in a controlled manner and it was biologically active as assessed by its ability to induce the proliferation of fibroblasts. Pressure-induced ulcer was created at 500 g/cm{sup 2} pressure loaded on swine dorsal skin 12 h daily for 2 consecutive days. After removal of the pressure load, the gelatin sponge containing bFGF gelatin microspheres or bFGF in solution was implanted into the wound. Swine were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 21 days after implantation, and a full-thickness biopsy was taken and stained for histological analysis. It was observed that controlled release of bFGF provided an accelerated recovery in the wound areas. Histological investigations showed that the dressings were biocompatible and had capability of proliferating fibroblasts and inducing neovascularisation. The present study implied the clinical potential of gelatin sponge with bFGF microspheres to promote the healing in pressure-induced decubitus ulcer.

  11. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  12. Measurement of iodine released in a blowdown accident in the HTR-Modul. Final report on flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentis, A.

    1993-01-01

    A passive measuring device has been designed which consists of several filter cartridges of differnt length, and which is placed into the depressurization channel of the reactor. The dependence of the rate of flow through the filter on the flow rate in the depressurization channel must be known in order to be able to derive from the radioactivity deposited and measured in the filters a value indicating the total amount of iodine released. The report explains the basic principles of design of the instrument and of the experiments, and gives an interpretation of results of the flow tests in the AVA (aerodynamic testing facility) at Interatom. These flow tests have shown that it is feasible to determine the order of magnitude of iodine emissions with the given method and instrument. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  14. EPA Releases Draft Policy to Reduce Animal Testing for Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document, Draft Interim Science Policy: Use of Alternative Approaches for Skin Sensitization as a Replacement for Laboratory Animal Testing, describes the science behind the non-animal alternatives that can now be used to identify skin sensitization.

  15. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  16. Testing IH Instrumentation: Analysis of 1996-1998 Tank Ventilation Data in Terms of Characterizing a Transient Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, James G.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the 1996-1998 Hanford tank ventilation studies of average ventilation rates to help define characteristics of shorter term releases. This effort is being conducted as part of the design of tests of Industrial Hygiene's (IH) instrumentation ability to detect transient airborne plumes from tanks using current deployment strategies for tank operations. This analysis has improved our understanding of the variability of hourly average tank ventilation processes. However, the analysis was unable to discern the relative importance of emissions due to continuous releases and short-duration bursts of material. The key findings are as follows: (1) The ventilation of relatively well-sealed, passively ventilated tanks appears to be driven by a combination of pressure, buoyancy, and wind influences. The results of a best-fit analysis conducted with a single data set provide information on the hourly emission variability that IH instrumentation will need to detect. (2) Tank ventilation rates and tank emission rates are not the same. The studies found that the measured infiltration rates for a single tank are often a complex function of air exchanges between tanks and air exchanges with outdoor air. This situation greatly limits the usefulness of the ventilation data in defining vapor emission rates. (3) There is no evidence in the data to discern if the routine tank vapor releases occur over a short time (i.e., a puff) or over an extended time (i.e., continuous releases). Based on this analysis of the tank ventilation studies, it is also noted that (1) the hourly averaged emission peaks from the relatively well-sealed passively-vented tanks (such as U-103) are not a simple function of one meteorological parameter--but the peaks often are the result of the coincidence of temporal maximums in pressure, temperature, and wind influences and (2) a mechanistic combination modeling approach and/or field studies may be necessary to understand the short

  17. Testing factorization in pA collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from e-p and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non-linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision programme at the LHC, ...

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 340: NTS Pesticide Release Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Obi

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999) and consisted of clean closure by excavation and disposal. The Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 was formerly used for storage of farm supplies including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. The Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 was formerly used to clean pesticide and herbicide equipment. Steam-cleaning rinsate and sink drainage occasionally overflowed a sump into adjoining drainage ditches. One ditch flows south and is referred to as the quonset hut ditch. The other ditch flows southeast and is referred to as the inner drainage ditch. The Area 23 Skid Huts were formerly used for storing and mixing pesticide and herbicide solutions. Excess solutions were released directly to the ground near the skid huts. The skid huts were moved to a nearby location prior to the site characterization performed in 1998 and reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1998). The vicinity and site plans of the Area 23 sites are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  19. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF, and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C. Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration.

  20. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Soyoung; Song, Sun U.; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration. PMID:29495622

  1. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  2. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar; Mojtaba Habibi; Maryam Falahatpisheh; Musa Arvin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST). Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men) with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. T...

  3. Validation of basophil histamine release against the autologous serum skin test and outcome of serum-induced basophil histamine release studies in a large population of chronic urticaria patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, M H; Grattan, C E H; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    the immunoglobulin E (IgE) or the high affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) and serum-induced histamine release (HR) from basophils and mast cells. We have examined the correlation between the ASST and a new basophil histamine-releasing assay (the HR-Urtikaria test) in a group of well-characterized CU patients...... and subsequently determined the frequency of HR-Urticaria-positive sera from a larger population of CU patients....

  4. Testing factorization in pA collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Milhano, Jose Guilherme [CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Av. Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Wiedemann, Urs Achim [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-04-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from e-p and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non-linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision programme at the LHC, including a rapidity scan, would provide a set of measurements allowing for unprecedented tests of the factorization assumption underlying global nPDF fits.

  5. Testing factorization in pA collisions at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from e-p and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non-linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision programme at the LHC, including a rapidity scan, would provide a set of measurements allowing for unprecedented tests of the factorization assumption underlying global nPDF fits.

  6. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.

  7. Levels of human and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor as determined by specific radioimmunoassay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audhya, T.; Manzione, M.M.; Nakane, T.; Kanie, N.; Passarelli, J.; Russo, M.; Hollander, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies to synthetic human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor [hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 ] and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor [rhGRF(1-43)OH] were produced in rabbits. A subsequent booster injection by the conventional intramuscular route resulted in high-titer antibodies, which at a 1:20,000 dilution were used to develop highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for these peptides. The antibody to hpGRF(1-44)NH 2 is directed against the COOH-terminal region of the molecule, as shown by its cross reactivity with various hpGRF analogues. Serial dilutions of human and rat hypothalamic extracts demonstrated parallelism with the corresponding species-specific standard and 125 I-labeled tracer. There was no cross reactivity with other neuropeptides, gastrointestinal peptides, or hypothalamic extracts of other species. Age-related changes in hypothalamic GRF content were present in rats, with a gradual increase from 2 to 16 weeks and a correlation between increasing body weight and GRF content. These radioimmunoassays will serve as important tools for understanding the regulation of growth hormone secretion in both human and rat

  8. The Pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2A prevents receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-08-03

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF(2(a))R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF(2(a))R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF(1)R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF(2(a))R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general.

  9. The transcript release factor PTRF augments ribosomal gene transcription by facilitating reinitiation of RNA polymerase I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Burek, C.; Sander, E. E.; Grummt, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2001), s. 423-429 ISSN 0305-1048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : rDNA transcription * PTRF * transcription reinitiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.373, year: 2001

  10. Factor VII-activating protease : Unraveling the release and regulation of dead cell nuclear damps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Upon inflammation, uncleared dying cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Major DAMPs are histones and double-stranded DNA, which together form chromatin. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with dead cells, and its

  11. Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2: Scientific Operating Procedure Series: Release (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nanotechnologies -- Terminology and definitions for nano-objects -- Nanoparticle, nanofibre and nanoplate Definitions Abrasion - wearing away...ER D C SR -1 6- 2 Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies Abrasion Testing of Products Containing Nanomaterials, SOP-R-2...ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Environmental Consequences of Nanotechnologies ERDC SR-16-2 April 2016

  12. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous Release of Tumor-Derived Factors Improves the Modeling of Cachexia in Muscle Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Jackman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cachexia is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients but the biological trigger is unknown and therefore no therapeutics exist. The loss of skeletal muscle is the most deleterious aspect of cachexia and it appears to depend on secretions from tumor cells. Models for studying wasting in cell culture consist of experiments where skeletal muscle cells are incubated with medium conditioned by tumor cells. This has led to candidates for cachectic factors but some of the features of cachexia in vivo are not yet well-modeled in cell culture experiments. Mouse myotube atrophy measured by myotube diameter in response to medium conditioned by mouse colon carcinoma cells (C26 is consistently less than what is seen in muscles of mice bearing C26 tumors with moderate to severe cachexia. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that in vivo the C26 tumor and skeletal muscle share a circulatory system exposing the muscle to tumor factors in a constant and increasing way. We have applied Transwell®-adapted cell culture conditions to more closely simulate conditions found in vivo where muscle is exposed to the ongoing kinetics of constant tumor secretion of active factors. C26 cells were incubated on a microporous membrane (a Transwell® insert that constitutes the upper compartment of wells containing plated myotubes. In this model, myotubes are exposed to a constant supply of cancer cell secretions in the medium but without direct contact with the cancer cells, analogous to a shared circulation of muscle and cancer cells in tumor-bearing animals. The results for myotube diameter support the idea that the use of Transwell® inserts serves as a more physiological model of the muscle wasting associated with cancer cachexia than the bolus addition of cancer cell conditioned medium. The Transwell® model supports the notion that the dose and kinetics of cachectic factor delivery to muscle play a significant role in the extent of pathology.

  14. Nuclear pre-mRNA compartmentalization: Trafficking of released transcripts to splicing factor reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melčák, Ivo; Cermanová, Štěpánka; Jirsová, Kateřina; Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Raška, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2000), s. 497-510 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA302/99/0587; GA ČR GA304/00/1481; GA MŠk VS96129 Grant - others:Wellcome grant(XX) 049949/Z/97/Z/JMW/JPS/CG Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.482, year: 2000

  15. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V.; Kanekar, Shami; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results. PMID:23685235

  16. Orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testes: factors predicting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Andrew A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Adams, Mark C; Pope, John C; Thomas, John C; Brock, John W

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal testes can be treated with several surgical procedures. We evaluated factors influencing the outcome of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis. We retrospectively reviewed 156 consecutive orchiopexies performed for intra-abdominal testis, defined as a nonpalpable testis on examination and located in the abdomen at surgery. All surgical approaches were included in the study. Primary outcome was the overall success rate and secondary outcomes were success based on surgical approach, age and a patent processus vaginalis. Success was considered a testis with normal texture and size compared to the contralateral testis at followup. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of success. The overall success rate of all orchiopexies was 79.5%. Median patient age at orchiopexy was 12 months and mean followup was 16 months. Of the patients 117 had a patent processus vaginalis at surgery. One-stage abdominal orchiopexy was performed in 92 testes with 89.1% success. Of these cases 32 were performed laparoscopically with 96.9% success. One-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 27 testes and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy was performed in 37 with success in 63.0% and 67.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division had more successful outcomes than 1 and 2-stage Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy (OR 0.24, p = 0.007 and 0.29, p = 0.19, respectively). Neither age at surgery nor an open internal ring was significant (p = 0.49 and 0.12, respectively). The overall success of orchiopexy for intra-abdominal testis is 79.5%. While patient selection remains a critical factor, 1-stage orchiopexy without vessel division was significantly more successful and a laparoscopic approach was associated with the fewest failures for intra-abdominal testes.

  17. Selected factors affecting the quality of Mediterranean fruit fly used in sterile release programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    Adult irradiation of ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) males resulted in a lower degree of sterility and a higher degree of competitiveness compared to pupal irradiation. It was consistently observed with both adult and pupal irradiation that the increased level of sterility obtained with increasing dose was counteracted to the same extent by decreasing level of male competitiveness. In a test in which the marking efficiency and persistence of fluorescent powders was tested, best results were obtained with Tinopal-SFG. Marking did not have any adverse effect either on male competitiveness or on fly survival. Competitiveness of irradiated male flies decreased as their exposure to chilling increased. Chilling, however, did not have any adverse effect on fly survival

  18. Testing of Monitoring Devices for JP-4 Releases in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    tests conducted to study the effectiveness, advantages , and limitations of a set of devices. All of the devices (except FiberChem) evaluated are...1,000 ppm and 1 percent butane standards ( Alltech Associates, Inc., Deerfield, Illinois). b. Temperature Program Analysis Two different temperature...in place. The advantage of having the probe is that we did not have to calculate or measure the liquid volume displaced by the probe. The accuracy of

  19. The Plinius/Colima CA-U3 test on fission-product aerosol release over a VVER-type corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Ch.; Piluso, P.; Correggio, P.; Godin-Jacqmin, L.

    2007-01-01

    In a hypothetical case of severe accident in a PWR type VVER-440, a complex corium pool could be formed and fission products could be released. In order to study aerosols release in terms of mechanisms, kinetics, nature or quantity, and to better precise the source term of VVER-440, a series of experiments have been performed in the Colima facility and the test Colima CA-U3 has been successfully performed thanks to technological modifications to melt a prototypical corium at 2760 C degrees. Specific instrumentation has allowed us to follow the evolution of the corium melt and the release, transport and deposition of the fission products. The main conclusions are: -) there is a large release of Cr, Te, Sr, Pr and Rh (>95%w), -) there is a significant release of Fe (50%w), -) there is a small release of Ba, Ce, La, Nb, Nd and Y (<90%w), -) there is a very small release of U in proportion (<5%w) but it is one of the major released species in mass, and -) there is no release of Zr. The Colima experimental results are consistent with previous experiments on irradiated fuels except for Ba, Fe and U releases. (A.C.)

  20. Measurement uncertainty of dissolution test of acetaminophen immediate release tablets using Monte Carlo simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cancelli Romero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Analytical results are widely used to assess batch-by-batch conformity, pharmaceutical equivalence, as well as in the development of drug products. Despite this, few papers describing the measurement uncertainty estimation associated with these results were found in the literature. Here, we described a simple procedure used for estimating measurement uncertainty associated with the dissolution test of acetaminophen tablets. A fractionate factorial design was used to define a mathematical model that explains the amount of acetaminophen dissolved (% as a function of time of dissolution (from 20 to 40 minutes, volume of dissolution media (from 800 to 1000 mL, pH of dissolution media (from 2.0 to 6.8, and rotation speed (from 40 to 60 rpm. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimated measurement uncertainty for dissolution test of acetaminophen tablets (95.2 ± 1.0%, with a 95% confidence level. Rotation speed was the most important source of uncertainty, contributing about 96.2% of overall uncertainty. Finally, it is important to note that the uncertainty calculated in this paper reflects the expected uncertainty to the dissolution test, and does not consider variations in the content of acetaminophen.

  1. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Carlos E; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E; Samudio, Ismael J; Prades, Marta; Carmona, Jorge U

    2013-02-12

    There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF) release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP) and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG). The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP); 2) to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1) and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB) between P-PRP treated with non-ionic detergent (P-PRP+NID), P-PRG (activated with calcium gluconate -CG-), PPP+NID, PPP gel (PPG), and plasma and; 3) to evaluate and to correlate the effect of the breed, gender and age on the cellular and GF concentration for each blood component. Forty adult horses, 20 Argentinean Creole Horses (ACH) and, 20 Colombian Creole Horses (CCH) were included. Data were analyzed by parametric (i.e.: t-test, one way ANOVA) and non parametric (Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test) tests. Correlation analysis was also performed by using the Spearman and Pearson tests. A p ≤ 0.05 was set as significant for all tests. All the blood components were compared for platelet (PLT), leukocyte (WBC), TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations. The effect of the breed, gender and age on these variables was analyzed. A P ≤ 0.05 was accepted as significant for all the tests. PLT counts were 1.8 and 0.6 times higher in P-PRP than in whole blood and PPP, respectively; WBC counts were 0.5 and 0.1 times lower in P-PRP, in comparison with whole blood and PPP, respectively. TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were 2.3 and 262 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in plasma, and 0.59 and 0.48 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in PPG. P-PRG derived from CCH females or young horses presented significantly (P < 0.001) higher PDGF-BB concentrations than P-PRG derived from ACH males or older horses. Our results indicated that P-PRP obtained by a manual method was affected by intrinsic factors such as the breed

  2. Effects of the breed, sex and age on cellular content and growth factor release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma and pure-platelet rich gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Carlos E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no information on the effects of the breed, gender and age on the cellular content and growth factor (GF release from equine pure-platelet rich plasma (P-PRP and pure-platelet rich gel (P-PRG. The objectives of this study were: 1 to compare the cellular composition of P-PRP with whole blood and platelet poor plasma (PPP; 2 to compare the concentration of transforming GF beta 1 (TGF-β1 and platelet derived GF isoform BB (PDGF-BB between P-PRP treated with non-ionic detergent (P-PRP+NID, P-PRG (activated with calcium gluconate -CG-, PPP+NID, PPP gel (PPG, and plasma and; 3 to evaluate and to correlate the effect of the breed, gender and age on the cellular and GF concentration for each blood component. Forty adult horses, 20 Argentinean Creole Horses (ACH and, 20 Colombian Creole Horses (CCH were included. Data were analyzed by parametric (i.e.: t-test, one way ANOVA and non parametric (Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test tests. Correlation analysis was also performed by using the Spearman and Pearson tests. A p ≤ 0.05 was set as significant for all tests. All the blood components were compared for platelet (PLT, leukocyte (WBC, TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations. The effect of the breed, gender and age on these variables was analyzed. A P ≤ 0.05 was accepted as significant for all the tests. Results PLT counts were 1.8 and 0.6 times higher in P-PRP than in whole blood and PPP, respectively; WBC counts were 0.5 and 0.1 times lower in P-PRP, in comparison with whole blood and PPP, respectively. TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were 2.3 and 262 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in plasma, and 0.59 and 0.48 times higher, respectively, in P-PRG than in PPG. P-PRG derived from CCH females or young horses presented significantly (P Conclusions Our results indicated that P-PRP obtained by a manual method was affected by intrinsic factors such as the breed, gender and age. Equine practitioners should be

  3. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  4. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  5. Microcapsule Technology for Controlled Growth Factor Release in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, Giovanna; Ciardulli, Maria C; Maffulli, Nicola

    2018-06-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have relied on engineered 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide architectural templates that can mimic the native cell environment. Among the several technologies proposed for the fabrication of 3D scaffold, that can be attractive for stem cell cultivation and differentiation, moulding or bioplotting of hydrogels allow the stratification of layers loaded with cells and with specific additives to obtain a predefined microstructural organization. Particularly with bioplotting technology, living cells, named bio-ink, and additives, such as biopolymer microdevices/nanodevices for the controlled delivery of growth factors or biosignals, can be organized spatially into a predesigned 3D pattern by automated fabrication with computer-aided digital files. The technologies for biopolymer microcarrier/nanocarrier fabrication can be strategic to provide a controlled spatiotemporal delivery of specific biosignals within a microenvironment that can better or faster address the stem cells loaded within it. In this review, some examples of growth factor-controlled delivery by biopolymer microdevices/nanodevices embedded within 3D hydrogel scaffolds will be described, to achieve a bioengineered 3D interactive microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. Conventional and recently proposed technologies for biopolymer microcapsule fabrication for controlled delivery over several days will also be illustrated and critically discussed.

  6. Analysis of Passenger Car Emission Factors in RDE Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study on emission measurements in passenger cars in tests conducted under real traffic conditions – Real Driving Emissions using a Portable Emission Measurement System type of equipment. A special feature of the outlined RDE tests is that they were performed in Polish road conditions, and thus their parameters may differ from their counterparts adopted in most European Union countries. Based on the findings vehicle emission conformity factors were developed, characterized as the fractional increase (or decrease of traffic emissions during the homologation test or under normal operation conditions in relation to the emission limit standards (for chosen emission class of the vehicle. Conducted research and the calculated conformity factors allowed for the environmental impact assessment of the vehicles of various emission classes, while also allowing early actions to restrict the emissions of selected components in passenger vehicles. The methods and measures used can also be applied to other types of vehicles (e.g. heavy duty or off-road vehicles or vehicles powered by other fuels.

  7. Factors influencing the virological testing of cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Tobias; Beck, Robert; Jürgens, Stefan; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Bramkamp, Matthias; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment, and logistical factors on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.Data from 670 consecutive cornea donors were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.The mean annual rate of donors with serology-reactive or not evaluable result was 14.8% (99 of 670) (range 11.9%-16.9%). The cause of donor death by cancer increased the risk of serology-reactive or not evaluable result (P = .0300). Prolonged time between death and post mortem blood removal was associated with a higher rate of serology-reactive or not evaluable result (P donors, sex, and donor age had no significant impact on the results of virological testing of blood samples from cornea donors.The cause of donor death by cancer and a prolonged time between death and post mortem blood removal seem to be mainly responsible for serology-reactive or not evaluable result of blood samples from cornea donors. The percentage of discarded corneas caused by serology-reactive or not evaluable result may be reduced by shortening the period of time between death and post mortem blood removal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from rat pulmonary leukocytes exposed to ultrafine cobalt: in vivo and in vitro studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qunwei; Kusaka, Yukinori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Wang Deweng; Donaldson, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine cobalt (Uf-Co), one of the new category of ultrafine particles, is generated in some industrial situations and it also exists in environmental particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of rat pulmonary leukocytes to release tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) after exposure to Uf-Co in vivo and in vitro. Rats were intratracheally instilled with 1 mg of Uf-Co, and then wet lung weight and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BASF) profile were analysed 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days later. The effects of Uf-Co on indices that can be presumed to reflect epithelial injury and permeability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total protein (TP)) were increased throughout the 30 day post-exposure period. Furthermore, at 3 days after exposure, leukocytes were collected by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). After 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation, TNF-alpha in supernatants were determined by ELISA method. The results showed that TNF-alpha secretion by activated leukocytes from rats instilled with Uf-Co was significantly higher than that of the controls. BAL leucocytes from the lung of exposed rats revealed time-and dose-related increases in TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, our results reveal, for the first time to our knowledge, that exposure to Uf-Co can stimulate leukocytes to secrete TNF-alpha. These data suggest that the TNF-alpha release from pulmonary leukocytes probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of 'cobalt lung'. (author)

  9. Validation of new CFD release by Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Test Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented validation of ANSYS Fluent with IEA BESTEST Task 34. Article stars with outlook to the topic, afterward are described steady-state cases used for validation. Thereafter is mentioned implementation of these cases on CFD. Article is concluded with presentation of the simulated results with a comparison of those from already validated simulation software by IEA. These validation shows high correlation with an older version of tested ANSYS as well as with other main software. The paper ends by discussion with an outline of future research.

  10. Test- and behavior-specific genetic factors affect WKY hypoactivity in tests of emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Amber E; Solberg, Leah C; Churchill, Gary A; Ahmadiyeh, Nasim; Takahashi, Joseph S; Redei, Eva E

    2006-05-15

    Inbred Wistar-Kyoto rats consistently display hypoactivity in tests of emotional behavior. We used them to test the hypothesis that the genetic factors underlying the behavioral decision-making process will vary in different environmental contexts. The contexts used were the open-field test (OFT), a novel environment with no explicit threats present, and the defensive-burying test (DB), a habituated environment into which a threat has been introduced. Rearing, a voluntary behavior was measured in both tests, and our study was the first to look for genetic loci affecting grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior. Quantitative trait locus analysis was performed on a population of 486 F2 animals bred from reciprocal inter-crosses. The genetic architectures of DB and OFT rearing, and of DB and OFT grooming, were compared. There were no common loci affecting grooming behavior in both tests. These different contexts produced the stereotyped behavior via different pathways, and genetic factors seem to influence the decision-making pathways and not the expression of the behavior. Three loci were found that affected rearing behavior in both tests. However, in both contexts, other loci had greater effects on the behavior. Our results imply that environmental context's effects on decision-making vary depending on the category of behavior.

  11. Initial boost release of transforming growth factor-β3 and chondrogenesis by freeze-dried bioactive polymer scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Philipp; Machens, Isabel; Lahner, Matthias; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

    2014-12-01

    In cartilage regeneration, bio-activated implants are used in stem and progenitor cell-based microfracture cartilage repair procedures. Our aim was to analyze the chondrogenic potential of freeze-dried resorbable polymer-based polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds bio-activated with transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFB3) on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells known from microfracture. Progenitor cells derived from femur heads were cultured in the presence of freeze-dried TGFB3 in high-density pellet culture and in freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds for chondrogenic differentiation. Progenitor cell cultures in PGA scaffolds as well as pellet cultures with and without continuous application of TGFB3 served as controls. Release studies showed that freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds facilitate a rapid, initial boost-like release of 71.5% of TGFB3 in the first 10 h. Gene expression analysis and histology showed induction of typical chondrogenic markers like type II collagen and formation of cartilaginous tissue in TGFB3-PGA scaffolds seeded with subchondral progenitor cells and in pellet cultures stimulated with freeze-dried TGFB3. Chondrogenic differentiation in freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds was comparable to cultures receiving TGFB3 continuously, while non-stimulated controls did not show chondrogenesis during prolonged culture for 14 days. These results suggest that bio-activated, freeze-dried TGFB3-PGA scaffolds have chondrogenic potential and are a promising tool for stem cell-mediated cartilage regeneration.

  12. Tick histamine release factor is critical for Ixodes scapularis engorgement and transmission of the lyme disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Dai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are distributed worldwide and affect human and animal health by transmitting diverse infectious agents. Effective vaccines against most tick-borne pathogens are not currently available. In this study, we characterized a tick histamine release factor (tHRF from Ixodes scapularis and addressed the vaccine potential of this antigen in the context of tick engorgement and B. burgdorferi transmission. Results from western blotting and quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR showed that tHRF is secreted in tick saliva, and upregulated in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks. Further, the expression of tHRF was coincident with the rapid feeding phase of the tick, suggesting a role for tHRF in tick engorgement and concomitantly, for efficient B. burgdorferi transmission. Silencing tHRF by RNA interference (RNAi significantly impaired tick feeding and decreased B. burgdorferi burden in mice. Interfering with tHRF by actively immunizing mice with recombinant tHRF, or passively transferring tHRF antiserum, also markedly reduced the efficiency of tick feeding and B. burgdorferi burden in mice. Recombinant tHRF was able to bind to host basophils and stimulate histamine release. Therefore, we speculate that tHRF might function in vivo to modulate vascular permeability and increase blood flow to the tick bite-site, facilitating tick engorgement. These findings suggest that blocking tHRF might offer a viable strategy to complement ongoing efforts to develop vaccines to block tick feeding and transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  13. Incorporation of chitosan microspheres into collagen-chitosan scaffolds for the controlled release of nerve growth factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zeng

    Full Text Available Artifical nerve scaffold can be used as a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts to enhance the repair of peripheral nerve defects. However, current nerve scaffolds lack efficient microstructure and neurotrophic support.Microsphere-Scaffold composite was developed by incorporating chitosan microspheres loaded with nerve growth factor (NGF-CMSs into collagen-chitosan scaffolds (CCH with longitudinally oriented microchannels (NGF-CMSs/CCH. The morphological characterizations, in vitro release kinetics study, neurite outgrowth assay, and bioactivity assay were evaluated. After that, a 15-mm-long sciatic nerve gap in rats was bridged by the NGF-CMSs/CCH, CCH physically absorbed NGF (NGF/CCH, CCH or nerve autograft. 16 weeks after implantation, electrophysiology, fluoro-gold retrograde tracing, and nerve morphometry were performed.The NGF-CMSs were evenly distributed throughout the longitudinally oriented microchannels of the scaffold. The NGF-CMSs/CCH was capable of sustained release of bioactive NGF within 28 days as compared with others in vitro. In vivo animal study demonstrated that the outcomes of NGF-CMSs/CCH were better than those of NGF/CCH or CCH.Our findings suggest that incorporation of NGF-CMSs into the CCH may be a promising tool in the repair of peripheral nerve defects.

  14. Enhancement of alpha particles-induced cell transformation by oxygen free radicals and tumor necrosis factor released from phagocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yifen; Guo Renfeng; Zhu Maoxiang; Shou Jiang; Ge Guixiu; Yang Zhihua; Hieber, L.; Peters, K.; Schippel, C.

    1997-01-01

    To illustrate the role of several endogenous factors released from phagocytes under chronic inflammation in radiation-induced cancer. C 3 T 10 T 1/2 and SHE cells were used as targets, and 238 Pu alpha source was used in alpha irradiation. The enhancement of TF in alpha particles-induced cell transformation by PMA-stimulated human blood and zymosan-stimulated U-937 cells was studied using formation of transformed foci. Transformation frequency (TF) of C 3 H 10 T 1/2 cells exposed to alpha particles of 0.5 Gy increased 2.1 and 2.8 fold by PMA-and PMA-stimulated neutrophils, respectively. TF of irradiated SHE cells at a dose of 0.5 Gy increased 12 fold by the addition of the supernatant of macrophage-like U-937 cell line. It was shown that TF of irradiated SHE cells at above dose increased 8 fold by the supernatant treated with anti-TNF-α could be subcultured continuously in vitro. The cells at 40 th passage and two lines of monoclone cells have the ability to develop malignant tumors in nude mice. The overdose of free radicals and TNF-α released from neutrophils and macrophages have played an important role in low dose radiation-induced cancer

  15. Hypothalamic amenorrhea with normal body weight: ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, B; Tonetti, A; Monteleone, P; Bernardi, F; Luisi, S; Stomati, M; Luisi, M; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    2000-03-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is a functional disorder caused by disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. The mechanism by which stress alters GnRH release is not well known. Recently, the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neurosteroids in the pathophysiology of HA has been considered. The aim of the present study was to explore further the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in HA. We included 8 patients (aged 23.16+/-1.72 years) suffering from hypothalamic stress-related amenorrhea with normal body weight and 8 age-matched healthy controls in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We measured basal serum levels of FSH, LH, and estradiol and evaluated ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to CRH test in both HA patients and healthy women. Serum basal levels of FSH, LH, and estradiol as well as basal levels of allopregnanolone were significantly lower in HA patients than in controls (P<0.001) while basal ACTH and cortisol levels were significantly higher in amenorrheic patients with respect to controls (P<0.001). The response (area under the curve) of ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol to CRH was significantly lower in amenorrheic women compared with controls (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively). In conclusion, women with HA, despite the high ACTH and cortisol levels and, therefore, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, are characterized by low allopregnanolone basal levels, deriving from an impairment of both adrenal and ovarian synthesis. The blunted ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to CRH indicate that, in hypothalamic amenorrhea, there is a reduced sensitivity and expression of CRH receptor. These results open new perspectives on the role of neurosteroids in the pathogenesis of hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  16. An evaluation of arsenic release from monolithic solids using a modified semi-dynamic leaching test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermatas, Dimitris; Moon, Deok Hyun; Menounou, Nektaria; Meng, Xiaoguang; Hires, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Quicklime and quicklime-fly ash-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) effectiveness was evaluated by performing semi-dynamic leaching tests (American Nuclear Society 16.1). Artificial soil samples, contaminated with arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) as well as field soil samples contaminated with arsenic (As) were tested. The artificial soils were prepared by mixing amounts of kaolinite or montmorillonite with fine quartz sand. The S/S effectiveness was evaluated by measuring effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) and leachability indices (LX). Treatment was most effective in kaolinite-based artificial soils treated with quicklime and in quicklime-fly ash treated field soils. The experimental results indicate that D e values were lowered as a result of S/S treatment. Upon treatment LX values were higher than 9, suggesting that S/S treated soils are acceptable for 'controlled utilization'. Based on a model developed by de Groot and van der Sloot [G.J. de Groot, H.A. van der Sloot, in: T.M. Gilliam, C.C. Wiles (Eds.), Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes, vol. 2, ASTM STP 1123, ASTM, PA, 1992, p. 149], the leaching mechanism for all of the treated soils was found to be controlled by diffusion. The effect of soluble silica (Si) on As leachability was also evaluated. When soluble Si concentration was less than 1 ppm, As leachability was the lowest. The controlling mechanism of As immobilization whether sorption, precipitation, or inclusion was also evaluated. It was determined that precipitation was the dominant mechanism

  17. IFN-γ release assay conversions and reversions. Challenges with serial testing in U.S. health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Monson, Thomas P; Joshi, Anita; Woods, Gail L

    2014-03-01

    IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) including the QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube test (QFT-GIT) are increasingly used in place of the tuberculin skin test (TST) in surveillance programs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the United States. However, data on conversions, reversions, and predictive value of QFT in such programs for health care workers (HCWs) are limited. The purpose of this study is to assess long-term reproducibility and conversion and reversion rates of QFT-GIT among HCWs who underwent serial testing at a tertiary care center in the United States. Retrospective chart review of HCWs at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System (CAVHS) who underwent serial testing with QFT-GIT as a part of their employee screening between November 1, 2008 and January 31, 2011. A total of 2,303 HCWs had at least 2 QFT-GITs 1 year apart. The initial QFT-GIT was positive for 69 and 2 were indeterminate. Of these 69 HCWs, 31 (45%) reverted on repeat testing, and 25 of 31 (80.6%) HCWs who reverted had a negative look-back TST. Of the 2,232 HCWs with an initial negative QFT-GIT, 71 (3.2%) converted on repeat testing. A third QFT-GIT assay was performed in 41 of the 71 converters and 90% (37 of 41) reverted back to negative. Only two HCWs had TST and QFT-GIT conversion. Poor IGRA reproducibility and a low predictive value of QFT-GIT conversions indicate that QFT-GIT with current interpretation criteria should not be used for serial screening of U.S. HCWs. Negative TSTs have higher reproducibility than QFT-GIT for serial testing of HCWs in low tuberculosis incidence settings.

  18. Bacteria-induced release of white cell--and platelet-derived vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poor prognosis after resection of primary colorectal cancer may be related to the combination of perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of infectious complications. White blood cell--and platelet-derived cancer growth substances, including vascular...... endothelial growth factor (VEGF), may be involved in this process. Therefore, we studied the in vitro release of VEGF from white blood cells and platelets stimulated by bacterial antigens and supernatants from stored red cell components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight units of whole blood (WB) and eight units...... of buffy-coat-depleted red cell (SAGM) blood were donated by healthy blood donors. Subsequently, half of every unit was leucocyte depleted by filtration, and all 32 half-units were stored under standard conditions for 35 days. Just after storage, and on days 7, 21 and 35 during storage, aliquots...

  19. C peptide and insulin releasing RIA test for the investigation of β cell function in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ailan; Zhu Chengmo; Wang Qiyu; Wang Ping

    1993-01-01

    Results of C-peptide releasing RIA test in 15 normals, and 100 diabetes were summarized and compared with glucose tolerance test and serum insulin for investigating the characteristics in different types of diabetes and evaluating the functional state of islet β cell. In 36 cases of IDDM the fasting blood sugar was significantly increased, and further elevated after eating of bread, but its peak time delay in 2 hours (normalin 1 hour). The level of basal C-peptide is very low, but shows slightly weak on no response after bread stimulating test, all of this denotes that β cell function of islets severely injured. The increasing of fasting blood sugar in 64 cases of NIDDM was lower than those of IDDM. Fasting C-peptide and insulin was normal or increased, their peak value increased after bread stimulation with peak time delayed also at 2 hours. Above results demonstrated that the function of islets B cell decreased but not fully deprived. It is concluded that C-peptide and insulin stimulating test, together with OGTT can accurately assess the islets β cell function, and also have important significance in the pathogenesis, classification and staging, prognostic evaluation and monitoring of therapeutic effects in diabetes

  20. Land management as a factor controlling dissolved organic carbon release from upland peat soils 1: spatial variation in DOC productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallop, A R; Clutterbuck, B

    2009-06-01

    The importance of soil storage in global carbon cycling is well recognised and factors leading to increased losses from this pool may act as a positive feedback mechanism in global warming. Upland peat soils are usually assumed to serve as carbon sinks, there is however increasing evidence of carbon loss from upland peat soils, and DOC concentrations in UK rivers have increased markedly over the past three decades. A number of drivers for increasing DOC release from peat soils have been proposed although many of these would not explain fine-scale variations in DOC release observed in many catchments. We examined the effect of land use and management on DOC production in upland peat catchments at two spatial scales within the UK. DOC concentration was measured in streams draining 50 small-scale catchments (b3 km2) in three discrete regions of the south Pennines and one area in the North Yorkshire Moors. Annual mean DOC concentration was also derived from water colour data recorded at water treatment works for seven larger scale catchments (1.5-20 km2) in the south Pennines. Soil type and land use/management in all catchments were characterised from NSRI digital soil data and ortho-corrected colour aerial imagery. Of the factors assessed, representing all combinations of soil type and land use together with catchment slope and area, the proportion of exposed peat surface resulting from new heather burning was consistently identified as the most significant predictor of variation in DOC concentration. This relationship held across all blanket peat catchments and scales. We propose that management activities are driving changes in edaphic conditions in upland peat to those more favourable for aerobic microbial activity and thus enhance peat decomposition leading to increased losses of carbon from these environments.

  1. Inhibitory effect of ramosetron on corticotropin releasing factor- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Yamano, Mayumi; Yokoyama, Toshihide; Sengoku, Takanori; Seki, Nobuo

    2012-09-01

    Symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD) are highly prevalent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the effects of therapeutic agents for IBS on the pathophysiology of FD are unclear. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of ramosetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying of rats, in comparison with anti-diarrheal agent and spasmolytics. The involvement of 5-HT and the 5-HT(3) receptor in delayed gastric emptying was also evaluated. Corticotropin releasing factor was administered intravenously to rats 10min before oral administration of 0.05% phenol red solution, and the amount remaining in the stomach was measured after 30min. Soybean oil was administered orally with glass beads, and the number of residual beads in the stomach was counted 1h later. Both CRF and soybean oil inhibited gastric emptying dose-dependently. Ramosetron and itopride, a gastro-prokinetic agent, significantly reduced both CRF- and soybean oil-induced delays in gastric emptying, while an anti-diarrheal agent and spasmolytics aggravated them. Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine for 2days to reduced the synthesis of endogenous 5-HT diminished the effects of both CRF and soybean oil on gastric emptying. A 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide suppressed gastric emptying of both phenol red and glass beads, and those effects were reversed by ramosetron. These results suggest that CRF and soybean oil suppress gastric emptying in rats by activating 5-HT(3) receptors, and that by antagonizing these receptors, ramosetron may ameliorate symptoms of FD in clinical settings. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bayer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF® contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3 is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds.

  3. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Justus; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Lippross, Sebastian; Behrendt, Peter; Klüter, Tim; Pufe, Thomas; Cremer, Jochen; Jahr, Holger; Rademacher, Franziska; Gläser, Regine; Harder, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds. PMID:28811680

  4. Testing alternative factor models of PTSD and the robustness of the dysphoria factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study first aimed to examine the structure of self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using three different samples. The second aim of the paper was to test the robustness of the factor analytic model when depression scores were controlled for. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The best fitting model was subsequently re-fitted to the data after including a depression variable. The analyses were based on responses from 973 participants across three samples. Sample 1 consisted of 633 parents who were members of 'The National Association of Infant Death' and who had lost a child. Sample 2 consisted of 227 victims of rape, who completed a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the rape. Each respondent had been in contact with the Centre for Rape Victims (CRV) at the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Sample 3 consisted of 113 refugees resident in Denmark. All participants had been referred to a treatment centre which focused on rehabilitating refugees through treatment for psychosocial integration problems (RRCF: Rehabliterings og Revliderings Centre for Flygtninge). In total 500 participants received a diagnosis of PTSD/sub-clinical PTSD (Sample 1, N=214; 2, N=176; 3, N=110). A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and arousal factors provided the best fit to the sample data. The average attenuation in the factor loadings was highest for the dysphoria factor (M=-.26, SD=.11) compared to the re-experiencing (M=-.14, SD=.18), avoidance (M=-.10, SD=.21), and arousal (M=-.09, SD=.13) factors. With regards to the best fitting factor model these results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings. The attenuation of dysphoria factor loadings suggests that dysphoria is a non-specific component of

  5. An Experimental Test of Factors Attracting Deer Mice into Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the principal reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Deer mice use a wide variety of habitats including peridomestic settings in and around human dwellings, their presence in and around homes has been implicated as a risk factor for acquiring Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome. Deer mice are believed to enter buildings in order to gain access to a variety of resources including food, bedding material, and better thermal microclimates. However, no one has experimentally tested which factors influence mice use of buildings. We conducted experiments using small simulated buildings to determine the effects of two factors, i.e., food and bedding material, on mouse activity in these buildings. We also examined if these effects varied with time of year. We found that deer mice entered our buildings regardless of the presence or absence of food or bedding. However, the amount of activity in buildings was affected by what they contained. We found significantly higher indices of activity in buildings containing food compared to both empty buildings (control) and buildings containing bedding material. Time of year did not affect activity in buildings.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  7. Escitalopram alters gene expression and HPA axis reactivity in rats following chronic overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor from the central amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandreau, Elizabeth I.; Bourke, Chase H.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Vale, Wylie W.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Owens, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We have previously demonstrated that viral-mediated overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) reproduces many of the behavioral and endocrine consequences of chronic stress. The present experiment sought to determine whether administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram reverses the adverse effects of CeA CRF overexpression. In a 2 × 2 design, adult male rats received bilateral infusions of a control lentivirus or a lentivirus in which a portion of the CRF promoter is used to drive increased expression of CRF peptide. Four weeks later, rats were then implanted with an Alzet minipump to deliver vehicle or 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram for a 4-week period of time. The defensive withdrawal (DW) test of anxiety and the sucrose-preference test (SPT) of anhedonia were performed both before and after pump implantation. Additional post-implant behavioral tests included the elevated plus maze (EPM) and social interaction (SI) test. Following completion of behavioral testing, the dexamethasone/CRF test was performed to assess HPA axis reactivity. Brains were collected and expression of HPA axis-relevant transcripts were measured using in situ hybridization. Amygdalar CRF overexpression increased anxiety-like behavior in the DW test at week eight, which was only partially prevented by escitalopram. In both CRF-overexpressing and control groups, escitalopram decreased hippocampal CRF expression while increasing hypothalamic and hippocampal expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These gene expression changes were associated with a significant decrease in HPA axis reactivity in rats treated with escitalopram. Interestingly, escitalopram increased the rate of weight gain only in rats overexpressing CRF. Overall these data support our hypothesis that amygdalar CRF is critical in anxiety-like behavior; because the antidepressant was unable to reverse behavioral

  8. Differential expression of growth factors in irradiated mouse testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauduit, Claire; Siah, Ahmed; Foch, Marie; Chapet, Olivier; Clippe, Sebastien; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Benahmed, Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: By using as an experimental model the male mouse gonad, which contains both radiosensitive (germ) and radioresistant (somatic) cells, we have studied the growth factor (and/or receptor) expression of transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβ RI), stem cell factor (SCF), c-kit, Fas-L, Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF R55), and leukemia inhibiting factor receptor (LIF-R) after local irradiation. Methods and Materials: Adult male mice were locally irradiated on the testes. Induction of apoptosis in the different testicular cell types following X-ray radiation was identified by the TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) approach. Growth factor expression was evidenced by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Apoptosis, identified through the TUNEL approach, occurred in radiosensitive testicular (premeotic) germ cells with the following kinetics: the number of apoptotic cells increased after 24 h (p<0.001) and was maximal 48 h after a 2-Gy ionizing radiation (p<0.001). Apoptotic cells were no longer observed 72 h after a 2-Gy irradiation. The number of apoptotic cells increased with the dose of irradiation (1-4 Gy). In the seminiferous tubules, the growth factor expression in premeiotic radiosensitive germ cells was modulated by irradiation. Indeed Fas, c-kit, and LIF-R expression, which occurs in (radiosensitive) germ cells, decreased 24 h after a 2-Gy irradiation, and the maximal decrease was observed with a 4-Gy irradiation. The decrease in Stra8 expression occurred earlier, at 4 h after a 2-Gy irradiation. In addition, a significant (p<0.03) decrease in Stra8 mRNA levels was observed at the lowest dose used (0.5 Gy, 48 h). Moreover, concerning a growth factor receptor, such as TGFβ RI, which is expressed both in radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, we observed a differential expression depending on the cell radiosensitivity after irradiation. Indeed, TGFβ RI expression was increased after irradiation in

  9. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  10. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 μU/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 μU/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 μU/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-10-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 ..mu..U/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 ..mu..U/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 ..mu..U/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Evaluation of protection factor of respiratory protective equipment using indigenously developed protection factor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkulkar, D.S.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Assigned protection factor (APF) is an indicator representing effectiveness of a respirator and it provides workplace level of respiratory protection for workers in providing protection against exposure to airborne contaminants Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specifies 'Respirator APF' and 'Maximum Use Concentration' (MUC - a term derived using APF) shall be an integral part of Respirator Protection Standard. MUC establishes the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant in which a respirator with a given APF may be used. The use of particulate respirators such as half face mask, full face mask and powered air purifying respirators is essential for radioactive jobs in nuclear facilities to prevent any intake of radionuclide. With this impetus, the Protection Factor Test Facility (PFTF) for testing and evaluation of respiratory protective equipment meeting relevant applicable standards was designed, fabricated and installed in Respiratory Protective Equipment Laboratory of Health Physics Division

  13. Periodic tests: a human factors analysis of documentary aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, Romuald; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    conclusions of this analysis are presented in this paper. The analysis carried out by the IRSN showed that the complexity of the design and implementation process of periodic tests is due to the diversity of.the organizations and participants, the number and the heterogeneity of the documents, and the technical and regulatory complexity of operation. In this context, defects related to the quality of the national reference document updates and to the conditions of their delivery were at the origin of difficulties in CNPEs. These difficulties address the integration of the updates by the participants, the overall vision of the rules to be respected, and the management of the workload to deal with these tasks. The analysis showed that CNPEs made efforts to produce reliable, station-specific updates, but improvements could still be made concerning the organization, the communication and the ergonomics of the operating ranges. More generally, from a human and organizational factors point of view, such an analysis surpasses the search for responsibility for the dysfunctions and allows for a more objective explanation of the encountered difficulties (inapplicable rules, delays of delivery, etc.). It also leads to a consolidated needs analysis in order to improve the global process. On the basis of a preliminary analysis, EDF has identified a plan for improvement. EDF has decided to deal with the improvement of the process within the framework of a thorough study. (authors)

  14. Enhancement of wound closure by modifying dual release patterns of stromal-derived cell factor-1 and a macrophage recruitment agent from gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the release patterns of stromal derived factor (SDF)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate agonist (SEW2871), used as MSC and macrophage recruitment agents, on the wound closure of diabetic mouse skin defects. To achieve different release patterns, hydrogels were prepared using two types of gelatin with isoelectric points (IEP) of 5 and 9, into which SDF-1 and SEW2871 were then incorporated in various combinations. When the hydrogels incorporating SDF-1 and SEW2871 were applied into wound defects of diabetic mice, the number of MSCs and macrophages recruited to the defects and the levels of pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines were found to be dependent on the release profiles of SDF-1 and SEW2871. Of particular interest was the case of a rapid release of SDF-1 combined with a controlled release of SEW2871. This resulted in a higher number of M2 macrophages and gene expression levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines 3 days after implantation and faster wound closure than when pairing the controlled release of SDF-1 with a rapid release of SEW2871. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that different release patterns of SDF-1 and SEW2871 can enhance the in vivo recruitment of MSCs and macrophages, and can promote skin wound closure through the modulation of inflammation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Technical principles underlying limit values for release of substances for the percolation test TS3: comparison DE and NL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zomeren, A.; Dijkstra, J.J. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Susset, B. [Consulting Office SiWaP (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Within CEN TC 351 WG 1, standardized, horizontal test methods are developed to assess the release (leaching) of dangerous substances from construction as defined in ER3 of the CPD. For granular materials TS 3, a horizontal up-flow percolation test, was further developed by CEN TC 351 WG1 and will enter the validation phase in 2013. In CEN TC 351 WG1, there are still discussions regarding the sample preparation and some test conditions. Currently, two options for sample preparation and test conditions are specified. Controversy between DE and NL regarding sample preparation and test conditions and the need for two separate options in the TS 3 percolation test are possibly for a part caused by different approaches for risk assessment in the Netherlands and in Germany and the resulting regulatory concepts. One important reason for this is, that in soil and groundwater regulations the test method and the impact assessment method are systematically linked together but the impact assessment methods and lab methods in both countries are different. The discussions in CEN TC 351 WG 1 show that there is a need to have a better mutual understanding of the relation between test method and impact assessment on the one hand and a clear overview of differences in impact assessment approaches of each country on the other hand. The aim of this project is to explain and compare the assumptions, boundary conditions and conventions of the impact assessment approach that are implemented in the upcoming German Recycling Degree and in the Soil Quality Degree of the Netherlands. Ultimately, a better understanding of the impact assessment approaches provides a basis for further discussion in WG1 to agree on only one option for the percolation test conditions. The following report is prepared by the contractors of Germany and Netherlands together to compare the two country-specific concepts. This report summarizes and explains the presentation given on the 25th of April at TC 351 WG1 in

  16. Radionuclides release from re-irradiated fuel under high temperature and pressure conditions. Gamma-ray measurements of VEGA-5 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Takehiko; Kanazawa, Toru; Kiuchi, Toshio; Uetsuka, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The VEGA (Verification Experiments of radionuclides Gas/Aerosol release) program is being performed at JAERI to clarify mechanisms of radionuclides release from irradiated fuel during severe accidents and to improve source term predictability. The fifth VEGA-5 test was conducted in January 2002 to confirm the reproducibility of decrease in cesium release under elevated pressure that was observed in the VEGA-2 test and to investigate the release behavior of short-life radionuclides. The PWR fuel of 47 GWd/tU after about 8.2 years of cooling was re-irradiated at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) for 8 hours before the heat-up test. After that, the two pellets of 10.9 g without cladding were heated up to about 2,900 K at 1.0 MPa under the inert He condition. The experiment reconfirmed the decrease in cesium release rate under the elevated pressure. The release data on short-life radionuclides such as Ru-103, Ba-140 and Xe-133 that have never been observed in the previous VEGA tests without re-irradiation was obtained using the {gamma} ray measurement. (author)

  17. The protective effect of platelet released growth factors and bone augmentation (Bio-Oss®) on ethanol impaired osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Tillman; Hock, Jennifer Vanessa Phi; Lethaus, Bernd; Kweider, Nisreen; Wruck, Christoph Jan; Drescher, Wolf; Jahr, Holger; Lippross, Sebastian; Pufe, Thomas; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh

    2017-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a known limiting factor for bone healing. One promising strategy to improve bone augmentation techniques with Bio-Oss ® in oral and maxillofacial surgery might be the supportive application of platelet-concentrated biomaterials as platelet-released growth factor (PRGF). To address this matter, we performed an in vitro study investigating the protective effects of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® in ethanol (EtOH) treated osteoblasts. The SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line, with and without EtOH pretreatment was used. The cell viability, proliferation and alkali phosphatase activity (ALP) after application of 0%, 5% and 10% PRGF and Bio-Oss ® were assessed. The application of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® in EtOH impaired osteoblasts showed a significant beneficial influence increasing the viability of the osteoblasts in cell culture. The synergistic effect of Bio-Oss ® and 5% PRGF on the proliferation of osteoblasts was also demonstrated. Bio-Oss ® only in combination with PRGF increases the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in EtOH pretreated cells. These results indicate that the simultaneous application of PRGF and Bio-Oss ® inhibits EtOH induced bone healing impairment. Furthermore, in the cells, PRGF induced a protective mechanism which might promote bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic traumatic stress impairs memory in mice: Potential roles of acetylcholine, neuroinflammation and corticotropin releasing factor expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Ami; Gavini, Kartheek; Yang, Euitaek; Lyman-Henley, Lani; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran

    2017-09-29

    Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus. Results show that stressed mice developed memory deficits when assayed with radial arm maze tasks. However, chronic traumatic stress did not induce anxiety, locomotor hyperactivity or anhedonia. In the hippocampus of stressed mice interleukin-1β protein expression was increased along with decreased corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression. Furthermore, there was a reduction in acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. There were no changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. Gene expression of immediate early genes (Zif268, Arc, C-Fos) as well as glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were also not affected by chronic stress. These data demonstrate that chronic traumatic stress followed by a recovery period might lead to development of resilience resulting in the development of selected, most vulnerable behavioral alterations and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1 during coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsel Isabelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to follow plasma concentrations of sFlt-1 and sKDR, two soluble forms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC. Methods Plasma samples were obtained before, during and after surgery in 15 patients scheduled to undergo CABG. Levels of sFlt-1 and KDR levels were investigated using specific ELISA. Results A 75-fold increase of sFlt-1 was found during cardiac surgery, sFlt-1 levels returning to pre-operative values at the 6th post-operative hour. In contrast sKDR levels did not change during surgery. The ECC-derived sFlt-1 was functional as judge by its inhibitory effect on the VEGF mitogenic response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Kinetic experiments revealed sFlt-1 release immediately after the beginning of ECC suggesting a proteolysis of its membrane form (mFlt-1 rather than an elevated transcription/translation process. Flow cytometry analysis highlighted no effect of ECC on the shedding of mFlt-1 on platelets and leukocytes suggesting vascular endothelial cell as a putative cell source for the ECC-derived sFlt-1. Conclusion sFlt-1 is released during CABG with ECC. It might be suggested that sFlt-1 production, by neutralizing VEGF and/or by inactivating membrane-bound Flt-1 and KDR receptors, might play a role in the occurrence of post-CABG complication.

  20. A role for corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in the lateral habenula and its modulation by early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authement, Michael E; Langlois, Ludovic D; Shepard, Ryan D; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin; Kassis, Haifa; Nugent, Fereshteh S

    2018-03-06

    Centrally released corticotropin-releasing factor or hormone (extrahypothalamic CRF or CRH) in the brain is involved in the behavioral and emotional responses to stress. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region involved in value-based decision-making and stress evasion. Through its inhibition of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry, the increased activity of the LHb is associated with addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and behavioral disorders. We found that extrahypothalamic CRF neurotransmission increased neuronal excitability in the LHb. Through its receptor CRFR1 and subsequently protein kinase A (PKA), CRF application increased the intrinsic excitability of LHb neurons by affecting changes in small-conductance SK-type and large-conductance BK-type K + channels. CRF also reduced inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid-containing (GABAergic) synaptic transmission onto LHb neurons through endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde signaling. Maternal deprivation is a severe early-life stress that alters CRF neural circuitry and is likewise associated with abnormal mental health later in life. LHb neurons from pups deprived of maternal care exhibited increased intrinsic excitability, reduced GABAergic transmission, decreased abundance of SK2 channel protein, and increased activity of PKA, without any substantial changes in Crh or Crhr1 expression. Furthermore, maternal deprivation blunted the response of LHb neurons to subsequent, acute CRF exposure. Activating SK channels or inhibiting postsynaptic PKA activity prevented the effects of both CRF and maternal deprivation on LHb intrinsic excitability, thus identifying potential pharmacological targets to reverse central CRF circuit dysregulation in patients with associated disorders. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Growth Hormone-Releaser Diet Attenuates Cognitive Dysfunction in Klotho Mutant Mice via Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Activation in a Genetic Aging Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Joo Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has been recognized that a defect in klotho gene expression accelerates the degeneration of multiple age-sensitive traits. Accumulating evidence indicates that aging is associated with declines in cognitive function and the activity of growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1.MethodsIn this study, we examined whether a GH-releaser diet could be effective in protecting against cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice.ResultsThe GH-releaser diet significantly induced the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in the hippocampus of klotho mutant mice. Klotho mutant mice showed significant memory impairments as compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the klotho mutation significantly decreased the expression of cell survival/antiapoptotic factors, including phospho-Akt (p-Akt/phospho-glycogen synthase kinase3β (p-GSK3β, phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK, and Bcl-2, but significantly increased those of cell death/proapoptotic factors, such as phospho-c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus. Treatment with GH-releaser diet significantly attenuated both decreases in the expression of cell survival/antiapoptotic factors and increases in the expression of cell death/proapoptotic factors in the hippocampus of klotho mutant mice. In addition, klotho mutation-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by the GH-releaser diet. Consequently, a GH-releaser diet significantly improved memory function in the klotho mutant mice. GH-releaser diet-mediated actions were significantly reversed by JB-1, an IGF-1 receptor antagonist.ConclusionThe results suggest that a GH-releaser diet attenuates oxidative stress, proapoptotic changes and consequent dysfunction in klotho mutant mice by promoting IGF-1 expression and IGF-1 receptor activation.

  2. Proposal of the concept of selection of accidents that release large amounts of radioactive substances in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Honda, Yuki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Position, construction and equipment of testing and research reactor to be subjected to the use standards for rules Article 53 (prevention of expansion of the accident to release a large amount of radioactive material) generation the frequency is a lower accident than design basis accident, when what is likely to release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation from the facility has occurred, and take the necessary measures in order to prevent the spread of the accident. There is provided a lower accident than frequency design basis accidents, for those that may release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation. (author)

  3. Wind tunnel testing to predict control room atmospheric dispersion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmquist, L.J.; Harden, P.A.; Muraida, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent concerns at Palisades about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing the control room has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode. The current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 1.2 x 10 -2 m 3 /s (25 ft 3 /min) unfiltered in-leakage into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered as a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. A second approach to this problem was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (x/Q's) through a wind tunnel test using a scale model of Palisades. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic x/Q's for control room habitability than previously employed methods. Palisades selected the wind tunnel study option based on its ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the study could increase the allowable unfiltered in-leakage

  4. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL, and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Results: Among the 509 donors, 295 (58% were male, and 420 (82.50% belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5% died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9% cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3% were nonreactive, 12 (2.4% donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, and 1 (0.2% was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12% donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32% donors were accepted and 34 (6.67% were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00. Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00. Conclusion: The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4% and 1 (0.2%, respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling

  5. Factors affecting the serological testing of cadaveric donor cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Mittal, Garima; Bahadur, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serological profile of the eye donors and to study the influence of various factors on serological test results. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted, and data of 509 donors were reviewed from the records of eye bank from December 2012 to June 2017. Various details of donors analyzed included the age, sex of the donor, cause of death, source of tissue, time since blood collection after death, macroscopic appearance of blood sample, and details of discarded tissues. Serological examination of blood was performed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), and serology reports reactive or nonreactive were analyzed. Among the 509 donors, 295 (58%) were male, and 420 (82.50%) belonged to age group ≥60 years. Most donors (354, 69.5%) died due to cardiac arrest. Macroscopically, sera were normal in the majority of 488 (95.9%) cases. Among 509 donors, 475 (93.3%) were nonreactive, 12 (2.4%) donors were found to be reactive to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 1 (0.2%) was reactive to HCV, but no donor serology was reactive to HIV or VDRL. Twenty-one (4.12%) donors' sera were not fit for serological testing. Among all donors, 475 (93.32%) donors were accepted and 34 (6.67%) were rejected or discarded on the basis of serological testing. Cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influenced the serological results in a highly significant manner (P = 0.00). Acceptance or rejection of the donor was significantly influenced by the serological results of the donor (P = 0.00). The seroprevalence among eye donor for HBsAg and HCV was 12 (2.4%) and 1 (0.2%), respectively. Factors such as cause of death and macroscopic aspect of sera influence the serological results. Time since blood collection or sampling will not show any impact on viral serological results if postmortem sampling will be done in donor cornea.

  6. Constitutive production and thrombin-induced release of vascular endothelial growth factor by human megakaryocytes and platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhle, Robert; Green, David; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Nachman, Ralph L.; Rafii, Shahin

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that coculture of bone marrow microvascular endothelial cells with hematopoietic progenitor cells results in proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes. In these long-term cultures, bone marrow microvascular endothelial cell monolayers maintain their cellular integrity in the absence of exogenous endothelial growth factors. Because this interaction may involve paracrine secretion of cytokines, we evaluated megakaryocytic cells for secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Megakaryocytes (CD41a+) were generated by ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells with kit-ligand and thrombopoietin for 10 days and further purified with immunomagnetic microbeads. Using reverse transcription–PCR, we showed that megakaryocytic cell lines (Dami, HEL) and purified megakaryocytes expressed mRNA of the three VEGF isoforms (121, 165, and 189 amino acids). Large quantities of VEGF (>1 ng/106 cells/3 days) were detected in the supernatant of Dami cells, ex vivo-generated megakaryocytes, and CD41a+ cells isolated from bone marrow. The constitutive secretion of VEGF by CD41a+ cells was stimulated by growth factors of the megakaryocytic lineage (interleukin 3, thrombopoietin). Western blotting of heparin–Sepharose-enriched supernatant mainly detected the isoform VEGF165. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed intracytoplasmic VEGF in polyploid megakaryocytes. Thrombin stimulation of megakaryocytes and platelets resulted in rapid release of VEGF within 30 min. We conclude that human megakaryocytes produce and secrete VEGF in an inducible manner. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, VEGF secreted by megakaryocytes may contribute to the proliferation of endothelial cells. VEGF delivered to sites of vascular injury by activated platelets may initiate angiogenesis. PMID:9012841

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  8. Sequential VEGF and BMP-2 releasing PLA-PEG-PLA scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: I. Design and in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eğri, Sinan; Eczacıoğlu, Numan

    2017-03-01

    Biodegradable PLA-PEG-PLA block copolymers were synthesized with desired backbone structures and molecular weights using PEG20000. Rectangular scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying with or without using NaCl particles. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 was loaded to the matrix after the scaffold formation for sustained release while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was loaded within the pores with gelatin solution. VEGF release was quite fast and almost 60% of it was released in 2 d. However, sequential - sustained released was observed for BMP-2 in the following few months. Corporation of VEGF/BMP-2 couple into the scaffolds increased the cell adhesion and proliferation. Neither significant cytotoxicity nor apoptosis/necrosis were observed.

  9. Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis and corticotropin-releasing factor stress system on cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galesi, Fernanda L; Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Mijares, Miriam Garcia; Cippitelli, Andrea; Cannella, Nazzareno; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

    2016-10-05

    A large body of evidence has shown that the Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) system, which plays a key role in stress modulation, is deeply involved in relapse to alcohol seeking induced by exposure to stressful events such as foot shock or yohimbine injections. Exposure to environmental cues is also known to be a trigger for alcohol relapse, nevertheless, the relationship between the relapse evoked by the cue-induced model and the CRF stress systems remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in male Wistar rats, the involvement of the CRF system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in relapse induced by environmental cues. Antalarmin, a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, Metyrapone, a corticosterone (CORT) synthesis inhibitor and CORT were evaluated for their effects on the reinstatement test in a cue-induced relapse model. Antalarmin (20mg/kg) blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by environmental cues. Metyrapone (50 and 100mg/kg) also blocked relapse in Wistar rats but only at the highest dose (100mg/kg). Corticosterone had no effect on relapse at the doses tested. The results obtained from this study suggest that the CRF stress system and the HPA axis are involved in cue-induced alcohol relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Lymphocyte transformation test following stimulation with a protein factor from neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNL) in psoriasis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczak, Z; Ciborska, L; Kaszuba, A

    1988-12-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was given to 20 healthy subjects and 43 patients with generalized psoriasis vulgaris: it was given right after stimulation with PHA (spontaneous) and after stimulation with allogenic and autogenic protein factor (NPF). NPF was isolated from secondary lysosome granules of peripheral blood neutrophils. The results were analyzed using computer statistic tests. No distinct differences were noticed between the spontaneous transformation test in psoriatic patients compared to the controls. After stimulation with PHA, the percentage of blast cells was significantly lower in patients with psoriasis. When allogenic and autogenic NPF was used for stimulation, the LTT values were significantly higher in the psoriasis group than in the control subjects. This fact points out the increase in sensitivity of lymphocytes to NPF in active psoriasis and the possibility of abnormal neutrophil-lymphocyte interactions in vivo. This phenomenon may be intensified when under the influence of bacterial or viral agents, or medicaments; the degranulation of secondary lysosome granules of neutrophils occurs, causing the release of NPF. These investigations support our opinion that psoriasis is a systemic disease and that NPF plays a considerable role in the psoriatic reaction.

  11. Novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary emphysema using gelatin microspheres releasing basic fibroblast growth factor in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung Soo; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Matsuura, Natsumi; Gotoh, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The prognosis of patients with emphysema is poor as there is no truly effective treatment. Our previous study showed that the alveolar space was smaller and the microvessel density was higher in a canine emphysema model after the intrapulmonary arterial administration of gelatin microspheres slowly releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-GMS). In the present study, we evaluated the functional effect of injecting bFGF-GMS via the pulmonary artery in this canine pulmonary emphysema model. Using the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced total emphysema model, we approximated the value of lung compliance with a Power Lab System, and performed blood gas analysis in a control group, a total emphysema group, and a bFGF group in which bFGF-GMS were injected toward the whole pulmonary artery via the femoral vein. Each group comprised five dogs. Lung compliance was higher in the total emphysema group than in the control group (p = 0.031), and the bFGF group showed no significant improvement of lung compliance vs. the total emphysema group (p = 0.112). PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) was improved by administering bFGF-GMS in the total emphysema model (p = 0.027). In the canine total emphysema model, blood gas parameters were improved by the whole pulmonary arterial administration of bFGF-GMS. This method has the potential to be an effective novel therapy for pulmonary emphysema.

  12. Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr6.63 forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr6.63 to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr3566.63 allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R.

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Platelet-Released Growth Factor and Immediate Orthodontic Loading on the Removal Torque of Miniscrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Shahin; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Aghaabbasi, Sharereh; Farsinejad, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-released growth factor (PRGF) and immediate orthodontic forces on the removal torque of miniscrews. This study was conducted on three male dogs aged 6 to 8 months with a body weight of 17.6 to 18.4 kg. Sixty miniscrews were inserted in the posterior aspect of the femur. There were four groups, including loaded miniscrews with application of PRGF, unloaded miniscrews without application of PRGF, unloaded miniscrews with PRGF, and loaded miniscrews without PRGF. Twenty miniscrews were inserted in the femoral bone of one foot of each dog, including all the aforementioned subgroups. After 12 weeks, the miniscrews were removed by a removal torque tester device and measured in newton centimeters. The mean removal torque values in four groups of immediately loaded screws with PRGF, unloaded screws with PRGF, immediately loaded screws without PRGF, and unloaded screws without PRGF were 19.68, 21.74, 13.65, and 15.46 Ncm, respectively. It was shown that the mean removal torque value for the group with PRGF was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P = .0001). Although there was a tendency toward a decrease in removal torque value with immediate loading, it was not statistically significant (P = .21). According to the results of this study, applying PRGF with miniscrews increased their stability, but the delivery of immediate force on miniscrews had no effect on the miniscrews' stability.

  14. Peptide YY, neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin-releasing factor modulate gastrointestinal motility and food intake during acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah C; Cox, Helen M

    2014-11-01

    Peripheral neuropeptide Y (NPY) provides protection against the endocrine, feeding and gastrointestinal (GI) responses to stress; however, it is not yet established how it interacts with corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) to mediate these effects. Peptide YY (PYY) also has significant roles in GI motility and food intake but little is known about its role in stress responses. Upper GI transit, fecal pellet output (FPO) and feeding responses, and the role of CRF1 receptors, during restraint or a novel environment stress, were ascertained in PYY-/-, NPY-/- and wild type (WT) mice, with CRF and the CRF1 antagonist, antalarmin, injected intraperitoneally. Upper GI transit and FPO were significantly increased in PYY-/- mice during restraint stress. Exogenous CRF increased defecation during placement in a novel environment in WT mice through CRF1 , while CRF1 blockade reduced defecation in WT and NPY-/- mice but had no effect in PYY-/- mice. In addition, CRF1 blockade had no effect on upper GI transit in WT mice, or on food intake in PYY-/- or NPY-/- mice, but it significantly increased food intake in WT mice. Endogenous NPY appears to inhibit the colonic motor response induced by CRF1 activation, unlike PYY, while both peptides are required for CRF1 modulation of feeding behavior during stress. Overall, these results provide new insights into the mechanism by which PYY and NPY affect stress responses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Corticotropin-releasing factor critical for zebrafish camouflage behavior is regulated by light and sensitive to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Mahendra; Mathur, Priya; Guo, Su

    2011-01-05

    The zebrafish camouflage response is an innate "hard-wired" behavior that offers an excellent opportunity to explore neural circuit assembly and function. Moreover, the camouflage response is sensitive to ethanol, making it a tractable system for understanding how ethanol influences neural circuit development and function. Here we report the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) as a critical component of the camouflage response pathway. We further show that ethanol, having no direct effect on the visual sensory system or the melanocytes, acts downstream of retinal ganglion cells and requires the CRF-proopiomelanocortin pathway to exert its effect on camouflage. Treatment with ethanol, as well as alteration of light exposure that changes sensory input into the camouflage circuit, robustly modifies CRF expression in subsets of neurons. Activity of both adenylyl cyclase 5 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is required for such ethanol-induced or light-induced plasticity of crf expression. These results reveal an essential role of a peptidergic pathway in camouflage that is regulated by light and influenced by ethanol at concentrations relevant to abuse and anxiolysis, in a cAMP-dependent and ERK-dependent manner. We conclude that this ethanol-modulated camouflage response represents a novel and relevant system for molecular genetic dissection of a neural circuit that is regulated by light and sensitive to ethanol.

  16. Is it really a matter of simple dualism? Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in body and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Donny; Kozicz, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress coordinated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis are concerned with maintaining homeostasis in the presence of real or perceived challenges. Regulators of this axis are corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and CRF related neuropeptides, including urocortins 1, 2, and 3. They mediate their actions by binding to CRF receptors (CRFR) 1 and 2, which are located in several stress-related brain regions. The prevailing theory has been that the initiation of and the recovery from an elicited stress response is coordinated by two elements, viz. the (mainly) opposing, but well balanced actions of CRFR1 and CRFR2. Such a dualistic view suggests that CRF/CRFR1 controls the initiation of, and urocortins/CRFR2 mediate the recovery from stress to maintain body and mental health. Consequently, failed adaptation to stress can lead to neuropathology, including anxiety and depression. Recent literature, however, challenges such dualistic and complementary actions of CRFR1 and CRFR2, and suggests that stress recruits CRF system components in a brain area and neuron specific manner to promote adaptation as conditions dictate.

  17. Factors Released from Endothelial Cells Exposed to Flow Impact Adhesion, Proliferation, and Fate Choice in the Adult Neural Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Courtney M; Piselli, Jennifer M; Kazi, Nadeem; Bowman, Evan; Li, Guoyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Temple, Sally; Dai, Guohao; Thompson, Deanna M

    2017-08-15

    The microvasculature within the neural stem cell (NSC) niche promotes self-renewal and regulates lineage progression. Previous work identified endothelial-produced soluble factors as key regulators of neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and proliferation; however, endothelial cells (ECs) are sensitive to local hemodynamics, and the effect of this key physiological process has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated adult mouse NPC response to soluble factors isolated from static or dynamic (flow) EC cultures. Endothelial factors generated under dynamic conditions significantly increased neuronal differentiation, while those released under static conditions stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation. Flow increases EC release of neurogenic factors and of heparin sulfate glycosaminoglycans that increase their bioactivity, likely underlying the enhanced neuronal differentiation. Additionally, endothelial factors, especially from static conditions, promoted adherent growth. Together, our data suggest that blood flow may impact proliferation, adhesion, and the neuron-glial fate choice of adult NPCs, with implications for diseases and aging that reduce flow.

  18. Monitoring the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets with a fiber-optic dissolution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the process of dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets. Hydrolysis product of salicylic acid can result in adverse effects and affect the determination of dissolution rate assaying. In this study, the technique of differential spectra was employed, which made it possible to monitor the dissolution testing in situ. The results showed that the hydrolyzation of aspirin made the percentage of salicylic acid exceed the limit of free salicylic acid (4.0, and the hydrolyzation may affect the quality detection of aspirin delayed-release tablets. Keywords: Aspirin delayed-release tablets, Drug dissolution test, Fiber-optic dissolution system, UV–vis spectrum

  19. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression.

  20. Aerosol release factor for Pu as a consequence of an ion exchange resin fire in the process cell of a fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanti, D.P.; Malvankar, S.V.; Kotrappa, P.; Somasundaram, S.; Raghunath, B.; Curtay, A.M.

    1988-12-01

    One of the upper limit accidents usually considered in the safety analysis of a fuel reprocessing plant is an accidental explosion, followed by a fire, of an ion exchange column containing resin loaded with large quantities of plutonium. In such accidents, a certain fraction (release factor) of Pu is released in the form of an aerosol into the ventilation system, and finally to the environment through HEPA filters and the stack. The present study was undertaken to determine the aerosol release factor for Pu in the process cell of a typical fuel reprocessing plant. Geometrically similar scaled-down models of three different sizes were built, and suitably scaled-down quantities of resin loaded with thorium in nitric acid medium were burnt in these model cells. Thorium was used in place of Pu because of its physical and chemical similarities with Pu. The release factor was obtained by comparing the amount of Th in air with the total. The study also dealt with aerosol characteristics and kinematics of process of fire. The aerosol release factors for the three models were found to lie in the range 0.01-0.07%, and varied non-monotonically with model size. The analysis of scaled down results in conjunction with simplified aerosol modelling yielded the release factor for the actual cell conditions as 0.012% with an upper limit value of 0.1%. The particle size analysis based on Th-radioactivity and particle-mass indicated nonuniform tagging of Th to aerosol particles. These particles were irregularly shaped, but not as long chain-like aggregates. The study proposes, with a reasonable degree of conservatism, the release factor of 0.1% for such fires, and aerosol parameters, AMAD and sigma/sub g/, as 2 m and 2 respectively. However, for situations significantly different from the present one, the release factor of 1% recommended by the American National Standards Institute may be used with a greater degree of confidence in the light of the present work.

  1. Testing the behaviour of different kinetic models for uptake/release of radionuclides between water and sediments when implemented in a marine dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.

    2004-01-01

    Three kinetic models for adsorption/release of 137 Cs between water and sediments have been tested when they are included in a previously validated dispersion model of the English Channel. Radionuclides are released to the Channel from La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant (France). The kinetic models are a 1-step model consisting of a single reversible reaction, a 2-step model consisting of two consecutive reversible reactions and an irreversible model consisting of three parallel reactions: two reversible and one irreversible. The models have been tested under three typical situations that correspond to the source terms that can generally be found: instantaneous release, continuous release and redissolution of radionuclides from contaminated sediments. Differences between the models become more evident when contact times between water and sediments are larger (continuous release) and in the case of redissolution from sediments. Time scales for the redissolution process are rather different between the three models. The 1-step model produces a redissolution that is too fast when compared with experimental evidence. The irreversible model requires that saturation effects of the irreversible phase are included. Probably, the 2-step model represents the best compromise between ease and level of detail of the description of sorption/release processes

  2. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl

    BACKGROUND Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that IgE-mediated basophil activation leads to release of TNFα that in turn can induce matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) release from monocytes. We wished to investigate if serum from chronic spontaneous urticaria-patients with auto-a...

  3. Results of development and field tests of a radar-tracer system providing meteorological support to modeling hazardous technological releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shershakov, V.M.; Zukov, G.P.; Kosykh, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radar support to systems of automated radiation monitoring requires dealing with determination of geometric characteristics of air release of radionuclides. For doing this, an air release can be labeled by chaff propagating in the air similarly to particles of radioactive substance. Then, a chaff suspension can be treated as a spatially distributed radar target and thus be detected by a radar. For a number of years the Science and Production Association 'Typhoon' of Roshydromet, Obninsk has been developing a radar tracer system (RTS) for meteorological support of modeling hazardous technological releases. In September -December 2002 experiments were conducted to test the RTS in field. This presentation contains preliminary results of testing this system. A total of 9 experiments pursuing different goals were carried out. Of them 6 experiments were conducted approximately 6 km south-west of Obninsk in the vicinity of the village of Potresovo. The first three experiments were aimed at working out interaction between the MR and LDU and assessing the chaff cloud observation distance. In doing this, radar information was not transmitted from the MR to the CCS. In the last three experiments radar information was transmitted to the CCS by cell communication lines using telephones Siemens S35 with in-built modems. The CCS was deployed in building 4/25 of SPA 'Typhoon'. All information received in the CCS was put an a map. Three experiments were conducted in the area of the Kursk NPP as part of preparations for training exercises near the village of Makarovka about 7 km north-west of the city of Kurchatov. In the first two experiments radar information from the MR was passed by cell communication channels to the CCS deployed in the laboratory of external radiation monitoring of the Kursk nuclear power plant. Experiment 3 was a demonstration and arranged during the emergency response exercises at the Kursk NPP. The MR was based on the site of the external

  4. Human keratinocytes are a source for tumor necrosis factor alpha: Evidence for synthesis and release upon stimulation with endotoxin or ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeck, A.S.; Schwarz, T.; Kirnbauer, R.; Urbanski, A.; Perry, P.; Ansel, J.C.; Luger, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), in addition to being cytotoxic for certain tumor cells, has turned out as a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immunity and inflammation. Since human keratinocytes have been demonstrated to be a potent source of various cytokines, it was investigated whether epidermal cells synthesize and release TNF-alpha. Supernatants derived from normal human keratinocytes (HNK) and human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines (KB, A431) were tested both in a TNF-alpha-specific ELISA and a bioassay. In supernatants of untreated epidermal cells, no or minimal TNF-alpha activity was found, while after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ultraviolet (UV) light, significant amounts were detected. Western blot analysis using an antibody directed against human TNF-alpha revealed a molecular mass of 17 kD for keratinocyte-derived TNF-alpha. These biological and biochemical data were also confirmed by Northern blot analysis revealing mRNA specific for TNF-alpha in LPS- or ultraviolet B (UVB)-treated HNK and KB cells. In addition, increased TNF-alpha levels were detected in the serum obtained from human volunteers 12 and 24 h after a single total body UVB exposure, which caused a severe sunburn reaction. These findings indicate that keratinocytes upon stimulation are able to synthesize and release TNF-alpha, which may gain access to the circulation. Thus, TNF-alpha in concert with other epidermal cell-derived cytokines may mediate local and systemic inflammatory reactions during host defense against injurious events caused by microbial agents or UV irradiation

  5. Evaluation of the tuberculin skin test and the interferon-γ release assay for TB screening in French healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Francois

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Using French cut-offs for the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST, results of the TST were compared with the results of an Interferon-γ Release Assay (IGRA in Healthcare Workers (HCW after contact to AFB-positive TB patients. Methods Between May 2006 and May 2007, a total of 148 HCWs of the University Hospital in Nantes, France were tested simultaneously with IGRA und TST. A TST was considered to indicate recent latent TB infection (LTBI if an increase of >10 mm or if TST ≥ 15 mm for those with no previous TST result was observed. For those with a positive TST, chest X-ray was performed and preventive chemotherapy was offered. Results All HCWs were BCG-vaccinated. The IGRA was positive in 18.9% and TST ≥ 10 mm was observed in 65.5%. A recent LTBI was believed to be highly probable in 30.4% following TST. Agreement between IGRA and TST was low (kappa 0.041. In 10 (16.7% out of 60 HCWs who needed chest X-ray following TST the IGRA was positive. In 9 (20% out of 45 HCWs to whom preventive chemotherapy was offered following TST the IGRA was positive. Of those considered TST-negative following the French guidelines, 20.5% were IGRA-positive. In a two-step strategy - positive TST verified by IGRA - 18 out of 28 (64.3% IGRA-positive HCWs would not have been detected using French guidelines for TST interpretation. Conclusion The introduction of IGRA in contact tracings of BCG-vaccinated HCWs reduces X-rays and preventive chemotherapies. Increasing the cut-off for a positive TST does not seem to be helpful to overcome the effect of BCG vaccination on TST.

  6. Factors affecting the auction price of Veldram performance tested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The popularity of these auctions for performance tested rams (89.4 % of rams sold) indicate that Veld tested rams were sought after by buyers. The sale price of 296 Veld tested Dorper rams sold between 1994 and 2001, covering seven different tests, were compared with their measured and observed performances.

  7. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Per-Target Flux-Level Transit Injection Tests of TPS for Data Release 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Catanzarite, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the ability of a transiting planet survey to recover transit signals has commonly been accomplished through Monte-Carlo injection of transit signals into the observed data and subsequent running of the signal search algorithm (Gilliland et al., 2000; Weldrake et al., 2005; Burke et al., 2006). In order to characterize the performance of the Kepler pipeline (Twicken et al., 2016; Jenkins et al., 2017) on a sample of over 200,000 stars, two complementary injection and recovery tests are utilized:1. Injection of a single transit signal per target into the image or pixel-level data, hereafter referred to as pixel-level transit injection (PLTI), with subsequent processing through the Photometric Analysis (PA), Presearch Data Conditioning (PDC), Transiting Planet Search (TPS), and Data Validation (DV) modules of the Kepler pipeline. The PLTI quantification of the Kepler pipeline's completeness has been described previously by Christiansen et al. (2015, 2016); the completeness of the final SOC 9.3 Kepler pipeline acting on the Data Release 25 (DR25) light curves is described by Christiansen (2017).2. Injection of multiple transit signals per target into the normalized flux time series data with a subsequent transit search using a stream-lined version of the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) module. This test, hereafter referred to as flux-level transit injection (FLTI), is the subject of this document. By running a heavily modified version of TPS, FLTI is able to perform many injections on selected targets and determine in some detail which injected signals are recoverable. Significant numerical efficiency gains are enabled by precomputing the data conditioning steps at the onset of TPS and limiting the search parameter space (i.e., orbital period, transit duration, and ephemeris zero-point) to a small region around each injected transit signal.The PLTI test has the advantage that it follows transit signals through all processing steps of the Kepler pipeline, and

  8. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO2 leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payán, M. Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R.

    2012-01-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO 2 acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied. - Highlights: ► Tier structured approach for assessment of the release of metals from sediment. ► Standard column leaching test to simulate CO 2 acidified seawater CCS leakages. ► Metal and DOC release from marine sediment in contact to CO 2 acidified seawater. ► From empirical to geochemical modeling approaches of DOC and metals release in column tests. ► Contamination line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment. - Column metal release from CO 2 acidified seawater leakages in contact with estuarine contaminated sediment in CCS sites

  9. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Vecht, U.; Stockhofe Zurwieden, N.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of a muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) vaccine in preventing infection and disease in pigs challenged either with a homologous or a heterologous Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain (MRP EF ) was compared with the efficacy of a vaccine containing

  10. Three-dimensional Printed Scaffolds with Gelatin and Platelets Enhance In vitro Preosteoblast Growth Behavior and the Sustained-release Effect of Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our experiments confirmed that the 3D printed scaffolds we had designed could provide a sustained-release effect for growth factors and improve the proliferation of preosteoblasts with little cytotoxicity in vitro. They may hold promise as bone graft substitute materials in the future.

  11. An integrated device for magnetically-driven drug release and in situ quantitative measurements: Design, fabrication and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvera, I.J. [Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50018 (Spain); Hernández, R.; Mijangos, C. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, CSIC, Juan Cierva 3, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Goya, G.F., E-mail: goya@unizar.es [Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA), University of Zaragoza, 50018 (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Department, Science Faculty, University of Zaragoza, 50009 (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a device capable of remote triggering and in situ quantification of therapeutic drugs, based on magnetically-responsive hydrogels of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alginate (PNiPAAm). The heating efficiency of these hydrogels measured by their specific power absorption (SPA) values showed that the values between 100 and 300 W/g of the material were high enough to reach the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymeric matrix within few minutes. The drug release through application of AC magnetic fields could be controlled by time-modulated field pulses in order to deliver the desired amount of drug. Using B12 vitamin as a concept drug, the device was calibrated to measure amounts of drug released as small as 25(2)×10{sup −9} g, demonstrating the potential of this device for very precise quantitative control of drug release. - Highlights: • A device for magnetically driven drug release was developed and constructed. • Thermally responsive PNiPAAm and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were usedas drug reservoir. • The device allowed repetitive, remote and precisely controlled drug release. • By in situ spectrometry we could detect released drug quantities as small as 25 ng. • Released drug was controlled through magnetic ac field parameters H, f and time.

  12. An integrated device for magnetically-driven drug release and in situ quantitative measurements: Design, fabrication and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvera, I.J.; Hernández, R.; Mijangos, C.; Goya, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a device capable of remote triggering and in situ quantification of therapeutic drugs, based on magnetically-responsive hydrogels of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alginate (PNiPAAm). The heating efficiency of these hydrogels measured by their specific power absorption (SPA) values showed that the values between 100 and 300 W/g of the material were high enough to reach the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the polymeric matrix within few minutes. The drug release through application of AC magnetic fields could be controlled by time-modulated field pulses in order to deliver the desired amount of drug. Using B12 vitamin as a concept drug, the device was calibrated to measure amounts of drug released as small as 25(2)×10 −9 g, demonstrating the potential of this device for very precise quantitative control of drug release. - Highlights: • A device for magnetically driven drug release was developed and constructed. • Thermally responsive PNiPAAm and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were usedas drug reservoir. • The device allowed repetitive, remote and precisely controlled drug release. • By in situ spectrometry we could detect released drug quantities as small as 25 ng. • Released drug was controlled through magnetic ac field parameters H, f and time

  13. Test anxiety and the validity of cognitive tests: A confirmatory factor analysis perspective and some empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by

  14. Impact of lowering ski binding settings on the outcome of the self-release test of ski bindings among female recreational skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posch M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Markus Posch,1 Martin Burtscher,1 Alois Schranz,2 Katja Tecklenburg,2 Kenneth Helle,2 Gerhard Ruedl1 1Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 2Medalp Sportclinic, Imst, Austria Background and purpose: The ability to successfully self-release the ski binding can prevent skiing-related injuries of the lower extremities. Failure of binding release associated with a knee injury is significantly higher among females compared to males. The International Standards Organization ISO 11088 standard for binding setting values allows a lowering by 15% upon request of the skier. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lowered ski binding settings by 15% on the outcome of the self-release test among female recreational skiers. Materials and methods: In this randomized single-blinded study, a cohort of 20 females (24.5±2.7 years performed the self-release test in the laboratory thrice with each leg under two conditions: 1 with an actual ISO 11088 setting and 2 with a setting lowered by 15%. For each attempt, torques calculated via the force plate were normalized to torques measured by a binding adjustment system (relative release torque, RRT. Results: Among 240 trials in total, more females were significantly able to self-release their ski bindings with lowered binding settings when compared to their actual ISO settings (53% vs 9%, p<0.001. Thirteen females (65% were able to release their bindings at least once with both legs with lowered binding settings compared to only three females (15% with their actual binding settings (p<0.001. Mean RRT of all failure of binding release trials significantly differed between lowered and actual binding settings (58.6%±22.2% vs 50.5%±20.4%, p=0.003. Conclusion: Four times more females were able to self-release their ski bindings at least once with both legs with a 15% lowered binding setting compared to their normal ISO 11088 setting. The fact that the ISO standard

  15. Description of the blowdown test facility COG program on in-reactor fission product release, transport, and deposition under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Wood, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    Loss-of-coolant accidents with additional impairment of emergency cooling would probably result in high fuel temperatures leading to severe fuel damage (SFD) and significant fission product activity would then be transported along the PHTS to the break where a fraction of it would be released and transport under such conditions, there are many interacting and sometimes competing phenomena to consider. Laboratory simulations are being used to provide data on these individual phenomena, such as UO 2 oxidation and Zr-UO 2 interaction, from which mathematical models can be constructed. These are then combined into computer codes to include the interaction effects and assess the overall releases. In addition, in-reactor tests are the only source of data on release and transport of short-lived fission product nuclides, which are important in the consequence analysis of CANDU reactor accidents. Post-test decontamination of an in-reactor test facility also provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate techniques and obtain decontamination data relevant to post-accident rehabilitation of CANDU power reactors. Specialized facilities are required for in-reactor testing because of the extensive release of radioactive fission products and the high temperatures involved (up to 2500 degrees Celsius). To meet this need for the Canadian program, the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) has been built in the NRU reactor at Chalk River. Between completion of construction in mid-1987 and the first Zircaloy-sheathed fuel test in fiscal year 1987/88, several commissioning tests are being performed. Similarly, extensive development work has been completed to permit application of instrumentation to irradiated fuel elements, and in support of post-test fuel assembly examination. A program of decontamination studies has also been developed to generate information relevant to post-accident decontamination of power reactors. The BTF shared cost test program funded by the COG High Temperature

  16. Online cognition : Factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Murre, J.M.J.; Schagen, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  17. Online cognition : factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  18. Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 action within the dorsal raphe nucleus in stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Alexis R; Roland, Alison V; Fluharty, Jessica M; Marshall, Anikò; Chen, Alon; Daniels, Derek; Beck, Sheryl G; Bale, Tracy L

    2014-06-01

    Women are twice as likely as men to suffer from stress-related affective disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important link between stress and mood, in part through its signaling in the serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR). Development of CRF receptor-1 (CRFr1) antagonists has been a focus of numerous clinical trials but has not yet been proven efficacious. We hypothesized that sex differences in CRFr1 modulation of DR circuits might be key determinants in predicting therapeutic responses and affective disorder vulnerability. Male and female mice received DR infusions of the CRFr1 antagonist, NBI 35965, or CRF and were evaluated for stress responsivity. Sex differences in indices of neural activation (cFos) and colocalization of CRFr1 throughout the DR were examined. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology assessed sex differences in serotonin neuron membrane characteristics and responsivity to CRF. Males showed robust behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to DR infusion of NBI 35965 and CRF, whereas females were minimally responsive. Sex differences were also found for both CRF-induced DR cFos and CRFr1 co-localization throughout the DR. Electrophysiologically, female serotonergic neurons showed blunted membrane excitability and divergent inhibitory postsynaptic current responses to CRF application. These studies demonstrate convincing sex differences in CRFr1 activity in the DR, where blunted female responses to NBI 35965 and CRF suggest unique stress modulation of the DR. These sex differences might underlie affective disorder vulnerability and differential sensitivity to pharmacologic treatments developed to target the CRF system, thereby contributing to a current lack of CRFr1 antagonist efficacy in clinical trials. © 2013 Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry on behalf of Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  19. Eosinophils express muscarinic receptors and corticotropin-releasing factor to disrupt the mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Persborn, Mats; Jönsson, Maria; Wang, Arthur; Phan, Van; Lampinen, Maria; Vicario, Maria; Santos, Javier; Sherman, Philip M; Carlson, Marie; Ericson, Ann-Charlott; McKay, Derek M; Söderholm, Johan D

    2011-05-01

    Altered intestinal barrier function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) in genetic, functional, and epidemiological studies. Mast cells and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulate the mucosal barrier in human colon. Because eosinophils are often increased in colon tissues of patients with UC, we assessed interactions among mast cells, CRF, and eosinophils in the mucosal barrier of these patients. Transmucosal fluxes of protein antigens (horseradish peroxidase) and paracellular markers ((51)Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000) were studied in noninflamed, colonic mucosal biopsy samples collected from 26 patients with UC and 53 healthy volunteers (controls); samples were mounted in Ussing chambers. We also performed fluorescence and electron microscopy of human tissue samples, assessed isolated eosinophils, and performed mechanistic studies using in vitro cocultured eosinophils (15HL-60), mast cells (HMC-1), and a colonic epithelial cell line (T84). Colon tissues from patients with UC had significant increases in permeability to protein antigens compared with controls. Permeability was blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), α-helical CRF(9-41) (a CRF receptor antagonist), and lodoxamide (a mast-cell stabilizer). Eosinophils were increased in number in UC tissues (compared with controls), expressed the most M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors of any mucosal cell type, and had immunoreactivity to CRF. In coculture studies, carbachol activation of eosinophils caused production of CRF and activation of mast cells, which increased permeability of T84 epithelial cells to macromolecules. We identified a neuroimmune intercellular circuit (from cholinergic nerves, via eosinophils to mast cells) that mediates colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with UC. This circuit might exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic stress induces sex-specific alterations in methylation and expression of corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sterrenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men is well known, the neuronal basis of this sex difference is largely elusive. METHODS: Male and female rats were exposed to chronic variable mild stress (CVMS after which immediate early gene products, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF mRNA and peptide, various epigenetic-associated enzymes and DNA methylation of the Crf gene were determined in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, oval (BSTov and fusiform (BSTfu parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and central amygdala (CeA. RESULTS: CVMS induced site-specific changes in Crf gene methylation in all brain centers studied in female rats and in the male BST and CeA, whereas the histone acetyltransferase, CREB-binding protein was increased in the female BST and the histone-deacetylase-5 decreased in the male CeA. These changes were accompanied by an increased amount of c-Fos in the PVN, BSTfu and CeA in males, and of FosB in the PVN of both sexes and in the male BSTov and BSTfu. In the PVN, CVMS increased CRF mRNA in males and CRF peptide decreased in females. CONCLUSIONS: The data confirm our hypothesis that chronic stress affects gene expression and CRF transcriptional, translational and secretory activities in the PVN, BSTov, BSTfu and CeA, in a brain center-specific and sex-specific manner. Brain region-specific and sex-specific changes in epigenetic activity and neuronal activation may play, too, an important role in the sex specificity of the stress response and the susceptibility to depression.

  1. Neonatal rearing conditions distinctly shape locus coeruleus neuronal activity, dendritic arborization, and sensitivity to corticotrophin-releasing factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinny, Jerome D.; O'Farrell, Eimear; Bingham, Brian C.; Piel, David A.; Valentino, Rita J.; Beck, Sheryl G.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events influence vulnerability to psychiatric illness. This has been modelled in rats and it has been demonstrated that different durations of maternal separation shape adult endocrine and behavioural stress reactivity. One system through which maternal separation may act is the locus coeruleus (LC)–norepinephrine system that regulates emotional arousal. Here we demonstrate that different durations of maternal separation have distinct effects on LC physiology and dendritic morphology. Rat pups were separated from the dam for 15 min/d (HMS-15) or 180 min/d (HMS-180) from post-natal days 2–14. Others were either undisturbed (HMS-0) or were vendor-purchased controls. LC characteristics were compared at age 22–35 d using whole-cell recordings in vitro. Cells were filled with biocytin for morphological analysis. LC neurons of HMS-180 rats were tonically activated compared to HMS-15 and control rats, with firing rates that were 2-fold higher than these groups. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) application did not further activate LC neurons of HMS-180 rats but increased LC firing rate in HMS-0 and control rats. LC neurons of HMS-15 rats were resistant to excitation by CRF. Maternal separation also affected LC dendritic morphology. LC dendrites of HMS-15 rats exhibited less branching and decreased total dendritic length, an effect that could decrease the probability of contacting limbic afferents that terminate in the pericoerulear region. This effect may provide a structural basis for an attenuated magnitude of emotional arousal. Together, these results demonstrate long-term consequences of early life events on the LC–norepinephrine system that may shape adult behaviour. PMID:19653930

  2. NESHAP Area-Specific Dose-Release Factors for Potential Onsite Member-of-the-Public Locations at SRS using CAP88-PC Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimor, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the use of the computer model CAP88-PC to estimate the total effective doses (TED) for demonstrating compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 2006), the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. As such, CAP88 Version 4.0 was used to calculate the receptor dose due to routine atmospheric releases at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For estimation, NESHAP dose-release factors (DRFs) have been supplied to Environmental Compliance and Area Closure Projects (EC&ACP) for many years. DRFs represent the dose to a maximum receptor exposed to 1 Ci of a specified radionuclide being released into the atmosphere. They are periodically updated to include changes in the CAP88 version, input parameter values, site meteorology, and location of the maximally exposed individual (MEI). In this report, the DRFs were calculated for potential radionuclide atmospheric releases from 13 SRS release points. The three potential onsite MEI locations to be evaluated are B-Area, Three Rivers Landfill (TRL), and Savannah River Ecology Lab Conference Center (SRELCC) with TRL’s onsite workers considered as members-of-the-public, and the potential future constructions of dormitories at SRELCC and Barracks at B-Area. Each MEI location was evaluated at a specified compass sector with different area to receptor distances and was conducted for both ground-level and elevated release points. The analysis makes use of area-specific meteorological data (Viner 2014). The resulting DRFs are compared to the 2014 NESHAP offsite MEI DRFs for three operational areas; A-Area, H-Area, and COS for a release rate of 1 Ci of tritium oxide at 0 ft. elevation. CAP88 was executed again using the 2016 NESHAP MEI release rates for 0 and 61 m stack heights to determine the radionuclide dose at TRL from the center-of-site (COS).

  3. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  4. Releasing growth factors from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation: a possible bio-material for platelet-rich plasma preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E-Chin; Chou, Tz-Chong; Gau, Ching-Hwa; Tu, Hsiao-Pei; Chen, Yen-Teen; Fu, Earl

    2006-10-01

    Thrombin is commonly used for activating the platelets and releasing the growth factors on the application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). We have previously reported that chitosan can enhance rabbit platelet aggregation. In this study, the effects of chitosan on the subsequent growth factors release after human platelets activation were examined to evaluate the possibility of chitosan being used as a substitute for thrombin during PRP preparation. Human platelet activation was determined by aggregation, adhesion and alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein expression. Platelet aggregation was measured by the turbidimetric method, the adhesion was directly examined on chitosan-coated glass plates under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the alpha-granule membrane glycoprotein was detected by fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD61 antibody through flow cytometry. The subsequent epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets were assayed by ELISA after mixing with chitosan. The enhancing effects on the platelet adhesion and the aggregation from chitosan were observed. Under both microscopes, the adhesive platelets on the chitosan-coated plates were not only greater in number but also earlier in activation than those on the control plates. With flow cytometry, increased glycoprotein IIIa expression in platelets was detected after chitosan treatment. Greater concentrations of growth factors were measured from PRP after chitosan treatment than after the solvent treatment. Because of the observations of growth factors releasing from activated human platelets after chitosan stimulation, we suggest that chitosan may be an appropriate substitute for thrombin in PRP preparation.

  5. Growth hormone-releasing peptide-biotin conjugate stimulates myocytes differentiation through insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Jin; Jeon, Jung Eun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Yoon, Seok Jeong; Kwon, Seon Deok; Lim, Jina; Park, Keedon; Kim, Dae Yong; Ahn, Jeong Keun; Kim, Bong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Based on the potential beneficial effects of growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 on muscle functions, a newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate was tested on cultured myoblast cells. Increased expression of myogenic marker proteins was observed in GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells. Additionally, increased expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 and collagen type I were observed. Furthermore, GHRP-6-biotin conjugate-treated cells showed increased metabolic activity, as indicated by increased concentrations of energy metabolites, such as ATP and lactate, and increased enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. Finally, binding protein analysis suggested few candidate proteins, including desmin, actin, and zinc finger protein 691 as potential targets for GHRP6-biotin conjugate action. These results suggest that the newly synthesized GHRP-6-biotin conjugate has myogenic stimulating activity through, at least in part, by stimulating collagen type I synthesis and several key proteins. Practical applications of the GHRP-6-biotin conjugate could include improving muscle condition.

  6. Interferon Gamma Release Assay versus Tuberculin Skin Testing among Healthcare Workers of Highly Diverse Origin in a Moderate Tuberculosis Burden Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahal Al Hajoj

    Full Text Available Health care workers (HCW's are always at an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB infection. In Saudi Arabia, Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA has not been evaluated as a screening tool for latent TB infection (LTBI among HCW's considering their high demographic diversity. During February 2012 to January 2015 a cross sectional study has been conducted in a tertiary care center with maximum demographically diverse staff population in the capital city-Riyadh. After a short interview and consenting, all the candidates were subjected to tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB gold In-tube test (QFT. A logistic regression analysis was carried out for establishing the associations between putative risk factors and the diagnostic tests. The candidates were classified according to geographical origin and a detailed analysis was conducted on the impact of their origin towards the results of TST and QFT. Of the 1595 candidates enrolled, 90.6% were BCG vaccinated, female (67.9% and mainly nurses (53.2%. Candidates with high risk of suspected or confirmed TB patient exposure were 56.1% and 76.5% of them had <10 year's work experience. TST positivity was observed in 503 (31.5% candidates, while QFT was positive among 399 (25%. Majority of the candidates were non-Saudi (83% and predominantly (52.4% from Western Pacific region. Concordant results were obtained in 14.2% of positive cases and 57.7% negative cases. The disagreements between the two tests were relatively high (kappa co-efficient-0.312±0.026, p value- <0.00001 as TST positive/QFT negative discordance was 54.8% while TST negative/QFT positive discordance was 15.7%. Age of the candidates, BCG vaccination, and South East Asian origin were associated with TST positivity while Occupational TB exposure and geographical origin of the candidates were associated with QFT positivity. A regular follow up on recently TST converted candidates showed no progression to active TB. The putative

  7. Evaluation of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic and pituitary disorders : comparison of serum cortisol, urinary free cortisol and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone test with the insulin tolerance test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Pasterkamp, SH; Beentjes, JAM; Sluiter, WJ

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the performance of screening tests (serum cortisol and 24-h urinary free cortisol) and the human-corticotrophin releasing hormone (h-CRH) test in the assessment of adrenal function in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. DESIGN Summary receiver

  8. Tuberculin skin testing and treatment modulates interferon-gamma release assay results for latent tuberculosis in migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K O'Shea

    Full Text Available Identifying latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI in people migrating from TB endemic regions to low incidence countries is an important control measure. However, no prospective longitudinal comparisons between diagnostic tests used in such migrant populations are available.To compare commercial interferon (IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs and the tuberculin skin test (TST for diagnosing LTBI in a migrant population, and the influence of antecedent TST and LTBI treatment on IGRA performance.This cohort study, performed from February to September 2012, assessed longitudinal IGRA and TST responses in Nepalese military recruits recently arrived in the UK. Concomitant T-SPOT.TB, QFT-GIT and TST were performed on day 0, with IGRAs repeated 7 and 200 days later, following treatment for LTBI if necessary.166 Nepalese recruits were prospectively assessed. At entry, 21 individuals were positive by T-SPOT.TB and 8 individuals by QFT-GIT. There was substantial agreement between TST and T-SPOT.TB positives at baseline (71.4% agreement; κ = 0.62; 95% CI:0.44-0.79, but only moderate concordance between positive IGRAs (38.1% agreement; κ = 0.46; 95% CI:0.25-0.67. When reassessed 7 days following TST, numbers of IGRA-positive individuals changed from 8 to 23 for QFT-GIT (p = 0.0074 and from 21 to 23 for T-SPOT.TB (p = 0.87. This resulted in an increase in IGRA concordance to substantial (64.3% agreement; κ = 0.73; 95% CI:0.58-0.88. Thus, in total on day 0 and day 7 after testing, 29 out of 166 participants (17.5% provided a positive IGRA and of these 13 were TST negative. Two hundred days after the study commenced and three months after treatment for LTBI was completed by those who were given chemoprophylaxis, 23 and 21 participants were positive by T-SPOT.TB or QFT-GIT respectively. When individual responses were examined longitudinally within this population 35% of the day 7 QFT-GIT-positive, and 19% T-SPOT.TB-positive individuals, were

  9. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) does not acutely change acetylcholine release in developing and adult neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Neus; Santafé, Manel M; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Priego, Merche; Tomàs, Josep

    2010-08-16

    We use immunocytochemistry to show that the trophic molecule glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRalpha-1) are present in both neonatal (P6) and adult (P45) rodent neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) colocalized with several synaptic markers. However, incubation with exogenous GDNF (10-200ng/ml, 1-3h), does not affect spontaneous ACh release. Moreover, GDNF does not change the size of the evoked ACh release from the weak and the strong axonal inputs on dually innervated postnatal endplates nor in the most developed singly-innervated synapses at P6 and P45. Our findings indicate that GDNF (unlike neurotrophins) does not acutely modulate transmitter release during the developmental process of synapse elimination nor as the NMJ matures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors to Consider When Implementing Automated Software Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-10

    development and integration is a continuous process throughout the acquisition life cycle . Automated Software Testing can improve testing capabilities...requires a lab, conference room, or both, and whether it should be located in- house or an external facility. 2. Ensure space is adequate to support team

  11. Bayes Factor Approaches for Testing Interval Null Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, Richard D.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological theories are statements of constraint. The role of hypothesis testing in psychology is to test whether specific theoretical constraints hold in data. Bayesian statistics is well suited to the task of finding supporting evidence for constraint, because it allows for comparing evidence

  12. Preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment: an in-reactor test of fuel behaviour and fission-product release and transport under LOCA/LOECC conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, L W; Elder, P H; Devaal, J W; Irish, J D; Yamazaki, A R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The BTF-104 experiment is one of a series of in-reactor tests being performed to measure fuel behaviour and fission-product release from nuclear fuel subjected to accident conditions. The primary objective of the BTF-104 experiment was to measure fission-product releases from a CANDU-sized fuel element under combined Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Loss-of-Emergency-Core-Cooling (LOECC) conditions at an average fuel temperature of about 1550 deg C. The preliminary results of the BTF-104 experiment are presented in this paper. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Specificity of EIA immunoassay for complement factor Bb testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Igor Y; De Forest, Nikol; Delgado, Julio C

    2011-01-01

    During the alternative complement pathway activation, factor B is cleaved in two fragments, Ba and Bb. Concentration of those fragments is about 2 logs lower than of factor B present in the blood, which makes fragment detection challenging because of potential cross-reactivity. Lack of information on Bb assay cross-reactivity stimulated the authors to investigate this issue. We ran 109 healthy donor EDTA plasmas and 80 sera samples with both factor B immunodiffusion (The Binding Site) and Quidel Bb EIA assays. During the study it was shown that physiological concentrations of gently purified factor B demonstrated approximately 0.15% cross-reactivity in the Quidel Bb EIA assay. We also observed that Bb concentration in serum is higher than in plasma due to complement activation during clot formation which let us use sera as samples representing complement activated state. Our study demonstrated that despite the potential 0.15% cross-reactivity between endogenous factor B and cleaved Bb molecule, measuring plasma concentrations of factor Bb is adequate to evaluate the activation of the alternative complement pathway.

  14. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  15. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa, E-mail: jcft@cdtn.b, E-mail: masl@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Protecao Radiologica; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SECPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Secao de Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of {sup 18}FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  16. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of 18 FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  17. Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors from the basolateral or central amygdala increases the tonic immobility response in guinea pigs: an innate fear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatti, Alberto Ferreira; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2011-11-20

    The tonic immobility (TI) behavior is an innate response associated with extreme threat situations such as a predator attack. Several studies have provided evidence suggesting an important role for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the regulation of the endocrine system, defensive behaviors and behavioral responses to stress. TI has been shown to be positively correlated with the basal plasma levels of corticosterone. CRF receptors and neurons that are immunoreactive to CRF are found in many cerebral regions, especially in the amygdaloid complex. Previous reports have demonstrated the involvement of the basolateral amygdaloid (BLA) and central amygdaloid (CeA) nuclei in the TI response. In this study, we evaluated the CRF system of the BLA and the CeA in the modulation of the TI response in guinea pigs. The activation of CRF receptors in the BLA and in the CeA promoted an increase in the TI response. In contrast, the inhibition of these receptors via alpha-helical-CRF(9-41) decreased the duration of the TI response. Moreover, neither the activation nor inhibition of CRF receptors in the BLA or the CeA altered spontaneous motor activity in the open-field test. These data suggest that the activation of the CRF receptors in the BLA or the CeA probably potentiates fear and anxiety, which may be one of the factors that promote an increase in the TI behavior. Therefore, these data support the role of the CRF system in the control of emotional responses, particularly in the modulation of innate fear. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation from radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon and electron radiation are calculated for 240 radionuclides of potential importance in routine releases from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Exposure modes considered are immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and irradiation from a contaminated ground surface. For each exposure mode, dose-rate conversion factors for photons and electrons are calculated for tissue-equivalent material at the body surface of an exposed individual. Dose-rate conversion factors for photons only are calculated for 22 body organs. (author)

  19. Effect of anti-gonadotropin-releasing factor vaccine and band castration on indicators of welfare in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Devant, M; Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Jackson, J A; Lopez, E; Janzen, E D; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2015-04-01

    Angus crossbred bulls (n = 60; 257 ± 5.4 d of age; initial BW 358.8 ± 3.78 kg) were used to study the effect of a vaccine against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) and band castration on behavioral and physiological indicators of pain. Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: bulls, band-castrated calves without pain mitigation (castrated), and immune-vaccinated animals administered an anti-GnRF vaccine (vaccinated). All animals were fitted with a radio frequency ear tag so that individual animal feed intake and feeding behavior were recorded daily over the entire trial using an electronic feed bunk monitoring system. Two doses of anti-GnRF vaccine were administrated on d -35 and 0 and band castration was performed on d 0. Animal BW was recorded weekly starting on d -36 until d 56. Visual analog scores (VAS) were measured on d -36 -35, -1, and 0, and salivary cortisol concentration was measured at -30, 0, 30, 60, 120, and 270 min on d -35 and 0 after castration. Saliva and blood were obtained on d 1, 2, 5, and 7 and weekly until d 56 for determination of cortisol and complete blood cell count. Video data were collected for pain, sexual, and aggressive behavior daily the first week and once a week until d 56. Data were analyzed with a mixed-effect model with castration, time, and their interactions as main effects. Vaccinated calves had reduced ADG and intake (P castrated calves had reduced ADG and intake (P castration. However, on d 0, castrated cattle had greater cortisol concentrations and VAS (P 0.05) between treatments on d 0, 1, and 2. At d 56, vaccinated calves had greater (P castrated calves and both had less final BW than bulls. There was no indication that vaccination caused any physiological or behavioral changes indicative of pain. In contrast, band castration resulted in elevated cortisol scores and VAS indicative of a pain response and behavior related to pain (P castration in beef cattle under North American feedlot practices.

  20. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  1. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  2. Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the 'sunburn' response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans' cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-α, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the 'sunburn' response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast cells, with consequential release of intracellular stores of TNF. Epidermal keratinocytes were only minor contributors to local TNF production. Expression of the TNF-inducible CD62E (E-selectin/ELAM-1) and CD54 adhesion molecules on cutaneous endothelium occurred 2 hours following mast cell degranulation, and this event was sensitive to blockade of mast cells with disodium cromoglycate. These results indicate that TNF release in skin in the acute sunburn response can largely be attributed to mast cells. 47 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, L.J. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Dentistry, Immunopathology Unit

    1995-06-01

    In the `sunburn` response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans` cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-{alpha}, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the `sunburn` response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast cells, with consequential release of intracellular stores of TNF. Epidermal keratinocytes were only minor contributors to local TNF production. Expression of the TNF-inducible CD62E (E-selectin/ELAM-1) and CD54 adhesion molecules on cutaneous endothelium occurred 2 hours following mast cell degranulation, and this event was sensitive to blockade of mast cells with disodium cromoglycate. These results indicate that TNF release in skin in the acute sunburn response can largely be attributed to mast cells. 47 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mattos de Souza

    Full Text Available An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI. Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW in Brazil.A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points.We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31, and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22. We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value.Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  5. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  6. Factor V Leiden Mutation and PT 20210 Mutation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Fibromyalgia Food and Waterborne Illness Fungal Infections Gout Graves Disease Guillain-Barré Syndrome Hashimoto Thyroiditis Heart ... Tested? To determine whether you have an inherited gene mutation that increases your risk of developing a ...

  7. IGF-1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor -1) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine Culture ... Sheppard, M. (2007 April 3). Growth Hormone Assay Standardization: An Important Clinical Advance. Medscape from Clin Endocrinol . ...

  8. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Viola, Thiago W; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M

    2017-01-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume) for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1) or type 2 (CRFR2) receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2 . Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates alcohol

  9. Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Socially Defeated and Non-stressed Mice with a History of Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Albrechet-Souza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated use to the development of alcohol dependence. Preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF neurotransmission has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety, and may affect alcohol consumption. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST contains CRF-producing neurons which seem to be sensitive to stress. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice previously defeated in resident-intruder confrontations were evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and tail suspension test. Mice were also tested for sweet solution intake before and after social stress. After having had continuous access to ethanol (20% weight/volume for 4 weeks, control and stressed mice had CRF type 1 (CRFR1 or type 2 (CRFR2 receptor antagonists infused into the BNST and then had access to ethanol for 24 h. In separate cohorts of control and stressed mice, we assessed mRNA levels of BNST CRF, CRFR1 and CRFR2. Stressed mice increased their intake of sweet solution after ten sessions of social defeat and showed reduced activity in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When tested for ethanol consumption, stressed mice persistently drank significantly more than controls during the 4 weeks of access. Also, social stress induced higher BNST CRF mRNA levels. The selective blockade of BNST CRFR1 with CP376,395 effectively reduced alcohol drinking in non-stressed mice, whereas the selective CRFR2 antagonist astressin2B produced a dose-dependent increase in ethanol consumption in both non-stressed controls and stressed mice. The 10-day episodic defeat stress used here elicited anxiety- but not depressive-like behaviors, and promoted an increase in ethanol drinking. CRF-CRFR1 signaling in the BNST seems to underlie ethanol intake in non-stressed mice, whereas CRFR2 modulates

  10. Testing QCD factorization and charming penguins in charmless B -> PV

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksan, Roy; Morénas, V; Pène, O; Safir, A S

    2002-01-01

    We try a global fit of the experimental branching ratios and CP-asymmetries of the charmless B -> PV decays according to QCD factorization. We find it impossible to reach a satisfactory agreement, the confidence level (CL) of the best is smaller than .1 %. The main reason for this failure is the difficulty to accommodate several large experimental branching ratios of the strange channels. Furthermore, experiment was not able to exclude a large direct CP asymmetry in B-bar0 -> rho sup +pi sup - which is predicted very small by QCD factorization. Trying a fit with QCD factorization complemented by a charming-penguin inspired model we reach a best fit which is not excluded by experiment (CL of about 8 %) but is not fully convincing. These negative results must be tempered by the remark that some of the experimental data used are recent and might still evolve significantly.

  11. Rupatadine inhibits inflammatory mediator release from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells stimulated by platelet-activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Michail; Karagkouni, Anna; Vasiadi, Magdalini; Sismanopoulos, Nikolaos; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitrios; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2013-12-01

    Mast cells are involved in allergy and inflammation by the secretion of multiple mediators, including histamine, cytokines, and platelet-activating factor (PAF), in response to different triggers, including emotional stress. PAF has been associated with allergic inflammation, but there are no clinically available PAF inhibitors. To investigate whether PAF could stimulate human mast cell mediator release and whether rupatadine (RUP), a dual histamine-1 and PAF receptor antagonist, could inhibit the effect of PAF on human mast cells. Laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cultured mast cells were stimulated with PAF (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 μmol/L) and substance P (1 μmol/L) with or without pretreatment with RUP (2.5 and 25 μmol/L), which was added 10 minutes before stimulation. Release of β-hexosaminidase was measured in supernatant fluid by spectrophotoscopy, and histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PAF stimulated a statistically significant release of histamine, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor (0.001-0.1 μmol/L) that was comparable to that stimulated by substance P. Pretreatment with RUP (25 μmol/L) for 10 minutes inhibited this effect. In contrast, pretreatment of laboratory of allergic diseases 2 cells with diphenhydramine (25 μmol/L) did not inhibit mediator release, suggesting that the effect of RUP was not due to its antihistaminic effect. PAF stimulates human mast cell release of proinflammatory mediators that is inhibited by RUP. This action endows RUP with additional properties in treating allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension.

  13. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  14. Fission gas release behavior of MOX fuels under simulated daily-load-follow operation condition. IFA-554/555 test evaluation with FASTGRASS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Ozawa, Takayuki

    2008-03-01

    IFA-554/555 load-follow tests were performed in HALDEN reactor (HBWR) to study the MOX fuel behavior under the daily-load-follow operation condition in the framework of ATR-MOX fuel development in JAEA. IFA-554/555 rig had the instruments of rod inner pressure, fuel center temperature, fuel stack elongation, and cladding elongation. Although the daily-load-follow operation in nuclear power plant is one of the available options for economical improvement, the power change in a short period in this operation causes the change of thermal and mechanical irradiation conditions. In this report, FP gas release behavior of MOX fuel rod was evaluated under the daily-load-follow operation condition with the examination data from IFA-554/555 by using the computation code 'FASTGRASS'. From the computation results of FASTGRASS code which could compute the FP gas release behavior under the transient condition, it could be concluded that FP gas was released due to the relaxation of fuel pellet inner stress and pellet temperature increase, which were caused by the cyclic power change during the daily-load-follow operation. In addition, since the amount of released FP gas decreased during the steady operation after the daily-load-follow, it could be mentioned that the total of FP gas release at the end of life with the daily-load-follow is not so much different from that without the daily-load-follow. (author)

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  16. [Preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata and study on its in vitro release mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Qing-Ming; Wang Zhen-Zhong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhi-Min; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from Andrographis paniculata were prepared and the in vitro release behavior were also evaluated. The optimal prescription was achieved by studying the main factor of the type and amount of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) using single factor test and evaluating through cumulative release of three lactones. No burst drug release from the obtained matrix tablets was observed. Drug release sustained to 14 h. The release mechanism of three lactones from A. paniculata was accessed by zero-order, first-order, Higuchi and Peppas equation. The release behavior of total lactones from A. paniculata was better agreed with Higuchi model and the drug release from the tablets was controlled by degradation of the matrix. The preparation of hydrophilic matrix sustained release tablets of total lactones from A. paniculata with good performance of drug release was simple.

  17. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A

    2012-08-01

    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  18. Determination of particle-release conditions in microfiltration: A simple single-particle model tested on a model membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2000-01-01

    A simple single-particle model was developed for cross-flow microfiltration with microsieves. The model describes the cross-flow conditions required to release a trapped spherical particle from a circular pore. All equations are derived in a fully analytical way without any fitting parameters. For

  19. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release after heparin stimulation is increased in Type 1 diabetic patients with albuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, PB; van Oerle, R; Hamulyak, K; Wolffenbuttel, BHR

    Aims To study heparin-stimulated TFPI release in relation to complications in Type 1 diabetic patients. Subjects and methods Nineteen uncomplicated Type 1 diabetic patients (group I) were compared with 18 patients with retinopathy (group II), and nine patients with retinopathy and albuminuria (group

  20. Chronic cigarette smoking enhances spontaneous release of tumour necrosis factor-α from alveolar macrophages of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pessina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological effects of chronic cigarette smoking (two cigarettes for 2 h, daily for 4 months in rats were evaluated. During the smoking period, body weight of smoker rats was always significantly lower than that of control rats. Immediately after the last smoking session the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration in the blood was about 8.5% and the polymorphonuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid increased significantly. At the same time, enzymatic analyses on the supernatants of bronchoalveolar fluid revealed a significant increase of β-glucuronidase in the smoker group. Alveolar macrophages, collected 0, 8 and 24 h after the last smoking session, significantly increased the generation of superoxide anion and, after incubation for 24 h at 37° C in a humidified atmosphere, released significantly high amounts of TNF-α. When challenged with lipopolysaccharide, alveolar macrophages of smoker rats released much more TNF-α but, in such a case, TNF-α release was about one half of that observed in the control group. Peritoneal macrophages of both control and smoker rats were unable either to generate high levels of superoxide anion or to release significant amounts of TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated the activated state of alveolar macrophages and the resting state of peritoneal macrophages.

  1. The Effect of Control-released Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Wound Healing: Histological Analyses and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Matsumoto, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that control-released bFGF using gelatin sheet is effective for promoting wound healing. Such therapeutic strategy was considered to offer several clinical advantages including rapid healing and reduction of the dressing change with less patient discomfort.

  2. Involvement of serotonergic pathways in mediating the neuronal activity and genetic transcription of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain of systemically endotoxin-challenged rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laflamme, N.; Feuvrier, E.; Richard, D.; Rivest, S. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, 2705 boul. Laurier, Ste-Foy Quebec (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of serotonin depletion on the neuronal activity and transcription of corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat brain during the acute-phase response. Conscious male rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with the immune activator lipopolysaccaride (25 {mu}g/100 g body wt) after being treated for three consecutive days with para-chlorophenylalanine (30 mg/100 g/day). This irreversible inhibitor of tryptophane-5-hydroxylase decreased hypothalamic serotonin levels by 96%. One, 3 and 6 h after a single i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide or vehicle solution, rats were killed and their brains cut in 30-{mu}m coronal sections. Messenger RNAs encoding c-fos, nerve-growth factor inducible-B gene, corticotropin-releasing factor and the heteronuclear RNA encoding corticotropin-releasing factor primary transcript were assayed by in situ hybridization using {sup 35}S-labeled riboprobes, whereas Fos-immunoreactive nuclei were labeled by immunocytochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide induced a wide neuronal activation indicated by the expression of both immediate-early gene transcripts and Fos protein in numerous structures of the brain. The signal for both immediate-early gene transcripts was low to moderate 1 h after lipopolysaccharide administration, maximal at 3 h and decline at 6 h post-injection, whereas at that time, Fos-immunoreactive nuclei were still detected in most of the c-fos messenger RNA-positive structures. Interestingly, the strong and widespread induction of both immediate-early gene transcripts was almost totally inhibited by para-chlorophenylalanine treatment; in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus for example, c-fos messenger RNA signal and the number of Fos-immunoreactive positive cells were reduced by 80 and 48%, respectively, in serotonin-depleted rats treated with the bacterial endotoxin. This blunted neuronal response was also associated with an attenuated stimulation of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing

  3. Accelerated rubber life testing in the presence of working factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopchuk, N.R.; Alekseev, A.G.; Starostina, T.V.; Kudryashova, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determining the working life of rubber, which reduces the test period considerably. It can be used to evaluate the resistance of a polymer material to the joint effects of heat, atmospheric oxygen, ionizing radiation, and the contribution from the medium, which may be physically aggressive, as regards the reduction in the working life

  4. Identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) target cells and effects of dexamethasone on binding in anterior pituitary using a fluorescent analog of CRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, J; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M

    1986-01-01

    A fluorescein-conjugated bioactive analog of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was synthesized and used to label cells that have high affinity CRF-binding sites. Of cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells, 6.1 +/- 0.6% were visible by fluorescence microscopy after incubation with the analog......-binding sites and suggest that binding of CRF to anterior pituitary cells is altered by glucocorticoids....

  5. Supernatants from Staphylococcus epidermidis grown in the presence of different antibiotics induce differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from human monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, E; Van Dijk, H; Verhoef, J; Norrby, R; Rollof, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial products from gram-positive bacteria, such as peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, and toxins, activate mononuclear cells to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). The present study evaluated the release of soluble cell wall components from Staphylococcus epidermidis capable of inducing TNF after exposure of the bacteria to various antibiotics. A clinical S. epidermidis isolate (694) was incubated with either penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, or clindamycin at five times the MIC. Supe...

  6. Nerve growth factor alters microtubule targeting agent-induced neurotransmitter release but not MTA-induced neurite retraction in sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Sherry K; Gracias, Neilia G; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of anticancer treatment with the microtubule-targeted agents (MTAs), paclitaxel and epothilone B (EpoB); however, the mechanisms by which the MTAs alter neuronal function and morphology are unknown. We previously demonstrated that paclitaxel alters neuronal sensitivity, in vitro, in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). Evidence in the literature suggests that NGF may modulate the neurotoxic effects of paclitaxel. Here, we examine whether NGF modulates changes in neuronal sensitivity and morphology induced by paclitaxel and EpoB. Neuronal sensitivity was assessed using the stimulated release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whereas morphology of established neurites was evaluated using a high content screening system. Dorsal root ganglion cultures, maintained in the absence or presence of NGF, were treated from day 7 to day 12 in culture with paclitaxel (300nM) or EpoB (30nM). Following treatment, the release of CGRP was stimulated using capsaicin or high extracellular potassium. In the presence of NGF, EpoB mimicked the effects of paclitaxel: capsaicin-stimulated release was attenuated, potassium-stimulated release was slightly enhanced and the total peptide content was unchanged. In the absence of NGF, both paclitaxel and EpoB decreased capsaicin- and potassium-stimulated release and the total peptide content, suggesting that NGF may reverse MTA-induced hyposensitivity. Paclitaxel and EpoB both decreased neurite length and branching, and this attenuation was unaffected by NGF in the growth media. These differential effects of NGF on neuronal sensitivity and morphology suggest that neurite retraction is not a causative factor to alter neuronal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 1/12-Scale mixing interface visualization and buoyant particle release tests in support of Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschbach, E.J.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In support of tank waste safety programs, visualization tests were performed in the 1/12-scale tank facility, using a low-viscosity simulant. The primary objective of the tests was to obtain video records of the transient jet-sludge interaction. The intent is that these videos will provide useful qualitative data for comparison with model predictions. Two tests were initially planned: mixing interface visualization (MIV) and buoyant particle release (BPR). Completion of the buoyant particle release test was set aside in order to complete additional MIV tests. Rheological measurements were made on simulant samples before testing, and the simulant was found to exhibit thixotropic behavior. Shear vane measurements were also made on an in-situ analog of the 1/12-scale tank simulant. Simulant shear strength has been observed to be time dependent. The primary objective of obtaining video records of jet-sludge interaction was satisfied, and the records yielded jet location information which may be of use in completing model comparisons. The modeling effort is not part of this task, but this report also discusses test specific instrumentation, visualization techniques, and shear vane instrumentation which would enable improved characterization of jet-sludge interaction and simulant characteristics.

  8. 1/12-Scale mixing interface visualization and buoyant particle release tests in support of Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, E.J.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In support of tank waste safety programs, visualization tests were performed in the 1/12-scale tank facility, using a low-viscosity simulant. The primary objective of the tests was to obtain video records of the transient jet-sludge interaction. The intent is that these videos will provide useful qualitative data for comparison with model predictions. Two tests were initially planned: mixing interface visualization (MIV) and buoyant particle release (BPR). Completion of the buoyant particle release test was set aside in order to complete additional MIV tests. Rheological measurements were made on simulant samples before testing, and the simulant was found to exhibit thixotropic behavior. Shear vane measurements were also made on an in-situ analog of the 1/12-scale tank simulant. Simulant shear strength has been observed to be time dependent. The primary objective of obtaining video records of jet-sludge interaction was satisfied, and the records yielded jet location information which may be of use in completing model comparisons. The modeling effort is not part of this task, but this report also discusses test specific instrumentation, visualization techniques, and shear vane instrumentation which would enable improved characterization of jet-sludge interaction and simulant characteristics

  9. A test of resuspension factor models against Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1995-04-01

    After the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), stationary air samplers were operated at Chernobyl and Baryshevka, cities which are 16 km and 150 km, respectively, from the NPP. Other air samplers were operated simultaneously, but intermittently, at locations within the 30 km zone at distances of 4-25 km from the NPP. These data were used to check the validity of time dependent models of the resuspension factor K (m -1 ). Seven different models were examined, three of which are discussed in the paper. Data from the stationary air samplers were averaged over one day or one month; dam from the intermittent air samplers were averaged over three days in 1986 and over four hours in 1991. The concentrations of eight radionuclides were measured at ten points during the same time period (14-17 September 1986). The calculated resuspension factors range from 6 x 10 -9 m -1 to 3 x 10 -6 m -1 . Data for the spatial means of K are given for certain time periods in 1986 and 1991; also presented are the calculated values according to the models. The experimental data and the calculated values differ by up to more than one order of magnitude. Also analysed was the temporal change in experimental values of K and these values were compared with model predictions. The annual means of the resuspension factor as determined experimentally and as calculated with the models are presented. The model derived from empirical data measured in Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident agrees best with the data. The Garland model systematically gives results lower than the experimental values, and the calculated values of K from the Linsley model are consistently conservative. Also considered were the uncertainty of K due to fluctuations in air concentrations and possible biological effects of episodic exposures

  10. A test of resuspension factor models against Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garger, E.K. [Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Radioecology; Anspaugh, L.R.; Shinn, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    After the accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP), stationary air samplers were operated at Chernobyl and Baryshevka, cities which are 16 km and 150 km, respectively, from the NPP. Other air samplers were operated simultaneously, but intermittently, at locations within the 30 km zone at distances of 4-25 km from the NPP. These data were used to check the validity of time dependent models of the resuspension factor K (m{sup -1}). Seven different models were examined, three of which are discussed in the paper. Data from the stationary air samplers were averaged over one day or one month; dam from the intermittent air samplers were averaged over three days in 1986 and over four hours in 1991. The concentrations of eight radionuclides were measured at ten points during the same time period (14-17 September 1986). The calculated resuspension factors range from 6 x 10{sup -9} m{sup -1} to 3 x 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}. Data for the spatial means of K are given for certain time periods in 1986 and 1991; also presented are the calculated values according to the models. The experimental data and the calculated values differ by up to more than one order of magnitude. Also analysed was the temporal change in experimental values of K and these values were compared with model predictions. The annual means of the resuspension factor as determined experimentally and as calculated with the models are presented. The model derived from empirical data measured in Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident agrees best with the data. The Garland model systematically gives results lower than the experimental values, and the calculated values of K from the Linsley model are consistently conservative. Also considered were the uncertainty of K due to fluctuations in air concentrations and possible biological effects of episodic exposures.

  11. A novel dissolution media for testing drug release from a nanostructured polysaccharide-based colon specific drug delivery system: an approach to alternative colon media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotla, Niranjan G; Singh, Sima; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Sunnapu, Omprakash; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel microbially triggered and animal-sparing dissolution method for testing of nanorough polysaccharide-based micron granules for colonic drug delivery. In this method, probiotic cultures of bacteria present in the colonic region were prepared and added to the dissolution media and compared with the performance of conventional dissolution methodologies (such as media with rat cecal and human fecal media). In this study, the predominant species (such as Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus species, Eubacterium and Streptococcus) were cultured in 12% w/v skimmed milk powder and 5% w/v grade "A" honey. Approximately 10(10)-10(11) colony forming units m/L of probiotic culture was added to the dissolution media to test the drug release of polysaccharide-based formulations. A USP dissolution apparatus I/II using a gradient pH dissolution method was used to evaluate drug release from formulations meant for colonic drug delivery. Drug release of guar gum/Eudragit FS30D coated 5-fluorouracil granules was assessed under gastric and small intestine conditions within a simulated colonic environment involving fermentation testing with the probiotic culture. The results with the probiotic system were comparable to those obtained from the rat cecal and human fecal-based fermentation model, thereby suggesting that a probiotic dissolution method can be successfully applied for drug release testing of any polysaccharide-based oral formulation meant for colonic delivery. As such, this study significantly adds to the nanostructured biomaterials' community by elucidating an easier assay for colonic drug delivery.

  12. Fission gas release behaviour of a 103 GWd/t{sub HM} fuel disc during a 1200 °C annealing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirot, J., E-mail: jean.noirot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Pontillon, Y. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Yagnik, S. [EPRI, P.O. Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94303-0813 (United States); Turnbull, J.A. [Independent Consultant (United Kingdom); Tverberg, T. [IFE, P.O. Box 173, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)

    2014-03-15

    Within the Nuclear Fuel Industry Research (NFIR) program, several fuel variants, in the form of thin circular discs, were irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) to a range of burn-ups ∼100 GWd/t{sub HM}. The design of the assembly was similar to that used in other HBWR programs: the assembly contained several rods with fuel discs sandwiched between Mo discs, which limited temperature gradients within the fuel discs. One such rod contained standard grain UO{sub 2} discs (3D grain size = 18 μm) reaching a burn-up of 103 GWd/t{sub HM}. After the irradiation, the gas release upon rod puncturing was measured to be 2.9%. Detailed characterizations of one of these irradiated UO{sub 2} discs, using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), were performed in a CEA Cadarache hot laboratory. Examination revealed the high burn-up structure (HBS) formation throughout the whole of the disc, also the fission gas distribution within this HBS, with a very high proportion of the gas in the HBS bubbles. A sibling disc was submitted to a temperature transient up to 1200 °C in the out-of-pile (OOP) annealing test device “Merarg” at a relatively low temperature ramp rate (0.2 °C/s). In addition to the total gas release during this annealing test, the release peaks throughout the temperature range were monitored. The fuel was then characterized with the same microanalysis techniques as before the annealing test to investigate the effects of this test on the microstructure of the fuel and on the fission gases. It provided valuable insights into fission gas localization and the release behaviour in UO{sub 2} fuel with high burn-up structure (HBS)

  13. Sub-100 nm biodegradable nanoparticles: in vitro release features and toxicity testing in 2D and 3D cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, Marco; Guarnieri, Daniela; Yu Hui; Belli, Valentina; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A big challenge in tumor targeting by nanoparticles (NPs), taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, is the fabrication of small size devices for enhanced tumor penetration, which is considered fundamental to improve chemotherapy efficacy. The purposes of this study are (i) to engineer the formulation of doxorubicin-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)–block–poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) NPs to obtain <100 nm devices and (ii) to translate standard 2D cytotoxicity studies to 3D collagen systems in which an initial step gradient of the NPs is present. Doxorubicin release can be prolonged for days to weeks depending on the NP formulation and the pH of the release medium. Sub-100 nm NPs are effectively internalized by HeLa cells in 2D and are less cytotoxic than free doxorubicin. In 3D, <100 nm NPs are significantly more toxic than larger ones towards HeLa cells, and the cell death rate is affected by the contributions of drug release and device transport through collagen. Thus, the reduction of NP size is a fundamental feature from both a technological and a biological point of view and must be properly engineered to optimize the tumor response to the NPs. (paper)

  14. The major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii induces release and gene expression of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Lundgren, Bettina; Levine, S J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may play a central role in host defense and pathogenesis during Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In order to investigate whether the major surface antigen (MSG) of human P. carinii is capable of eliciting...... the release of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, human monocytes were cultured in the presence of purified MSG. MSG-stimulated cells released significant amounts of IL-8 within 4 h, and at 20 h, cells stimulated with MSG released 45.5 +/- 9.3 ng of IL-8/ml versus 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for control cultures (P = 0.......01). In a similar fashion, MSG elicited release of TNF-alpha. Initial increases were also seen at 4 h, and at 20 h, TNF-alpha levels reached 6.4 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, compared to 0.08 +/- 0.01 ng/ml for control cultures (P alpha secretion was observed at 20 h...

  15. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    test positive to negative, whereas the breed and neighbor factors were not found to be important for small herds. Organic production was associated with remaining test positive, but not with becoming test positive. The results emphasize the importance of external and internal biosecurity measures....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  16. Inhibition of the release of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in experimental endotoxemia by an anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van der Poll, T.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; ten Cate, H.; Gallati, H.; ten Cate, J. W.; van Deventer, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the shedding of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in endotoxemia was investigated. The appearance of the soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors was assessed in four healthy volunteers following an intravenous injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  17. A stromal cell-derived factor-1 releasing matrix enhances the progenitor cell response and blood vessel growth in ischaemic skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kuraitis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many regenerative cell therapies are being developed to replace or regenerate ischaemic muscle, the lack of vasculature and poor persistence of the therapeutic cells represent major limiting factors to successful tissue restoration. In response to ischaemia, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 is up-regulated by the affected tissue to stimulate stem cell-mediated regenerative responses. Therefore, we encapsulated SDF-1 into alginate microspheres and further incorporated these into an injectable collagen-based matrix in order to improve local delivery. Microsphere-matrix impregnation reduced the time for matrix thermogelation, and also increased the viscosity reached. This double-incorporation prolonged the release of SDF-1, which maintained adhesive and migratory bioactivity, attributed to chemotaxis in response to SDF-1. In vivo, treatment of ischaemic hindlimb muscle with microsphere-matrix led to increased mobilisation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, and also improved recruitment of angiogenic cells expressing the SDF-1 receptor (CXCR4 from bone marrow and local tissues. Both matrix and SDF-1-releasing matrix were successful at restoring perfusion, but SDF-1 treatment appeared to play an earlier role, as evidenced by arterioles that are phenotypically older and by increased angiogenic cytokine production, stimulating the generation of a qualitative microenvironment for a rapid and therefore more efficient regeneration. These results support the release of implanted SDF-1 as a promising method for enhancing progenitor cell responses and restoring perfusion to ischaemic tissues via neovascularisation.

  18. Sustained release of stem cell factor in a double network hydrogel for ex vivo culture of cord blood-derived CD34+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhao; Pan, Xiuwei; Shi, Zhen; Cai, Haibo; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Weian

    2018-04-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is considered as a commonly indispensable cytokine for proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which is used in large dosages during ex vivo culture. The work presented here aimed to reduce the consumption of SCF by sustained release but still support cells proliferation and maintain the multipotency of HSCs. Stem cell factor was physically encapsulated within a hyaluronic acid/gelatin double network (HGDN) hydrogel to achieve a slow release rate. CD34 + cells were cultured within the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogel for 14 days. The cell number, phenotype and functional capacity were investigated after culture. The HGDN hydrogels had desirable properties and encapsulated SCF kept being released for more than 6 days. SCF remained the native bioactivity, and the proliferation of HSCs within the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogel was not affected, although the consumption of SCF was only a quarter in comparison with the conventional culture. Moreover, CD34 + cells harvested from the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogels generated more multipotent colony-forming units (CFU-GEMM). The data suggested that the SCF-loaded HGDN hydrogel could support ex vivo culture of HSCs, thus providing a cost-effective culture protocol for HSCs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Different Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Direct Cell Interaction or Via Released Soluble Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bajetto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Initial studies proposed that MSCs might exert inhibitory effects on tumor development, although, to date, contrasting evidence has been provided. Different studies reported either MSC anti-tumor activity or their support to tumor growth. Here, we examined the effects of umbilical cord (UC-MSCs on in vitro GBM-derived CSC growth, by direct cell-to-cell interaction or indirect modulation, via the release of soluble factors. We demonstrate that UC-MSCs and CSCs exhibit reciprocal tropism when co-cultured as 3D spheroids and their direct cell interaction reduces the proliferation of both cell types. Contrasting effects were obtained by UC-MSC released factors: CSCs, cultured in the presence of conditioned medium (CM collected from UC-MSCs, increased proliferation rate through transient ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation/activation. Analysis of the profile of the cytokines released by UC-MSCs in the CM revealed a strong production of molecules involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, such as IL-8, GRO, ENA-78 and IL-6. Since CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2, a receptor shared by several of these ligands, is expressed in GBM CSCs, we evaluated its involvement in CSC proliferation induced by UC-MSC-CM. Using the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, we observed a partial but statistically significant inhibition of CSC proliferation and migration induced by the UC-MSC-released cytokines. Conversely, CXCR2 blockade did not

  20. Different Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Direct Cell Interaction or Via Released Soluble Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajetto, Adriana; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Corsaro, Alessandro; Barbieri, Federica; Daga, Antonio; Bosio, Alessia; Gatti, Monica; Pisaturo, Valerio; Sirito, Rodolfo; Florio, Tullio

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Initial studies proposed that MSCs might exert inhibitory effects on tumor development, although, to date, contrasting evidence has been provided. Different studies reported either MSC anti-tumor activity or their support to tumor growth. Here, we examined the effects of umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs on in vitro GBM-derived CSC growth, by direct cell-to-cell interaction or indirect modulation, via the release of soluble factors. We demonstrate that UC-MSCs and CSCs exhibit reciprocal tropism when co-cultured as 3D spheroids and their direct cell interaction reduces the proliferation of both cell types. Contrasting effects were obtained by UC-MSC released factors: CSCs, cultured in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) collected from UC-MSCs, increased proliferation rate through transient ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation/activation. Analysis of the profile of the cytokines released by UC-MSCs in the CM revealed a strong production of molecules involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, such as IL-8, GRO, ENA-78 and IL-6. Since CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), a receptor shared by several of these ligands, is expressed in GBM CSCs, we evaluated its involvement in CSC proliferation induced by UC-MSC-CM. Using the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, we observed a partial but statistically significant inhibition of CSC proliferation and migration induced by the UC-MSC-released cytokines. Conversely, CXCR2 blockade did not reduce the

  1. Dominant dwarfism in transgenic rats by targeting human growth hormone (GH) expression to hypothalamic GH-releasing factor neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, D M; Wells, T; Wells, S E; Carmignac, D F; Thomas, G B; Robinson, I C

    1996-01-01

    Expression of human growth hormone (hGH) was targeted to growth hormone-releasing (GRF) neurons in the hypothalamus of transgenic rats. This induced dominant dwarfism by local feedback inhibition of GRF. One line, bearing a single copy of a GRF-hGH transgene, has been characterized in detail, and has been termed Tgr (for Transgenic growth-retarded). hGH was detected by immunocytochemistry in the brain, restricted to the median eminence of the hypothalamus. Low levels were also detected in the...

  2. Does Platelet-Rich Plasma Freeze-Thawing Influence Growth Factor Release and Their Effects on Chondrocytes and Synoviocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Roffi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PRP cryopreservation remains a controversial point. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of freezing/thawing on PRP molecule release, and its effects on the metabolism of chondrocytes and synoviocytes. PRP was prepared from 10 volunteers, and a half volume underwent one freezing/thawing cycle. IL-1β, HGF, PDGF AB/BB, TGF-β1, and VEGF were assayed 1 hour and 7 days after activation. Culture media of chondrocytes and synoviocytes were supplemented with fresh or frozen PRP, and, at 7 days, proliferation, gene expression, and secreted proteins levels were evaluated. Results showed that in the freeze-thawed PRP the immediate and delayed molecule releases were similar or slightly lower than those in fresh PRP. TGF-β1 and PDGF AB/BB concentrations were significantly reduced after freezing both at 1 hour and at 7 days, whereas HGF concentration was significantly lower in frozen PRP at 7 days. In fresh PRP IL-1β and HGF concentrations underwent a significant further increase after 7 days. Similar gene expression was found in chondrocytes cultured with both PRPs, whereas in synoviocytes HGF gene expression was higher in frozen PRP. PRP cryopreservation is a safe procedure, which sufficiently preserves PRP quality and its ability to induce proliferation and the production of ECM components in chondrocytes and synoviocytes.

  3. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, Jeremy; Frenette, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment'). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  4. Factors Related to Competency Test Performance for High School Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julia; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study explored some factors associated with learning disabled high school students who passed the North Carolina Minimum Competency Test on the second administration. Factors examined include reading score on the first competency test, intelligence quotient, locus of control, mother's education, teacher support, student/teacher ratio, and…

  5. Comparison of indirect hemagglutination and 51Chromium release tests for detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 antibodies in patients with recurrent herpes infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavalu, L.; Seth, P.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect hemagglutination and 51 Cr release tests (IHAT and 51-CRT respectively) were compared in patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from whom HSV-1 or HSV-2 was isolated. Both tests were equally sensitive and specific in detecting HSV antibodies. However, IHAT was more specific in detecting homologous HSV antibody response in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Past infections with HSV-1 in the patients with dual infections were detected by determining HSV-type specific antibodies by inhibition of IHAT. Cross absorption studies showed that the antibody reactivity measured by the two tests was qualitatively and quantitatively different. Nevertheless, IHAT has been found to be more appropriate test for seroepidemiologic studies of HSV-2 infections because of its specificity, rapidity and less cost, whereas, 51-CRT appears to measure antibodies against recent and more predominant type of infecting HSV. (Author)

  6. Tuberculosis screening of new hospital employees: compliance, clearance to work time, and cost using tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Chang, Sarah A; Manning, Mary L; Chandler, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the most suitable test(s) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection should be based on purpose, setting, effectiveness, and cost. Two tests are available to screen for latent TB: the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the more recent interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Based on the administrative, logistic, and technical ease of use, an IGRA trial was initiated by the occupational health department at an urban Veteran's Administration health care facility for TB screening of new employees. As a result, new employees completing the pre-placement process within the organization's designated 14 days increased from 77% to 97%, new employee clearance to work time decreased from 13.18 to 5.91 days, and new employee TB screening costs were reduced by 40%. The IGRA is an acceptable alternative to the TST and has significant potential to improve the process of pre-placement TB screening. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  8. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  9. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  10. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces procoagulant activity of macrophages. Tissue factor (TF) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and substance P (SP) is a pro-inflammatory neuropeptide involved in the formation of membrane blebs. This study investigated the role of SP in TF release by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. SP significantly decreased TF levels in whole-cell lysates of GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. TF was detected in the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation of macrophages by SP. Aprepitant (an SP/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) reduced TF release from macrophages stimulated with SP. Pretreatment of macrophages with a radical scavenger(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) also limited the decrease of TF in whole-cell lysates after stimulation with SP. A protein kinase C inhibitor (rottlerin) partially blocked this macrophage response to SP, while it was significantly inhibited by a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or a dynamin inhibitor (dinasore). An Akt inhibitor (perifosine) also partially blocked this response. Furthermore, siRNA targeting p22phox, β-arrestin 2, or Rho A, blunted the release of TF from macrophages stimulated with SP. In other experiments, visceral adipocytes derived from cryopreserved preadipocytes were found to produce SP. In conclusion, SP enhances the release of TF from macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TSOAK-M1: a computer code to determine tritium reaction/adsorption/release parameters from experimental results of air-detritiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Minkoff, M.

    1979-01-01

    A computer code has been developed which permits the determination of tritium reaction (T 2 to HTO)/adsorption/release and instrument correction parameters from enclosure (building) - detritiation test data. The code is based on a simplified model which treats each parameter as a normalized time-independent constant throughout the data-unfolding steps. Because of the complicated four-dimensional mathematical surface generated by the resulting differential equation system, occasional local-minima effects are observed, but these effects can be overcome in most instances by selecting a series of trial guesses for the initial parameter values and observing the reproducibility of final parameter values for cases where the best overall fit to experimental data is achieved. The code was then used to analyze existing small-cubicle test data with good success, and the resulting normalized parameters were employed to evaluate hypothetical reactor-building detritiation scenarios. It was concluded from the latter evaluation that the complications associated with moisture formation, adsorption, and release, particularly in terms of extended cleanup times, may not be as great as was previously thought. It is recommended that the validity of the TSOAK-M1 model be tested using data from detritiation tests conducted on large experimental enclosures (5 to 10 cm 3 ) and, if possible, actual facility buildings

  12. Normal and sublethally irradiated stem and granulocyte progenitor cell regeneration in an in vivo culture system. The cellular response to humoral factors released through the action of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacVittie, T.

    1977-01-01

    The in vivo diffusion chamber (DC) method of marrow culture was used to determine if the injection of host mice