WorldWideScience

Sample records for releasing controversial research

  1. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  2. STEM CELL RESEARCH-CONCEPT AND CONTROVERSIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    cells, heart cells, brain cells, etc.). Some researchers regard them as offering the greatest potential for the .... anaemia, heart damage, corneal damage, etc. To be useful for transplant purposes, stem cells must ... activity in the brain was demonstrated contradicting caja's “no new neurons” dogma. However, research into.

  3. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  4. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  5. Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Holyoak, Keith J; Lu, Hongjing

    2017-10-01

    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salgado, Carolina

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  7. Guidelines for Qualitative Research in Organization Studies: Controversy and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Rios Cavalcanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to tackle the controversy of establishing guidelines for qualitative research in Organization and Management Theory (OMT and to present a summary of suggestions on how to conduct good qualitative research given by methodologists on top-tier international publications. In order to do so, the article discusses: general guidelines for qualitative research; how to achieve coherence and transparency in a qualitative empirical study; the meaning and importance of the concept of reflexivity; and, finally how to establish a theoretical contribution and transferability of findings in such context. The work presents a valuable contribution because such guidelines, concepts, and approaches can be adopted by students and researchers when conducting a qualitative research proposal, and by periodic reviewers to evaluate the quality of existing empirical studies.

  8. Conducting Cross-Cultural Research: Controversy, Cautions, Concerns, and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III; Whiting, Gilman W.; Grantham, Tarek C.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors share concerns and considerations for researchers conducting cross-cultural research in gifted education. They contend that researchers should be mindful of the need to consider their own humanness--their beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, values, paradigms--and the limitations of their humanness when working with…

  9. Ethical and legal controversies in cloning for biomedical research - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this research involves the deliberate production, use, and ultimate destruction of cloned embryos, hence re-awakening the debate on the moral status of the embryo. Other moral anxieties include the possibility that women (as donors of ova) would be exploited, that this research would land on the slippery slope of ...

  10. Research Review: Gender identity in youth: treatment paradigms and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Jack L; Ehrensaft, Diane

    2017-10-26

    Pediatric gender identity has gained increased attention over the past several years in the popular media, political arena, and medical literature. This article reviews terminology in this evolving field, traditional models of gender identity development and their limitations, epidemiology and natural history of cross-gender identification among children and adolescents, co-occurring conditions and behaviors, research into the biological and psychosocial determinants of cross-gender identification, and research into the options regarding and benefits of clinical approaches to gender incongruent youth. Based on a critical review of the extant literature, both theoretical and empirical, that addresses the issue of pediatric gender identity, the authors synthesized what is presently known and what is in need of further research in order to elucidate the developmental trajectory and clinical needs of gender diverse youth. The field of pediatric gender identity has evolved substantially over the past several years. New research suggests that cross-gender identification is prevalent (approximately 1% of youth). These youth suffer disproportionately high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality. Although research into the etiology of cross-gender identification is limited, emerging data have shown that affirmative treatment protocols may improve the high rates of mental health difficulties seen among these patients. The field of pediatric gender identity has evolved dramatically. Emerging data suggest that these patients' high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality appear to be improved with affirmative protocols, although future longitudinal data are needed. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. How Do Trend Researchers Conduct Research? The Production of Knowledge in a Controversial Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Pfadenhauer

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The planned research project described in this article focuses on the methods of trend research—not only in a narrow literal sense of techniques of data collection and data evaluation but also in a broader understanding of the logic of knowledge production in this controversial field. Initially trend research can be appointed between market research on the one hand and futurology on the other hand. Criticism regarding trend research as well as its innovative potential is also mentioned. Following the recent studies, trend research is conceived as application-oriented research in a broad sense. As far as the methodology is concerned, the proposed study promises to be an empirically-founded contribution by integrating analysis from sources such as explorative and focused conversations, observations and expert interviews. The study uses the example of trend research and asks the question how research is actually "done" and if it is application oriented or not. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402366

  12. Patently controversial: markets, morals, and the President's proposal for embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J; Schachter, Madeleine

    2002-09-01

    This essay considers the implications of President George W. Bush's proposal for human embryonic stem cell research. Through the perspective of patent law, privacy, and informed consent, we elucidate the ongoing controversy about the moral standing of human embryonic stem cells and their derivatives and consider how the inconsistencies in the president's proposal will affect clinical practice and research.

  13. Assessing the public's views in research ethics controversies: deliberative democracy and bioethics as natural allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; Wall, Ian F; Stanczyk, Aimee; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    In a liberal democracy, policy decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a longstanding research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed.

  14. Everything You Need To Know To Understand the Current Controversies You Learned from Psychological Research: A Comment on the Rind and Lilienfeld Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses applications of theories and research in psychology to understand controversies generated by two recent articles, explaining the need to distinguish between rational and intuitive thinking, recognize the power of context, think reflectively, and realize the costs of defying the crowd, and noting steps one can take to be wiser and more…

  15. Introduction to the special section on "Hormones and cognition: perspectives, controversies, and challenges for future research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-01

    The research of the past two decades has firmly established that hormones modulate numerous aspects of cognitive function, including memory, attention, decision-making, and sensory processing. That such a wide variety of hormones influence cognition mediated by multiple nonhypothalamic brain regions illustrates the critical importance of hormones to neural and cognitive function. The diversity of hormonal effects on cognition is evident in the collection of reviews and original research articles assembled for this special section. Together, these articles provide an overview of recent research on varied topics in hormones and cognition, address controversial issues in the field, and discuss challenges that must be overcome in future research to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms through which hormones modulate cognitive function.

  16. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  17. Brokered dialogue: A new research method for controversial health and social issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Janet A; Lavery, James V

    2012-07-02

    Dialogue is a foundational feature of social life and an important way in which we come to understand one another. In situations of controversy dialogue is often absent because of a range of social barriers. We have developed a new film-based qualitative research method for studying controversial issues in healthcare and social policy. We call this method Brokered Dialogue. Theoretically informed by the traditions in narrative inquiry and visual anthropology, the method is premised on the idea that dialogue possesses features making it unique as a generator of new knowledge and opportunities for social intervention. Film is not only an extraordinarily rich data source, but an excellent medium for knowledge transfer and dissemination. The paper introduces the Brokered Dialogue method. We outline its critical steps, including the procedures for sampling, data collection and data analysis of both textual and visual data. Participants in a Brokered Dialogue engage in filmed interviews that capture their perspectives on a given topic; they then share their perspectives with, and pose questions of, one another through the medium of film. Using a participatory editing process, only footage that participants feel comfortable showing to others is incorporated. This technique offers participants a 'safe' space for respectful interaction. The editing process itself is analytic, and the final assembly of footage approximates a dialogue on the topic at hand. A link to a film produced from a project piloting the method is provided to demonstrate its real world application. Brokered Dialogue is a method for promoting respectful interactions among those with seemingly divergent views on a controversial topic and for discovering critical points of divergence that may represent pathways for improvement. While the end product is a 'film', the goal is to have these films used as catalysts for ongoing respectful dialogue and problem-solving concerning the topic at hand informing

  18. Everything you need to know to understand the current controversies you learned from psychological research. A comment on the Rind and Lilienfeld controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2002-03-01

    Psychological theory and research can help explain some of the aspects of the controversies that arose over articles written by B. Rind, P. Tromovitch, and R. Bauserman (1998) and by S. O. Lilienfeld (2002). In particular, one needs to distinguish between rational and intuitive thinking, to recognize the power of context, to be reflective in one's own thinking, and to realize the costs of defying the crowd. There are steps one can take to be wiser and more balanced in one's own thinking than one may have been in the past. One such step is to resolve conflicts among psychologists by attempting to defuse rather than to exacerbate or avoid them.

  19. Recent controversies on comparative effectiveness research investigations: Challenges, opportunities, and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Haresh; Truog, William E; D'Angio, Carl T; Cotten, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information about which currently available interventions and practices are most effective for patients. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) are the hallmark of scientific proof, and have been used to compare interventions used in variable ways by different clinicians (comparative effectiveness RCTs, CER-RCTs). But such CER-RCTs have at times generated controversy. Usually the background for the CER-RCT is a range of "standard therapy" or "standard of care." This may have been adopted on observational data alone, or pilot data. At times, such prior data may derive from populations that differ from the population in which the widely variable standard approach is being applied. We believe that controversies related to these CER-RCTs result from confusing "accepted" therapies and "rigorously evaluated therapies." We first define evidence-based medicine and consider how well neonatology conforms to that definition. We then contrast the approach of testing new therapies and those already existing and widely adopted, as in CER-RCTs. We next examine a central challenge in incorporating the control arm within CER-RCTs and aspects of the "titrated" trial. We finally briefly consider some ethical issues that have arisen, and discuss the wide range of neonatology practices that could be tested by CER-RCTs or alternative CER-based strategies that might inform practice. Throughout, we emphasize the lack of awareness of the lay community, and indeed many researchers or commentators, in appreciating the wide variation of standard of care. There is a corresponding need to identify the best uses of available resources that will lead to the best outcomes for our patients. We conclude that CER-RCTs are an essential methodology in modern neonatology to address many unanswered questions and test unproven therapies in newborn care. Copyright © 2016

  20. Recent Controversies on Comparative Effectiveness Research Investigations: Challenges, Opportunities and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, Haresh; Truog, William E.; D'Angio, Carl T.; Cotten, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of comparative effectiveness research (CER) is to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information about which currently available interventions and practices are most effective for patients. While Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) are the hallmark of scientific proof, when they have been used to compare interventions used in variable ways by different clinicians (Comparative Effectiveness RCTs, CER RCTs) they have at times, generated controversy. Usually the background for the CER RCT is a range of ‘standard therapy’ or ‘standard of care’. This may have been adopted on observational data alone, pilot data. At times, such prior data may derive from populations that differ from the population in which the widely variable standard approach is being applied. We believe controversies related to these CER-RCTs result from confusing ‘accepted’ therapies and ‘rigorously evaluated therapies”. We first define evidence based medicine, and consider how well neonatology conforms to that definition. We then contrast the approach of testing new therapies and those already existing and widely adopted, as in CER-RCTs. We next examine a central challenge in incorporating the control arm within CER, and aspects of the ‘titrated’ trial. We finally briefly consider some ethical issues that have arisen, and briefly discuss the wide range of neonatology practices that could be subject to CER-RCTs or alternative CER-based strategies that might inform practice in the absence of RCTs. Throughout, we emphasize the lack of awareness of the lay community, and indeed many researchers or commentators, in appreciating the wide variation of standard of care. There is a corresponding need to identify the best uses of available resources that will lead to the best outcomes for our patients. We conclude that CER is an essential methodology in modern neonatology to address many unanswered questions and test unproven therapies in

  1. Brokered dialogue: A new research method for controversial health and social issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Janet A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dialogue is a foundational feature of social life and an important way in which we come to understand one another. In situations of controversy dialogue is often absent because of a range of social barriers. We have developed a new film-based qualitative research method for studying controversial issues in healthcare and social policy. We call this method Brokered Dialogue. Theoretically informed by the traditions in narrative inquiry and visual anthropology, the method is premised on the idea that dialogue possesses features making it unique as a generator of new knowledge and opportunities for social intervention. Film is not only an extraordinarily rich data source, but an excellent medium for knowledge transfer and dissemination. Discussion The paper introduces the Brokered Dialogue method. We outline its critical steps, including the procedures for sampling, data collection and data analysis of both textual and visual data. Participants in a Brokered Dialogue engage in filmed interviews that capture their perspectives on a given topic; they then share their perspectives with, and pose questions of, one another through the medium of film. Using a participatory editing process, only footage that participants feel comfortable showing to others is incorporated. This technique offers participants a ‘safe’ space for respectful interaction. The editing process itself is analytic, and the final assembly of footage approximates a dialogue on the topic at hand. A link to a film produced from a project piloting the method is provided to demonstrate its real world application. Summary Brokered Dialogue is a method for promoting respectful interactions among those with seemingly divergent views on a controversial topic and for discovering critical points of divergence that may represent pathways for improvement. While the end product is a ‘film’, the goal is to have these films used as catalysts for ongoing respectful

  2. Controversial hypotheses on the relationship between researcher and informant in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, V

    1992-02-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues that emerged unexpectedly during a qualitative study set up to explore nurses' descriptions of difficult, challenging and satisfying experiences at work. The purpose of the study had been to look for critical factors influencing nurses' perceptions of their performance in specific situations, and their labelling of each event. Ten nurses were asked to describe in detail three events; a difficult situation in which they had coped well, a difficult situation in which they would like to have coped better, and a satisfying or rewarding situation. The critical incident technique was used. Rich descriptions were obtained, tape recorded, transcribed verbatum, and analysed by constant comparative analysis, following the principles of grounded theory. Some suprising hypotheses emerged regarding the methodology of the informal interview in qualitative research. This paper addresses these hypotheses, which focus on the interaction between the researcher and informant, the role conflict facing the nurse researcher, the effect of the researcher's past experience on the interaction, the use of counselling strategies and the principle of self-disclosure. These hypotheses were incidental to the original area of study and were more exciting in their emergence because of this.

  3. Computational Controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Benjamin; Kuhn, Tobias; Beelen, Kaspar; Aroyo, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have

  4. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtius, H., E-mail: h.curtius@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Energieforschung, IEF-6 Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik, Geb. 05.3, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kaiser, G.; Mueller, E.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Energieforschung, IEF-6 Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik, Geb. 05.3, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO{sub 2} fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in {sup 235}U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO{sub 2}-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in {sup 235}U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Juelich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl{sub 2}-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl{sub 2}-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe{sup 2+} under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH){sub 3}(s) and Eu(OH){sub 3}(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu

  5. Still controversial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-10-15

    It is some sixty years since the existence of the neutrino was controversially postulated by the controversial Wolfgang Pauli. Today, the neutrino remains controversial. At the Berkeley Conference, summarizer Steve Weinberg kept the spotlight on these enigmatic particles during a considerable portion of his talk.

  6. Still controversial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    It is some sixty years since the existence of the neutrino was controversially postulated by the controversial Wolfgang Pauli. Today, the neutrino remains controversial. At the Berkeley Conference, summarizer Steve Weinberg kept the spotlight on these enigmatic particles during a considerable portion of his talk

  7. Assessing the Public’s Views in Research Ethics Controversies: Deliberative Democracy and Bioethics as Natural Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y. H.; Wall, Ian F.; Stanczyk, Aimee; Vries, Raymond De

    2010-01-01

    In a Liberal Democracy, Policy Decisions regarding ethical controversies, including those in research ethics, should incorporate the opinions of its citizens. Eliciting informed and well-considered ethical opinions can be challenging. The issues may not be widely familiar and they may involve complex scientific, legal, historical, and ethical dimensions. Traditional surveys risk eliciting superficial and uninformed opinions that may be of dubious quality for policy formation. We argue that the theory and practice of deliberative democracy (DD) is especially useful in overcoming such inadequacies. We explain DD theory and practice, discuss the rationale for using DD methods in research ethics, and illustrate in depth the use of a DD method for a long-standing research ethics controversy involving research based on surrogate consent. The potential pitfalls of DD and the means of minimizing them as well as future research directions are also discussed. PMID:19919315

  8. Weathering a political storm. A contextual perspective on a psychological research controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Ellen Greenberg; Kobor, Patricia Clem

    2002-03-01

    In the spring of 1999, a storm of controversy arose at the local, state, and national levels surrounding an article on the effects of child sexual abuse published in 1998 in Psychological Bulletin. The article was vehemently denounced by various media outlets, conservative grassroots organizations, members of the general public, state legislatures, and ultimately by the United States Congress. The authors chronicle these unprecedented events and related challenges faced by the American Psychological Association. The authors also describe the Association's efforts to resolve the crisis, while staunchly upholding academic freedom and scientific integrity, and review the lessons learned for the field of psychology.

  9. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  10. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  11. Computational Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Benjamin; Kuhn, Tobias; Beelen, Kaspar; Aroyo, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have appeared, using new data sources such as Wikipedia, which help us now better understand these phenomena. However, compared to what social sciences have discovered about such debates, the existing computati...

  12. Future issues in transplantation ethics: ethical and legal controversies in xenotransplantation, stem cell, and cloning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S

    2008-07-01

    With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these fields.

  13. The functional-cognitive framework for psychological research: Controversies and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean; De Houwer, Jan; Perugini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The scientific goals, values and assumptions of functional and cognitive researchers have propelled them down two very different scientific pathways. Many have, and continue to argue, that these differences undermine any potential communication and collaboration between the two traditions. We explore a different view on this debate. Specifically, we focus on the Functional-Cognitive (FC) framework, and in particular, the idea that cognitive and functional researchers can and should interact to the benefit of both. Our article begins with a short introduction to the FC framework. We sweep aside misconceptions about the framework, present the original version as it was outlined by De Houwer (2011) and then offer our most recent thoughts on how it should be implemented. Thereafter, we reflect on its strengths and weaknesses, clarify the functional (effect-centric vs. analytic-abstractive) level and consider its many implications for cognitive research and theorising. In the final section, we briefly review the articles contained in this Special Issue. These contributions provide clear examples of the conceptual, empirical and methodological developments that can emerge when cognitive, clinical, personality and neuroscientists fully engage with the functional-cognitive perspective. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Complexities and Controversies in Himalayan Research: A Call for Collaboration and Rigor for Better Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya range encompasses enormous variation in elevation, precipitation, biodiversity, and patterns of human livelihoods. These mountains modify the regional climate in complex ways; the ecosystem services they provide influence the lives of almost 1 billion people in 8 countries. However, our understanding of these ecosystems remains rudimentary. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report that erroneously predicted a date for widespread glacier loss exposed how little was known of Himalayan glaciers. Recent research shows how variably glaciers respond to climate change in different Himalayan regions. Alarmist theories are not new. In the 1980s, the Theory of Himalayan Degradation warned of complete forest loss and devastation of downstream areas, an eventuality that never occurred. More recently, the debate on hydroelectric construction appears driven by passions rather than science. Poor data, hasty conclusions, and bad science plague Himalayan research. Rigorous sampling, involvement of civil society in data collection, and long-term collaborative research involving institutions from across the Himalaya are essential to improve knowledge of this region.

  15. Controversies in Cardiovascular Research: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes – boutique science or valuable arrhythmia model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollmann, Björn C

    2013-01-01

    As part of the series on Controversies in Cardiovascular Research, the article reviews the strengths and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) as models of cardiac arrhythmias. Specifically, the article attempts to answer the following questions: Which clinical arrhythmias can be modeled by iPSC-CM? How well can iPSC-CM model adult ventricular myocytes? What are the strengths and limitations of published iPSC-CM arrhythmia models? What new mechanistic insight has been gained? What is the evidence that would support using iPSC-CM to personalize anti-arrhythmic drug therapy? The review also discusses the pros and cons of using the iPSC-CM technology for modeling specific genetic arrhythmia disorders such as long QT syndrome, Brugada Syndrome or Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia. PMID:23569106

  16. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  17. Medical Speciality Thesis: Contribution to a Controversial Issue with a Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bilgin SAYDAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquisition of clinical and practical skills is the main target during the speciality training program. On the other hand, acquisition of skills in reading and interpreting scientific knowledge are also important training targets in order to develop and update clinical practice constantly. The process of thesis preparation during the speciality training provides an important opportunity to capture the skills in interpreting scientific knowledge. In Turkey, thesis writing has been obligatory for completion of speciality training for several years. Recently, there has been a discussion about the obligation for clinicians to write a thesis, especially those who are undertaking specialist training in education and research hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of thesis writing during speciality training using a questionnaire that was sent to specialists. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted as an e-questionnaire between December, 2013, and May, 2014. A likert scale consisted of 18 questions has been prepared in accordance with this study. Th e questionnaire was sent to 1536 physicians. 328 of the questionnaires have been included in the study by evaluating the responses obtained from 345 of the participants. Th e response rate was 23%. Th e Cronbach alpha coeff icient was 0.77. Out of the 328 questionnaires, 11.9 %were from Basic Medical Sciences, 57%from Internal Medical Sciences, and 30.2%from Surgical Medical Sciences. Among the respondents, the percentage of specialists, assistant professors, associate professors and professors were 20.7%, 8.2%, 13.7%, and 57.3%, respectively. Independent of specialty field and aff iliation, the respondents concluded that the conduction and thesis writing contributed to their scientific career in spite of the common problems they encountered regarding adequate time for preparation. Furthermore, they concluded that thesis writing had a positive eff ect in the

  18. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Controversies in psychotherapy research: epistemic differences in assumptions about human psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn D

    2013-01-01

    It is the thesis of this paper that differences in philosophical assumptions about the subject matter and treatment methods of psychotherapy have contributed to disagreements about the external validity of empirically supported therapies (ESTs). These differences are evident in the theories that are the basis for both the design and interpretation of recent psychotherapy efficacy studies. The natural science model, as applied to psychotherapy outcome research, transforms the constitutive features of the study subject in a reciprocal manner so that problems, treatments, and indicators of effectiveness are limited to what can be directly observed. Meaning-based approaches to therapy emphasize processes and changes that do not lend themselves to experimental study. Hermeneutic philosophy provides a supplemental model to establishing validity in those instances where outcome indicators do not lend themselves to direct observation and measurement and require "deep" interpretation. Hermeneutics allows for a broadening of psychological study that allows one to establish a form of validity that is applicable when constructs do not refer to things that literally "exist" in nature. From a hermeneutic perspective the changes that occur in meaning-based therapies must be understood and evaluated on the manner in which they are applied to new situations, the logical ordering and harmony of the parts with the theoretical whole, and the capability of convincing experts and patients that the interpretation can stand up against other ways of understanding. Adoption of this approach often is necessary to competently evaluate the effectiveness of meaning-based therapies.

  20. Smoking, nicotine and psychiatric disorders: evidence for therapeutic role, controversies and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, S M; Kutcher, S

    1999-02-01

    Researchers interested in investigating the possible therapeutic effects and the mechanisms of action of nicotine in neuropsychiatric disorders face a social-scientific-ethical dilemma. This dilemma comprises three components: (1) the known addictive potential of nicotine makes careful evaluation of the therapeutic potential of this compound socially unattractive; (2) the potential misuse of scientifically determined data by the tobacco 'lobby' creates ethical concerns; and (3) the possible confusion between the differential effects of nicotine in human smokers versus non-smokers creates difficulties in study designs in voluntary human subjects. Therefore, it is imperative that, at the onset of this review, the authors stress that they do not advocate cigarette-smoking as a route of nicotine intake under any circumstances on the basis that controlled dosing of nicotine may be of potential benefit in some neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article, we review the psychopharmacology of nicotine and its effects in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and Tourette's syndrome. Possible mechanisms of action of nicotine directly or indirectly via its interaction with other neurotransmitter systems (i.e. serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline) in relation to its potential role in these disorders are discussed. It is postulated that new drugs may need to be developed that selectively interact with nicotinic receptors without addiction potential.

  1. Clinical research regulation in India-history, development, initiatives, challenges and controversies: Still long way to go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Imran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation and its chairman Drug Controller general of India are bequeathed to protect the citizens from the marketing of unsafe medication. The startling findings, of the 59 th report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare, have uncovered the lax standards followed by the regulatory authorities in India. The growing clinical research after the product patents rights for the pharmaceutical industries as per the trade related aspects of intellectual property rights agreement and adverse drug reaction monitoring of the marketed drugs have raised many ethical and regulatory issues regarding the promotion of new drugs in Indian markets. Many controversial group of medicines; unauthorised and irrational FDCs not relevant to India′s medical needs, are available which are not sold in any of the countries with matured regulatory bodies. It becomes vital to understand the history, growth and evolution of the regulatory aspects of drugs which are handled by multiple Ministries and Departments of the Government of India. Although amendment to Schedule Y, registration of Contract Research Organisations, registration of Clinical Trials, Speeding up review process, Pharmacovigilance (PhV programme for India and Inspection of clinical trial sites have been started by the various regulatory agencies. However due to casual approach in marketing approval for sale of the drugs, the unethical steps taken by some pharmaceutical companies and medical practitioners has reiterated the need to get appropriate understanding of present regulation of drugs and clinical research especially regarding the practical rules and regulations.

  2. Clinical research regulation in India-history, development, initiatives, challenges and controversies: Still long way to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohammed; Najmi, Abul K.; Rashid, Mohammad F.; Tabrez, Shams; Shah, Mushtaq A.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation and its chairman Drug Controller general of India are bequeathed to protect the citizens from the marketing of unsafe medication. The startling findings, of the 59threport of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare, have uncovered the lax standards followed by the regulatory authorities in India. The growing clinical research after the product patents rights for the pharmaceutical industries as per the trade related aspects of intellectual property rights agreement and adverse drug reaction monitoring of the marketed drugs have raised many ethical and regulatory issues regarding the promotion of new drugs in Indian markets. Many controversial group of medicines; unauthorised and irrational FDCs not relevant to India's medical needs, are available which are not sold in any of the countries with matured regulatory bodies. It becomes vital to understand the history, growth and evolution of the regulatory aspects of drugs which are handled by multiple Ministries and Departments of the Government of India. Although amendment to Schedule Y, registration of Contract Research Organisations, registration of Clinical Trials, Speeding up review process, Pharmacovigilance (PhV) programme for India and Inspection of clinical trial sites have been started by the various regulatory agencies. However due to casual approach in marketing approval for sale of the drugs, the unethical steps taken by some pharmaceutical companies and medical practitioners has reiterated the need to get appropriate understanding of present regulation of drugs and clinical research especially regarding the practical rules and regulations. PMID:23559817

  3. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC): NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    departure runway assignments to the Center scheduling tool. The PDRC concept also incorporates earlier NASA and FAA research into automation-assisted CFR coordination. The PDRC concept reduces uncertainty by automatically communicating coordinated release times with seconds-level precision enabling TMCs and FLMs to work with target times rather than windows. NASA has developed a PDRC prototype system that integrates the Center's TMA system with a research prototype Tower decision support tool. A two-phase field evaluation was conducted at NASA's North Texas Research Station in Dallas-Fort Worth. The field evaluation validated the PDRC concept and demonstrated reduced release time uncertainty while being used for tactical departure scheduling of more than 230 operational flights over 29 weeks of operations.

  4. Caffeine controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Samuel J; Travers, Colm P; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus. The lower rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment noted at 18-21 months was not statistically different at later timepoints; however, infants in the caffeine group had lower rates of motor impairment at 11-year follow-up. The time of caffeine therapy initiation is now substantially earlier, and doses used are sometimes higher that previously used, but there are limited data to support these practices. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) remains one of the pillars of neonatal care, although more evidence to support dosing and timing of initiation and discontinuation are needed.

  5. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  6. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  7. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the controversies that emerge in the fuzzy front end (FFE) and how they are closed so the innovation process can move on. The fuzzy front has been characterized in the literature as a very critical phase, but controversies in the FFE have not been studied before....... The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...

  8. The breast implant controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R R; Harrison, M C; LeVier, R R

    1994-02-01

    The breast implant issue is a "bad news/good news" story. For many women with implants, the controversy has caused a fair degree of anxiety which may or may not be resolved as further information becomes available. It has also taken its toll on Dow Corning. Whole lines of medical products have been eliminated or are being phase out. The development of new medical applications has been terminated. As a consequence, employees have lost their jobs. What the effect will be on the biomedical industry as a whole remains to be seen (11). While silicones have been an important component in various medical devices, it is likely that other materials can be used as replacements. However, suppliers of non-silicone materials are also reevaluating their role in this market. For example, Du Pont, the nation's largest chemical company, has determined that the unpredictable and excessive costs of doing business with manufacturers of implantable medical devices no longer justifies the unrestricted sale of standard raw materials into this industry. Other companies are quietly following suit. On the up side, it is possible that the research being driven by this controversy will result in a greater understanding of the immunologic implications of xenobiotics, of the importance of nonbiased observations, of the need for ready access to valid data sets, and of the opportunity for valid scientific information to guide legal decisions. Only time will tell.

  9. Risk controversies. Concepts - conflicts - communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungermann, H.

    1991-01-01

    Common arguments and differences in risk communication in connection with the controversial discussion surrounding the fields of genetic engineering, chemistry, nuclear engineering, information techniques, and climate research are investigated. Presented are comparative analyses on subjects, those becoming active, and strategies of risk communication. (DG) [de

  10. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  11. El muestreo en investigación cualitativa: principios básicos y algunas controversias Sampling in qualitative research: basic principles and some controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Salgado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos de la elección de los participantes en una investigación cualitativa, en contraste con los que rigen al muestreo probabilístico en la investigación epidemiológica. Se proponen los conceptos de generalizabilidad nomotética e ideográfica, y los de transferibilidad y reflexividad, para una mejor comprensión de las diferencias. Se mencionan los fundamentos de los principales tipos de muestreo que suelen utilizarse en investigación cualitativa, el significado del concepto de saturación y algunos de sus cuestionamientos. Por último, se plantean algunas reflexiones en torno a las controversias suscitadas en los últimos años sobre las diversas perspectivas paradigmáticas desde las cuales se puede efectuar hoy día la investigación cualitativa, sus posibilidades de combinación con la investigación epidemiológica, y algunas implicaciones para el estudio de los problemas de salud.This paper presents the rationale for the choice of participants in qualitative research in contrast with that of probability sampling principles in epidemiological research. For a better understanding of the differences, concepts of nomothetic and ideographic generalizability, as well as those of transferability and reflexivity, are proposed, Fundamentals of the main types of sampling commonly used in qualitative research, and the meaning of the concept of saturation are mentioned. Finally, some reflections on the controversies that have arisen in recent years on various paradigmatic perspectives from which to conduct qualitative research, their possibilities of combination with epidemiological research, and some implications for the study of health issues are presented.

  12. Energy, controversies and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholet, J.-L.; Garbely, M.; Lachal, B.; Romerio, F.; Weber, W.

    2003-01-01

    The energy debate raises deep controversies, as discussions on climate change or electricity markets' deregulation show. In this context, it is very difficult for the citizen to express himself in referendums and for the decision maker to slice between various options. Experts themselves deliver controversial evaluations and interest groups can benefit from them to suggest their own solution. This book enables to get a better insight and better understand energy-related controversies and the environmental and socio-economic impacts of energy. It deals with topics as complex and politically extreme as the exhaustion of fossil fuels, climate change, ionising radiations, renewable energy sources, energy consumption in Southern countries and the reorganisation of electricity markets. It starts with an article on the precaution principle and it ends with a glance on the future, devoted to education in the field of efficient energy use [fr

  13. Obstetric controversies in thyroidology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that thyroid disorders commonly affect women. The care of pregnant women affected by thyroid disease is an important clinical challenge for endocrinologists. Hypothyroidism is the commonest problem, and maternal hypothyroxinemia has been linked to adverse feto-maternal outcomes. This article would discuss the controversy regarding first-trimester thyroid hormone deficiency and fetal brain development. Certain obstetric controversies in the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the indications of TSH receptor antibody measurements and fetal thyroid status monitoring would also be discussed.

  14. Controversial Science and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  15. Application of Emergency Action Levels from Potential Release at Research Reactor HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Lee, Goan Yub; Lee, Hae Choi; Kim, Bong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Execution of the protective action promptly is possible that Emergency Action Levels (EALs) must be established for a radiological release from nuclear facility. The EALs for electric power reactor are already developed and applied to recognize an emergency situation rapidly. Recently the IAEA published the safety report including the EALs for research reactor. This paper describes the EALs to apply for a potential release pathway at the research reactor HANARO. The results of table 1 and 2 will be higher than actual because the weather condition in real situation is difference. However, the EALs applying the potential stack release, ground release and site can be useful for research reactor HANARO making the emergency declaration. The EALs at the site boundary of the table 3 can be applied to protect the off-site public

  16. A review and perspective of existing research on the release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggett, Stephan J; Clancy, Shaun F; Boverhof, Darrell R; Canady, Richard A

    2014-04-07

    Advances in adding nanomaterials to various matrices have occurred in tandem with the identification of potential hazards associated with exposure to pure forms of nanomaterials. We searched multiple research publication databases and found that, relative to data generated on potential nanomaterial hazards or exposures, very little attention has focused on understanding the potential and conditions for release of nanomaterials from nanocomposites. However, as a prerequisite to exposure studying release is necessary to inform risk assessments. We identified fifty-four studies that specifically investigated the release of nanomaterials, and review them in the following release scenario groupings: machining, weathering, washing, contact and incineration. While all of the identified studies provided useful information, only half were controlled experiments. Based on these data, the debris released from solid, non-food nanocomposites contains in varying frequencies, a mixture of four types of debris. Most frequently identified are (1) particles of matrix alone, and slightly less often, the (2) matrix particles exhibit the nanomaterial partially or fully embedded; far less frequently is (3) the added nanomaterial entirely dissociated from the matrix identified: and most rare are (4) dissolved ionic forms of the added nanomaterial. The occurrence of specific debris types appeared to be dependent on the specific release scenario and environment. These data highlight that release from nanocomposites can take multiple forms and that additional research and guidance would be beneficial, allowing for more consistent characterization of the release potential of nanomaterials. In addition, these data support calls for method validation and standardization, as well as understanding how laboratory release scenarios relate to real-world conditions. Importantly, as risk is considered to be a function of the inherent hazards of a substance and the actual potential for exposure, data

  17. Conservation and the 4 Rs, which are rescue, rehabilitation, release, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Graham H; Szabo, Judit K

    2018-02-01

    Vertebrate animals can be injured or threatened with injury through human activities, thus warranting their "rescue." Details of wildlife rescue, rehabilitation, release, and associated research (our 4 Rs) are often recorded in large databases, resulting in a wealth of available information. This information has huge research potential and can contribute to understanding of animal biology, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife, and species conservation. However, such databases have been little used, few studies have evaluated factors influencing success of rehabilitation and/or release, recommended actions to conserve threatened species have rarely arisen, and direct benefits for species conservation are yet to be demonstrated. We therefore recommend that additional research be based on data from rescue, rehabilitation, and release of animals that is broader in scope than previous research and would have community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  19. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  20. Release from control of inactive material from decommissioning the ASTRA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.; Kurz, H.; Meyer, F.; Karacson, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf have been operating a 10 MW ASTRA research reactor from 1960 until 1999. After that date, a submission of the intention to decommission the reactor has been provided to the Competent Authorities. After completion of an Environmental Impact Study by the Competent Authorities and modification of the Permissions for Site Use, the reactor finally entered the decommissioning phase in 2003. Inactive materials from the decommissioning site are expected to be released from control. The procedure for such a release from control agreed upon between the Competent Authorities and ARC Seibersdorf involves a four-step measurement, verification, and certification process detailed in this paper. By September 2003, this four-step procedure has been completed for 16500 kg of steel re-enforced concrete and for 5500 kg of other materials; the release from control of 3000 kg of paraffin and 10000 kg of graphite from the thermal column are planned for the near future. (author)

  1. Partisan Scholarship in Technoscientific Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Hansson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of who controls, manipulates, and establishes decisions, facts, and knowledge. With this in mind, it is possible to identify different forms of partisan research including capture by participants, de facto and overt partisanship, and mercenary scholarship. These different forms of partisan scholarship...... are characterised by differences in the motives underlying epistemological choices of research topic and method, personal commitments to the fields studied, use of research findings in controversies, and positioning of results in wider debates. Two examples help to illustrate partisan scholarship: first, a study...... of new technologies for managing climate change (carbon dioxide capture and storage); and second, the construction of the new underground metro system in Athens and its accommodation of accessibility standards. Both cases entail partisan positions and raise similar concerns about the orthodox...

  2. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety

  3. Adolescent varicocoele management controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, E C; Saitz, T R; La Nasa, J A; Hellstrom, W J

    2013-01-01

    Varicocoele is defined as excessive dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus of the spermatic cord. Varicocoele frequently appears during early puberty and is recognized to be the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. However, the actual incidence in adolescents, pathophysiology and the association with male factor infertility all remain somewhat controversial. The most accurate diagnostic technique for identifying young men who will benefit from surgical treatment has yet to be established. Observations of testicular asymmetry and deteriorating semen quality helped establish current guidelines and recommendations for surgical treatment. Further studies, comparing observation with surgical intervention, are needed to refine the current indications for varicocoele repair in the adolescent male. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Siting controversial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Blacker, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    There is often significant difficulty involved with siting controversial facilities. The social and political problems are frequently far more difficult to resolve than the technical and economic issues. The tendancy for most developing organizations is to address only technical issues in the search for a technically optimal site, to the exclusion of such weighting considerations as the social and political climate associated with potential sites--an approach which often imperils the success of the project. The site selection processes currently suggested is summarized and two contemporary examples of their application are cited. The difference between developers' real objectives and the objectives they have implicitly assumed by adopting the recommended approaches without augmentation are noted. The resulting morass of public opposition is attributed to the failure to consider the needs of individuals and groups who stand to be negatively impacted by the development. A comprehensive implementation strategy which addresses non-technical consideration in parallel with technical ones is presented and evaluated

  5. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  6. Controversies in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and controversy are old friends. However, several major studies in the field have clarified some of the main issues. There is now no doubt that hyperglycaemia, at levels less than those that occur in overt diabetes, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as large-for-gestational age infants, neonatal hyperinsulinism, neonatal hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia. We also have evidence now that a standard approach to GDM with diagnosis at 24-28 weeks, dietary advice, self-monitoring of blood glucose and insulin therapy as needed reduces these adverse perinatal outcomes. Unknown, however, is if this same approach is effective at reducing long-term risks of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both the mothers and babies. For example, could our management strategies miss critical time points of fuel-mediated injury to the foetus important for the baby's long-term metabolic health? The implications of a recent international consensus statement on new diagnostic criteria for GDM are discussed, as well as issues relating to the timing of diagnosis. The potential place for a risk calculator for adverse outcomes in GDM pregnancy that takes into account glycaemic and non-glycaemic risk factors is considered. Such a tool could help stratify GDM women to different levels of care. Ongoing issues relating to maternal glycaemic and foetal growth targets, and the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in GDM are discussed. To resolve some of the remaining controversies, further carefully designed randomised controlled trials in GDM with long-term follow-up of both mothers and babies are necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  8. NCI Releases Video: Proteogenomics Research - On the Frontier of Precision Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of an educational video titled “Proteogenomics Research: On the Frontier of Precision Medicine."  Launched at the HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala Dinner, catalyzed in part by the Cancer Moonshot initiative and featuring as keynote speaker the 47th Vice President of the United States of America Joseph R.

  9. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Overview and Results: NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Tom.

    2013-01-01

    NASA researchers developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept to improve the tactical departure scheduling process. The PDRC system is comprised of: 1) a surface automation system that computes ready time predictions and departure runway assignments, 2) an en route scheduling automation tool that uses this information to estimate ascent trajectories to the merge point and computes release times and, 3) an interface that provides two-way communication between the two systems. To minimize technology transfer issues and facilitate its adoption by TMCs and Frontline Managers (FLM), NASA developed the PDRC prototype using the Surface Decision Support System (SDSS) for the Tower surface automation tool, a research version of the FAA TMA (RTMA) for en route automation tool and a digital interface between the two DSTs to facilitate coordination.

  10. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  11. Varicocele: Management and the continuing controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Agbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles have long been associated with infertility. Despite this long history, there remains much controversy regarding their aetiology and management. The aim of this review is to present the most current information on the management of varicoceles and to highlight some of the management controversies: Association of varicocele with male infertility; Management of varicocele in adolescent; safety and effectiveness of varicocele embolization and management of subclinical varicoceles. It is hoped that this review study will stimulate further research into this condition in order to find a more common ground regarding its management.

  12. Atmospheric dilution factors for radioactive releases from Inshas research reactor, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Aal, M.M.; Aly, A.I.M.; Tawfik, F.S.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of assessing the suitability of Inshas site for constructing a new research reactor 20 MW, the meteorological condition are analyzed to determine the most affected population sectors. The atmospheric stability classes are estimated by a developed computer program in which the meteorological data for one year are used as input data. The results indicate that stability class F (moderately stable) is predominant one. The dilution factor is calculated using the computer code XOQDOQ for meteorological evaluation of routine effluent releases at nuclear power stations, which implements regulatory Guide 1.111 for both normal and desert conditions and for ground and elevated releases. The concentration isopleths are plotted and the most affected sector is the southern one with higher values for desert condition than the corresponding normal condition at same distance from the source. 4 fig., 3 tab

  13. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  14. Research on Human Dynamics of Information Release of WeChat Users

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Juliang; Zhang, Shengtai; Duo, Fan; Wang, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    The information release behavior of WeChat users is influenced by many factors, and studying the rules of the behavior of users in WeChat can provide theoretical help for the dynamic research of mobile social network users. By crawling WeChat moments information of nine users within 5 years, we used the human behavioral dynamics system to analyze users' behavior. The results show that the information distribution behavior of WeChat users is consistent with the power-law distribution for a cer...

  15. Negotiating Gene Therapy: Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    According to research, students often perceive the ethical implications of issues such as genetic engineering, but sometimes they are not equipped to handle multiple perspectives and articulate well-reasoned positions. A modified jigsaw activity, appropriate for secondary and introductory college biology classes, that introduces students to human…

  16. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2009-01-01

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  17. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...... some of the changes that may occur in the near future in the field of COPD....

  18. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...

  19. Lyme disease: why the controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M H

    2016-12-01

    Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers. Despite this, patients who have not left Australia pay many thousands of dollars for non-specialist consultations and testing at overseas laboratories. Unproven long-term therapy with multiple antibiotics has resulted in serious complications, including allergies, line sepsis, pancreatitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Studies have shown that LD vectors are not found in Australia, and Lyme Borrelia has not been found in Australian vectors, animals or patients with autochthonous illnesses. I propose that (i) A non-controversial name for the chronic syndrome should be adopted, 'Australian Multisystem Disorder'. (ii) Research funding should enable the development of a consensus case definition and studies of the epidemiology of this syndrome with laboratory investigations to identify an aetiology and surrogate markers of disease. Prospective, randomised treatment studies could then be undertaken using ethical protocols. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Empowering Geoscience with Improved Data Assimilation Using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed "Manhattan" Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, K.; Hoar, T. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Collins, N.; Hendricks, J.; Kershaw, H.; Ha, S.; Snyder, C.; Skamarock, W. C.; Mizzi, A. P.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Karspeck, A. R.; Karol, S. I.; Bitz, C. M.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The capabilities of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) at NCAR have been significantly expanded with the recent "Manhattan" release. DART is an ensemble Kalman filter based suite of tools, which enables researchers to use data assimilation (DA) without first becoming DA experts. Highlights: significant improvement in efficient ensemble DA for very large models on thousands of processors, direct read and write of model state files in parallel, more control of the DA output for finer-grained analysis, new model interfaces which are useful to a variety of geophysical researchers, new observation forward operators and the ability to use precomputed forward operators from the forecast model. The new model interfaces and example applications include the following: MPAS-A; Model for Prediction Across Scales - Atmosphere is a global, nonhydrostatic, variable-resolution mesh atmospheric model, which facilitates multi-scale analysis and forecasting. The absence of distinct subdomains eliminates problems associated with subdomain boundaries. It demonstrates the ability to consistently produce higher-quality analyses than coarse, uniform meshes do. WRF-Chem; Weather Research and Forecasting + (MOZART) Chemistry model assimilates observations from FRAPPÉ (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment). WACCM-X; Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with thermosphere and ionosphere eXtension assimilates observations of electron density to investigate sudden stratospheric warming. CESM (weakly) coupled assimilation; NCAR's Community Earth System Model is used for assimilation of atmospheric and oceanic observations into their respective components using coupled atmosphere+land+ocean+sea+ice forecasts. CESM2.0; Assimilation in the atmospheric component (CAM, WACCM) of the newly released version is supported. This version contains new and extensively updated components and software environment. CICE; Los Alamos sea ice model (in CESM) is used to assimilate

  1. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Decision Making Process to Release Information Under the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 19, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s process for deciding to release information requested under the Freedom of Information Act.

  2. Controversies in Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Hyatt, Courtland S; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-08

    There has been a surge in interest in and research on narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). Despite or because of this increased attention, there are several areas of substantial debate that surround the construct, including descriptions of grandiose and vulnerable dimensions or variants, questions regarding the existence of a consensual description, central versus peripheral features of narcissism, distinctions between normal and pathological narcissism, possible etiological factors, the role of self-esteem in narcissism, where narcissism should be studied, how it can be assessed, and its representation in diagnostic nosologies. We suggest that a failure to distinguish between grandiose (i.e., overtly immodest, self-centered, entitled, domineering) and vulnerable (e.g., self-centered, distrustful, neurotic, introverted) presentations of narcissism has led to a less cohesive and coherent literature and that trait-based models of personality and personality disorder can bring greater clarity to many of these important debates.

  3. World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map version 2 (WDMAM v.2) - released for research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI-Dyment, Y.; Lesur, V.; Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Thebault, E.; Catalan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is an international initiative carried out under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). A first version of the map has been published and distributed eight years ago (WDMAM v1; Korhonen et al., 2007). We have produced a candidate which has been accepted as the second version of this map (WDMAM v2) at the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy in Prag, in June 2015. On land, we adopted an alternative approach avoiding any unnecessary processing on existing aeromagnetic compilations. When available, we used the original aeromagnetic data. As a result the final compilation remains an acceptable representation of the national and international data grids. Over oceanic areas the marine data have been extended. In areas of insufficient data coverage, a model has been computed based on a modified digital grid of the oceanic lithosphere age, considering plate motions in the determination of magnetization vector directions. This model has been further adjusted to the available data, resulting in a better representation of the anomalies. The final grid will be periodically upgraded. Version 2.0 has been released and is available at wdmam.org to support both research and education projects. Colleagues willing to contribute data for future releases (and become a co-author of the map) should contact any of the authors or Jerome Dyment (chair of the WDMAM Task Force) at jdy@ipgp.fr .

  4. Letters on nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Maier-Leibnitz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started. (orig.) [de

  5. Controversies on affirmative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Affirmative action was launched by American presidents J.F. Kennedy and L.B. Johnson, yet by ironic historical accident it attained its greatest expansion and most radical form during R. Nixon’s conservative administration. Affirmative action was originally a government programme aimed at improving the social position of Afro-Americans, mostly in the sphere of employment and education, as a kind of compensation for racial discrimination, and also other forms of social injustice suffered by minority and underprivileged groups. Its goal was to increase the proportion of Afro-Americans, and later members of other minorities, as well as women, in higher education institutions and in various types of employment. It was supported by many social researchers and activists. Law courts, namely their verdicts and explanations in the case of precedents, had an especially important role in the debate on affirmative action. Political conservatives attacked various affirmative action programmes (especially preferential enrolment quotas for minority students, basing their criticism on the American constitutional principles on equal rights for every citizen. Market conservatives, furthermore, claimed that the government’s policy of racial preference brought into question the very basis of the capital system (competition and at the same time was not in the interest of the Afro-American working class. Namely, the social strata that profited most was the relatively affluent segment of the Afro-American community, which only increased economic and social differences within the latter. Recently the debate on affirmative action in the US has not been limited only to two opposing sides (liberals and conservatives. More and more scientists and other participants have recognised the negative aspects and also the failures of affirmative action, while at the same time refuting conservative opinions and goals.

  6. D. W. Griffith's Controversial Film, "The Birth of a Nation."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that enables students to investigate race relations during the Progressive Era by analyzing D. W. Griffith's "The Birth of a Nation" and the controversy surrounding the release of the film. Explores the pros and cons of using motion pictures as teaching tool. Includes two student handouts. (CMK)

  7. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  8. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  9. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  10. Pension Reform Act 2004 and its Controversies: Repeating or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pension Reform Act 2004 and its Controversies: Repeating or Learning from Past Mistakes? ... Journal of Research in National Development ... and discusses how the present pension reform will affect active employees when they retire.

  11. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S Shoaib; Iqbal, M; Salahuddin, A; Avila, R; Pervez, S

    2004-01-01

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50,000 m 3 h -1 ). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m 3 h -1 , when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. (note)

  12. Danish Cartoon Crisis/Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Cartoon Crisis Controversy is one of several terms that refer to the turmoil that associates with the Danish newspaper Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten’s publication of 12 cartoons on 30 September 2005. “The Muhammad Cartoon Crisis” is an alternative heading used for the violent global rea...

  13. Controversial Issues in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Selma C.

    The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…

  14. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  15. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  16. Desecuritization as Displacement of Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    By signing the Ilulissat Declaration of May 2008, the five littoral states of the Arctic Ocean pre-emptively desecuritized potential geopolitical controversies in the Arctic Ocean by confirming that international law and geo-science are the defining factors underlying the future delimitation...

  17. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has become a debated measure in caries prevention. This paper aims to examine and comment on some possible controversies, with emphasis on the most recent literature. A search for clinical trials was conducted through 2007 in PubMed, and papers describing a controlled xylitol intervention...

  18. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  19. Mapping Controversies with Social Media: The Case for Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Marres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the usefulness for social media research of controversy analysis, an approach developed in Science and Technology Studies (STS and related fields. We propose that this approach can help to address an important methodological problem in social media research, namely, the tension between social media as resource for social research and as an empirical object in its own right. Initially developed for analyzing interactions between science, technology, and society, controversy analysis has in recent decades been implemented digitally to study public debates and issues dynamics online. A key feature of controversy analysis as a digital method, we argue, is that it enables a symmetrical approach to the study of media-technological dynamics and issue dynamics. It allows us to pay equal attention to the ways in which a digital platform like Twitter mediates public issues, and to how controversies mediate “social media” as an object of public attention. To sketch the contours of such a symmetrical approach, the article discusses examples from a recent social media research project in which we mapped issues of “privacy” and “surveillance” in the wake of the National Security Agency (NSA data leak by Edward Snowden in June 2013. Through a discussion of social media research practice, we then outline a symmetrical approach to analyzing controversy with social media. We conclude that the digital implementation of such an approach requires further exchanges between social media researchers and controversy analysts.

  20. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-01-01

    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations

  2. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.

    2007-12-01

    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. The Department of Homeland Security sponsored the production of this material under the Department of Energy contract for the management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-PROC-234355

  3. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D.; Bate, N. F.

    2014-01-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/

  4. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bate, N. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  5. Assessment of 99Tc releases to the atmosphere: a plea for applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.; Hoffman, F.O.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    Recent experimental data suggest that the concentration factor for uptake of 99 Tc by vegetation from soils may be two to three orders of magnitude higher than the 0.25 value currently being used in radiological assessments. Following a survey of the literature, a concentration factor of 50 was applied to evaluate the dose from a 1.0 Ci/year release to the atmosphere by a hypothetical uranium enrichment facility. Doses to the GI tract and thyroid of an adult living 1600 m from the facility were 18 millirems and 80 millirems, respectively. These doses are delivered entirely through transport of 99 Tc through food chain pathways. This assessment indicates a potential for 99 Tc exposures to exceed recently proposed standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 40 CFR 190. The previously assumed concentration factor of 0.25 would have produced corresponding doses of 0.13 millirem to the GI tract and 0.57 millirem to the thyroid. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need for additional research on the environmental behavior and dosimetry of 99 Tc. In particular, data are needed to elucidate the retention of 99 Tc in soils and the uptake of 99 Tc by edible vegetation in field studies of chronic exposure conditions. Data on the uptake and retention of 99 Tc in humans are also necessary to improve the reliability of dose conversion factors for specific organs and various age groups

  6. Nuclear controversy with many undercurrents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingjaerde, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The president of the Norwegian Atomic Energy Society presents, in the form of an interview his opinions on the nature of the nuclear controversy in Norway. He is very critical of the emotional and uninformed nature of much of the criticism of nuclear power, and emphasises that nuclear power must be regarded as an alternative to other, less favourable forms of thermal power, as a supplement to hydroelectric power, or to electricity rationing. While a society using less energy is quite feasible, it would hardly be acceptable. The waste disposal controversy is quite artifical, as perfectly safe methods of disposal are available. Finally he regrets that it is the conclusions only in the Nuclear Power Commission's report which have attracted attention, and mainly the comments of the dissident minority. (JIW)

  7. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R J; Peterson, S.

    1999-01-01

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a tritium labeling facility operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ordinary citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though discovered or appreciated only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise

  8. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  10. Datasprints as a method for Controversy Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Munk, Anders Kristian; Bach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A datasprint is an intensive 3-5 day workshop that brings together humanistic researchers, data experts, and stakeholders from a selected field. Together, the participants visualize and analyse a collection of data sets, which have been prepared before the datasprint. In the beginning of a datasp......A datasprint is an intensive 3-5 day workshop that brings together humanistic researchers, data experts, and stakeholders from a selected field. Together, the participants visualize and analyse a collection of data sets, which have been prepared before the datasprint. In the beginning...... of a datasprint, stakeholders present their understandings and views of the field in question. Following this, the workshop participants explore how the prepared data may shed new light on the field. The final products of a datasprint are prototypes of analyses or digital products that forms the basis for future...... collaboration between the partners. Since 2015, DIGHUMLAB has sponsored a special interest group in controversy mapping. Datasprints have proved to be a very productive format for controversy making and for creating dialogue and joint projects between humanistic researchers....

  11. The controversy about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A short review of the events of the past several years in the conflict in the USA between the groups supporting or opposing nuclear power. Reference is made to publications on both sides of the controversy which the author considers to be well reasoned and useful sources of information. Mention is also made of the legal and legislative actions taken by both sides. The arguments against nuclear power are summarized and solutions to the problems which are the source of these arguments are suggested

  12. Derived release limits for radionuclides in airborne and liquid effluents for the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, A.E.

    1989-08-01

    Radionuclides released to the environment may cause external and internal radiation exposure to man via a number of potential pathways. The resulting radiation dose due to such releases from any operating facility must be kept below dose limits specified in the regulations issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. At the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), there is one primary source of liquid effluent to the Winnipeg River via the process water outfall. There are five sources of gaseous effluents: the WR-1 stack; the incinerator stack in the waste management area; the active laboratories building (including the hot cells); the Active-Liquid Waste Treatment Centre; and the compactor-baler in the Waste Management Area. This report presents the methodology and models used to calculate the maximum permissible release rates of radionuclides for each of these sources

  13. Research and development of controlled release technology for agrochemicals using isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, increasing investment has been made into development of measures to reduce pesticide contamination of food and the environment while at the same time protecting crops and livestock from pest attack. Studies to develop controlled-release technology are frequently carried out with labelled compounds. Radiotracer techniques provide a unique tool in measuring the release rate of the chemical, the stability of the chemical within the formulation and evaluating the effect of environmental factors on the release rate. These technologies and pesticide residue problems were the theme of the Seminar. The Seminar has illustrated the potential value of isotope techniques and has reviewed information on current developments in this field and their relevance to agriculture in developing countries

  14. Advances in research of targeting delivery and controlled release of drug-loaded nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhonghua

    2003-01-01

    Biochemistry drug, at present, is still the main tool that human struggle to defeat the diseases. So, developing safe and efficacious technique of drug targeting delivery and controlled release is key to enhance curative effect, decrease drug dosage, and lessen its side effect. Drug-loaded nanoparticles, which is formed by conjugate between nanotechnology and modern pharmaceutics, is a new fashioned pharmic delivery carrier. Because of advantages in pharmic targeting transport and controlled or slow release and improving bioavailability, it has been one of developing trend of modern pharmaceutical dosage forms

  15. Doctrinal controversies and ecumenical councils | Ogbonnaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work focused on the doctrinal controversies that have confronted the Church in the course of its development and the accompanying councils that sought to resolve these theological controversies. The paper did this historically, by showing the origin of the problems, the factors and features involved in the controversies ...

  16. Research on in-pile release of fission products from coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Iwamoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    Coated particle fuels fabricated in accordance with VHTR (Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) fuel design have been irradiated by both capsules and an in-pile gas loop (OGL-1), and data on the fission products release under irradiation were obtained for loose coated particles, fuel compacts and fuel rods in the temperature range between 800 deg. C and 1600 deg. C. For the fission gases, temperature- and time dependences of the fractional release(R/B) were measured. Relation between release and failure fraction of the coated particles was elucidated on the VHTR reference fuels. Also measured was tritium concentration in the helium coolant of OGL-1. In-pile release behavior of the metallic fission products was studied by measuring the activities of the fission products adsorbed in the graphite sleeves of the OGL-1 fuel rods and the graphite fuel container of the sweep gas capsules in the PIE. Investigation on palladium interaction with SiC coating layer was included. (author)

  17. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  18. Nuclear power. The Windscale controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.

    1978-01-01

    The aims of this unit are: (1) to provide a basic understanding of nuclear technology and of the associated technical and environmental problems; (2) to provide an understanding of: (a) the historical growth of the nuclear industry; (b) the arguments for the continued development of nuclear power, and the institutions promoting that development; (3) to provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms and institutions which officially regulate the nuclear power programme in the UK; (4) to provide an understanding of the main issues - technical, economic, social and political - involved in the controversy over the proposed expansion of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd's reprocessing facilities at Windscale, and the events leading up to the Public Inquiry on the proposal which began in June 1977; and (5) to examine (a) the reason for the growth in opposition to nuclear power in various countries and the different approaches taken by the opposition groups; (b) the political impact and effectiveness of that opposition. (author)

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  20. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  1. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  2. The Research and Application of Sustainable Long-release Carbon Material with Agricultural Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    (1) The element analysis shown that ten kinds of agricultural wastes containing a certain amount of C, N, H elements, the highest content of C element, and t value ranges from 36.02% 36.02%, and the variation of C, N, H elements content in difference materials was not significant. The TOC concentration of sugar cane was up to 38.66 mg·g-1, and quality ratio was 39‰, significantly lower than C elements content. The released TOC quality of the rest materials were 2.36 2.36 mg·g-1, and the order from high to low were the soybean straw, rice straw, corn straw, rice husk, poplar branches, wheat straw, reeds, corn cob and wood chips respectively. The long-term leaching experiment of selected Optimized agricultural waste showed that the TOC content in leaching solution rise rapidly to peak value and was stable afterwards, with the concentration of 4.59 19.46 mg·g-1. The TOC releasing amount order was same with the short-term leaching experiment. (2) The releasing of nitrate nitrogen in ten kinds of agricultural waste was low (corn straw was up to 0.12mg·g-1, and the rest were all below 0.04mg·g-1 without accumulation. Most of the ammonia nitrogen concentration in leachate was lower than 0.3mg·g-1. The kjeldahl nitrogen in the corn straw, soybean straw, rice straw, reed, rice husk, and sugar cane leachate (0.81 1.65mg·g-1) were higher than that of poplar branches, corn cob and wood chips (corn straw, rice husk and wheat straw leachate. Above all, it can be concluded that the sugar cane, corn straw, rice husk, wheat straw, corn cob, wood were ideal carbon source material in ten kinds of agricultural.

  3. Predicted supplies of oil: a controversy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation had two objectives. The first was to consider future problems of the oil industry, as envisaged at the time of the impending 1973-74 unit-oil-price crisis. To this end, selected early 1970's pertinent published papers have been analysed and their conclusions now assessed in hindsight. The chosen published articles were considered then to be in part controversial, visionary and simultaneously, often predicting very different outcomes for the future supply, demand and unit cost of crude oil. The second objective was to assess pertinent recent research, and compare what we at present believe to be the status quo for the oil industry, with the perception of how the industry would have developed as portrayed by the early 1970's oil publications. (author)

  4. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D.; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei

    2018-04-01

    We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite; together with the partial-release data and predictions from density-functional theory modeling, they provide insights into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths.

  6. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  7. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  8. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the paper, we have highlighted some controversial aspects regarding the crime of tax evasion, referring to some important decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and also of the Bucharest Court of Appeal. Debating upon the impunity provision stated by art. 10 of Law no. 241/2005, the study also sheds light upon the issue of the perspective of the judicial organs regarding the juridical regime of the tax due for dividends. The main focus of the paper leads to the situations when there is legal ground for the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime. The study includes a short analysis of some relevant provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code and also some aspects deriving from decisions issued by the Administrative and Tax Litigation Chamber of The High Court of Cassation and Justice concerning the legal regime of dividends. Consequently, the authors are presenting both perspectives of the interpretation of the issue regarding the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime, resulting from two decisions of the two Criminal Sections of The Bucharest Court of Appeal, also arguing in favour of the most solid interpretation among them

  9. Controversies in presacral tumors management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Issa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Presacral tumors are rare lesions of the retrorectal space that can present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty because of their anatomic location and the different tissue types and etiology. Although the diagnosis and management of these tumors has evolved in recent years, several points still to be addressed in order to improve perioperative diagnosis and treatment. In the upcoming we will try to highlight some controversial points; the pre-operative biopsies, neoadjuvant therapy, the necessity of surgery and the role of minimally invasive surgeries of presacral tumors. Resumo: Tumores pré-sacrais são lesões raras do espaço retrorretal que podem trazer dificuldades diagnósticas e terapêuticas por causa de sua localização anatômica e também pelos diferentes tipos de tecidos e etiologia. Embora nos últimos anos o diagnóstico e tratamento desses tumores tenham evoluído, diversos pontos ainda devem ser estudados com vistas à melhora do diagnóstico e tratamento no perioperatório. Mais adiante, tentaremos esclarecer alguns pontos controversos; biópsias pré-operatórias, terapia neoadjuvante, a necessidade de cirurgia e o papel das cirurgias minimamente invasivas para os tumores pré-sacrais. Keywords: Presacral tumor, Preoperative biopsy, Neoadjuvant therapy, Palavras-chave: Tumor pré-sacral, Biópsia pré-operatória, Terapia neoadjuvante

  10. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  11. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  12. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  13. Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnish, Michael; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei

    2017-06-01

    We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite, providing insight into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions in conjunction with predictions from density-functional theory modeling. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study thereby investigating the m...

  15. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    . The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...... for new solutions in the unpredictable non-linear processes. The study uses an ethnographic approach using qualitative data from interviews, company documents, external communication and marketing material, minutes of meetings, informal conversations and observations. The analysis of four FFE processes...... demonstrates how the fuzzy front requires managers to deal with controversies that emerge from many different places and involve both human and non-human actors. Closing the controversies requires managers to take account of the situation, identify the problem that needs to be addressed, and initiate a search...

  16. Detection of fission products release in the research reactor 'RA' spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z.; Pavlovic, S.; Maksin, T.; Idakovic, Z.; Marinkovic, N.

    1997-05-01

    Spent fuel resulting from 25 years of operating the 6.5/10 MW thermal heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor RA at the VINCA Institute is presently all stored in the temporary spent fuel storage pool in the basement of the reactor building. In 1984, the reactor was shut down for refurbishment, which for a number of reasons has not yet been completed. Recent investigations show that independent of the future status of the research reactor, safe disposal of the so far irradiated fuel must be the subject of primary concern. The present status of the research reactor RA spent fuel storage pool at the VINCA Institute presents a serious safety problem. Action is therefore initiated in two directions. First, safety of the existing spent fuel storage should be improved. Second, transferring spent fuel into another, presumably dry storage space should be considered. By storing the previously irradiated fuel of the research reactor RA in a newly built storage space, sufficient free space will be provided in the existing spent fuel storage pool for the newly irradiated fuel when the reactor starts operation again. In the case that it would be decided to decommission the research reactor RA, the newly built storage space would provide safe disposal for the fuel irradiated so far

  17. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center

  18. Order of 30 March 1988 on licensing of gaseous radioactive effluent releases by the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the documents and information the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre must provide to the Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) and lays down the permissible effluent release limits for the Centre [fr

  19. Environmental impact assessment of Ar-41 released by the normal operation of TRIGA-Mark 2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassoud, D.; Soufi, I.; Ziagos, J.; Demir, Z

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In accordance with the international regulation of nuclear safety and radiological protection of the environment applicable to the basic nuclear installations, category in which the Triga-Mark 2 research reactor is considered, an assesment of the impact in to the environment of the Ar-41 radioelement is accomplished. This radioelement is released by the normal operation of this reactor. The assessment is based on the characteristics of a Moroccan site (where the reactor is installed). It is carried out using CEA Gaussian models and mathematical models developed in LLNL. Considering the assumptions of impact assessments of the radioactivity in the atmosphere, the most important exposure is relatively corresponding to 1 Km from the reactor. This exposure is approximately 0,07% of the lawful limit. Beyond this locality, the exposure becomes lower than 0,02% of this limit. Beyond 5 Km, it becomes lower than ten nono-Sivert. In the basis of the site radiological baseline, the environmental impact of Ar-41 released in normal operation of the reactor is negligible in the studied case. [fr

  20. Research into releasing inorganic phosphate and base from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    1994-01-01

    Research into radiation damage of nucleotide is an important area in radiation biology. In this paper, the yield of inorganic phosphate and base released from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a 30 keV N + ion beam was investigated in several aspects. The effect of particle fluence on yield and the influence of treatment with 0.1 N NaOH was deduced. By analysis, it is known that the alkali treatment not only increases the yield of inorganic phosphate, but also damages and splits the base released from irradiated 5'-dTMP. When the irradiated samples are treated by 0.1 N NaOH immediately, the yield of inorganic phosphate is increased by a factor of 1.7 and the concentration of base decreased to half of the original value. But the yield of inorganic phosphate could be increased by a factor of 2.8 after 40 min of alkali treatment. On the other hand, when 5'dTMP was irradiated by the ion beam, the G(Pi) obtained was above 0.44, higher than with γ-radiation. (Author)

  1. Colombia's controversial disarmament, demobilization, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America. Research shows that an integrated approach to dengue control—focusing on ecological, biological, and social factors—can reduce vector densities. View moreInvolving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin ...

  2. Resolving the controversy over beneficial effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research carried out during the past century, intense controversy continues over the health effects of low-level radiation. This controversy is largely due to political, social and economic issues among scientists and analysts in a variety of disciplines. These issues cloud objectivity and strengthen paradigms. Over the past ten years, in 14 universities and two research institutes, Japanese scientists have conducted exceptional research which clearly demonstrates beneficial effects of low-level radiation and cancer cures following therapy with low doses of radiation. Assessment, replication and extension of this work in North America could lead to greater appreciation of its significance. Cancer patients would demand such treatments, leading to universal acceptance of these bio-positive effects and reducing public fear of nuclear technology. (author)

  3. Hydroelectric power is green, although controversial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroelectric power is worldwide the most important source of renewable energy. Still, it has some controversial aspects, which are briefly discussed in this article, focusing on Belgium and the Netherlands [nl

  4. Which research for tomorrow's energy? 2012 Energy Colloquium 2. release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Gerard; Arrif, Teddy; Bain, Pascal; Beguin, Francois; Bruneaux, Gilles; Cetin, Derya; Czernichowski, Isabelle; Escudie, Dany; Folacci, Marie-Ange; Gosse, Kevin; Hareux, Sylvie; Metaye, Romain; Morel, Herve; Odru, Pierre; Oukacine, Linda; Pons, Liz; Tournier, Aline; Corgier, David; Thollin, Jacques; Barret, Mickael; Mosdale, Renaut; Hervouet, Veronique; Pourcelly, Gerald; Brousse, Thierry; Lincot, Daniel; Schmidt-Laine, Claudine; Artero, Vincent; Robinson, Darren; Bigot, Bernard; Salha, Bernard; Minster, Jean-Francois; Hauet, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This huge publication gathers interventions and contributions of a colloquium which notably addressed the following issues: bio-energies, hydrogen and fuel cells, energy storage, photovoltaic solar energy, energy efficiency in buildings, transports and industry, CO 2 capture and storage. On the first day, after two interventions on Energies Programmes at the ANR and an overview of R and D world challenges regarding energy, the contributions addressed the above mentioned issues. During the next day, besides these issues, contributions addressed challenges for tomorrow's society and perspectives for research. Thematic sessions addressed bio-energies (optimized production of cellulose ethanol, the third generation, technological deadlocks for the thermal-chemical route), photovoltaic solar energy (new concepts, massive crystalline silicon and photovoltaic thin layers), high energy efficiency buildings, energetic equipment and climate engineering, CO 2 storage, CO 2 capture, fuel cells, hydrogen production, transport and storage, electrochemical and non-electrochemical storage of energy, transports (internal combustion engine and power units, electric transports)

  5. Teacher College Students' Views of Controversial Environmental Issues: Ambivalence and Readiness to Adopt a Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Yehudith; Dreyfus, Amos

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important goals of discussing controversial issues in the classroom is to educate students to possess an inclination towards reason, open mindedness and fairness. However, research tends to show that teachers are not adequately trained to lead fruitful discussions about controversial issues and do not possess the necessary skills…

  6. Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses. PMID:27755213

  7. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  8. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  9. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  10. Quantification of Release of Critical Elements, Formation of Fly Ash and Aerosols: Status on Current Understanding and Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Deposit formation in utility boilers occurs via a number of consecutive steps; 1) release of critical elements like K, Na, Pb, Zn, S and Cl, 2) formation of gaseous species, fly ash and aerosols, 3) transport and adhesion of ash species, 4) deposit build-up and consolidation, and, finally, 5...... formation (slagging and fouling) on superheater tubes, leading to a potential reduction in heat transfer efficiency to the water/steam cycle, or, to chemical attack (corrosion) or physical wear (erosion) of superheater tubes. These problems may give rise to irregular operation, or even costly shutdowns...... of combustion units.Through several years, high quality research has been conducted on characterization of fuels, ashes and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. Huge amounts of experimental data have been reported, from such work, but the fact...

  11. How science makes environmental controversies worse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarewitz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    I use the example of the 2000 US Presidential election to show that political controversies with technical underpinnings are not resolved by technical means. Then, drawing from examples such as climate change, genetically modified foods, and nuclear waste disposal, I explore the idea that scientific inquiry is inherently and unavoidably subject to becoming politicized in environmental controversies. I discuss three reasons for this. First, science supplies contesting parties with their own bodies of relevant, legitimated facts about nature, chosen in part because they help make sense of, and are made sensible by, particular interests and normative frameworks. Second, competing disciplinary approaches to understanding the scientific bases of an environmental controversy may be causally tied to competing value-based political or ethical positions. The necessity of looking at nature through a variety of disciplinary lenses brings with it a variety of normative lenses, as well. Third, it follows from the foregoing that scientific uncertainty, which so often occupies a central place in environmental controversies, can be understood not as a lack of scientific understanding but as the lack of coherence among competing scientific understandings, amplified by the various political, cultural, and institutional contexts within which science is carried out. In light of these observations, I briefly explore the problem of why some types of political controversies become 'scientized' and others do not, and conclude that the value bases of disputes underlying environmental controversies must be fully articulated and adjudicated through political means before science can play an effective role in resolving environmental problems

  12. Prisoner research - looking back or looking forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David L

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about prisoner research and the controversies surrounding prisoners as human subjects. The Institute of Medicine recently released a report addressing some of these issues. This report, which generated further controversy, needs to be fully discussed in the literature and certain aspects are examined in this work. Further, in the body of literature there has been little acknowledgement of the concept of the right of prisoners to be involved in research. This needs to be pursued from an ethical perspective and eventually a legal one. This paper explores that concept and documents some facilities in which a prisoner's right to research has occurred.

  13. The words of controversy about climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetouani, Lamria

    2007-01-01

    The author analyses the rhetorical staging of controversies which occur in France about climate change, and more particularly about the greenhouse effect. In a first part, she makes a distinction between four registers of controversy: on responsibilities, on consequences and extent of the phenomenon, on solutions, and on spatio-temporal projections of the greenhouse effect. She shows that debates are structured by an opposition between optimism and pessimism. In a second part, based on a lexicological analysis, she highlights the important oppositions between scientific speeches and political speeches, independent speeches and technocratic speeches, and so on, with unexpected aspects. It appears that controversy goes largely beyond the scientific debate, and incorporates crossed interventions of economic, political and social concern

  14. On the history of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1979-01-01

    For the past ten years or so the introduction and expansion of nuclear power in a number of industrialized countries of the Western world has been accompanied by a sometimes vehement controversy. This controversy has taken many forms and, in almost all countries, has had distinct effects on the utilization of nuclear power for energy supply purposes. It has given rise to considerable delays in the completion of nuclear installations and, in one country, has even resulted in a rejection of nuclear power altogether. The different facets of the picture, i.e. public action groups opposing nuclear power, the nuclear controversy and scientists, political activities, appeals to courts of law and actions bordering on illegality, are described chronologically and their impacts are analyzed. (orig.) [de

  15. Is there a scientific nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Borsch, P.

    1977-01-01

    In the present rather violent discussion about the introduction of nuclear power into the energy supply system it is often alleged that even experts disagree about many aspects, which is interpreted to prove the existence of a scientific controversy in these points. This study about the existence or in existence of such controversy critically reviews both the different collections of signatures organized by scientists and the statements published in specific areas of science. Important partial aspects are the energy requirement and the ways and means available to meet it, the safety and the risks of nuclear technology, radiation exposure and biological effects, the misuse of plutonium, and reprocessing and the ultimate storage of radioactive waste. The study concludes that there is no scientific controversy about the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the sense of the term used here. (orig.) [de

  16. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated discovery systems and the inductivist controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    The paper explores possible influences that some developments in the field of branches of AI, called automated discovery and machine learning systems, might have upon some aspects of the old debate between Francis Bacon's inductivism and Karl Popper's falsificationism. Donald Gillies facetiously calls this controversy 'the duel of two English knights', and claims, after some analysis of historical cases of discovery, that Baconian induction had been used in science very rarely, or not at all, although he argues that the situation has changed with the advent of machine learning systems. (Some clarification of terms machine learning and automated discovery is required here. The key idea of machine learning is that, given data with associated outcomes, software can be trained to make those associations in future cases which typically amounts to inducing some rules from individual cases classified by the experts. Automated discovery (also called machine discovery) deals with uncovering new knowledge that is valuable for human beings, and its key idea is that discovery is like other intellectual tasks and that the general idea of heuristic search in problem spaces applies also to discovery tasks. However, since machine learning systems discover (very low-level) regularities in data, throughout this paper I use the generic term automated discovery for both kinds of systems. I will elaborate on this later on). Gillies's line of argument can be generalised: thanks to automated discovery systems, philosophers of science have at their disposal a new tool for empirically testing their philosophical hypotheses. Accordingly, in the paper, I will address the question, which of the two philosophical conceptions of scientific method is better vindicated in view of the successes and failures of systems developed within three major research programmes in the field: machine learning systems in the Turing tradition, normative theory of scientific discovery formulated by Herbert Simon

  18. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  19. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s-birth of quantum theory-and concluding with Erwin Schroedinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged

  20. Using deliberation to address controversial issues: Developing Holocaust education curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS MISCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a cross-cultural project responded to the need for new Holocaust educational materials for the Republic of Latvia through the method of curriculum deliberation. Analysis of interview, observational, and document data drawn from seven curriculum writers and numerous project members suggest that curriculum deliberation helped awaken a controversial and silenced history while attending to a wide range of needs and concerns for a variety of stakeholders. The findings highlight structural features that empowered the curriculum writers as they engaged in protracted rumination, reflected upon competing norms, and considered the nuances of the curriculum problem in relation to implementation. Understanding the process, challenges, and promises of cross-cultural curriculum deliberation holds significance for educators, curricularists, and educational researchers wishing to advance teaching and learning within silenced histories and controversial issues.

  1. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Josephine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A.

  2. EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]/ANL investigations of MCCI [molten core-concrete interactions] phenomena and aerosol release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Gunther, W.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Thompson, D.H.; Chasanov, M.G.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    A program of laboratory investigations has been undertaken at Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute, in which the interaction between molten core materials and concrete is studied, with particular emphasis on measurements of the magnitude and chemical species present in the aerosol releases. The experiment technique used in these investigations is direct electrical heating in which a high electric current is passed through the core debris to sustain the high-temperature melt condition for potentially long periods of time. In the scoping experiments completed to date, this technique has been successfully used for corium masses of 5 and 20 kg, generating an internal heating rate of 1 kw/kg and achieving melt temperatures of 2000C. Experiments have been performed both with a concrete base and also with a cooled base with the addition of H 2 /CO sparging gas to represent chemical processes in a stratified layer. An aerosol and gas sampling system is being used to collect aerosol samples. Test results are now becoming available including masses of aerosols, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope analyses

  3. Actor-network Theory and cartography of controversies in Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, Ramon Fernandes; TOMAÉL, Maria Inês

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study aims to discuss the interactions between the Actor-network Theory and the Cartography of Controversies method in Information Science research. A literature review was conducted on books, scholarly articles, and any other sources addressing the Theory-Actor Network and Cartography of Controversies. The understanding of the theoretical assumptions that guide the Network-Actor Theory allows examining important aspects to Information Science research, seeking to identif...

  4. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  5. The first Pico-Ficino Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasdalen, Unn Irene

    2011-01-01

    -scale conflict regarding how to live and die according to Platonic ideals. The themes of the controversy are firstly the interpretation of Plato’s Symposium, in particular Diotima’s speech, and secondly the practical conclusions one should draw from Plato’s fictional banquet. Ficino’s position is presented...

  6. Controversies in watermanagement : Frames and mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Rien; van der Veen, A.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Controversies in decision and policy-making processes can be analysed using frame reflection and mental model mapping techniques. The purpose of the method presented in this paper is to improve the quality of the information and interpretations available to decision makers, by surfacing and

  7. Atomic weight versus atomic mass controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    A problem for the Atomic Weights Commission for the past decade has been the controversial battle over the names ''atomic weight'' and ''atomic mass''. The Commission has considered the arguments on both sides over the years and it appears that this meeting will see more of the same discussion taking place. In this paper, I review the situation and offer some alternatives

  8. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  9. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  10. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  11. The Saga of the HIV Controversy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Saga of the HIV Controversy - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - 2008. Udaykumar Ranga. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 472-498. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  13. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  14. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Research of heat releasing element of an active zone of gaseous nuclear reactor with pumped through nuclear fuel - uranium hexafluoride (UF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.; Batyrbekov, E.; Belyakova, E.; Kunakov, S.; Koltyshev, S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the offered project is learning physics and substantiation of possibility of creation gaseous nuclear reactor with pumped through nuclear fuel-hexafluoride of uranium (Uf6).Main problems of this work are'. Determination of physic-chemical, spectral and optical properties of non-equilibrium nuclear - excited plasma of hexafluoride of uranium and its mixtures with other gases. Research of gas dynamics of laminar, non-mixing two-layer current of gases of hexafluoride of uranium and helium at availability and absence of internal energy release in hexafluoride of uranium with the purpose to determinate a possibility of isolation of hexafluoride of uranium from walls by inert helium. Creation and research of gaseous heat releasing element with pumped through fuel Uf6 in an active zone of research nuclear WWR-K reactor. Objects of a research: Non-equilibrium nuclear - excited plasma of hexafluoride of uranium and its mixtures with other gases. With use of specially created ampoules will come true in-reactor probe and spectral diagnostics of plasma. Calculations of kinetics with the account of main elementary processes proceeding in it, will be carried out. Two-layer non-mixed streams of hexafluoride of uranium and helium at availability and absence of internal energy release. Conditions of obtaining and characteristics of such streams will be investigated. Gaseous heat releasing element with pumped through fuel - Uf6 in an active zone of nuclear WWR-K reactor

  16. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year 2015 Funded Research Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Toston, Mary [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Maas, Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operating under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose distribution associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. Users can also specify custom distributions through a user defined distribution option. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA, developed using the MATLAB coding framework, has a graphical user interface and can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers. SODA is a standalone software application and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC; rather it is viewed as an

  17. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  18. The use of content analysis in the assessment of medical controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, F P

    1991-12-01

    Medicine is fraught with controversies, and several strategies have been developed in order to reach rational conclusions. Examples are using more subjects or an improved research design, developing consensus statements or using meta-analysis. An additional strategy is described in this paper. The language content of scientific papers is examined to establish whether the authors use factual (informational) language or emotional appeals (directive language) to convince the reader. This type of content analysis is then applied to a sample controversy. The paper shows that directive language content analysis can be applied effectively to scientific publications to clarify the basis of and reasoning behind some controversies.

  19. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  20. Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam James

    2017-05-01

    In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked. He or others must instead look to establish that the reasons against stance-taking on genuine ethical controversies are more compelling than those for it: plausibly a more challenging task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Gossip in organisations: Contexts, consequences and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Michelson, G.; van Iverson, A.; Waddington, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the key themes surrounding gossip including its contexts, the various outcomes (positive and negative) of gossip as well as a selection of challenges and controversies. The challenges which are highlighted revolve around definitional issues, methodological approaches, and ethical considerations. Our analysis suggests that the characteristics and features of gossip lend itself to a process-oriented approach whereby the beginning and, particularly, end points of gossip are...

  2. Climatic change science, experience and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Treut, H.; Van Ypersele, J.P.; Hallegatte, St.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The international scientific community, gathered in the framework of the inter-governmental group for climate evolution (Giec), has confirmed the influence of human activities on climate and on the global warming. However, this diagnosis is sometimes questioned in the press. This book, published by the institute of sustainable development, gathers a series of articles written by scientists who make comments on the last Giec reports and who outline the knowledge gained, the remaining uncertainties and the controversies. (J.S.)

  3. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  4. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  5. E-cigarettes: scientific and political controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Yussuf Saloojee

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The e-cigarette is touted as a disruptive technology that could make combustible cigarettes obsolete. The product, its science and politics though are controversial. Intervention or response Published journal articles, reports and conference presentations on e-cigarettes were located using PubMed, plus conference, industry and other websites. These were critically reviewed. Results and lessons learnt A number of contenti...

  6. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: history, controversy and future of a manmade epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluf Dimitri Røe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos is the term for a family of naturally occurring minerals that have been used on a small scale since ancient times. Industrialisation demanded increased mining and refining in the 20th century, and in 1960, Wagner, Sleggs and Marchand from South Africa linked asbestos to mesothelioma, paving the way to the current knowledge of the aetiology, epidemiology and biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma is one of the most lethal cancers, with increasing incidence worldwide. This review will give some snapshots of the history of pleural mesothelioma discovery, and the body of epidemiological and biological research, including some of the controversies and unresolved questions. Translational research is currently unravelling novel circulating biomarkers for earlier diagnosis and novel treatment targets. Current breakthrough discoveries of clinically promising noninvasive biomarkers, such as the 13-protein signature, microRNAs and the BAP1 mesothelioma/cancer syndrome, are highlighted. The asbestos history is a lesson to not be repeated, but here we also review recent in vivo and in vitro studies showing that manmade carbon nanofibres could pose a similar danger to human health. This should be taken seriously by regulatory bodies to ensure thorough testing of novel materials before release in the society.

  7. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission research program on core debris/concrete interactions and ex-vessel fission-product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    The study of core debris/concrete interaction phenomena has been a significant element of the NRC's Severe Accident Research Program for a number of years. The CORCON and VANESA codes used to predict the consequences of high-temperature debris attack on concrete and fission-product aerosol release are state-of-the-art computational tools. The major thrust of current NRC sponsored research focuses on the refinement, verification, and validation of these codes. An overview of the analytical and experimental aspects of the NRC research program is presented

  8. New Reproductive Conception Technologies: Bioethics and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  9. PET in cancer screening: a controversial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Minggang; Tan Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy has been one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors for improving prognosis. Cancer screening is an important way to detect early stage cancer and precancerous lesion. PET has been used increasingly in cancer screening in accordance with the requirement of the public. Though a great number of data show that PET can find some subclinical malignancy, yet as a cancer screening modality, PET is still controversial in contemporary medical practice. The aim of this article is to review the application status and existing problem of PET in cancer screening, and to offer some recognition and view about cancer srceening. (authors)

  10. Fetal abuse and neglect: an emerging controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwirth, J

    1987-04-01

    Advances in fetal medicine have expanded opportunities for protection of fetal health and intrauterine management of an increasing number of fetal disorders. The legal rights and duties of parents to provide necessary medical treatment for the child may extend to the prenatal period. Resolution of the conflict between the rights of the fetus to be born healthy and the pregnant woman's right of privacy is difficult and controversial. It is suggested that intrusion into a woman's individual fundamental rights for the potential benefit of her fetus should be permissible only in narrowly defined circumstances.

  11. Lessons learnt from the organ retention controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the lessons to be learnt from the organ retention controversy in the Republic of Ireland. The paper emphasises the importance of good communication between clinicians and families of deceased persons and a move away from a medical culture based on paternalism to a partnership approach between clinicians and patients based on mutual trust and understanding. A model of authorisation rather than consent is proposed as the way forward for dealing with the difficult and traumatic experience of asking families for permission to carry out a post mortem examination on their deceased child. (authors)

  12. Video Release: 47th Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden Jr. Speech at HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has released a video of the keynote speech given by the 47th Vice President of the United States of America Joseph R. Biden Jr. at the HUPO2017 Global Leadership Gala. Under the gala theme “International Cooperation in the Fight Against Cancer,” Biden recognized cancer as a collection of related diseases, the importance of data sharing and harmonization, and the need for collaboration across scientific disciplines as inflection points in cancer research.

  13. Updated questions and research on mechanisms which control release in nuclear power plants. Solubility or other effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, L.; Noel, D.; Kerrec, O.

    1997-01-01

    There are many computer codes, based on mass transfer in the liquid phase, which have been developed to help in predicting emission and transport of corrosion products. Their limit for the release is discussed and, through two new studies, it is investigated how new mechanisms can be taken into account. Models based on the transfer of electronic or ionic charges in the solid phase should be developed. (K.A.)

  14. Updated questions and research on mechanisms which control release in nuclear power plants. Solubility or other effects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinard, L.; Noel, D.; Kerrec, O.

    1997-01-01

    There are many computer codes, based on mass transfer in the liquid phase, which have been developed to help in predicting emission and transport of corrosion products. Their limit for the release is discussed and, through two new studies, it is investigated how new mechanisms can be taken into account. Models based on the transfer of electronic or ionic charges in the solid phase should be developed. (K.A.). 29 refs.

  15. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluter, C.M.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-08-01

    In an attempt to resolve the controversial issue of tectonic and hydrologic stability of the Yucca Mountain region, the National Academy of Sciences established a Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/HydrothermaI Systems. The Panel has recently released it's findings in a report entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? The representation of data and the scientific validity of this report was the subject of comprehensive evaluations and reviews which has led to correspondence between Dr. Charles Archarnbeau and Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences. All such correspondence prior to April 9, 1993 is covered by TRAC Special Report No. 5, open-quotes Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain Controversy.close quotes The present report represents a continuation of the dialog between Dr. Archambeau and Dr. Press; specifically the letter from Dr. Press to Dr. Archambeau dated April 9, 1993 and Archambeau's response to Press, dated August 19, 1993. In addition to the correspondence between Press and Archambeau, a series of recent reports by other investigators, referred to in the correspondence from Archambeau, are included in this report and document new data and inferences of importance for resolution of the question of suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a high level nuclear waste repository. These reports also demonstrate that other scientists, not previously associated with the government's program at Yucca Mountain or the National Academy review of an aspect of that program, have arrived at conclusions that are different than those stated by the Academy review and DOE program scientists

  16. Controversial Issues in Thyroid Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-04-13

    The lack of prospective randomized clinical trials for most management topics in differentiated thyroid cancer force us to make management recommendations based on retrospective observational data which is often incomplete, subject to selection bias, and conflicting. Therefore, it is not surprising that many aspects of thyroid cancer management remain controversial and not well defined. This review will examine the controversies surrounding three important topics in thyroid cancer management: (1) the option of thyroid lobectomy as initial therapy for thyroid cancer, (2) the proper use of preoperative neck imaging to optimize the completeness of the initial surgical procedure, and (3) the selective use RAI therapy as remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment or treatment of known persistent/recurrent disease. As thyroid cancer management moves toward a much more risk adapted approach to personalized management recommendations, clinicians and patients must balance the risks and benefits of the potential management options to arrive at a management plan that is optimized based on both patient preferences/values and the philosophy/experience of the local disease management team. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  17. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  18. The Reviewing of Controversial Juvenile Books: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Sherry R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study which examined reviewers' treatment of controversial juvenile books in Booklist, Bulletin of Center for Children's Books, Horn Book, and School Library Journal. The total number of controversial books reviewed by each journal, promptness of reviews, and extent of discussion of controversial features are discussed. (MBR)

  19. Las habilidades investigativas y la nueva Universidad: Terminus a quo a la polémica y la discusión Research Skills and the New University: Terminus a quo to Controversy and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio F Machado Ramírez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se dirige a develar, como primer acercamiento, el contexto de las exigencias del nuevo siglo signado por la gestión del conocimiento y cómo ello debe traducirse en el cambio de mentalidad de la universidad contemporánea para una educación profesionalizante. Él sirve de preámbulo para la presentación, en otros que se sucederán, de una concepción divergente a lo que aporta la literatura actual acerca del desarrollo de la habilidad solucionar problemas, vista como habilidad integradora, compleja y universal y como resultado la argumentación, desde una perspectiva integradora de la estrategia didáctica titulada aprendizaje basado en la solución de tareas investigativas (ABSTI que es el principal resultado obtenido un proyecto ramal del Ministerio de Educación Superior de Cuba llevado a cabo y dirigido por los autores.This article attempts to unfold the context of demands of this new century marked by knowledge management, and its influence on the change of mentality of contemporary university to fulfill professional education. This is the first of other forthcoming articles presenting divergent conceptions to what current literature provides concerning the development of problem solving skills considered as integrative, complex, and universal, and, as a result, the argumentation of an integrated perspective of the didactical strategy entitled Learning Based on the Solution of Research Tasks (LBSRT, main result of a project belonging to the Ministry of Higher Education of Cuba carried out and led by the authors.

  20. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  1. Controversies in water management: Frames and mental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolkman, M.J.; Veen, A. van der; Geurts, P.A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Controversies in decision and policy-making processes can be analysed using frame reflection and mental model mapping techniques. The purpose of the method presented in this paper is to improve the quality of the information and interpretations available to decision makers, by surfacing and juxtaposing the different frames of decision makers, experts, and special interests groups. The research provides a new method to analyse frames. It defines a frame to consist of perspectives and a mental model, which are in close interaction (through second order learning processes). The mental model acts like a 'filter' through which the problem situation is observed. Five major perspective types guide the construction of meaning out of the information delivered by the mental model, and determine what actors see as their interests. The perspective types are related to an actor's institutional and personal position in the decision making process. The method was applied to a case, in order to test its viability. The case concerns the decision making process and environmental impact assessment procedure for the improvement of dike ring 53 in the Netherlands, which was initiated by the Dutch 'Flood Defences Act 1996'. In this specific case the perspectives and mental models of stakeholders were elicited to explain controversies. The case was analysed with regard to the conflicts emerging between stakeholders, on an individual level. The influence of institutional embedding of individuals on the use of information and the construction of meaning, and the limits of a participatory approach were analysed within the details of controversies that emerged during the case analysis. Complicating factor appeared to be the interaction between national dike safety norms (short term) and local water management problems (long term). Revealed controversies mainly concerned disputes between an organisational and a technical perspective. But also disputes on distribution of responsibilities

  2. Data Sprints: A Collaborative Format in Digital Controversy Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Tommaso, Venturini; Meunier, Axel

    2017-01-01

    driven by a desire to provide navigational aids to actors faced with the challenge of making sense of complicated techno-scientific problems. Natively digital media technologies have thus been re-appropriated by STS researchers specifically for the purpose of mapping controversies in a way that would...... experiences with various forms of public engagement and participation. Through a concrete reappropriation of a collaborative format that is indeed native to the digital domain - namely the hackathon - we will show how digital methods can make a difference in participatory STS research. The data sprint, as we...... in amsterdam. Through a mix of digital methods ranging from web cartography and text mining to scientometrics and social media analysis we took on questions related to climate adaptation funding, vulnerability assessment, project management, and dynamics of the international negotiations. The sprints hardwired...

  3. The Controversies over Bioenergy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund

    2012-01-01

    convert coal fired power plants to biomass in order to sustain the role of these power plants. Their increasing use of imported wood pellets is criticized for increasing greenhouse gas emissions because of fast logging of years of forest growth. A Danish biotech company is developing enzymes...... a prominent role in several Danish climate and energy plans, alongside with wind and solar energy, and energy savings. There are major controversies about targets for bioenergy with respect to acceptable types, sources and amounts of biomass. Strong path dependency is identified. Energy companies in Denmark...... for processing of biomass for biofuels. The alignment with the private car regime is strong, because biofuel enables continuation of fuel-driven vehicles as dominating transportation mode. Danish farmers see manure as important source for biogas while arguing for reduction of climate impact and nuisances from...

  4. Can we resolve the radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    The past 20 years has seen an intensification of anxieties about potential harm, specifically cancer, from low levels of x or gamma rays. The idea that radiation is more damaging than previously estimated, says the author, is a central theme in current radiation phobia and probably the principal prop of the antinuclear movement. A current law-suit decision in Salt Lake City will settle the issue for the present. Historical data from Japanese A-bomb survivors and other studies are reviewed, the need for further epidemiologic work pointed out, and 20 years more of data collection from the Japanese survivors indicated as the final arbiter of the controversy. 18 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  5. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  6. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement.

  7. Management of endometrial cancer: issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, G; Dowdy, S C; Cliby, W A; Ghezzi, F; Rossetti, D; Frigerio, L; Mariani, A

    2016-01-01

    Although endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer in developed countries, several aspects of its management are still controversial. In particular, the need to perform lymphadenectomy represents an important matter of discussion. Because of the discordant results in the literature, it is still not possible to draft any definitive conclusions regarding the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection. The present review discusses the role of lymphadenectomy in the setting of EC, risk factors for lymphatic spread, identification of patients at risk for lymph node dissemination, and the current evidence for adjuvant therapies in patients with positive nodes. Reasons for the difficulty in demonstrating any therapeutic value of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy are also discussed.

  8. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept

  9. Drug safety: Pregnancy rating classifications and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin; Chai, Sandy; Kroumpouzos, George

    2016-01-01

    This contribution consolidates data on international pregnancy rating classifications, including the former US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Swedish, and Australian classification systems, as well as the evidence-based medicine system, and discusses discrepancies among them. It reviews the new Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule (PLLR) that replaced the former FDA labeling system with narrative-based labeling requirements. PLLR emphasizes on human data and highlights pregnancy exposure registry information. In this context, the review discusses important data on the safety of most medications used in the management of skin disease in pregnancy. There are also discussions of controversies relevant to the safety of certain dermatologic medications during gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Social Life of Data (Prototyping Controversies)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh

    are out, which leaves it to the public to stumble upon the webpages and explore the results. This unspecified public, however, often seems to have more similarities to a void of non-engagement than a receptive social room. In this paper we take two related steps to counter the lack of public engagement...... that makes available a large relational data set on the Danish power elite (Ellersgaard et al. 2015) through an interactive data navigation tool. The tool allows visitors to explore a data set that is potentially controversial but difficult to navigate. Further, Google Analytics and a simple survey allows us...... to examine how visitors to the website were led to the site in the first place, how they made use of the data navigation tool and how customized maps from the webpage travelled into new and unpredictable arenas. The experiment thus explores the tension between publishing and making things public...

  11. An overview of the Hanford controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    In 1964, the Atomic Energy Commission agreed to sponsor 'a study of the lifetime health and mortality experiences of all employees of AEC contractors.' The commission put in charge of this study a physician (Thomas Mancuso) who had recently shown how the U.S. Social Security system could be used to identify the dates and causes of death of all insured workers. As director of the AEC project, Mancuso was at liberty to include any or all the postwar offshoots of the Manhattan Project. His master plan included workers from Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and Hanford, but it soon became apparent that his attempts to link radiation exposures to subsequent events were proving more successful at Hanford than elsewhere. The authors of this paper, who participated in the study, review the controversy surrounding its eventual publication.22 references

  12. Ibuprofen in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Camilla; Carroll, Will

    2016-12-01

    Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The oral formulation is widely used in paediatric practice and after paracetamol it is one of the most common drugs prescribed for children in hospital. The treatment of fever with antipyretics such as ibuprofen is controversial as fever is the normal response of the body to infection and unless the child becomes distressed or symptomatic, fever alone should not be routinely treated. Combined treatment with paracetamol and ibuprofen is commonly undertaken but almost certainly is not helpful. This article aims to describe the indications and mode of action of the drug, outline its pharmacokinetics and highlight the important key messages regarding its use in clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Controversies in breast cancer: adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Filippo; Redana, Stefania; Valabrega, Giorgio; Aglietta, Massimo

    2005-06-01

    Initial randomised studies of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy showed that systemic treatments had a substantial impact on the survival of women with early breast cancer. The original assumption was that the efficacy of these treatments was limited to those patients presenting with more adverse prognostic features. Subsequently, meta-analyses of randomised trials revealed that the benefits of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy are not mutually exclusive and extend to all the prognostic subgroups. However, the absolute benefit varies according to baseline characteristics such as tumour stage and other biological factors. Over the last 10 years, considerable progress has been made with the introduction of new drugs into the adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment of women with breast cancer. Taxanes and third-generation aromatase inhibitors are providing proof of additional benefits compared with standard reference treatments. In parallel, research on the biology of breast cancer is establishing novel prognostic and predictive factors, which may allow better treatment tailoring. Currently, however, women with early breast cancer and their doctors face the difficult task of making therapeutic decisions often based on early results from positive studies. In a disease where follow up is crucial to fully assess the benefit and long-term toxicities of an intervention, current knowledge leaves unanswered questions that generate debate and controversy. This review will summarise recent results from randomised trials of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy in women with early breast cancer and focus on the current controversies.

  14. The portrayal of J. Marion Sims' controversial surgical legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spettel, Sara; White, Mark Donald

    2011-06-01

    In the mid 1800s Dr. J. Marion Sims reported the successful repair of vesicovaginal fistulas with a technique he developed by performing multiple operations on female slaves. A venerated physician in his time, the legacy of Dr. Sims is controversial and represents a significant chapter in the mistreatment of African-Americans by the medical establishment. This review compares the modern debate surrounding his legacy with the presentation of his operation in widely consulted urological texts and journals. A literature review was performed of medical, sociological and periodical sources (1851 to the present) regarding J. Marion Sims and vesicovaginal fistula repair. During the last several decades, while the controversy around Dr. Sims' surgical development has produced a steady stream of articles in the historical and popular literature, relatively little mention is found in standard urology textbooks or journals. With increased public attention, some have debated the removal or modification of public tributes to Dr. Sims. This move has been countered by arguments against the validity of judging a 19th century physician by modern standards. While historians, ethicists and the popular press have debated Dr. Sims' legacy, medical sources have continued to portray him unquestionably as a great figure in medical history. This division keeps the medical profession uninformed and detached from the public debate on his legacy and, thus, the larger issues of ethical treatment of surgical patients. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  16. Stem Cell Research-Concept And Controversies | Kalu | Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  17. Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of sugar and its relation to various potential adverse health consequences are the subjects of considerable debate and controversy. This supplement to Advances in Nutrition provides an expanded summary of a symposium held on 26 April 2014 entitled “Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?” as part of the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014. The articles in the supplement discuss results of current systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as randomized controlled trials and draw implications for public policy considerations. In addition, future research gaps are identified. Current research trials conducted with commonly consumed sugars [e.g., sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)] do not support a unique relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, risk factors for heart disease, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Neurologic differences in response to studies that used pure fructose compared with pure glucose have not been confirmed using typical sugars that are consumed (i.e., sucrose and HFCS), which contain ∼50% glucose and fructose. We conclude that added sugars consumed in the normal forms in which humans consume them, at amounts typical of the human diet and for the time period studied in randomized controlled trials, do not result in adverse health consequences. Although more research trials are needed in many areas of sugar consumption and health, there is little scientific justification for recommending restricting sugar consumption below the reasonable upper limit recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 of no more than 25% of calories.

  18. The significance test controversy revisited the fiducial Bayesian alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is not only to revisit the “significance test controversy,”but also to provide a conceptually sounder alternative. As such, it presents a Bayesian framework for a new approach to analyzing and interpreting experimental data. It also prepares students and researchers for reporting on experimental results. Normative aspects: The main views of statistical tests are revisited and the philosophies of Fisher, Neyman-Pearson and Jeffrey are discussed in detail. Descriptive aspects: The misuses of Null Hypothesis Significance Tests are reconsidered in light of Jeffreys’ Bayesian conceptions concerning the role of statistical inference in experimental investigations. Prescriptive aspects: The current effect size and confidence interval reporting practices are presented and seriously questioned. Methodological aspects are carefully discussed and fiducial Bayesian methods are proposed as a more suitable alternative for reporting on experimental results. In closing, basic routine procedures...

  19. Open access and the humanities contexts, controversies and the future

    CERN Document Server

    Eve, Martin Paul

    2014-01-01

    If you work in a university, you are almost certain to have heard the term 'open access' in the past couple of years. You may also have heard either that it is the utopian answer to all the problems of research dissemination or perhaps that it marks the beginning of an apocalyptic new era of 'pay-to-say' publishing. In this book, Martin Paul Eve sets out the histories, contexts and controversies for open access, specifically in the humanities. Broaching practical elements alongside economic histories, open licensing, monographs and funder policies, this book is a must-read for both those new to ideas about open-access scholarly communications and those with an already keen interest in the latest developments for the humanities.

  20. Thermal conductance of nanofluids: is the controversy over?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keblinski, Pawel; Prasher, Ravi; Eapen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade nanofluids (colloidal suspensions of solid nanoparticles) sparked excitement as well as controversy. In particular, a number of researches reported dramatic increases of thermal conductivity with small nanoparticle loading, while others showed moderate increases consistent with the effective medium theories on well-dispersed conductive spheres. Accordingly, the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement is a hotly debated topic. We present a critical analysis of the experimental data in terms of the potential mechanisms and show that, by accounting for linear particle aggregation, the well established effective medium theories for composite materials are capable of explaining the vast majority of the reported data without resorting to novel mechanisms such as Brownian motion induced nanoconvection, liquid layering at the interface, or near-field radiation. However, particle aggregation required to significantly enhance thermal conductivity, also increases fluid viscosity rendering the benefit of nanofluids to flow based cooling applications questionable.

  1. Present status of controversies regarding the thermal Casimir force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostepanenko, V M; Bezerra, V B; Decca, R S; Geyer, B; Fischbach, E; Klimchitskaya, G L; Krause, D E; Lopez, D; Romero, C

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that, beginning in 2000, the behaviour of the thermal correction to the Casimir force between real metals has been hotly debated. As was shown by several research groups, the Lifshitz theory, which provides the theoretical foundation for the calculation of both the van der Waals and Casimir forces, leads to different results depending on the model of metal conductivity used. To resolve these controversies, theoretical considerations based on the principles of thermodynamics and new experimental tests were invoked. We analyse the present status of the problem (in particular, the advantages and disadvantages of the approaches based on the surface impedance and on the Drude model dielectric function) using rigorous analytical calculations of the entropy of a fluctuating field. We also discuss the results of a new precise experiment on the determination of the Casimir pressure between two parallel plates by means of a micromechanical torsional oscillator

  2. Mapping intravascular ultrasound controversies in interventional cardiology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maresca

    Full Text Available Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with

  3. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  4. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramania Iyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented.

  5. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  6. Controversial Embodiment: Sport, Masculinity, Dis/Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Parlati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt at investigating visible forms of complex, indeed controversial embodiment, with the specific intention of concentrating on the ways they interrogate delicate issues such as disability, masculinity and prosthetic sport performance. I intend to sound the shifting boundaries between dis-ability and super-ability as manifested in iconic figures such as Stelarc and, in other fields, Oscar Pistorius, whose unsteady position as privileged/disabled bladerunner seems to require – and indeed to gather – particularly intense scrutiny. I shall introduce a few contemporary discourses on corporeality and embodiment, which focus on the ‘troubling’ nature of auxiliary organs Freud refers to in the much contended paragraph I adopt as epigraph and guiding procedural light; I shall move from Butler and Giddens to Jean-Luc Nancy’s work on transplants and/as prostheses to include theoretical debates on disintegrating embodiment and disability studies, in order to proceed towards an analysis of the short-circuiting of allegedly secure practices of (masculine embodiment in sport culture and theory.

  7. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marco eFisichella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  8. VIRTUAL CURRENCY "BITCOIN" – CHALLENGES AND CONTROVERSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOAVĂ GEORGETA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society, when there is a rapidly evolving information technology, the virtual markets, namely the online transactions, have created the premises emergence and development of new technologies of using of finances, namely virtual coin (Bitcoin. Use of this coin appears as an alternative to traditional currencies, but they are not under the control of no body, are devoid of inflation and maintain the anonymity of users. Following the evolution of this new type of coin, we proposed in this paper to present some general aspects of this coin focusing on global controversies on using Bitcoin. We have reviewed several myths that have arisen with the development and penetration of its on market and because it is a volatile coin can generate huge gains but and huge losses, we have studied fluctuation and implications for users and investors and the attraction of the drug dealers and criminals for using virtual currency, Bitcoin. At the end of the paper, based on the analysis we have tried to outline the future of this modern payment system. Thus, we found that lately, in that its value has fluctuated strongly, and increased buyer confidence, but appeared and increased cyber attacks, and the fear that if the state has no a role in protecting citizens from fraud, we can assist at the development of financial schemes extremely dangerous. The financial experts believe that if the world banks would jointly solve all the problems, the virtual money will have a real chance of life.

  9. Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme disease is a controversial topic. Most practitioners and scientists recognize that Lyme disease is associated with certain objective clinical manifestations supported by laboratory evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the etiologic agent). There are others, however, who believe that patients with Lyme disease may have a wide variety of entirely nonspecific symptoms without any objective clinical manifestation and that laboratory evidence of infection by B. burgdorferi is not required to support the diagnosis. In reality, this perspective is not evidence based and would inevitably lead to innumerable misdiagnoses, given the high frequency of medically unexplained symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pains, in the general population. Although those espousing this viewpoint do not believe that a positive laboratory test is required, nevertheless, they often seek out and promote alternative, unapproved testing methods that frequently provide false-positive results to justify their diagnosis. Herein, we provide a brief overview of Lyme disease testing, emphasizing current usage and limitations. We also discuss the use of nonvalidated procedures and the prospects for a reduction in such testing practices in the future.

  10. Energy controversy: the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.H.; Bodansky, D.

    1975-02-01

    The objective of the paper presented is to show that nuclear fission power is the best, and maybe the only, alternative source of energy. It is written for a wide range of readers, including non-scientists and scientists who are not particularly informed on the issues involved. The first question considered concerns man's need for energy; it is concluded that conservation measures alone cannot suffice. Next, the earth's energy sources are examined, and the extent of each is estimated in the simple context of the length of time it could last at present use rates. Only nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and solar energy can provide for future time scales commensurate with man's historic past, while avoiding the possibility of catastrophic social upheaval. Fusion and solar energy are rejected on technological grounds because the world energy problem is so pressing that one cannot gamble on hopes for future technological breakthroughs. Thus, only nuclear fission meets the twin criteria of technological feasibility and adequate resource base. Each of the controversial issues surrounding nuclear fission energy is examined in some detail. The conclusion is reached that none is serious, and that nuclear fission offers by far the best energy source from environmental, economic, longevity, and overall safety standpoints

  11. The nuclear energy controversy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oszuszky, F.; Szeless, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sociological aspects of the energy issue have become of overwhelming importance in the last few years. As a result, traditional considerations such as the importance of adequate and cheap energy supplies as the basis for growth, and the necessity, in a time of politically uncertain oil supplies, of energy supply security and diversity, have been equalled in importance, and sometimes replaced, by arguments about the social goals to be achieved. Nuclear energy has been selected as the vehicle for a socio-political debate on the controversial issue of the application of large-scale technology. Beyond that it has acquired a symbolic role in what is really an emotional attack on the political systems, economy and culture of present day civilization. It stands for the concentration of power, the centralization of technology and society, and man's dependence on the products of that centralization. Nuclear power is seen as one of the motors of further economic growth and thus an apparent pioneer of the further destruction of our natural and social environment. (author)

  12. Some controversy about law on private security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is one of the last countries that legally regulate the private security sector, which is a new conceptual system of the national security system. Since the law is expected to solve many issues and dilemmas, and bring order to the area, which by some accounts is a very profitable branch of economy. Expectations were that by the end to regulate issues such as: 1 the need for institutionalization of partnership between the public and private sectors for mutual benefit, 2 the need of expressing mutual interest to establish the desired condition of security in the entire society and 3 the need to define the mechanisms and authority to achieve mentioned above. Based on this, legal framework of private security should explicitly provide: 1 a new role of the private sector, 2 communication and data exchange between the public and private sector, 3 mandatory notification about prepared or committed criminal acts on which there is information, 4 cooperation in the tasks of necessarily protected facilities, 4 cooperation in crisis situations including natural disasters, traffic accidents, strikes, sabotage, terrorist attacks, etc., 5 cooperate in the selection and training of staff and 6 cooperation in planning activities and project design of security. This paper presents a critical review of some theoretical and professional controversies in the solutions provided by law, for the purpose of answering whether it is achieving the purpose of passing of such a legal act.

  13. "Physiology in the News": Using Press Releases to Enhance Lay Communication and Introduce Current Physiology Research to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin L.; Poteracki, James M.; Steury, Michael D.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Michigan State University's senior-level undergraduate physiology capstone laboratory uses a simple exercise termed "Physiology in the News," to help students explore the current research within the field of physiology while also learning to communicate science in lay terms. "Physiology in the News" is an activity that charges…

  14. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, G.B.; Poncelet, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political, and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: 1) technical study of nuclear plants; 2) concern for the environment; 3) concern for public health and safety; 4) requirements for an improved economic order; and 5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All of these elements have the potential of attracting student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem, our company decided to attempt to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the states to be visited. The selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they were not burdened with the image of being viewed merely as typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is a very important element in the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups; also, to the news media to report the events. Response by the media has been outstandingly favorable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results to date have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' program in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations

  15. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  16. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, G.B.; Poncelet, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: (1) technical study of nuclear plants; (2) concern for the environment; (3) concern for public health and safety; (4) requirements for an improved economic order; and (5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All these elements could attract student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem in the USA, Westinghouse Electric Corporation attempted to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. The development and results of the programme up to mid-1977 are reported in this paper. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the States to be visited. Selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they did not give the impression of being merely typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is very important to the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups and to the news media. Response by the media has been outstandingly favourable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results up to May 1977, in eight States, have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' programme in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations. (author)

  17. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  18. [Foucault, Derrida, and the history of madness: notes on a controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Neto, A F

    1998-01-01

    The publication of the book Folie et Déraison. Histoire de la Folie à l'Age Classique (1961), by Michel Foucault, sparked a debate between the author and philosopher Jacques Derrida during the 1960s and 70s. Derrida criticized the methodological proposal and organization of the History of Madness presented by Foucault in the foreword to the first edition. The controversy appears to have motivated the author to withdraw this same foreword from the second edition. The purpose of this article is to analyze some current points in this controversy. It also presents a research agenda for an understanding of the reasons leading Foucault to take this stance.

  19. Einstein's opponents the public controversy about the theory of relativity in the 1920s

    CERN Document Server

    Wazeck, Milena

    2014-01-01

    This detailed account of the controversy surrounding the publication of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity explores the ferocious popular and academic opposition which at one time encircled one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival research, this fascinating discourse includes a compelling and entertaining examination of the contemporary literature created by Einstein's detractors. Exploring the arguments and strategies, social contexts, and motivations of Einstein's detractors, and providing unique insights into the dynamics of scientific controversies, this book is ideal for anyone interested in the history and philosophy of physics, popular science, and the public understanding of science.

  20. Repair of Tissues by Adult Stem/Progenitor Cells (MSCs): Controversies, Myths, and Changing Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Prockop, Darwin J

    2009-01-01

    Research on stem cells has progressed at a rapid pace and, as might be anticipated, the results have generated several controversies, a few myths and a change in a major paradigm. Some of these issues will be reviewed in this study with special emphasis on how they can be applied to the adult stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, referred to as MSCs.

  1. Nature or Nurture: A Decade of Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Benjamin D.; Marcus, Laurence R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses Jensen's research and writings on genetic v environmental determinants of intelligence. Reviews professional response to his 1969 "Harvard Educational Review" article, and briefly considers the work of other researchers on the relationship between race and intelligence. (GC)

  2. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  3. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not...

  4. From Classroom to Controversy: Conflict in the Teaching of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when a class assignment becomes a source of controversy? How do we respond? What do we learn? By describing the controversy surrounding an assignment on religion and representation, this article examines conflict's productive role in teaching about New Religious Movements (NRMs) and religion. It suggests that we consider how our…

  5. Covering Conflict and Controversy: Measuring Balance, Fairness, Defamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Todd F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Measures balance, fairness, and defamation in local stories containing controversy and covering law enforcement, education, local government, and business. Finds that most stories lack balance and that the opposing side of the controversy was not contacted in 28 percent of the instances. (RS)

  6. Ego Involvement and Topic Controversiality as Related to Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledden, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Katherine A.

    Attitude change was measured on four different topics before and immediately after a persuasion was presented in order to compare the degree of change with the level of ego involvement as it relates to topic controversiality. Ego involvement was based on self-ratings of concern for each topic. Objective topic controversiality was based on the…

  7. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  8. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model

  9. Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.

    2002-12-01

    Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications. See Featured Molecules.

  10. Release behavior of smoke and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filter under the fire accident. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukamoto, Michio; Tashiro, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Shiro [Nippon Muki Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Koji [Sanzo Environment Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    In a part of building ventilating installation of reprocessing plant, the pre-filter is equipped in front of a HEPA filter. The pre-filter plays a role in protection and repression of clogging of HEPA filter. However, in a fire accident, it is considered that large smoke generation cause the pre-filter clogging due to smoke loading, increase of differential pressure and breakdown. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the demonstration tests to confirm the performance of ventilation filters by a fire accident were carried out. In the tests, smoke was generated from burning of the mock solid wastes (gloves made of rubber and/or cloth) or the mock recovered solvent (n-dodecane or tributyl phosphate / n-dodecane). The test data was acquired on generation of smoke, decrease evolution of smoke by transportation through the compositions of ventilation system (cell, duct, damper, filters) and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters due to smoke loading. From the results, it was found that the performance of the whole of ventilation system was kept even if the pre-filter was breakdown. To adopt the analysis of the increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter using the safety analysis code, CELVA-1D, increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter was expressed by quadratic empirical equation with function of smoke loading per unit filtration area and it coefficients, ({alpha}, {beta}), were estimated. (author)

  11. Atmospheric stability effects on potential radiological releases at a nuclear research facility in Romania: Characterising the atmospheric mixing state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Scott D.; Galeriu, Dan; Williams, Alastair G.; Melintescu, Anca; Griffiths, Alan D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Dyer, Leisa; Duma, Marin; Zorila, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    A radon-based nocturnal stability classification scheme is developed for a flat inland site near Bucharest, Romania, characterised by significant local surface roughness heterogeneity, and compared with traditional meteorologically-based techniques. Eight months of hourly meteorological and atmospheric radon observations from a 60 m tower at the IFIN-HH nuclear research facility are analysed. Heterogeneous surface roughness conditions in the 1 km radius exclusion zone around the site hinder accurate characterisation of nocturnal atmospheric mixing conditions using conventional meteorological techniques, so a radon-based scheme is trialled. When the nocturnal boundary layer is very stable, the Pasquill–Gifford “radiation” scheme overestimates the atmosphere's capacity to dilute pollutants with near-surface sources (such as tritiated water vapour) by 20% compared to the radon-based scheme. Under these conditions, near-surface wind speeds drop well below 1 m s"−"1 and nocturnal mixing depths vary from ∼25 m to less than 10 m above ground level (a.g.l.). Combining nocturnal radon with daytime ceilometer data, we were able to reconstruct the full diurnal cycle of mixing depths. Average daytime mixing depths at this flat inland site range from 1200 to 1800 m a.g.l. in summer, and 500–900 m a.g.l. in winter. Using tower observations to constrain the nocturnal radon-derived effective mixing depth, we were able to estimate the seasonal range in the Bucharest regional radon flux as: 12 mBq m"−"2 s"−"1 in winter to 14 mBq m"−"2 s"−"1 in summer. - Highlights: • Site climatology accurately characterised by season and atmospheric stability class. • Comparison of "2"2"2Rn-based, Pasquill–Gifford and Richardson number stability indices. • Seasonal mixing depth estimates over the whole diurnal cycle by ceilometer and radon. • Seasonal variability in the regional radon source function well constrained.

  12. Science motivation by discussion and controversy (SMDC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Mora Ley, César Eduardo; Ramírez Díaz, Mario Humberto

    2017-05-01

    Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often been built over conceptual understanding to develop talent education. Opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process. Abilities differ and can vary among boys and girls. Although they have some responsibility for their own growth and development, the educational system and psychosocial variables influence on the successful development of high levels of education. This research explores students’ attitudes to science education to establish why many disengage with the subject in class and what can be done to reverse this trend to produce unimaginable scientific and practical benefits to society. The control group is students from several schools with traditional education in Iran and the experimental group is teams who have taken part in several activities such as national and international tournaments (2005-2013). This research has two parts: 1—how innovation in teaching and 2—discussion and controversy in class can improve science education and cause motivation. The average scores are divided into 5 ranges in both experimental and traditional groups. As shown by Spearman’s correlation rank (ρ) the difference between boys’ and girls’ average scores is about (2.71) in the control group but it has decreased to (0.29) in the experimental group. The main point of discussion is on problems in class which advance a set of interrelated scientific arguments for outstanding achievement.

  13. Controversies in contraception for women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is an important choice that offers autonomy to women with regard to prevention of unintended pregnancies. There is wide variation in the contraceptive practices between continents, countries, and societies. The medical eligibility for contraception for sexually active women with epilepsy (WWE is determined by the type of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs that they use. Enzyme inducing AEDs such as phenobarbitone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine increase the metabolism of orally administered estrogen (and progesterone to a lesser extent. Estrogen can increase the metabolism of certain AEDs, such as lamotrigine, leading to cyclical variation in its blood level with resultant adverse effect profile or seizure dyscontrol. AEDs and sex hormones can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in WWE. The potential interactions between AEDs and hormonal contraception need to be discussed with all women in reproductive age-group. The alternate options of oral contraception such as intrauterine copper device, intrauterine levonorgestrel release system, and supplementary protection with barriers need to be presented to them. World Health Organization has recommended to avoid combination contraceptive pills containing estrogen and progesteron in women who desire contraception and in breastfeeding mothers. Care providers need to consider the option of non-enzyme-inducing AEDs while initiating long-term treatment in adolescent and young WWE.

  14. Is the N170 face specific? Controversy, context, and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Earp

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, there is an ongoing debate about the architecture of the mind: does it consist of a number of mental “organs” each managing a different function in isolation, or is it more of general processor, adaptable to a wide range of tasks? One corner of this debate has centered on face processing. This is because face-perception is crucial to normal human functioning and some evidence shows that faces may be processed by the brain in a privileged way compared to other types of stimuli. For example, in EEG brain recordings, the N170 is a characteristic signal that occurs after a participant is exposed to an image of a face, but it is much less pronounced when other stimuli are shown. More than 15 years of research on the “N170 face effect” have yielded the standard view that the N170 is at the very least face-sensitive, and possibly even face-specific, that is, indexing modular processes tied exclusively to facial geometries. The specificity claim is clearly stronger, and hence subject to significant controversy; while the more conservative “sensitivity” claim had been regarded (until recently as effectively settled. Nevertheless, Thierry and colleagues, in a contentious 2007 article, sought to undermine even this “conservative” consensus: they argued that the apparent face-responsiveness of the N170 in prior research was due to systematic flaws in experimental design. Fiery debate has followed. In this review, we put the debate in its historical and philosophical context, and try to spell out some of the theoretical and logical assumptions that underlie the claims of the competing camps. We then show that the best available evidence counts, at least partially, against the Thierry et al. construal of the N170. Accordingly, it would be premature to abandon the “conservative” account of the N170, according to which it is – minimally – responsive to faces. We conclude by returning to the more controversial claim

  15. The design of an enzyme: a chronology on the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buc, Henri

    2013-05-13

    After the publication of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, a controversy arose between Jacques Monod, Francis Crick and Jeffries Wyman about the comparison of the regulatory performances of an oligomer undergoing a concerted transition between two states and a monomer having the same composition and subjected to a similar conformational equilibrium. The controversy took place between September 1965 and March 1966. It gave rise to several unpublished notes. Numerous misunderstandings between the participants were not fully dissipated as the controversy abruptly ended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meningiomas in 2009: controversies and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Belinda A; Jhamb, Ashu; Maguire, John A; Toyota, Brian; Ma, Roy

    2009-02-01

    Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary neoplasm in adults. Over recent years, interest in this clinically diverse group of tumors has intensified, bringing new questions and challenges to the fore, particularly in the fields of epidemiology, radiology, pathology, genetics, and treatment. Interest in modern meningioma research has been stimulated by the high tumor prevalence and the advances in technology. The incidence of meningiomas is climbing, and may indicate increased exposure to environmental risk factors or more sensitive diagnostic modalities. Technological advances have dramatically improved radiologic imaging and radiotherapy treatments, and further refinements are under investigation. Furthermore, the current era of tumor genetics and molecular biology is challenging translational researchers to discover new, targeted, therapeutic agents. This review is an update on the recent advances in the understanding of meningiomas and their management, and highlights pertinent research questions to be addressed in the future.

  17. Advertising to Children: Concepts and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. Carole, Ed.; Carlson, Les, Ed.

    This book presents cutting-edge research designed to stimulate and inform the debate over advertising to the children's market and the effects such advertising has on children. Perspectives are organized in sections to address what children know and think about advertising, how advertising works with children, and what issues are at the forefront…

  18. The Great Irish Head Shop Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, Graham; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This research describes and analyses recent policy developments in Ireland in relation to the practice of selling psychoactive substances which, while not themselves illegal, mimic the effects of commonly used illegal drugs. These so-called "legal highs" had been sold in Ireland through an increasing number of "head shops"…

  19. Highlights of modern astrophysics: Concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, V.

    1986-01-01

    In this book, physicists and astronomers review issues in astrophysics. The book stresses accomplishments of observational and theoretical work, and demonstrates how to reveal information about stars and galaxies by applying the basic principles of physics. It pinpoints conflicting views and findings on important topics and indicates possibilities for future research in the field of modern astrophysics

  20. The animal experimentation controversy: Ethical views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and scientific research. The responses were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results showed that most prospective teachers are in favour of animal rights and that females are more averse to vivisection than males. A number of suggestions are made with regard to vivisection in schools and tertiary institutions.

  1. The Hayek-Sraffa controversy in 1932

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    as an example to clarify the elemental preconditions of economic science to validly reach the core of economic theories and thus throw light on their historical and ideological conditions and range and the validity of the knowledge produced. The article uses Imre Lakatos’ thoughts on research programmes...

  2. Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, H. C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy? Neuromuscular electrostimulation (LAMES) is a method for stimulating muscles with short electrical pulses. Neuromuscular electrostimulation is frequently used in physiotherapy to strengthen healthy muscles (as in sports

  3. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  4. Social reporting, engagements, controversies and conflict in an arena context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulos, G.; Thomson, I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To empirically investigate relationships between engagement activities and social reporting practices in a controversial and environmentally sensitive industry. The interactions investigated were not restricted to stakeholder relationships but included other communications between

  5. ACCOUNTING CONTROVERSY ON THE RECOGNITION AND EVALUATION OF DEVELOPMENT EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TULVINSCHI MIHAELA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology in recent decades has forced the transition from the industrialized society, where the main role was occupied by tangible assets, to an information society, where the essential place is played by intangible assets. These are assets that can not be touched or felt, but are very important to produce wealth and to maintain competitiveness. Within these, development expenditure occupies an important place because it influences the analysis of an entity and its future. The accounting practices applicable to development expenditure are based on theoretical fundamentals and ambiguous typologies. The purpose of the article is to present the controversies about recognizing and evaluating development expenditure. Although development expenditure involves large initial investments, it generates, on medium and long term, significant savings. Depending on the purpose for which it is carried out, research and development expenditure can in time generate identifiable intangible assets but also intangible unidentifiable assets. An optimistic attitude regarding the chances of success of a development project will lead to the capitalization of development expenditure. Capitalizing development expenditures, the usefulness of financial statements is increased, which is generally measured in the ability to explain stock prices through earnings and accounting values.

  6. Understanding the nuclear controversy: An application of cultural theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaff, Shashi van de

    2016-01-01

    The need for a secure and sustainable energy future has become firmly entrenched on the global political agenda. Governments worldwide are seeking solutions that will ensure security of their energy supplies, while reducing carbon emissions in the fight against climate change. Advocates of nuclear power have reframed the technology as the most reliable, cost-effective and immediate solution to both of these policy problems, and predicted the emergence of a 'nuclear renaissance’. However, there is little evidence to date that suggests a nuclear renaissance has actually taken place. Public opinion polling demonstrates that many remain unconvinced of the need for nuclear power. This paper uses Cultural Theory as a heuristic to understand why the arguments for a nuclear renaissance have been largely unsuccessful. It argues that the failure of nuclear advocates to engage with a wider cross-section of world-views has prevented the controversy surrounding nuclear power from being resolved, and the nuclear renaissance from becoming a reality. In doing so, this paper builds upon a growing recognition of the contribution that social science research can make to understanding public acceptance of energy policy choices. - Highlights: • There is little evidence of a nuclear renaissance taking place in Western Europe or North America. • Public opinion on nuclear power continues to be deeply divided. • Pro-nuclear arguments are dominated by a particular cultural rationality. • A broader range of cultural perspectives needs to be recognised for the nuclear debate to progress.

  7. Controversies in the Diagnosis and Management of NAFLD and NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Mary E; Loomba, Rohit; Caldwell, Stephen H; Kowdley, Kris; Charlton, Michael; Tetri, Brent; Harrison, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the United States. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in a subset of patients with NAFLD and is characterized by the presence of hepa-tocellular injury, which is progressive in a substantial proportion of cases and can lead to cirrhosis and all of its complications. Although the diagnosis of NAFLD can be made through imaging studies or liver biopsy, the diagnosis of NASH still requires histologic confirmation. Liver biopsy should be performed in the presence of risk factors for advanced disease. Measures aimed at promoting weight loss, a healthier lifestyle, and optimization of metabolic risk factors remain the cornerstone of management of NAFLD. Therapeutic agents that are presently considered the most promising in NAFLD are effective in less than 50% of patients. Among patients with biopsy-proven NASH, treatment with pharmacologic agents should be considered; however, the role of specific agents in NASH still needs further study. Despite a wealth of research over the past 15 years, many controversies remain with respect to the diagnosis and management of NAFLD and NASH as well as the influence of alcohol on liver disease progression in these patients.

  8. Consensus and controversy regarding osteoporosis in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Laura Keyes

    2007-09-01

    To review current consensus and controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in childhood and adolescence. The medical literature was reviewed with emphasis on the importance of early skeletal health, risk factors for bone fragility, and the diagnosis and management of children at risk for osteoporosis. Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for optimizing bone growth and mineral accrual. Bone strength is determined by bone size, geometry, quality, and mass-variables that are influenced by genetic factors, activity, nutrition, and hormones. For children with genetic skeletal disorders or chronic disease, bone growth and mineral accrual may be compromised, increasing the lifetime risk of osteoporosis. The goal for the clinician is to identify children at greatest risk for future fragility fracture. Bone densitometry and turnover markers are challenging to interpret in children. Prevention and treatment of bone fragility in children are less well established than in adults. Optimizing nutrition and activity may not restore bone health, but the drug armamentarium is limited. Sex steroid replacement has not proven effective in restoring bone mass in patients with anorexia nervosa or exercise-associated amenorrhea. Bisphosphonates can increase bone mass and may reduce bone pain and fractures, most convincingly in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Further studies are needed to establish the safety, efficacy, and optimal drug, duration, and dosage in pediatric patients. Bone health during the first 2 decades contributes to the lifetime risk of osteoporosis. Further research is needed to develop evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in childhood.

  9. Asbestos and cancer: epidemiological and public health controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huncharek, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses many of the currently controversial issues surrounding asbestos health effects and their relationship to cancer risk assessment and risk management. The major conclusions reached from this analysis are: (1) All asbestos fiber types are carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health. Therefore, all fiber types should be regulated similarly. (2) The health risks associated with indoor asbestos exposure are uncertain. Available data show that some groups, such as building maintenance personnel (among others), may contract asbestos-related diseases secondary to indoor exposure. Clearly, additional research is needed to accurately determine the extent and nature of disease risk under these conditions. (3) Controlled use has proved an elusive goal. Limited information from underdeveloped countries parallels the experience of Western industrialized nations. Efforts by the Canadian government to establish markets for asbestos in these areas should be opposed. (4) Finally, asbestos-related cancer risk is no longer confined to asbestos industry workers. Asbestos-related mesothelioma has been documented in a wide variety of occupational and nonoccupational settings, highlighting the need for continued surveillance to minimize potential health risks.

  10. The IARC monographs: critics and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2015-07-01

    The monograph program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which relies on the efforts of volunteer Working Groups, uses a transparent approach to evaluate the carcinogenicity of agents for which scoping has determined that there is sufficient evidence to warrant a review. Because of the potentially powerful implications of the conclusions of the monographs and the sometimes challenging nature of the evidence reviewed, the monographs and the IARC process have been criticized from time to time. This commentary describes the IARC monograph process and addresses recent criticisms of the program, drawing on a recent defense of the program authored by 124 researchers. These authors concluded that the IARC processes are robust and transparent and not flawed and biased as suggested by some critics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Lessons from a heart valve prosthesis controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, J P; Grobbee, D E

    1998-07-18

    Two lessons are to be learnt from the Björk-Shiley heart valve prosthesis tragedy. In the first place pharmacoepidemiologic studies are seriously hampered by recent privacy legislation. Individual patients carrying such a prosthesis cannot be traced and advised as to their health risks any more, because their legal autonomy has to be respected. This is clearly not to their advantage. In the second place the atmosphere of marketing and litigation and the increasing dependency of researchers on money from sources with conflicting interests is not conducive to a well-informed and balanced judgement of the epidemiological evidence of safety and efficacy of medical treatments.

  12. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  14. Electronic Cigarettes: Ambiguity and Controversies of Usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savant, S.; Shetty, D.; Phansopkar, S.; Jamkhande, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes. (author)

  15. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  16. Research on the Characteristics and Mechanism of the Cumulative Release of Antimony from an Antimony Smelting Slag Stacking Area under Rainfall Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Deng, Renjian

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the characteristics and the mechanism of the cumulative release of antimony at an antimony smelting slag stacking area in southern China. A series of dynamic and static leaching experiments to simulate the effects of rainfall were carried out. The results showed that the release of antimony from smelting slag increased with a decrease in the solid-liquid ratio, and the maximum accumulated release was found to be 42.13 mg Sb/kg waste and 34.26 mg Sb/kg waste with a solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 20; the maximum amount of antimony was released within 149–420 μm size fraction with 7.09 mg/L of the cumulative leaching. Also, the antimony release was the greatest and most rapid at pH 7.0 with the minimum release found at pH 4.0. With an increase in rainfall duration, the antimony release increased. The influence of variation in rainfall intensity on the release of antimony from smelting slag was small. PMID:28804669

  17. The nuclear controversy and nuclear safety techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarson, P.

    1979-09-01

    Survey interviews with 125 Swedish nuclear safety engineers are summarized and commented upon. A short historical background is given, claiming that the major safety issues of nuclear energy have been debated continously during the 50's and 60's in a way that could well have been watched and interpreted by a political, democratic system involving political parties, government departments, etc. With a few exceptions, these 125 engineers represent 10 - 20 years experience in nuclear research and development. By definition they belong to a professional group of about 800 in Sweden (1978). The main aim of the study is to find out if (how and why) a public debate can bring about changes in an industrially established technology by influencing the attitudes and technical judgements of the individuals and/or organizations involved. Examples are given in which the nuclear specialists themselves admit or claim that direct or indirect impacts from the public debate have been important. A common experience is that the scientists and engineers have been forced to broaden their professional scope through a time-consuming but - on the whole - 'positive' process. A year after the interviews started, a serious reactor accident occured near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The group has been used for a survey of the immediate reactions in order to see if it could cause sudden changes of attitudes among the experts. A minority demonstrated clear changes towards a more cautious attitude regarding nuclear risks. (author)

  18. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: update, controversies and new advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Zago

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary arrest is a medical emergency in which the lapse of time between event onset and the initiation of measures of basic and advanced support, as well as the correct care based on specific protocols for each clinical situation, constitute decisive factors for a successful therapy. Cardiopulmonary arrest care cannot be restricted to the hospital setting because of its fulminant nature. This necessitates the creation of new concepts, strategies and structures, such as the concept of life chain, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation courses for professionals who work in emergency medical services, the automated external defibrillator, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and mobile intensive care units, among others. New concepts, strategies and structures motivated by new advances have also modified the treatment and improved the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the hospital setting. Among them, we can cite the concept of cerebral resuscitation, the application of the life chain, the creation of the universal life support algorithm, the adjustment of drug doses, new techniques - measure of the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels and of the coronary perfusion pressure - and new drugs under research.

  19. Controversy still simmers over plan to build plasma-fractionation plant in Nova Scotia.

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, N

    1995-01-01

    Controversy still simmers over a plan by the Canadian Red Cross Society and a US biopharmaceutical manufacturer to build a plasma-fractionation plant near Halifax. The unilateral decision to go ahead with the plant was taken as the Krever inquiry into Canada's blood-supply system was holding public hearings across the country. A panel created to evaluate the proposal has supported the fractionation plant, but made additional recommendations concerning product pricing, research and development...

  20. Tuberculous pleural effusions: advances and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Brian W.; Diacon, Andreas H.; Koegelenberg, Coenraad F. N.

    2015-01-01

    On a global scale, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most frequent causes of pleural effusions. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has evolved and what was once thought to be an effusion as a result of a pure delayed hypersensitivity reaction is now believed to be the consequence of direct infection of the pleural space with a cascade of events including an immunological response. Pulmonary involvement is more common than previously believed and induced sputum, which is grossly underutilised, can be diagnostic in approximately 50%. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis remains the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimens, either by microscopy and/or culture, or the histological demonstration of caseating granulomas in the pleura along with acid fast bacilli (AFB). In high burden settings, however, the diagnosis is frequently inferred in patients who present with a lymphocytic predominant exudate and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, which is a valuable adjunct in the diagnostic evaluation. ADA is generally readily accessible, and together with lymphocyte predominance justifies treatment initiation in patients with a high pre-test probability. Still, false-negative and false-positive results remain an issue. When adding closed pleural biopsy to ADA and lymphocyte count, diagnostic accuracy approaches that of thoracoscopy. The role of other biomarkers is less well described. Early pleural drainage may have a role in selected cases, but more research is required to validate its use and to define the subpopulation that may benefit from such interventions. PMID:26150911

  1. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Sujan [University of Missouri-Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Obaldo, Ruby E. [The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Walsh, Irene R. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  2. Studying a Controversy amongst Pashtuns of Torghar, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bellon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about the political structures of tribal groups. The present article looks at political dynamics amongst Pashtuns of Balochistan, through the prism of a controversy. The sociological interest of studying the arguments used during a controversy has been underlined by Boltanski and Thevenot. A controversy finishes by the establishment, through consensus, of a common agreement upon accepted norms, determined limits, redefinition of social values, etc. The advantage of focusing on the argumentation itself is to avoid taking the agreement as a pre-established social truth, a reference that concerned people would reluctantly challenge. To study a controversy is to study the social realities in the making, to study the archaeology of collective consensus, to reinstate history, contingencies and individual plurality within the social dynamics and to take seriously their performative actions alongside other social determinisms. This article shows that to study controversy is a way not only to set light on political dynamics and structures, but also to discuss the impact and definition of concepts such as segmentarity, equality, rights, interests, and their relevance within the Pashtun society which was observed.

  3. COOPERATIVE CONTROVERSY TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN ENGLISH DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciati Suciati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many students do not like English debate. They argue that in the debate, they should apply four skills in English and should have appropriate matter, manner, and method. One of the reasons which make them do not like the debate is their lack of motivation. To solve this problem, teacher or lecturer should apply the appropriate technique in the teaching-learning process. Cooperative controversy technique is different with the traditional debate. In this technique, debaters change positions and try to reach a consensus at the end of the debate. By doing it before practicing the real English debate format, the students will get the basic knowledge about the debate so they do not directly practice the complicated one. Cooperative controversy increases the number of ideas, quality of ideas, feelings of stimulation, and enjoyment and originality of expression in creative problem solving. If it is compared to the group which does not use controversy, in controversy, the members get motivation and satisfaction in solving the problems.Keywords: English debate, students’ motivation, cooperative controversy

  4. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Sujan; Obaldo, Ruby E.; Walsh, Irene R.; Lowe, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  5. Population and development: controversy and reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, A C

    1985-01-01

    This paper evaluates the 2 most important antinatalist arguments the have dominated the population debate over the last 25 years, drawing heavily on 3 1984 studies -- land and resource scarcity and saving and investment. The extent to which these arguments have successfully included the indirect effects of population growth on an economy in order to determine the net impact of population is assessed an emerging revisionist interpretation of the role of population in development is discussed. It is believed that on scientific grounds, and focusing primarily on economic impact, neither the arguments nor the various models used to support the antinatalist position sufficiently support the strength of the general conclusion that population growth exerts a strong adverse impact on the economy. Population growth reveals sooner the symptoms of underlying problems, but many of the solutions are to be found in areas other than altering the rate of population growth. Population growth is viewed less as a cause of development problems and more as an agent that pushes more fundamental problems to the forefront. Empirical evidence concerning nonrenewable resource constraints is not sufficient to make any strong conclusion about the impact of rapid population growth. With regard to food, the problem is more one of unrealized potential for increasing agricultural output and of the distribution of income than of diminishing returns to land. The results of economic research have failed to provide substantial and convincing empirical evidence to support the strong antinatalist concern about the adverse effect rapid population growth has on savings and investment. Authors of recent literature reviews deemphasized this impact. A revisionist interpretation deemphasizes some of the traditional" hypothesized direct influence of population and assigns population the role of an accomplice in contrast to the leading role of villain in the development story. To this list is added the

  6. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langman, C.B.; Barshop, B.A.; Deschenes, G.; Emma, F.; Goodyer, P.; Lipkin, G.; Midgley, J.P.; Ottolenghi, C.; Servais, A.; Soliman, N.A.; Thoene, J.G.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years.

  7. Review of the recent carbon dioxide-climate controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Cess, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Model calculations of the climatic impact of the increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration consistently suggest that a doubling of the CO 2 concentration would lead to a warming of global average surface air temperatures by as much as several degrees Celsius. In this appendix, this controversy about the effect of CO 2 on climate is reviewed. Because the surface energy balance approach to estimating climate sensitivity has been the source of much of the controversy, a review of this approach is presented. It is shown that prior applications of this approach violate the law of conservation of energy (the first law of thermodynamics); therefore, these results are incorrect. Empirical data indicating the relationship between atmospheric emittance and surface vapor pressure and surface air temperature are shown to be consistent with climate model calculations. Consequently, it is not the experimental data that are the basis of the controversy, but rather the analysis and interpretation of these data

  8. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  9. Chernobylsk: a 'cloud' crosses... the facts and the controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobylsk accident the effects are detailed by specialists, in radiobiology to judge the eventual sanitary injuries. It is a critical analysis that is made in this work, at the light of todays knowledge. The first part treats the question of communication, faults, late, silent. The second part is the time of controversy, the contamination in France, the radiation doses in France, thyroid cancers, the controversy of low doses effects, the controversy of sanitary consequences in USSR. The third part concerns the modernization of the nuclear world, the radiobiology, the public opinion. In annexes are: radioactivity, serious accidents, radiation doses (concepts and units), radiation protection and standards, the scientific bases of radiation protection, the figured conclusions of Chernobylsk forum, the European contamination map. (N.C.)

  10. Controversy and consensus nuclear beta decay 1911-1934

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    In 1920s, a long-lasting controversy on the interpretation of nuclear beta spectrum arose between Lise Meitner and Charles Drummond Ellis. This controversy, and the reactions from the contending parties when it was settled, reflect clearly the difference between the scientific communities in Berlin and Cambridge at that time. The Meitner-Ellis controversy ended in 1929, and it left an anomaly that attracted leading theoretical physicists. A new dispute, this time between Niels Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli, broke out. It concerned the explanation of the continuity of the primary beta particles and dominated the discussions for the next five years. Pauli argued for a new particle, and Bohr for a new theory; both suggestions were radical steps, but they reflected two different ways of doing physics.

  11. The social construction of risk and the controversial Brazilian Nuclear Program: among scientific, political and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) stating as reference the Fukushima nuclear accident. Its main purpose is to analyze how the Japanese accident impacted the PNB. Therefore, the program will be analyzed within 10-years (2004-2014) in order to answer this question. The discussion launched in this thesis is based on the framework of the Social Studies of Science and Technology, which enables the understanding of socio-technical controversies beyond the social or technological determinism. Through the discussion of the concepts of framing, socio-technical imaginary, risk and governance of science and technology, the research shows how the controversy in focus has resulted in the opportunity to consider not only economic, technological, environmental issues about nuclear energy, but also its political dimensions and challenges. Among these challenges, and from very different perspectives, arise questions about the role nuclear energy plays in the Brazilian context, the future of the program and the decision making process on these issues. Despite the central purpose of this study is essentially on risks, PNB and on the Brazilian context, it should be pointed that it is impossible to consider it in isolation of what is happening internationally (considering interests, tensions, relations between actors, etc.) The research thereby identifies key implications of Fukushima in the international context, but focuses on the disputes regarding possible review of the PNB. It also highlights how the socio-technical controversies, such as the nuclear energy, demand or impose a discussion on the governance of science and technology, risk and on the engagement of different sectors and actors in decision-making on issues, that are at the same time about energy, technology and nationality relevance. All this reflection is made from multi-sited analysis, which allowed following the controversy surrounding nuclear energy, reheated by the Fukushima

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-10-12

    Oct 12, 2012 ... We defined postoperative morbidity as the occurrence of a specific or nonspecific complication during the first 30 days of surgery and postoperative mortality .... well defined in the literature and the reported results are conflicting and controversial [27]. Our study was .... Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2008; 100: 82-5.

  13. The cartoon controversy as a case of multiculturalrecognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers what ‘recognition' might mean in theory and which policies would in practice qualify as policies of recognition in relation to multicultural conflicts such as the ‘cartoon controversy' sparked by the publication of drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish Newspaper...... Jyllands-Posten. The paper provides a general theoretical account of recognition as a strictly political concept, including distinctions between different conceptions hereof, and asks whether the cartoon controversy can be described in these terms and what the relevant meaning of recognition might then be...

  14. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were 41 Ar; 140 Ba; 51 Cr; 137 Cs; 131 I; 133 I; 85m Kr; 87 Kr; 88 Kr; 140 La; 133 Xe; 135 Xe; 3 H; 90 Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were 41 Ar, for immersion in the plume, and 133 I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even

  15. Formulation and Release Characteristics of Zidovudine- Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug Delivery Research Unit, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of ... The results show that drug content has influence on drug release from the SLMs, but not ... poor bioavailability [1, 2]. ..... et al [21] this initial in vitro burst release could be.

  16. Evidence-Based Management and Controversies in Blunt Splenic Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, D. C.; van der Vlies, C. H.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to describe the evidence-based management and controversies in blunt splenic trauma. A shift from operative management to non-operative management (NOM) has occurred over the past decades where NOM has now become the standard of care in haemodynamically stable patients with blunt

  17. Reading "Daddy's Roommate": Preservice Teachers Respond to a Controversial Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the responses of the author's 31 pre-service teachers to a controversial picture book. Begins by searching for a short text geared to elementary age children and suited for read-alouds. Notes that she believes that the majority of pre-service teachers at this stage in the program are still very impressionable and must be given multiple…

  18. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  19. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  20. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the contested amount of a claim is $10,000 or less, the Copyright Royalty Judges shall decide the... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.3 Controversy and further... negotiation period, the Copyright Royalty Judges will issue an order declaring that further proceedings are...

  1. Adolescent Controversial Status Brokers: A Double-Edged Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sarah; Zeman, Janice; Carboni, Inga; Gilman, Rich; Thrash, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Using a 3-wave longitudinal, multidimensional approach, this study investigated the influence of social network position and social status on the psychosocial outcomes of 440 youth (45.1% girls; M[subscript age] = 16.1 years; 90.9% Caucasian) over 26 months, focusing on the controversial status classification (i.e., youth who are highly liked and…

  2. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  3. The Future Path of Organic Farming - Values, Standards and Controversy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  4. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  5. Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Goran, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies" sheds light on the status of diversity in the field of IT education. It identifies a wide range of problems that educators face on a daily basis, and gives practical, applicable solutions, mainly by showcasing successful and replicable examples. The chapters in "Diversity in…

  6. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  7. Some diagnostic and therapeutic controversies in glaucoma addressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier Peter Hendrik Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the five studies contained in this thesis, several controversies on the diagnosis of and therapy for glaucoma have been addressed. The first part of this thesis consisted of three studies that aimed tot improve existing technologies for diagnosing glaucoma. The latter part consisted of two

  8. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  9. Integration of basic controversies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses controversies in the field of cross-cultural psychology, including cultural psychology, with a view to possible integration.1 It briefly describes the indigenisation movement as a reaction against Western scientific ethnocentrism and mentions two methodological topics, that

  10. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  11. Before We Were Us, We Were Them: Curating Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keri

    2014-01-01

    Prompted by the passage of Alabama House Bill 56, I organized the museum studies course I taught for Auburn University at Montgomery in the 2013 spring semester around an exhibition on immigration. The course offered the opportunity to engage students, faculty, and the community in discussion of an important, timely, and controversial topic.…

  12. Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia: Challenges and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    54 | Air & Space Power Journal Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia Challenges and Controversies © Dr. Stephen J. Cimbala* Disclaimer: The views and...into here. 11. Mazanec, “International Order in Cyberspace,” 83. 12. Joel Brenner, Glass Houses: Privacy , Secrecy, and Cyber Insecurity in a Transparent

  13. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  14. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A

    2008-01-01

    Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life

  15. Research on the biological activity and doxorubicin release behavior in vitro of mesoporous bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Gen; Zhang, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) nanospheres have been synthesized by a facile method of sacrificing template using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant. The prepared MBG nanospheres possess high specific surface area (632 m2 g-1) as well as uniform size (∼100 nm). In addition, MBG nanospheres exhibited a quick in vitro bioactive response in simulated body fluids (SBF) and excellent bioactivity of inducing hydroxyapatite (HA) forming on the surface of MBG nanospheres. Furthermore, MBG nanospheres can sustain release of doxorubicin (DOX) with a higher encapsulation efficiency (63.6%) and show distinct degradation in PBS by releasing Si and Ca ions. The encapsulation efficiency and DOX release of MBG nanospheres could be controlled by mesoporous structure and local pH environment. The greater surface area and pore volumes of prepared MBG nanospheres are conducive to bioactive response and drug release in vitro. The amino groups in DOX can be easily protonated at acidic medium to become positively charged NH+3, which allow these drug molecules to be desorbed from the surface of MBG nanospheres via electrostatic effect. Therefore, the synthesized MBG nanospheres have a pH-sensitive drug release capability. In addition, the cytotoxicity of MBG nanospheres was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and results showed that the synthesized MBG nanospheres had no significant cytotoxicity to MC3T3 cells. These all indicated that as-prepared MBG nanospheres are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Nuclear critics and nuclear controversy: Lessons for the next 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.

    1992-01-01

    For more than a decade, nuclear electric power was at the center of one of the most widespread and passionate controversies in the United States. A combination of local community groups and a sophisticated national opposition seriously delayed nuclear plants being built in state after state, contributing to major cost increases and, in some instances, project cancellations. According to plans of the US government and electric power industry, new nuclear power plants will be ordered by the mid-1990s and will be in operation around the turn of the century. The success of these plans will depend in part on how well the government and industry learned the lessons of the years of controversy - how well they can rally public support despite the inevitable opposition of nuclear critics. This paper is based on a review of the national nuclear controversy of the 1970s and early 1980s. It analyzes the key lessons to be learned from those experiences and projects them onto the new societal and political setting of the 1990s, reflecting more recent research into effective siting procedures, public participation, risk communications, and other disciplines related to the development of public acceptance for nuclear power plants

  17. Socio-Scientific Controversial Issues in 1st Cycle of Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the importance of science education, from early years, aiming to educate citizens capable of thinking critically and act in scientific and technological contexts, a study was carried out in order to develop learning situations focused on controversial socio-scientific issues to promote students’ argumentation skills and scientific knowledge building / mobilization. The study was based on a qualitative methodology, following an action research plan. It was conducted with a class of 3th grade, having been addressed controversial socio-scientific issues, framed in science curriculum topics, using strategies of debate, role-play and argumentative essays. Data was collected using an analyzing instrument of student´s oral and written productions. In data analysis the privileged technique was content analysis. The results suggest that students mobilized requested scientific knowledge, showing improvement in the effective use of argumentation skills required. This allows us to conclude that the approach of controversial socio-scientific issues contributes to the promotion students´ argumentation skills as well as for scientific knowledge construction / mobilization.

  18. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA's Ethics Code or current research.

  19. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  20. Science and Social Studies Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices about Teaching Controversial Issues: Certain Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kuş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate social studies and science teachers’ attitudes and classroom practices associated with controversial issues. The study is a qualitative research based on data collected through interviews and observation. Social studies and Science teachers participated in the current study which was conducted in Kirsehir, a city in the center of Turkey, during the 2012-2013 academic years. Data were collected through classroom observation and interviews with teachers. In this study, teachers' positioning during controversial issues are determined by Kelly's (1986 positioning classification: Exclusive Neutrality, Exclusive Partiality, Neutral Impartiality, and Committed Impartiality. According to results of the research, violence against women, education system, terrorism and nationalism are the leading issues among the controversial issues that both social studies and science teachers listed in Turkey. In relation to their area, social studies teachers stated that the issues such as Kemalism, democracy, military coups, and deep state, which are associated with recent history of Turkey, were among the important controversial issues. Science teachers on the other hand stated issues such as cancer and anti-toxic foods and global warming among the controversial issues in Turkey. Both social studies and science teachers stated that the most frequently encountered problem in discussions was lack of knowledge by students. Whereas social studies teachers stated that their priority goals were particularly to raise active citizens and to set up a democratic classroom environment, science teachers pointed to raising scientifically thinking students and increasing students’ knowledge as their priority goals. During in-class discussions teachers take some positions. The positions stated by the teachers and in-class observations of them conflict. Whereas the teachers stated that they prefer the 4th and 3rd positions, the in

  1. The nuclear controversy as reflected in the daily newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buire, S. van.

    1980-01-01

    The development and utilization of nuclear energy has led to conflicts of larger dimensions in our society. What has been the role of the mass communication media in this discussion. Did they fulfill their duty to inform the public, did they actively foster discussions about the facts to be considered, and did they play their part in public opinion making by publishing critical analyses. These are questions answered by this book by presenting analyses of newspaper articles on the nuclear controversy, facts and figures on the opinions and information published in the daily newspapers on the subject of nuclear energy utilization, and analyses of tendencies pro or contra nuclear energy as expressed by the various articles. By an evaluation of the history of discussions, the development and modifications of the arguments put forward and the reactions shown by the various social groups involved in the process are illustrated and commented in the light of the controversy becoming more acute. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Unconsciously against it. Psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschmann, A.

    1980-06-01

    The book deals with the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy. An attempt is made to describe, in psychological terms, arrange, explain and, in this sense, 'comprehend' the phenomenon of the nuclear controversy in the light of the following facts: - individual and archetypal spectra of associations arising in the minds of many people in combination with the term 'nuclear power plant', the existence of different psychological types; the suggestion and psychological regression in the group. Especially the nuclear opponents, more or less successfully, have used the individual and archetypal association spectrum as an instrument to further their own ends and have thus contributed to the erection of psychological barriers against nuclear power in the minds of many people. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Behavioural controversy concerning homo economicus: a Humean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Elahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his monumental masterpiece, A Treatise on Human Nature, which explains the methodology of human reasoning concerning matters of fact and describes the roles that passions and morals play in it, Hume arrives at an enormously interesting maxim: An academic controversy cannot continue for long unless the disputants assign different meanings to the major terms employed in the debate. This theory has been applied in this paper to examine the behavioural criticisms about Homo Economicus (HE, the pivotal perception in the neoclassical microeconomic model.To achieve this objective, the paper discusses the origin and evolution of the concept, reviews behavioural criticisms, summarises the main tenets of Hume’s philosophy of human knowledge and finally examines the behavioural opinions from Hume’s perspective. The paper concludes that Hume’s theory convincingly explains the reason why the HE controversy is continuing for over half century- a fact that both the mainstream and behavioural economists are ignoring.

  4. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy: public controversies and the analysis of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Energy is a social concept, the product of social, economic, and political processes that define certain raw materials as resources and thus convert them into usable energy. Like all social concepts, energy is controversial. Out of a wide range of controversies, three are selected for analysis here: (1) the relationship of nuclear power systems to nuclear weapons proliferation; (2) the risks of terrorism and sabotage associated with the operation of nuclear power facilities, including threats to civil liberties; and (3) the problems associated with the long-term management of radioactive wastes. The final section of the paper describes various modes of analyzing risks and the perception of risks. It is concluded that it may take many decades to learn whether nuclear energy is as natural a source of electrical power as wells are of drinking water, or whether nuclear energy is a horror that mankind in the 1980s or 1990s took a hard look at and then backed away. (author)

  6. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  7. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...

  8. Socio-scientific controversies and beginning teachers’ pedagogical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Reis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation aimed to study the impact of recent socio-scientific controversies, made public through the media, on the concepts and practices of a group of Natural Science teachers at the start of their careers. This study is particularly relevant at a time that is heavily marked by much debate regarding the social and environmental impact of several scientific and technological innovations and by the implementation of new science curricula, that stress the importance of discussing socio-scientific controversies in the context of students’ scientific alphabetisation (namely in their understanding of the nature of science and its relation to society and culture (McComas, 2000. This investigation followed an interpretative approach of a qualitative nature. Through the construction of case studies, it sought to analyse the possible impact of socio-scientific controversies on the teachers’ concepts (about the nature, teaching and learning of science and pedagogic practice. For data collection semi-structured interviews were conducted and classes observed.The controversial issues raised by certain recent technological innovations – namely the environmental, social and cultural impact they may have – did have an impact on the teachers’ concepts about the nature, teaching and learning of science. Besides reinforcing the duality of feelings as regards science and technology, as a source of both progress and concern, they triggered in these teachers the idea of the need for a widespread scientific alphabetisation that empowers the population for understanding and deciding and acting upon these issues. However, the concept of scientific alphabetisation and the best way to achieve it vary among the teachers participating in this study.

  9. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke, PhD

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  10. Cooperative Learning, Responsibility, Ambiguity, Controversy and Support in Motivating Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Brecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that student motivation is nurtured more by intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards. Rather than relying on grades alone to stimulate students, this paper explores how engendering a natural critical learning environment can give students a sense of ownership in their own learning and lead to their commitment to that learning. We examine uses of cooperative learning, shared responsibility, ambiguity, controversy and support in student motivation.

  11. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  12. Factors Affecting the Participation of Social Studies Teacher Candidates in Discussions on Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figen ERSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social studies teachers employ discussions about controversial issues in their classrooms as an effective instructional tool in order to improve citizenship education. Therefore, teaching about controversial issues in preservice social studies programs is important for improving pre-service teachers’ understanding of their own abilities to teach about citizenship issues and their skills to teach about controversial issues in their classrooms as well. Preservice teachers ought to be encouraged to participate more in classroom discussions about controversial issues. Therefore, this study aim to understand and explain factors that affect social studies teacher candidates’ participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and suggest how this process might be more efficient and effective in Turkey. 1957 pre-service social studies teachers from 12 different universities in Turkey participated in this study. A questionaire was used to collect data for this research. The questionaire included likert type 16 items regarding students’ personal information and factors that affect the level of participation in classroom discussions about controversial issues and one open-ended question regarding implications on how discussions can be improved in a way that help the discussions more effective and efficient. Chi-Square, frequency, and percentange tests were used to analyze the quantitative data. Inductive content analysis method was employed to analyze and code the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that while 92.2 % pre-service social studies teachers stated that they participate in the dicussions on controversial issues when they only find it interested, 79.4 % participant pointed out that they do not participate in the discussions, if they believe they do not have enough knowledge about the topic of the dicussion. In addition, 47.5% of the participants stated that they do not want to participate in the discussions

  13. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research and development of energy in its 2nd year (Research and development of eco-friendly material processing system using powder lubricant type releasing agent); 1999 nendo funtai rigata junkatsuzai wo mochiita sokeizai kako eko system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of constructing a material processing industry consuming less energy, demanding less cost, and imposing less impact on the environment, research and development is conducted of an eco-friendly die-casting system which uses a powder lubricant type releasing agent. In the research, the effect of the die-casting metal cavity internal structure and the pressure pattern on the flowing behavior of the powder lubricant is made visible for analysis, and the mechanism of homogenous dispersion flow and injection is determined. In the research on powder type lubricants, efforts center on a calcium hydroxide-based powder lubricant, and studies are conducted about its adhesion to the metal die at high temperatures and the adhesion to and release from the metal die of molten aluminum, and the calcium hydroxide-based powder lubricant is found to work effectively. For the application of the powder lubricant to die-forging, a real forging system is experimentally built which includes a water-cooled die into which powder is injected with the die in the closed state. A powder lubricant type releasing agent GW-23 is tested for performance using this system, and then it is found that a powder lubricant prolongs the service life of dies and improves on working environments. (NEDO)

  14. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  15. Dr. Robert G. Heath: a controversial figure in the history of deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Christen M; Baker, Cordell M; Glenn, Chad A; Conner, Andrew K; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    The history of psychosurgery is filled with tales of researchers pushing the boundaries of science and ethics. These stories often create a dark historical framework for some of the most important medical and surgical advancements. Dr. Robert G. Heath, a board-certified neurologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, holds a debated position within this framework and is most notably remembered for his research on schizophrenia. Dr. Heath was one of the first physicians to implant electrodes in deep cortical structures as a psychosurgical intervention. He used electrical stimulation in an attempt to cure patients with schizophrenia and as a method of conversion therapy in a homosexual man. This research was highly controversial, even prior to the implementation of current ethics standards for clinical research and often goes unmentioned within the historical narrative of deep brain stimulation (DBS). While distinction between the modern practice of DBS and its controversial origins is necessary, it is important to examine Dr. Heath's work as it allows for reflection on current neurosurgical practices and questioning the ethical implication of these advancements.

  16. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017 – Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate–chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°, whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between −0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY. Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between −0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ∼ 1 % for GOME and OMI to  ∼ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a

  17. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017) - Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garane, Katerina; Lerot, Christophe; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Verhoelst, Tijl; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris S.; Danckaert, Thomas; Goutail, Florence; Granville, Jose; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Loyola, Diego; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Zehner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting) v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate-chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC) at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°), whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between -0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B) and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY). Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between -0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ˜ 1 % for GOME and OMI to ˜ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a negligible drift per decade of the differences in the Northern Hemisphere

  18. [Research of preparation craft of Danshen phenolic acid fast release unit in multi-drug delivery system of Tongmai micro-pellets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xiao, Wei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Huang, Yang

    2012-07-01

    To prepare Danshen phenolic acid fast release micro-pellets and study its preparation craft. The factors which could impact yield, extrude shaping, dissolution of Danshen phenolic acid micro-pellets such as wetting agent, drug loading dose, adjuvant, lactose dose, disintegrant, CMS-Na dose and wetting agent dose was investigated. The optimum preparation craft of Danshen phenolic acid fast release micro-pellets was screened out by orhogonal design. Formula of Danshen phenolic acid fast release micro-pellets was calculated as volume dose 50 g. The formula was as follows: principal agent 22.5 g, lactose 5 g, CMS-Na 2 g, MCC 20.5 g, 27 mL 30% ethanol as wetting agent. Extrusion-spheronization was applied. The optimum conditions were screened out as follows: extrusion frequency (25 Hz), spheronization machine frequency (50 Hz), spheronization time (4 min). The process was scientific and rational. The preparation is stable settles basis for multi-drug delivery system of Tongmai micro-pellets.

  19. Controversy matters: Impacts of topic and solution controversy on the perceived credibility of a scientist who advocates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Beall

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the potential influence of a scientist's advocacy position on the public's perceived credibility of scientists as a whole. Further, we examine how the scientist's solution position (information only, non-controversial, and controversial affects the public's perception of the scientist's motivation for sharing information about specific issues (flu, marijuana, climate change, severe weather. Finally, we assess how perceived motivations mediate the relationship between solution position and credibility. Using data from a quota sample of American adults obtained by Qualtrics (n = 2,453, we found that in some conditions advocating for a solution positively predicted credibility, while in one condition, it negatively predicted scientist credibility. We also found that the influence of solution position on perceived credibility was mediated by several motivation perceptions; most notably through perception that the scientist was motivated to: (a serve the public and (b persuade the public. Further results and implications are discussed.

  20. Release procedure according to paragraph 29 StrlSchv on example of the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Heidelberg II; Durchfuehrung von Freigabeverfahren nach paragraph 29 am Beispiel des TRIGA Heidelberg II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J. [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH (SNT) (Germany); Sold, A. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ) (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this lecture is to show the schedule of a release procedure according to paragraph 29 StrlSchV on the example of the decommissioning of the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Heidelberg II. It is shown on the effort done by the radiation protection representative of this plant. Considering this example, starting with planning, application, survey and execution, the complex context of the release procedure is becomes apparent. Thereby the new applied measuring techniques that require a certain practice and the responsibility of the radiation protection representative in the radiation protection law play a relevant role. In such small facilities as the TRIGA Heidelberg II, the radiation protection staff are employed according to the plant's size and work is focussed on radiation protection research and laboratories. The decommissioning process with its wide range of radiation protection requirements represents new challenges which have to be coordinated with the present duties of the radiation protection representative. The supervision and the responsibility for the release procedure according to paragraph 29 are the largest and the most sensitive part of decommissioning of the nuclear research reactor TRIGA Heidelberg II. (orig.)

  1. The management of change or the change management - Controversies for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistant Dr. Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of change or the change management has brought a lot of controversies in nowadays society. That is the reason why we have decided to study this particular matter in our paper.Our research starts with the definition and main implications of change to the society in general. Then, the paper presents both the Management of Change and the Change Management with their definitions, characteristics, implications. We have also presented the most common misconceptions of the Management of Change and we have brought several arguments to prove why the change management is needed in an organization.

  2. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  3. Everything in moderation, even hype: learning from vaccine controversies to strike a balance with CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benston, Shawna

    2017-12-01

    The ease and applicability of CRISPR/Cas9--a new and precise gene editing and reproductive technology--have garnered hype and heightened concern about its potential 'unprecedented and horrific consequences' and have led many scientific leaders to call for a moratorium on its research and use. CRISPR appears distinctly more controversial than previous technological innovations (genetic or otherwise), with a greater reach and speed of human treatment and enhancement; however, we have seen similarly inflated hopes and fears in response to other medical innovations for well over a century. One intervention that has both historically and recently incited alarm--vaccines--serves as a pertinent example of what could go wrong if a technology's reach is shortened due to inflated fears. By comparing the vaccine controversy and the CRISPR debate, we can help separate the hype from the realistic potential of these technologies. How our society grapples with such innovations will determine the extent to which their impact on our individual and collective health will be beneficial. We must recognise the need for a tempered approach to CRISPR conversation leading to regulation and ethical application. Although CRISPR's reach will continue expanding with ongoing research, thus requiring continuous evaluation, the lessons we have learned from the vaccine controversy demonstrate that our approach must not be to shut down regulation and application now, but to thoughtfully conjoin productive debate and action so that therapeutic gene editing can alleviate suffering as soon as possible without precipitating social outcomes we would belatedly deplore. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. [Controversies regarding distribution, instrumentation, and competence of hemodynamics laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Z; Piccolo, E

    2001-01-01

    In the last few years we have witnessed a substantial growth in the number of catheterization laboratories, especially in the northern regions of Italy, a phenomenon which has met some controversy and has been discussed in a Symposium at the ANMCO National Conference (Florence, May 20-23, 2000). The controversy is essentially between those who believe in the implementation of catheterization laboratories in all cardiology units equipped with a cardiological intensive care unit (and the creation of a functional network with the tutorial centers) and those who refer to the existing guidelines, standards and VRQ which envisage a geographical distribution of laboratories on the basis of a balance between needs of the population and the minimum quantity of procedures performed by each center in order to guarantee the best quality and cost-effectiveness. The aim of the Symposium was to clarify whether the two "innovations" of these last few years, namely the introduction of new portable radiological equipment on the one hand and the effectiveness of primary angioplasty in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction on the other, may influence the redefinition of criteria regarding the distribution of laboratories, taking into account as well the expansion of indications for coronary angioplasty and coronary angiography. After a lively discussion, the proceedings can be summed up as follows: no agreement was reached regarding the role of portable radiological equipment in the decisional process regarding the setting up of a new catheterization laboratory; primary angioplasty should be carried out in centers with an adequate volume of activity and a functioning inter-hospital organizational structure for this demanding activity; otherwise it does not offer any advantages over fibrinolytic therapy; the proposal of a new organizational model is based on the creation of transverse inter-hospital cardiology departments, the size of which is based on the overall size of the

  5. Controversies in the management of tongue base cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Tongue base cancer is one of the most lethal head and neck cancers. There is considerable controversy in the management of this disease with wide variation of opinion within the literature. METHODS: We discuss the presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which exist in the literature. Articles were reviewed from 1970 to 2007 within the Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with a history of persistent unilateral neck pain, even in the absence of clinical signs warrant MRI neck imaging. Tongue base cancer organ preservation therapeutic strategies, radiation and concomitant platinum based chemotherapy, currently optimise oncologic and quality of life outcomes.

  6. Controversy about Management of Hydrocephalus - Shunt vs. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Bodeliwala, Shaam; Singh, Daljit

    2017-08-01

    The best management of hydrocephalus is still controversial in the twenty-first century. Shunt treatment for hydrocephalus is the most common procedure performed in neurosurgical practice and is associated with the highest complications rate. But during the last 2 decades, the treatment of hydrocephalus has improved with better shunt devices available today, increased facilities for investigations and newer approaches like endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The recent advances in development of better endoscopes have provided the patient and treating doctor with an option for an alternative surgery for treatment of hydrocephalus.

  7. Current controversies in infective endocarditis [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Cahill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening disease caused by a focus of infection within the heart. For clinicians and scientists, it has been a moving target that has an evolving microbiology and a changing patient demographic. In the absence of an extensive evidence base to guide clinical practice, controversies abound. Here, we review three main areas of uncertainty: first, in prevention of infective endocarditis, including the role of antibiotic prophylaxis and strategies to reduce health care-associated bacteraemia; second, in diagnosis, specifically the use of multimodality imaging; third, we discuss the optimal timing of surgical intervention and the challenges posed by increasing rates of cardiac device infection.

  8. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear controversy and the political organisations and pressure groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the rise of nuclear controversy in France and the organisation of pressure groups in a political context. The author points out that public opinion became alerted to the dangers of nuclear energy much later in France than for example in the United States and highlights the action of ecologist groups. He concludes that contrary to the case in Australia, the FRG and Sweden anti-nuclear pressure groups have not been successful in truly influencing French governmental policy in that area. (NEA) [fr

  10. The nuclear controversy: unequal competition in public policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; some epistemological problems; energy policy-making and the energy crisis; the nuclear controversy - substantive issues (the need for nuclear power; the desirability of nuclear power (safety of nuclear power; cost of nuclear power; nuclear power and weapons proliferation; nuclear power and civil liberties; some other aspects of nuclear power development); conclusion); the dominance of pro-nuclear thinking; conclusion and prospects. Appendix A describes the structure of the UK nuclear industry and its European connections. (U.K.)

  11. Journalism, controversy and convincing practices: the words and the training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Castilhos Karam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Journalism is raised by Greco-RomanRhetoric and Dialectics and comes through thepresent days without ever giving up on its centralpillar: words. Words are to be found everywhere:in writt en texts, static or dynamic images; in infographicsand great, typical journalistic tales. Theyare to be found in chronics, comics, informal talkand social networks. To become a journalist meansto not give up on words that are central when oneacknowledges the importance of the surroundings,of detection methods and narrative models. Wordsare at the core of controversy and convincing practices.They are at the core of becoming a journalist.

  12. Detection, Properties, and Frequency of Local Calcium Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in Teleost Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Llach, Anna; Molina, Cristina E.; Alvarez Lacalle, Enrique; Tort, Lluis; Benítez, Raul; Hove, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a central role in the regulation of cardiac contraction and rhythm in mammals and humans but its role is controversial in teleosts. Since the zebrafish is an emerging model for studies of cardiovascular function and regeneration we here sought to determine if basic features of SR calcium release are phylogenetically conserved. Confocal calcium imaging was used to detect spontaneous calcium release (calcium sparks and waves) from...

  13. Patients' perspective on controversial issues in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Choi, Jinbae; Shin, Kwang Sook; Chang, Chong Bum; Seong, Sang Cheol

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the level of patient knowledge and preferences over the currently controversial issues in TKA. One hundred patients who had decided to undergo TKA for advanced osteoarthritis were asked to complete a questionnaire inquiring their knowledge and preferences over three controversial issues: (1) computer assisted surgery (CAS), (2) minimal invasive surgery (MIS), and (3) ceramic femoral component. The patient preferences over the three issues were questioned again after they had been informed of advantages and disadvantages of each option using an explanatory document. Most (more than 75%) of the patients did not have sufficient knowledge and their knowledge was based on non-professional sources (more than 85%). Before the information was given, most (more than 80%) of the patients preferred a new option. After the information was provided, more patients preferred a standard option in the issues of CAS (60%) and MIS (88%). This study prompts health care providers to become more active in providing accurate information and to consider patients perspective in making decisions which will influence the benefits and risk of the patients.

  14. Endothelial progenitor cell subsets and preeclampsia: Findings and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Attar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling is an essential component of gestation. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an important role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis. The results of studies measuring the number of EPCs in normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia have been highly controversial or even contradictory because of some variations in technical issues and different methodologies enumerating three distinct subsets of EPCs: circulating angiogenic cells (CAC, colony forming unit endothelial cells (CFU-ECs, and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs. In general, most studies have shown an increase in the number of CACs in the maternal circulation with a progression in the gestational age in normal pregnancies, while functional capacities measured by CFU-ECs and ECFCs remain intact. In the case of preeclampsia, mobilization of CACs and ECFCs occurs in the peripheral blood of pregnant women, but the functional capacities shown by culture of the derived colony-forming assays (CFU-EC and ECFC assays are altered. Furthermore, the number of all EPC subsets will be reduced in umbilical cord blood in the case of preeclampsia. As EPCs play an important role in the homeostasis of vascular networks, the difference in their frequency and functionality in normal pregnancies and those with preeclampsia can be expected. In this review, there was an attempt to provide a justification for these controversies.

  15. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  16. Physician-patient discussions of controversial cancer screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A S; Shridharani, K V; Lou, W; Bernstein, J; Horowitz, C R

    2001-02-01

    Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians' likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians' belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians' intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians' intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians' beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer.

  17. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  18. The nuclear controversy as reflected in the daily press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiren, S. van.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a content analysis of 2047 journal articles of the years 1974 to 1977 on conflicts over nuclear power plants (Wyhl, Brokdorf), the book intends to analyze the role of the media in present social conflicts. The book presents facts and figures concerning the information and opinions on nuclear power in five newspapers and the bias of these newspapers in favour of nuclear power or against it. According to the author, newspaper journalists have failed at least in one thing: to explain the dimensions of the conflict with regard to social policy and to give background information on their own opinions. On the other hand, the press has proved its independence: It is not an extended arm of industrial PR departments - at least not in the nuclear controversy. The greater part of the articles is in opposition to nuclear power. The development and modifications of the arguments stated by the various groups active in the nuclear controversy are analyzed in dependence of the increasingly aggressive nature of the conflict. (HP) [de

  19. The Ground Zero Mosque Controversy: Implications for American Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyakat Takim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy surrounding the “ground zero mosque” is part of a larger debate about the place of Islam in U.S. public space. The controversy also reveals the ways in which the boundaries of American identity continue to be debated, often through struggles over who counts as a “real” American. It further demonstrates the extent to which Islam is figured as un-American and militant, and also the extent to which all Muslims are required to account for the actions of those who commit violence under the rubric of Islam. This paper will discuss how, due to the events of September 11, 2001, Muslims have engaged in a process of indigenizing American Islam. It will argue that the Park51 Islamic Community Center (or Ground Zero mosque is a reflection of this indigenization process. It will go on to argue that projects such as the Ground Zero mosque which try to establish Islam as an important part of the American religious landscape and insist on the freedom of worship as stated in the U.S. constitution, illustrate the ideological battlefield over the place of Islam in the U.S. The paper will also examine the possible ramifications of building the Park51 Islamic Community Center including how this will shape the role that Islam plays in the socio-political lives America Muslims.

  20. Controversies Concerning the Canadian Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Roy; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2017-03-01

    In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations. The legislation also creates a new "high-risk" category for certain offenders and imposes limitations on their liberty. Further, Bill C-14 seeks to enhance victim involvement in the disposition process. The passage of this legislation has generated significant controversy in the medical and legal fields. Critics have stated that there is an absence of empirical evidence on which to base the amendments, that the legislation was an overreaction to high-profile cases, and that Bill C-14 is in questionable compliance with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In this review, we explore the potential catalysts involved in the creation of Bill C-14, the controversy surrounding the legislation, and the potential future impact on practicing forensic psychiatrists and on the forensic mental health system in Canada. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  1. Controversies relating to the management of acromioclavicular joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, C S; Beazley, J; Zywiel, M G; Lawrence, T M; Veillette, C J H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to address controversies in the management of dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint. Current evidence suggests that operative rather than non-operative treatment of Rockwood grade III dislocations results in better cosmetic and radiological results, similar functional outcomes and longer time off work. Early surgery results in better functional and radiological outcomes with a reduced risk of infection and loss of reduction compared with delayed surgery. Surgical options include acromioclavicular fixation, coracoclavicular fixation and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. Although non-controlled studies report promising results for arthroscopic coracoclavicular fixation, there are no comparative studies with open techniques to draw conclusions about the best surgical approach. Non-rigid coracoclavicular fixation with tendon graft or synthetic materials, or rigid acromioclavicular fixation with a hook plate, is preferable to fixation with coracoclavicular screws owing to significant risks of loosening and breakage. The evidence, although limited, also suggests that anatomical ligament reconstruction with autograft or certain synthetic grafts may have better outcomes than non-anatomical transfer of the coracoacromial ligament. It has been suggested that this is due to better restoration horizontal and vertical stability of the joint. Despite the large number of recently published studies, there remains a lack of high-quality evidence, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding these controversial issues.

  2. The mesh controversy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Cohn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence are common conditions for which approximately 11% of women will undergo surgical intervention in their lifetime. The use of vaginal mesh for pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence rose rapidly in the early 2000s as over 100 mesh products were introduced into the clinical armamentarium with little regulatory oversight for their use. US Food and Drug Administration Public Health Notifications in 2008 and 2011, as well as reclassification of transvaginal mesh for prolapse to class III in early 2016, were a response to debilitating complications associated with transvaginal mesh placement in many women. The midurethral sling has not been subject to the same reclassification and continues to be endorsed as the “gold standard” for surgical management of stress urinary incontinence by subspecialty societies. However, litigators have not differentiated between mesh for prolapse and mesh for incontinence. As such, all mesh, including that placed for stress urinary incontinence, faces continued controversy amidst an uncertain future. In this article, we review the background of the mesh controversy, recent developments, and the anticipated role of mesh in surgery for prolapse and stress urinary incontinence going forward.

  3. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  4. Spine Trauma-What Are the Current Controversies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Cumhur; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Chapman, Jens R; Fehlings, Michael G; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Schroeder, Gregory D; Sadiqi, Said; Harrop, James

    2017-09-01

    Although less common than other musculoskeletal injuries, spinal trauma may lead to significantly more disability and costs. During the last 2 decades there was substantial improvement in our understanding of the basic patterns of spinal fractures leading to more reliable classification and injury severity assessment systems but also rapid developments in surgical techniques. Despite these advancements, there remain unresolved issues concerning the management of these injuries. At this moment there is persistent controversy within the spinal trauma community, which can be grouped under 6 headings. First of all there is still no unanimity on the role and timing of medical and surgical interventions for patients with associated neurologic injury. The same is also true for type and timing of surgical intervention in multiply injured patients. In some common injury types like odontoid fractures and burst type (A3-A4) fractures in thoracolumbar spine, there is wide variation in practice between operative versus nonoperative management without clear reasons. Also, the role of different surgical approaches and techniques in certain injury types are not clarified yet. Methods of nonoperative management and care of elderly patients with concurrent complex disorders are also areas where there is no consensus. In this overview article the main reasons for these controversies are reviewed and the possible ways for resolutions are discussed.

  5. Playful biometrics: controversial technology through the lens of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrok, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of play in the context of technological emergence and expansion, particularly as it relates to recently emerging surveillance technologies. As a case study, I consider the trajectory of automated face recognition—a biometric technology of numerous applications, from its more controversial manifestations under the rubric of national security to a clearly emerging orientation toward play. This shift toward “playful” biometrics—or from a technology traditionally coded as “hard” to one now increasingly coded as “soft”—is critical insofar as it renders problematic the traditional modes of critique that have, up until this point, challenged the expansion of biometric systems into increasingly ubiquitous realms of everyday life. In response to this dynamic, I propose theorizing the expansion of face recognition specifically in relation to “play,” a step that allows us to broaden the critical space around newly emerging playful biometrics, as well as playful surveillance more generally. In addition, play may also have relevance for theorizing other forms of controversial technology, particularly given its potential role in processes of obfuscation, normalization, and marginalization.

  6. Comprehension of Relations among Controversial Texts: Effects of External Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of external strategy use on the comprehension of relations among controversial texts. About 80 undergraduates read six controversial texts for the purpose of either finding intertextual relations or forming their opinion about the controversial issue. Half of them were permitted to use external strategies, the other…

  7. Evidence to the Windscale Inquiry on the social and political implications of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Mr.Taylor's paper has the following section headings: preface; my relevant experience; the problem of controversy; the nature of the nuclear power controversy; the role of argument; paranoia and repression; structural inertia and conflict; the internationalisation of the opposition; the place of THORP in the context of an environmental revolution; the effect on THORP; the disposal controversy; the safety controversy; the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy; nuclear power and symbolic representation; my own view as a social anthropologist (fledgling). (U.K.)

  8. Peer Review in Controversial Topics—A Case Study of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Wyndham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with an historical reminiscence, this paper examines the peer review process as experienced by authors currently seeking publication of their research in a highly controversial area. A case study of research into the events of 9/11 (11 September 2001 illustrates some of the problems in peer review arising from undue influences based on financial and political considerations. The paper suggests that ethical failures, rather than flaws in the process itself, are mainly responsible for perceived problems. The way forward lies in improved ethics and a more open process. In addition, editorial review boards and peer review strategies would help to improve the ethics of peer review in general.

  9. Legitimacy of hospital reconfiguration: the controversial downsizing of Kidderminster hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor

    2008-04-01

    This paper examines the contested organizational legitimacy of hospital reconfiguration, which continues to be a central issue in health care management. A qualitative study which focuses on the controversial downsizing of Kidderminster Hospital, a highly publicized landmark case of district general hospital closure. Rhetorical strategies are analysed to examine how legitimacy was constructed by stakeholder groups and how these strategies were used to support or resist change. Stakeholders promoting change legitimized re-organization pragmatically and morally arguing the need for centralization as a rational necessity. Stakeholders resisting change argued for cognitive and moral legitimacy in current service arrangements, contrasting local versus regionalized aspects of safety and provision. Groups managed to talk past each other, failing to establish a dialogue, which led to significant conflict and political upheaval. Stakeholders value hospitals in different ways and argue for diverse accounts of legitimacy. Broader discourses of medical science and democratic participation were drawn into rhetorical texts concerning regionalization to render them more powerful.

  10. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  11. Articles and contributions to the nuclear controversy - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, P.I.

    1976-08-01

    In the beginning of the 1970s the public interest in nuclear power in Norway was negligible, and an active information campaign might have been interpreted as an attack on the dominant hydroelectric development policy. In 1973 the electricity authorities themselves began to propose concrete nuclear power projects. Over a very short interval of time organised protest groups emerged whose main objective was to hinder the establishment of nuclear power in their own districts. T hese have since developed into agressive national groups and in the period up to the spring of 1975 an intense press debate took place. The staff of Institutt for Atomenergi took an active part in this debate and this collection of articles and contributions gives an impression of the nuclear controversy in Norway from 1973 to 1976. (JIW)

  12. AMS and controversies in history The Spanish conquest of Peru

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, U; Jacobsen, G; Laurencich-Minelli, L; Lawson, E M; Sarkisian, G; Tuniz, C

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s.

  13. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    is understood as something we should presume everyone possesses, it provides a strong basis for equal respect among people from diverse cultures. A Kantian conception of autonomy can justify the right to freedom of expression while it at the same time requires that we in the exercise of freedom of expression......Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more...... complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disrespect for diversity only when it is understood as a character ideal that must be promoted as an end in itself. If it by contrast...

  14. Unitization in Brazil: controversial issues; Unitizacao no Brasil: questoes controversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucheb, Jose Alberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main consequences of the growing number of the tendered blocks is the increasing probability of the discovery of oil and gas accumulations that extends through more than one concession. In these cases, the Brazilian Petroleum Law determines that the concessionaires of the adjoining blocks shall agree on the unitization of the production. In this context, the negotiations of the first agreements have brought some controversies not yet resolved. The first one is related to the instrument that will define the basis of the unitization process in case of non-agreement within the maximum period established by the ANP. Another issue still in discussion relates to the scope of the unitization process: field, block, vertical prism of indeterminate depth, vertical prism of determinate depth or reservoir (accumulation). Additionally, the unitization involving concessions with different local content commitments is analyzed. (author)

  15. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  16. Discussing agrochemical themes: an approach through socio-scientific controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eril Medeiros da Fonseca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of "agro-toxicology" in the Rural Education pervades key issues to be problematized, such as the care of rural workers, from the concept of health as something broad, involving access to cultural goods, leisure and communication and still, the collective physical, mental and social well-being. The use of pesticides, in addition to compromising the health of those who work in the field and those who feed on what is produced in the field, brings with it a conception of health that, in addition to suffering and individualizing, affects our biological diversity. The objective of this study is to discuss pesticides and their implications for health, through the approach of Socio-Scientific Controversies (CSC in Science Teaching and Rural Education.

  17. Ecotheology and the theology of eating: controversies and convergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Pihkala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental theology (or, ecotheology developed slowly during the first half of the twentieth century and has become a major field of study since the late 1960s. While many of the issues discussed in ecotheological works have included consequences for food production and eating habits, these themes were often not explicitly discussed. The reasons for this are interesting and complex. Issues related to food have been culturally very sensitive and have manifold connections to religiosity. In regard to the discussion about the rights and value of animals, controversies have been seen to arise between ecotheology and ‘animal theology’. Recently, a new interest has arisen in the themes of food, eating, and Christian theology, which has resulted in a new field of literature which could be called the ‘theology of eating’. This article gives an overview of the relations between these fields, with an emphasis on both early ecotheology and new literature about the theology of eating.

  18. [Neurosis as a mental disease--controversies surrounding insurance certification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Christian; Kobek, Mariusz; Kowalczyk-Jabłońska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    In the years 2008-2009, experts from the Department of Forensic Medicine in Katowice issued a dozen of expert opinions on the nature of the neurosis, addressing the question whether neurosis is a mental disease as understood under the general insurance conditions or whether neurosis is a mental disease as such. All the submitted cases involved policemen who had been diagnosed as neurotic and were refused insurance payments since the insurance company claimed payments could not have been effected due to the diagnosis of mental disease, meaning neurosis in the discussed cases. The plaintiffs invoked the fact that medical terminology describes such states as "mental disorders". In the article, the authors present the adopted model of opinionating, make an attempt at explaining the controversy and discuss the subtleties of medical terminology and the core differences between the terms "mental disorder" and "mental disease" as employed in medico-legal opinionating in such cases.

  19. Unicameral bone cysts: general characteristics and management controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Murphy, Robert Francis; Kushare, Indranil; Dormans, John P

    2014-05-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are benign bone lesions that are often asymptomatic and commonly develop in the proximal humerus and femur of skeletally immature patients. The etiology of these lesions remains unknown. Most patients present with a pathologic fracture, but these cysts can be discovered incidentally, as well. Radiographically, a unicameral bone cyst appears as a radiolucent lesion with cortical thinning and is centrally located within the metaphysis. Although diagnosis is frequently straightforward, management remains controversial. Because the results of various management methods are heterogeneous, no single method has emerged as the standard of care. New minimally invasive techniques involve cyst decompression with bone grafting and instrumentation. These techniques have yielded promising results, with low rates of complications and recurrence reported; however, prospective clinical trials are needed to compare these techniques with current evidence-based treatments.

  20. AMS and controversies in history: The Spanish conquest of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, U.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Sarkissian, G.; Lawson, E.M.; Tuniz, C.; Laurencich Minelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    The quest for understanding the past often contains a subjective component. Legends, myths, traditions and personal beliefs can unconsciously influence the interpretation of the scientific outcomes or, in the worst instances, even lead to forgery. Fortunately, an increasing number of scientific tools are available nowadays and can be combined to discredit such detriments and offer more reliable foundations for an objective analysis. Radiocarbon dating by AMS is a relatively non-invasive method and is particularly useful when valuable historical artefacts are involved. In this paper, we will present controversial cases where AMS is playing an important role in understanding the past. In particular, we will discuss the use of AMS to authenticate historical documents revealing a new version of the conquest of Peru by Pizarro in the early 1530s

  1. Cigarette smoking and lung cancer: a continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, P R

    1982-09-01

    During the late 1950s Sir Ronald Fisher questioned the already popular, but in his view precipitate, causal interpretation of the association between smoking and lung cancer. His pungently expressed views began a controversy that has smouldered and sometimes flared ever since. The most recent attack on Fisher's constitutional hypothesis was launched by Reif and in this paper I consider the validity of his criticisms. A range of evidence shows that it is not yet possible to distinguish between constitutional and causal-plus-constitutional interpretations although recent studies indicate that a pure causal hypothesis is incapable of explaining the full association as observed in Western populations. Unfortunately, errors of diagnosis and death certification still impede the rigorous testing of adequately formulated hypotheses.

  2. Present state of the controversy about the grain boundary relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Molinas, B.J.

    1990-04-01

    An analysis of the internal friction produced by grain boundary relaxation in metals, alloys and ceramics is presented. The different interpretations given in the literature to relaxation phenomena occurring at temperatures above about half the melting point which include the influence of grain boundaries and their interaction with solutes and precipitates are discussed in detail. A complete set of the experimental data disposable in this field since 1972 until today is reviewed. Finally, some recent experiments are discussed and new ones are suggested. They might solve the actual controversy about the real origin of the relaxation phenomena observed. If this is the case, a considerable amount of information already published can be taken into account with a good degree of confidence. This information contributes to the description of the structure and behaviour of grain boundaries, both being important topics for materials science. (author). 119 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  3. A VLBI resolution of the Pleiades distance controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J; Mioduszewski, Amy J; Stauffer, John R; Bower, Geoffrey C

    2014-08-29

    Because of its proximity and its youth, the Pleiades open cluster of stars has been extensively studied and serves as a cornerstone for our understanding of the physical properties of young stars. This role is called into question by the "Pleiades distance controversy," wherein the cluster distance of 120.2 ± 1.5 parsecs (pc) as measured by the optical space astrometry mission Hipparcos is significantly different from the distance of 133.5 ± 1.2 pc derived with other techniques. We present an absolute trigonometric parallax distance measurement to the Pleiades cluster that uses very long baseline radio interferometry (VLBI). This distance of 136.2 ± 1.2 pc is the most accurate and precise yet presented for the cluster and is incompatible with the Hipparcos distance determination. Our results cement existing astrophysical models for Pleiades-age stars. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  5. The outcomes and controversies of transplant tourism-Lessons of an 11-year retrospective cohort study from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Daniel Fu-Chang; Huang, Shi-Wei; Holm, Soren; Lin, Yi-Ping; Chang, Yu-Kang; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transplant tourism has increased rapidly in the past two decades, accounting for about 10% of world organ transplants. However it is ethically controversial and discouraged by professional guidelines. We conducted this study to investigate the outcomes and trends of overseas kidney and liver transplantation in Taiwan to provide a sound basis for ethical reflection.METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 2381 domestic and...

  6. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  7. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  8. Ethics in science education: responsabilities and commitments with the child's moral development in the discussion of controversial subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Castilho Razera

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research outcomes presents in a sample of Science Education journals, shows that ethics and moral development issues have been neglected in the Science Education research. Based in theoretical referential directed toward this theme, and in a research carried out on controversial issues in the Science Teaching, such as those related to the debate creationism versus evolutionism, this paper tries to show the necessity and possibilities to take into consideration questions of this nature in classroom, in order to help developing the moral in students.

  9. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  10. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  11. Measuring biotechnology employees' ethical attitudes towards a controversial transgenic cattle project: the ethical valance matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Bruce H; Fisher, Mark W

    2005-01-01

    What is the relationship between biotechnology employees' beliefs about the moral outcomes of a controversial transgenic research project and their attitudes of acceptance towards the project? To answer this question, employees (n=466) of a New Zealand company, AgResearch Ltd., were surveyed regarding a project to create transgenic cattle containing a synthetic copy of the human myelin basic protein gene (hMBP). Although diversity existed amongst employees' attitudes of acceptance, they were generally: in favor of the project, believed that it should be allowed to proceed to completion, and that it is acceptable to use transgenic cattle to produce medicines for humans. These three items were aggregated to form a project acceptance score. Scales were developed to measure respondents' beliefs about the moral outcomes of the project for identified stakeholders in terms of the four principles of common morality (benefit, non-harm, justice, and autonomy). These data were statistically aggregated into an Ethical Valence Matrix fo the project. The respondents' project Ethical Valence Scores correlated significantly with their project acceptance scores (r=0.64, pethical reasoning could be a central mechanism for the evaluation of the acceptability of a project. We propose that the Ethical Valence Matrix may be used as a tool to measure ethical attitudes towards controversial issues, providing a metric for comparison of perceived ethical consequences for multiple stakeholder groups and for the evaluation and comparison of the ethical consequences of competing alternative issues or projects. The tool could be used to measure both public and special interest groups' ethical attitudes and results used for the development of socially responsible policy or by science organizations as a democratizing decision aid to selection amongst projects competing for scarce research funds.

  12. From facts to arguments: A study of the 2014 Swiss controversy over systematic mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrenoud, Caroline; Stiefel, Friedrich; Bourquin, Céline

    2018-06-01

    The Swiss Medical Board (SMB) has recently revived the controversy over mammography screening by recommending to stop the introduction of new systematic mammography screening programs. This study aimed to examine the Swiss media coverage of the release of the SMB report. The dataset consisted of 25 newspaper and "medical magazine" articles, and TV/radio interviews. The analytic approach was based on argumentation theory. Authority and community arguments were the most frequent types of arguments. With respect to authority arguments, stakeholders for instance challenged or supported the expertise of the SMB by referring to the competence of external figures of authority. Community arguments were based on common values such as life (saved thanks to systematic mammography screening) and money (costs associated with unnecessary care induced by systematic mammography screening). The efficiency of mammography screening which was the key issue of the debate appeared to be largely eluded, and the question of what women should do endures. While interpersonal and interprofessional communication has become a major topic of interest in the medical community, it appears that media communication on mammography screening is still rather ineffective. We call in particular for a more fact-based discussion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  14. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 901112W1. 11116 Cray Research, Inc., Cray Ada Compiler, Release 2.0, Cray X-MP/EA (Host & Target)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-12

    semaphores : 0.00 44858 Waiting on shared registers : 0.00 0 Waiting on A-registers/funct.units : 19.69 5551338711 Waiting on S-registers/funct.units...dependent bodies that implement the fundamental low-level primitives on which SR-3082 2.0 Cray Research, Inc. 73 Ada Program Runtime Model Cray Ada...operations provided by the runtime library are performed synchronously , with program execution suspended until the 1/O operation is complete. The

  15. Cumulative release to the accessible environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Fractional Release Subgroup are presented

  16. [Experimental research on the effects of different activators on the formation of platelet-rich gel and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhang, W; Cheng, B

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of calcium gluconate and thrombin on the formation of platelet-rich gel (PRG) and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the clinical significance. Methods: Six healthy blood donors who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in our unit from May to August in 2016. Platelet samples of each donor were collected for preparation of PRP. (1) PRP in the volume of 10 mL was collected from each donor and divided into thrombin activation group (TA, added with 0.5 mL thrombin solution in dose of 100 U/mL) and calcium gluconate activation group (CGA, added with 0.5 mL calcium gluconate solution in dose of 100 g/L) according to the random number table, with 5 mL PRP in each group. Then the PRP of the two groups was activated in water bath at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The formation time of PRG was recorded, and the formation situation of PRG was observed within 1 hour of activation. After being activated for 1 h, one part of PRG was collected to observe the distribution of fibrous protein with HE staining, and another part of PRG was collected to observe platelet ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope (TEM). After being activated for 1 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the content of transforming growth factor β(1, )platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factorⅠby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2) Another 10 mL PRP from each donor was collected and grouped as above, and the platelet suspension was obtained after two times of centrifugation and resuspension with phosphate buffered saline, respectively. And then they were treated with corresponding activator for 1 h as that in experiment (1). Nanoparticle tracking analyzer was used to detect the concentrations of microvesicles with different diameters and total microvesicles derived from platelet. Data

  17. Autism Narratives in Media Coverage of the MMR Vaccine-Autism Controversy under a Crip Futurism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Benjamin W

    2018-03-09

    While previous studies in health communication have examined online news media regarding autism, there is a lack of research that critically examines how such media representations may stigmatize autism and seeks to eliminate the condition, particularly in the context of the resurging measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine-autism controversy. To address this gap in the literature, this study analyzes 153 articles that engage the MMR vaccine-autism controversy from the top 10 online news sources in the U.S. from September 2015 through July 2017. It draws from Kafer's (2013) work in Feminist, Crip, Queer, using a lens of crip futurism to interpret three major narrative themes: a death and survival narrative that purports autism as a worst-case scenario, a societal problem narrative, and a preventative narrative that seeks to eliminate the condition. These themes suggest that online news media narratives about autism surrounding the autism-MMR controversy play into stereotypes about autism, including stigmatization and prioritization of preventive behaviors and cures over supporting the lived experiences of autistic individuals. Continued research on the impact of online media portrayals of autism specifically, and disability in health contexts generally, is called for.

  18. A-socio-logy of psychiatric disorder. A study of controversies surrounding etiology, diagnosis and therapy of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wróblewski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the controversies surrounding ADHD and the process whereby this psychiatric unit was formed and constituted as a social and scientific fact. We focus mainly on the arguments around ADHD in the United States – this is dictated by significant differences between the ways to define and treat this disorder between various countries (Bonati 2006; Cohen 2006: 14. The above mentioned controversies make us conscious of the fact that despite what a considerable number of psychiatrists, scientists and other “spokespeople” for the entity that is ADHD claim, the dominating approach to this disorder has not been based on self-evident, irrefutable scientific findings. What is more important, however, is that the quarrelling actors reveal the circumstances and the way in which the definition, as well as the methods of researching and treating ADHD were formed.

  19. George Herbert Mead and the Allen controversy at the University of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gary A

    2007-01-01

    This essay uses previously unpublished correspondence of George Herbert Mead to tell the story of his involvement in the aftermath of a political dispute that took place at the University of Wisconsin during the years 1914-1915. It seeks thereby to clarify the historical significance of an article he published on this controversy in late 1915. Taken together with relevant information about the educational activities of William H. Allen of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, Mead's correspondence and article throw helpful light upon his understanding of how an educational survey of a university should proceed; they also show how he went about the task of evaluating a failed attempt at such a survey. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Wording effect leads to a controversy over the construct of the social dominance orientation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping

    2010-01-01

    Most investigations of individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) have used the 16-item SDO scale developed by F. Pratto, J. Sidanius, L. M. Stallworth, and B. F. Malle (1994). The scale's authors believed it to be a unidimensional scale, but other researchers have found the scale has 2 or more factors. The present authors proposed a new hypothesis: The controversy of the scale structure was related to the wording effect of the scale. Based on a sample of Americans, Canadians, and Chinese, the present study indicated that what the scale measured was not only 1 trait of SDO, but also a negative-wording effect factor and that the scale structure was invariant across the 3 cultural groups. The existence of a wording effect reminds us to be cautious of the construct validity of the scale and interpretations of results.

  1. An assessment of the individual and social risks of Athens population resulting from a hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accident release of the Greek Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, John; Synodinou, Varvara; Varsamis, G.; Antoniades, John; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1984-03-01

    In this report the loss-of-coolant-accident consequences for the Greek Research Reactor-1 which is located within the limits of Athens are estimated. The source term emerges from a conservative 20% coremelt with 25 isotopes taken into consideration. Individual and social risks are calculated to a distance of 20 km from the reactor site, an area covering the whole Athens region of 3,081,000 inhabitants. Latent health effects due to both initial an chronic exposure from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and exposure to groundshine from contaminated ground are assessed. (author)

  2. Source terms and releases in routine and accidental situations: the scheme implemented at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra for the evaluation of the dose to the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the scheme and the tools implemented for the evaluation of the dose to the population due to the routine and emergency situations of the nuclear installations at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra. In particular, it will be introduced and discussed the use of models provided by commercial software and international technical recommendations. The approach for all the calculations required the usual conservative hypotheses, so that the maximum dose results have been derived. The dose evaluations have been performed retrospectively, for the years 1990-2002. The doses are evaluated net of the doses due to the naturally occurring radioactivity. (author)

  3. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial.

  4. Advance euthanasia directives: a controversial case and its ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Gibbes; Dresser, Rebecca; Kim, Scott Y H

    2018-03-03

    Authorising euthanasia and assisted suicide with advance euthanasia directives (AEDs) is permitted, yet debated, in the Netherlands. We focus on a recent controversial case in which a Dutch woman with Alzheimer's disease was euthanised based on her AED. A Dutch euthanasia review committee found that the physician performing the euthanasia failed to follow due care requirements for euthanasia and assisted suicide. This case is notable because it is the first case to trigger a criminal investigation since the 2002 Dutch euthanasia law was enacted. Thus far, only brief descriptions of the case have been reported in English language journals and media. We provide a detailed description of the case, review the main challenges of preparing and applying AEDs for persons with dementia and briefly assess the adequacy of the current oversight system governing AEDs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Risk perception, psychological heuristics and the water fluoridation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J

    2015-04-29

    Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.

  6. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Budd Russo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety and public health issues remain.

  7. Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controversies, development and trends of biofuel industry in the world were discussed in present article. First-generation biofuels, i.e., grain and land based biofuels, occupied large areas of arable lands and severely constrained food supplies, are widely disputed. They have been replaced by second-generation biofuels. The raw materials of the second-generation biofuels include plants, straw, grass and other crops and forest residues. However, the cost for production of the second-generation biofuels is higher. Therefore the development of the third-generation biofuels is undergoing. The third-generation technologies use, mainly algae, as raw material to produce bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and hydrogen, and use discarded fruits to produce dimethylfuran, etc. Different countries and regions are experiencing different stages of biofuel industry. In the future the raw materials for biofuel production will be focused on various by-products, wastes, and organisms that have not direct economic benefit for human. Production technologies should be improved or invented to reduce carbon emission and environmental pollution during biofuel production and to reduce production cost.

  8. Our Way to Understand the World: Darwin's Controversial Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Salomon, Michael

    Shortly after he had completed the first draft of his theory of evolution in 1844, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend Joseph Hooker, the botanist, that publishing the theory seemed to him "like confessing a murder" (Glaubrecht 2009, p. 161). Right from the beginning, Darwin was aware of the far-reaching impact his theory would have. And this was probably one of the main reasons for his postponing the publication of his ideas for such a long time. After the completion of the 230 page text in 1844, it was another 15 years (!) before his famous book On the Origin of Species was published. Since that time 150 years have passed, but the theory of evolution is as controversial as ever. Darwin's dangerous idea is still putting many traditional world views through some very hard tests. This is the central theme to which I have devoted the following thoughts. I have divided my study into three parts: I shall start by shedding some light on the conflict between Darwin's challenging idea and traditional (Christian) beliefs, a conflict that has lasted till this very day. In the second part, I want to focus on the ideological abuse of the theory of evolution. The third and final part introduces Julian Huxley's concept of 'evolutionary humanism', which links Darwin's scientific inheritance with a distinctly humanist ethic.

  9. Cannabis Controversies: How genetics can inform the study of comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To review three key and controversial comorbidities of cannabis use – other illicit drug use, psychosis and depression as well as suicide, from a genetically informed perspective. Design Selective review. Results Genetic factors play a critical role in the association between cannabis use, particularly early-onset use and use of other illicit drugs, psychosis and depression as well as suicide, albeit via differing mechanisms. For other illicit drugs, while there is strong evidence for shared genetic influences, residual association that is attributable to causal or person-specific environmental factors cannot be ruled out. For depression, common genetic influences are solely responsible for the association with cannabis use but for suicidal attempt, evidence for person-specific factors persists. Finally, even though rates of cannabis use are inordinately high in those with psychotic disorders, there is no evidence of shared genetic etiologies underlying this comorbidity. Instead, there is limited evidence that adolescent cannabis use might moderate the extent to which diathesis influences psychosis. Conclusions Overlapping genetic influences underlie the association between early-onset cannabis use and other illicit drug use as well as depression and suicide. For psychosis, mechanisms other than shared genetic influences might be at play. PMID:24438181

  10. Controversies in office based anesthesia: obstructive sleep apnea considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchir; Pyati, Srinivas

    2018-05-14

    As the number of procedures being performed in the office based anesthesia (OBA) setting are increasing, so are the number of patients presenting for surgery with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There continues to be controversy regarding whether these patients can be safely cared for in the OBA setting. To date, no national guideline has clearly addressed this issue and while some have extrapolated lessons from what has been published for OSA in the ambulatory surgery center (ASC) setting, some argue that there is a significant difference in the availability of resources in the ASC versus the OBA setting. Those opposing OSA patients for OBA setting point to the prevalence of "practice drift," and no federal oversight as overarching reasons why the OBA is not an appropriate setting. Proponents of the OBA setting argue that a well equipped OBA can have similar resources, and therefore similar outcomes, as an OR in the ASC setting. In this paper we explore the divergent views on this topic and present some recommendations based on best evidence.

  11. The race prussienne controversy: scientific internationalism and the nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Chris

    2009-12-01

    This essay examines a dispute between the French and German anthropological communities in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War. While the debate ostensibly revolved around the ethnological classification of the Prussian population presented in Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages's La race prussienne, this overlays much deeper points of contention, presenting a case study of how commitments to nationalism and internationalism in late nineteenth-century science were not mutually exclusive but could operate in a highly synergistic manner, even during periods of intense international crisis. In the controversy, a group of scholars attempted to reconcile national rivalries with a commitment to scientific universalism and define how anthropological ideas of race and progress related to political developments. The French and German communities retained similar views that anthropology was an international science and that politically defined nationality was separate from scientifically discerned race. Yet they nevertheless regarded their work as strongly affected by processes of national consolidation and employed the language of scientific universalism to accuse their rivals of misusing science for political purposes.

  12. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  13. Controversial Issues in Kyphoplasty and Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Papanastassiou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kyphoplasty (KP and vertebroplasty (VP have been successfully employed for many years for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The purpose of this review is to resolve the controversial issues raised by the two randomized trials that claimed no difference between VP and SHAM procedure. In particular we compare nonsurgical management (NSM and KP and VP, in terms of clinical parameters (pain, disability, quality of life, and new fractures, cost-effectiveness, radiological variables (kyphosis correction and vertebral height restoration, and VP versus KP for cement extravasation and complications profile. Cement types and optimal filling are analyzed and technological innovations are presented. Finally unipedicular/bipedicular techniques are compared. Conclusion. VP and KP are superior to NSM in clinical and radiological parameters and probably more cost-effective. KP is superior to VP in sagittal balance improvement and cement leaking. Complications are rare but serious adverse events have been described, so caution should be exerted. Unilateral procedures should be pursued whenever feasible. Upcoming randomized trials (CEEP, OSTEO-6, STIC-2, and VERTOS IV will provide the missing link.

  14. Controversies regarding decentralism, regionalism, and local governance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milovan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is composed from three parts. In the first part, I emphasize the importance of theoretical and sociological discussion for the design of the model of social system reforms and stress the problems that occur in Serbia with regard to this. In the second part, I discuss public controversies regarding decentralism, regionalism, and local governance in Serbia. I advocate for regionalism that is closer to local then to para-state governance and argue for the advantages of alternative model of 'functional autonomy of different tempo', that could harmonize inherited historical geopolitical, economic, and cultural differences and reconcile current political antagonisms in Serbia. In the third part I give a proposition that envisages central (Republic administration and local (municipal and city self-governance as main levels of territorial organization of governance (with original authorities, while federal and regional levels would be complementary with it, not parallel. In that sense, I propose 15 autonomous regions for Serbia, with possibility of making 4 to 6 larger regions out of them, at different pace.

  15. Oncologic PET/CT: current status and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, B.A.; Dehdashti, F.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of integrated PET/CT has dramatically increased the worldwide rate of growth for PET, predominantly for oncologic imaging with the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). A rapidly expanding body of literature demonstrates that the use FDG-PET/CT and the resultant ability to interpret coregistered and fused PET and CT images lead to improved observer confidence and improved diagnostic performance by comparison with PET alone, CT alone, and visually correlated PET and CT. The value of PET/CT is likely to be even greater with new PET radiopharmaceuticals under development, many of which produce PET images with even fewer anatomical landmarks than FDG images. PET/CT is also likely to lead to the resurrection of 18 F-fluoride as a principal agent for radionuclide bone imaging. There are a number of controversies related to PET/CT, including minimum training and experience requirements for interpreting physicians and defining new models for technical and professional reimbursement. (orig.)

  16. Streamlining antibiotic therapy with procalcitonin protocols: consensus and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports procalcitonin (PCT) as an accurate surrogate biomarker for likelihood and severity of bacterial infections. In community-acquired pneumonia and other respiratory infections, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy algorithms resulted in reduced antibiotic exposure while maintaining a similar or even better level of safety compared with standard care. Reductions in antibiotic use translate into lower treatment costs, decreased risk of side effects and decreased bacterial multiresistance. This is especially important, as acute respiratory infections represent the most frequent reason for antibiotic prescriptions worldwide. Still, there is some controversy about the benefits of PCT measurement in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit and for nonrespiratory infections. Highly sensitive PCT assays are readily available in many hospitals today, and point-of-care assays with high enough sensitivity for antibiotic guidance are expected to be available soon. Herein, the authors provide an overview of recent studies evaluating PCT in different clinical situations and an outlook of currently enrolling or upcoming interventional trials.

  17. Sustainable Development? Controversies over Prawn Farming on Mafia Island, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Caplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world market for crustaceans has increased exponentially in recent years and so too have the number of production sites. However, the growth of this industry has not been without controversy, particularly regarding its environmental effects. In 2002, a large company based in Kenya applied to locate a prawn farm on Mafia Island, Tanzania, close to the Rufiji Delta. This scheme raised very differing views among various 'stakeholders': villagers living around the proposed site, the Mafia District Councillors (madiwan, government officials at varying levels, local and national activists (some in NGOs, the prawn farming company, and the experts whom they hired to produce environmental impact reports. There were opposing discourses around the rights of locals as citizens to retain control of 'their' resources, on the one hand, versus the needs of 'development' and the creation of jobs, on the other. There were also fierce debates about the importance and meaning of environment and sustainability, and the perceived role of corruption. This paper, based on fieldwork in 2002 and 2004, explores these complex debates and the ways in which the decision was finally made to allow the prawn farm to go ahead. It reveals the means by which the legal rights of citizens at the local level may be trumped by pressures emanating from those coming from above and outside who wield greater power.

  18. Gender dysphoria and the controversy over the Safe Schools program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The Safe Schools program has attracted great controversy. On one end of the spectrum, it is defended as an anti-bullying program for young people who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, or have issues concerning their gender identity. On the other end of the spectrum, it is regarded as social engineering. This article seeks to promote a discussion of the way in which gender identity issues are addressed in the Safe Schools program. It is argued that the information in this program to Principals, teachers and young people is inaccurate and misleading. The program, as presently designed, may actually cause harm to children and young people who experience gender identity issues because it promotes gender transitioning without expert medical advice. The Safe Schools materials do not acknowledge that the great majority of children resolve gender dysphoria issues around the time of puberty. It may be much more difficult for a child to accept his or her gender at puberty if he or she has already changed name and gender identity in primary school. These deficits need to be addressed if the program is to continue.

  19. The controversy of sports technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Changes or introductions of technology or equipment can affect how a sport is played or influence its performances. This article conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify any case studies of controversial events surrounding the implementation or use of sports technology. 56 articles were identified that highlighted 31 different case studies found over a three decade time period. Thematic analysis revealed six distinctive themes when reviewing the articles. Whilst the sport of golf had the highest number of case studies, it was found that a significant level of attention had been recorded in the cases of Oscar Pistorius use of prosthetic legs in athletics and the use of full length swimsuits in swimming. The trend surrounding the number of articles was shown to be initially intermittent but saw a peak period from 2008 to 2010. However, the frequency of such articles since this peak has been more consistent. It is proposed that long periods of time without intervention or resolution by a governing body often increases the peer-reviewed attention paid to such cases in examples such as those identified in this systematic review.

  20. LNT-an apparent rather than a real controversy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M W [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Can the carcinogenic risks of radiation that are observed at high doses be extrapolated to low doses? This question has been debated through the whole professional life of the author-now nearing four decades. In its extreme form the question relates to a particular hypothesis (LNT) used widely by the international community for radiological protection applications. The linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis propounds that the extrapolation is linear and that it extends down to zero dose. The debate on the validity of LNT has increased dramatically in recent years. This is in no small part due to concern that exaggerated risks at low doses leads to undue amounts of societal resources being used to reduce man-made human exposure and because of the related growing public aversion to diagnostic and therapeutic medical exposures. The debate appears to be entering a new phase. There is a growing realisation of the limitations of fundamental data and the scientific approach to address this question at low doses. There also appears to be an increasing awareness that the assumptions necessary for a workable and acceptable system of radiological protection at low doses must necessarily be based on considerable pragmatism. Recent developments are reviewed and a historical perspective is given on the general nature of controversies in radiation protection over the years. All the protagonists in the debate will at the end of the day probably be able to claim that they were right{exclamation_point} (opinion)

  1. Controversies in the handling of Cancer of breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Perez, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The handling of the breast Cancer is based on three fundamental pillars that are: the surgery, the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy, at the moment the controversy rests in that moment in that it should be given the radiotherapy and the shortcomings of the same one in the treatment. It is important then to clarify which is the ideal moment to begin the radiotherapy, for what the patients can be divided in two groups: 1 - Those to those who are made conservative surgery and later radiotherapy in the breast. 2 - those to who that are practiced radical mastectomy and later radiotherapy. In the conservative surgery there is more impact in the delay and local control of the tumor while in the other ones (second group) there is not a significant impact. The best study is that of the U. of Harvard that includes but of 200 patients to those that were given initial chemotherapy and another group with initial radiotherapy that then received chemotherapy. When the radiotherapy took a long time for 16 weeks or more, there was more fail in the breast, being but high the recurrence incidence. If the patient had intraductal tumor or with positive margins, they were more frequent the fault. In the patients with radiotherapy and later chemotherapy, had but metastasis incidence, for what it concludes that if there are as much positive margin as tumor extensive, first the radiotherapy it should be administered and later the chemotherapy

  2. Sensory processing disorders – diagnostic and therapeutic controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta R. Borkowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the current state of knowledge regarding the controversial issue of sensory integration dysfunction/sensory processing disorder. Symptoms are defined as impairments in the accurate reception and registering of stimuli, differentiation of stimulus intensity, and adequate reactivity to stimulation. They can be of specific character and occur in isolation and can also be a nonspecific element of a clinical picture of another disease entity. Psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies confirm the existence of both a distinct group of children with symptoms of sensory processing disorder diagnosed based on descriptions of behaviours listed in questionnaires and of a specific neurobiological basis of this disorder. In clinical practice, it is of key importance to determine whether behavioural problems observed in children are caused by disorders other than sensory processing disorders. Results of meta-analyses regarding sensory integration therapy are inconclusive and do not allow this form of treatment to be considered fact-based. Future studies with high methodological standards are necessary in order to verify the effectiveness of different forms of sensory integration therapy. Parents should be informed about the existing limitations.

  3. Cord blood banking and transplantation: advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Mervin C

    2014-04-01

    A review of articles published since January 2012 on the topic of cord blood banking and cord blood stem cell transplantation was conducted for this the 25th anniversary year of the first cord blood transplant performed in a human. Cord blood banking is performed throughout the world. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is recognized as an acceptable alternative stem cell source for paediatric and adults requiring a haematopoietic transplant, particularly for patients of racial and ethnic minorities. To further advance the use of UCB, methods to enhance UCB stem cell expansion, engraftment and maintenance may be required. Controversy on the most effective and economically sustainable model for banking and storing an optimal UCB product continues to persist. Cord blood banking and transplantation of cord blood stem cells has advanced rapidly over the initial 25 years, as more than 30 ,000 patients have benefited from the therapy. New concepts on the use of methods to expand UCB stem cells for transplantation and use for nonhaematopoietic indications may increase demand for UCB over the next few decades.

  4. [Parental alienation and the controversy surrounding psychiatric diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migchels, C; De Wachter, D

    The phenomenon of parental alienation can arise when a child allies with one parent and refuses to have contact with the other parent. The concept has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few years. There has been controversy about whether parental alienation should be recognised as a psychiatric syndrome of the alienated child caught up in a conflict between supporters and opponents. AIM: To try to determine whether parental alienation belongs to psychiatric diagnostics. METHOD: We made a careful study of various databases in order to find literature relating to parental alienation. RESULTS: Parental alienation is situated on the border between psychiatry, sociology and justice. One of the main tasks of psychiatry in this border area is to safeguard the domain of diagnostics. CONCLUSION: Because so much attention is being given to the question of whether parental alienation syndrome should be recognised as a diagnosis, there is often a tendency to ignore the possible impact of parental alienation and to pay very little attention to ways of coping with the problem.

  5. Unwaged Posts in UK Universities: Controversies and Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Forkert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines unwaged posts at UK universities, using recent examples of advertised job posts. While unpaid work is common in the UK higher education system, unwaged posts are not. The posts under scrutiny in this article differ from traditional honorary titles as they target early career academics, who are unlikely to have a paid position elsewhere, rather than established scholars. The article contextualizes the appearance of these posts in a climate of increasing marketization of higher education, entrenching managerialism in higher education institutions, and the casualization of academic work. We also discuss resistance to the posts, arguing that the controversy surrounding unpaid internships in the creative industries created a receptive environment for resisting unwaged posts in academia. We analyze the campaigns that were fought against the advertisement of the posts, mostly through social media and the University and College Union. We explore the tactics used and discuss the advantages and limitations of the use of social media, as well as the role of trade unions in the campaigns against these posts, and we reflect on what future campaigns can learn from these experiences.

  6. [Methodological controversies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapeutic trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Samy

    2009-03-01

    Pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies principally on long-acting bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were introduced for COPD two decades ago, despite the fact that no randomized trial had yet assessed their efficacy for this indication. Since then, the numerous randomized trials and meta-analyses performed to justify their use in COPD have been contradictory and controversial. Moreover, observational studies have reported efficacy rates so exceptional that they are almost too good to be true. These studies contain important methodological flaws that produce the appearance of efficacy. The randomized trials infringe the fundamental principle of intention-to-treat analysis, an analysis necessary to prevent important biases. Two other complications are the interruption of treatment at the moment of randomization and the use of a run-in period; in both cases, the withdrawal of treatment can introduce bias. The observational studies reporting phenomenal reductions in mortality with ICS were distorted by "immortal time" bias. Finally, recent data suggest that the effect of ICS/bronchodilator combinations is due mainly to the effect of the long-acting bronchodilator. Given the absence of proof of the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD and their associated risks, especially of ocular damage and pneumonia, and particularly among the elderly, as well as the high doses currently prescribed in COPD, it is difficult to recommend their use in this indication. They should be prescribed in COPD for at most a limited population of patients.

  7. Perspectives on classical controversies about the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Mohsen; Kaufman, Matthew T; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G; Cheney, Paul D

    2017-09-01

    Primary motor cortex has been studied for more than a century, yet a consensus on its functional contribution to movement control is still out of reach. In particular, there remains controversy as to the level of control produced by motor cortex ("low-level" movement dynamics vs. "high-level" movement kinematics) and the role of sensory feedback. In this review, we present different perspectives on the two following questions: What does activity in motor cortex reflect? and How do planned motor commands interact with incoming sensory feedback during movement? The four authors each present their independent views on how they think the primary motor cortex (M1) controls movement. At the end, we present a dialogue in which the authors synthesize their views and suggest possibilities for moving the field forward. While there is not yet a consensus on the role of M1 or sensory feedback in the control of upper limb movements, such dialogues are essential to take us closer to one. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: classical considerations and current controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboym, Irene; Mazeh, Haggi

    2014-01-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is an endocrinopathy characterized by gastrin-secreting tumors, responsible for causing the formation of multiple, refractory, and recurrent peptic ulcers in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum. Two main variants have been described, sporadic and those found in association with parathyroid and pituitary tumors, a genetic disorder known as multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1). Biochemical serum evaluation for elevated gastrin, followed by radiological or nuclear localization of the primary lesion, is mandated for establishing diagnosis. The mainstays of treatment include management of hypersecretory state with medical suppression of gastric acid production and surgical resection of primary tumor for the prevention of malignant transformation and metastatic complications. Medical therapy with proton pump inhibitors has virtually eliminated the need for acid-reducing surgical procedures. Surgical approach to sporadic and MEN-1-associated ZES varies based on our understanding of the natural history of the condition and the probability of cure; however, resection to a negative microscopic margin is indicated in both cases. Postoperative surveillance involves measurement of gastrin level, followed by imaging if elevation is detected. Re-excision of recurrent or resection of metastatic disease is a subject of controversy; however, at the present time aggressive cytoreductive approach is favored.

  9. Emerging from the rib: resolving the turtle controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Ritva; Riccio, Paul; Gilbert, Scott F; Cebra-Thomas, Judith

    2015-05-01

    Two of the major controversies in the present study of turtle shell development involve the mechanism by which the carapacial ridge initiates shell formation and the mechanism by which each rib forms the costal bones adjacent to it. This paper claims that both sides of each debate might be correct-but within the species examined. Mechanism is more properly "mechanisms," and there is more than one single way to initiate carapace formation and to form the costal bones. In the initiation of the shell, the rib precursors may be kept dorsal by either "axial displacement" (in the hard-shell turtles) or "axial arrest" (in the soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus), or by a combination of these. The former process would deflect the rib into the dorsal dermis and allow it to continue its growth there, while the latter process would truncate rib growth. In both instances, though, the result is to keep the ribs from extending into the ventral body wall. Our recent work has shown that the properties of the carapacial ridge, a key evolutionary innovation of turtles, differ greatly between these two groups. Similarly, the mechanism of costal bone formation may differ between soft-shell and hard-shell turtles, in that the hard-shell species may have both periosteal flattening as well as dermal bone induction, while the soft-shelled turtles may have only the first of these processes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  12. Biomechanical consequences of adding plantar fascia release to metatarsal osteotomies: Changes in forefoot plantar pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Umur; Roush, Evan P; Moore, Blake E; Andrews, Seth H; Lewis, Gregory S

    2017-04-01

    Destruction of the normal metatarsal arch by a long metatarsal is often a cause for metatarsalgia. When surgery is warranted, distal oblique, or proximal dorsiflexion osteotomies of the long metatarsal bones are commonly used. The plantar fascia has anatomical connection to all metatarsal heads. There is controversial scientific evidence on the effect of plantar fascia release on forefoot biomechanics. In this cadaveric biomechanical study, we hypothesized that plantar fascia release would augment the plantar metatarsal pressure decreasing effects of two common second metatarsal osteotomy techniques. Six matched pairs of foot and ankle specimens were mounted on a pressure mat loading platform. Two randomly assigned surgery groups, which had received either distal oblique, or proximal dorsiflexion osteotomy of the second metatarsal, were evaluated before and after plantar fasciectomy. Specimens were loaded up to a ground reaction force of 400 N at varying Achilles tendon forces. Average pressures, peak pressures, and contact areas were analyzed. Supporting our hypothesis, average pressures under the second metatarsal during 600 N Achilles load were decreased by plantar fascia release following proximal osteotomy (p plantar fascia release following modified distal osteotomy, under multiple Achilles loading conditions (p Plantar fasciotomy should not be added to distal metatarsal osteotomy in the treatment of metatarsalgia. If proximal dorsiflexion osteotomy would be preferred, plantar fasciotomy should be approached cautiously not to disturb the forefoot biomechanics. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:800-804, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Controversy over the ASSLD Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Hang Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC are both regarded as primary liver cancers, having different biological behaviors and prognoses. Correct differentiation between them is essential for surgical planning and prognosis assessment. In 2005, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD recommended that noninvasive diagnosis of HCC is achievable by a single dynamic technique (including contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS showing intense arterial uptake followed by washout of contrast in the venous-delayed phases. However, CEUS has been dropped from the diagnostic techniques in the latest AASLD guideline according to the opinion of some authors from Europe that CEUS may offer false positive HCC diagnosis in patients with ICC. Since the update of AASLD guideline has been released, increased attention has been paid to this interesting topic. Remarkable controversy over this issue is present and this removal was not well received in Europe and Asia. This commentary summarized the opinions for the role of CUES in differentiation between HCC and ICC in recent years. It is concluded that prospective studies with strict design and large case series are mandatory to solve the controversies and stratification of ICC in terms of tumor size and liver background is also essential.

  14. Sustained Release Drug Delivery Applications of Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Lowinger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been renewed and substantial interest in the field in recent years. The chemistry of polyurethanes and the mechanisms of drug release from sustained release dosage forms are briefly reviewed. Studies to assess the impact of intrinsic drug properties on release from polyurethane-based formulations are considered. The impact of hydrophilic water swelling polyurethanes on drug diffusivity and release rate is discussed. The role of pore formers in modulating drug release rate is examined. Finally, the value of assessing mechanical properties of the dosage form and approaches taken in the literature are described.

  15. Key non-controversial concepts of population education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, O J; Palacio, J; Kerr, B

    1993-03-01

    The important components of population education should focus on sexuality rather than sex education; content for inclusion depends upon whether the goal is population awareness or critical awareness. Population awareness is the better understanding of the nature, causes, and consequences of population changes experienced by a community, country, region. Critical awareness is the intent and ability to change the sociocultural or educational characteristics that influence fertility, mortality, and migration. 6 basic concepts with universal applicability are discussed, because if not handled properly, the topic become controversial. The concepts are linked to developing thinking or reasoning ability. The concepts are as follows: 1) respect for others, particularly those of the opposite sex; 2) development of self-esteem for both boys and girls; 3) the knowledge that planning is possible and desirable; 4) postponement of first pregnancy; 5) acceptance of responsibility for the consequences of behavior; and 6) the ability to recognize and withstand social pressure. When children learn respect for others, there is little likelihood that others will be harmed. Respect for girls and women is particularly important, and harmful stereotyping and their effects should be pointed out. The key is to develop healthy attitudes and values toward people, not just an intellectualization of gender issues. Self-esteem is used here to mean self-worth in the present and the future. Children can be helped to develop confidence, perseverance, and optimism. Children need to understand that carefully thought out decisions should precede a birth; fatalism and destiny is a choice. Postponing the first pregnancy can lead to economic, emotional, and physical benefits. Risk to the health of the mother and baby occurs during the teen years. The best time for pregnancy is between the ages of 20 and 30 years. A pregnancy in the teen years may have longterm consequences such as more pregnancy and

  16. Controversy in the management of optic nerve glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.; Sagerman, R.H.; King, G.A.; Chung, C.T.; Dubowy, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The records of 16 patients with optic nerve glioma treated between 1961 and 1984 were reviewed. All patients except two had extension of tumor beyond the chiasm to the hypothalamus, adjacent brain and/or along the posterior optic tract. Eleven of 16 cases were biopsy-proven, two patients had craniotomy and visual inspection but no biopsy was performed, and in two cases the biopsy was not diagnostic. Fourteen patients received radiation therapy, usually consisting of 50 Gy in 5 weeks (range 40-56 Gy), one patient was treated surgically and one with chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 1 to 20 years, 7 of the 14 patients irradiated are alive, three patients are dead of disease at 3, 6 and 9 years post-treatment, three were lost to follow-up at 1, 8, and 8 years, and one is dead of intercurrent disease at 5.5 years. Overall vision was improved in five patients and stable in seven following treatment. In two patients, vision could not be evaluated because of young age at presentation. Four patients had recurrences. One was retreated with 30 Gy in 3 weeks and shows no evidence of disease at 20 years. The three other patients died of their disease. There is controversy over the best treatment for these patients. Based on these results and a review of the literature, the authors recommendation is to irradiate tumors with extension beyond the chiasm at the time of presentation rather than waiting for increasing symptoms because function that is lost may not always be recovered. Chemotherapy needs to be further investigated but holds promise, especially for the younger children

  17. 25 Years of Self-organized Criticality: Concepts and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Nicholas W.; Pruessner, Gunnar; Chapman, Sandra C.; Crosby, Norma B.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the late Per Bak and his colleagues, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been one of the most stimulating concepts to come out of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory in the last few decades, and has played a significant role in the development of complexity science. SOC, and more generally fractals and power laws, have attracted much comment, ranging from the very positive to the polemical. The other papers (Aschwanden et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2014, this issue; McAteer et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2015, this issue; Sharma et al. in Space Sci. Rev. 2015, in preparation) in this special issue showcase the considerable body of observations in solar, magnetospheric and fusion plasma inspired by the SOC idea, and expose the fertile role the new paradigm has played in approaches to modeling and understanding multiscale plasma instabilities. This very broad impact, and the necessary process of adapting a scientific hypothesis to the conditions of a given physical system, has meant that SOC as studied in these fields has sometimes differed significantly from the definition originally given by its creators. In Bak's own field of theoretical physics there are significant observational and theoretical open questions, even 25 years on (Pruessner 2012). One aim of the present review is to address the dichotomy between the great reception SOC has received in some areas, and its shortcomings, as they became manifest in the controversies it triggered. Our article tries to clear up what we think are misunderstandings of SOC in fields more remote from its origins in statistical mechanics, condensed matter and dynamical systems by revisiting Bak, Tang and Wiesenfeld's original papers.

  18. Why are U.S. nuclear weapon modernization efforts controversial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, James

    2016-03-01

    U.S. nuclear weapon modernization programs are focused on extending the lives of existing warheads and developing new delivery vehicles to replace ageing bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarines. These efforts are contested and controversial. Some critics argue that they are largely unnecessary, financially wasteful and potentially destabilizing. Other critics posit that they do not go far enough and that nuclear weapons with new military capabilities are required. At its core, this debate centers on three strategic questions. First, what roles should nuclear weapons be assigned? Second, what military capabilities do nuclear weapons need to fulfill these roles? Third, how severe are the unintended escalation risks associated with particular systems? Proponents of scaled-down modernization efforts generally argue for reducing the role of nuclear weapons but also that, even under existing policy, new military capabilities are not required. They also tend to stress the escalation risks of new--and even some existing--capabilities. Proponents of enhanced modernization efforts tend to advocate for a more expansive role for nuclear weapons in national security strategy. They also often argue that nuclear deterrence would be enhanced by lower yield weapons and/or so called bunker busters able to destroy more deeply buried targets. The debate is further fueled by technical disagreements over many aspects of ongoing and proposed modernization efforts. Some of these disagreements--such as the need for warhead life extension programs and their necessary scope--are essentially impossible to resolve at the unclassified level. By contrast, unclassified analysis can help elucidate--though not answer--other questions, such as the potential value of bunker busters.

  19. Management of ß-thalassemia – Consensus and controversies!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta V. Manglani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of treatment of ß-Thalassemia major includes life-long regular packed red cell transfusions and iron chelation. With advances in understanding the molecular biology and its implications in the patients, newer modalities are now being explored to offer a better quality of life to transfusion dependent thalassemic patients. Improved safety of transfusions, newer chelator drugs and combination of chelators have improved outcomes in these patients. Amlodipine along with chelators may be a future option for preventing cardiac iron overload related complications. Drugs which improve HbF levels and thus ameliorate anemia such as hydroxyurea, butyrates azacytidine etc. have also been explored with little relief to transfusion dependent patients. HSCT, which is the only curative treatment available at present, has its own limitations as sibling donors may not be available to many. However, there has been extensive work done on improving outcomes with MUD and Haplo-identical HSCT in the recent times. Gene therapy using lentiviral vectors is also offering great hope to these children. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC is a promising advance in the treatment of thalassemia. Several newer molecules targeting different pathophysiologic aspects are being explored and have met with good success. These include luspatercept, sotatercept, macrophage inhibition, JAK2 inhibition using ruxolitinib etc. Controversies regarding use of wheat grass and ESAs are relatively less worrisome. But use of thalidomide should be done with great caution. Despite its success reported in anecdotal reports, in the absence of adequate data with larger trials, its role in routine management of thalassemia syndromes remains to be ascertained.

  20. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Early Vessels Exploration of Pink Pulseless Hand in Gartland III Supracondylar Fracture Humerus in Children: Facts and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunku-Naziha TZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of pink pulseless limbs in supracondylar fractures has remained controversial, especially with regards to the indication for exploration in a clinically well-perfused hand. We reviewed a series of seven patients who underwent surgical exploration of the brachial artery following supracondylar fracture. All patients had a non-palpable radial artery, which was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography revealed complete blockage of the artery with good collateral and distal run-off. Two patients were more complicated with peripheral nerve injuries, one median nerve and one ulnar nerve. Only one patient had persistent arterial constriction which required reverse saphenous graft. The brachial arteries were found to be compressed by fracture fragments, but were in continuity. The vessels were patent after the release of obstruction and the stabilization of the fracture. There was no transection of major nerves. The radial pulse was persistently present after 12 weeks, and the nerve activity returned to full function.

  2. The Tibagi river and representations: a water controversy and development of Tibagi Project(1970 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Biasetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The river Tibagi from the city of Londrina, in the years 1970 and 1980 was a subject of much discussion and controversy due to the project of raising its waters to supply the population of the cities of Londrina and region. In articles published in newspapers, especially in the Folha de Londrina, in the 1970s and 1980s, it was identified that, this time, the perception emerged that the river was polluted. Thus, our primary goal in the first part of this research is to investigate how it came to creating this image. Therefore, we used a collection of newspaper clippings about the controversy raised from the waters Tibagi and interviews with Nelson Amanthea civil engineer and agronomist Marcos Antonio Castanheira, both participated in discussions on the project. It was in this period that the ideas of ecology was entered and began to circulate in the city in the late 1970s. In this context, the emergence of the "age of ecology”, allegations and actions to combat pollution started to become more effective and broad, as well as, arose environmental associations, specialized government agencies and specific legislation. Thus, the objective of this research is also investigating the involvement of scientists and institutions in environmental issues through research of river Tibagi that became evident in the late 1980 and early next decade when the University State of Londrina initiated research in Tibagi river basin. Is emphasized the participation of members of the Department of Animal Biology and Plant - UEL, the company Klabin Pulp and Paper, Telêmaco Borba - PR and COPATI - Intermunicipal Consortium of Tibagi Basin, projects and actions in order to promote their recovery. A major action was investigated Project “Appearance of  Fauna and Flora River Tibagi” which became known as “Project Tibagi “. In this sense sought to investigate the origins of the project, the main participants involved, their development, search results, the

  3. Benefit and Risk Perceptions of Controversial Facilities: A Comparison between Local Officials and the Public in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingduo Mao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the perception biases of local government officials and the general public by comparing their benefit and risk perceptions towards controversial facilities. The analysis framework of Social Judgement Theory (SJT—i.e., (a economic benefits, (b environmental health, and (c social and political factors—was used to design the research. SJT is a widely recognized theoretical framework that includes experimental approaches to the study of cognitive conflicts. An experimental survey was conducted to collect data in order to make a comparison of the weight of different elements. Results demonstrate that there are perception differences between the general public and local officials on controversial facilities. Local officials responsible for endorsing and supervising plants attach more significance to environmental factors than the public, while the public focuses more on social and political factors than officials. There is no significant difference in the cognition of economic benefits. Factors such as demolition compensation and legitimacy may provoke these perception gaps. This paper enriches the current understanding of SJT and policy making for controversial facilities by investigating the perception gaps between officials and the general public.

  4. Understanding the Nature of Science Through a Critical and Reflective Analysis of the Controversy Between Pasteur and Liebig on Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Carmona, Antonio; Acevedo-Díaz, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a qualitative study, descriptive-interpretive in profile, of the effectiveness in learning about the nature of science (NOS) of an activity relating to the historical controversy between Pasteur and Liebig on fermentation. The activity was implemented during a course for pre-service secondary science teachers (PSSTs) specializing in physics and chemistry. The approach was explicit and reflective. Three research questions were posed: (1) What conceptions of NOS do the PSSTs show after a first reflective reading of the historical controversy?, (2) What role is played by the PSSTs' whole class critical discussion of their first reflections on the aspects of NOS dealt with in the controversy?, and (3) What changes are there in the PSSTs' conceptions of NOS after concluding the activity? The data for analysis was extracted from the PSSTs' group reports submitted at the end of the activity and the audio-recorded information from the whole class discussion. A rubric was prepared to assess this data by a process of inter-rater analysis. The results showed overall improvement in understanding the aspects of NOS involved, with there being a significant evolution in some cases (e.g., conception of scientific theory) and moderate in others (e.g., differences in scientific interpretations of the same phenomenon). This reveals that the activity has an educational utility for the education of PSSTs in NOS issues. The article concludes with an indication of some educational implications of the experience.

  5. Determination of S-genotype in apple and sweet cherry cultivars released at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apples and sweet cherries are generally characterized by self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the multiallelic locus S with gametophytic action. Thus the identification of S-genotype represents crucial information for fruit breeders and growers. The aim of this study was to identify the S-genotype of two apple (‘Čačanska Pozna’ and ‘Čadel’ and two sweet cherry (‘Asenova Rana’ and ‘Čarna’ cultivars developed at Fruit Research Institute, Čačak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method with consensus and allele-specific primers. The S-genotype of apple cultivars ‘Čačanska Pozna’ (S7S9 and ‘Čadel’ (S2S7 were consistent with parental combinations ‘Starking Delicious’ (S9S28 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9 and ‘Golden Delicious’ (S2S3 × ‘Jonathan’ (S7S9, respectively. For sweet cherry cultivars ‘Asenova Rana’ [‘Drogans Gelbe’ (S1S5 × ‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4] and ‘Čarna’ [‘Majova Rana’ (S1S4 × ‘Bigarreau de Schrecken’ (S1S3], S3S9 and S1S4 were identified respectively, suggesting that the reported pedigree is erroneous. The trueness-to-type of DNA samples of both sweet cherry cultivars was confirmed by comparison of cultivar samples from more than one site. Upon this testing, the remaining inconsistency indicated that aforementioned parentages of the sweet cherry cultivars were incorrect. These discrepancies could be the result of possible pollen contamination, or mistakes either in breeders recording or in seed processing and seedling production. The results of S-genotyping of apple and sweet cherry cultivars provide relevant information on correct assignment of these cultivars to cross-compatibility groups, which are important for cross design in developing new cultivar, as well as for orchard management in the efficient production of fruits. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31064: Development and preservation

  6. Attitude of medical professionals regarding controversial issues in kidney donation/transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire need to evaluate new strategies to bridge the wide kidney demand-supply gap. The current study examined the attitude of medical professionals regarding controversial issues pertaining to transplantation. A questionnaire, presenting controversial issues related to kidney transplantation, in an agree-disagree format with supporting reasons, was employed. The research was exploratory. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The sample comprised 140 doctors from Mumbai (mean = 38.1 years, standard deviation = 17.95; Males = 44.3%, Females = 55.7%. Whereas 47.1% of the participants felt that live donors should be given incentives for kidney donation, others (52.9% disagreed, fearing commercialization and illegal activities. The eligibility of patients with HIV/hepatitis for a transplant was denied by 52.9% because of poor outcomes, with the others (47.1% maintaining that these individuals too had a right to live. A substantial majority (90.7% of the participants maintained that organ donors should be given priority in the event of a future need for an organ because their previous humane act should be rewarded (47.1%. Most of the participants (91.4% felt that individuals from the higher socioeconomic strata should not receive preference for kidney transplantation. A majority (77.1% of them were also against kidney selling getting legalized. Compulsory possession of a donor card elicited mixed responses, with some accepting (56.4%, but others rejecting (43.6% this idea as donation was perceived to be a voluntary act (33.6%. While compulsory kidney donation found favor with 44.3%, it found disfavor with others (55.7%. This study will benefit transplant healthcare personnel to formulate new policies in relation to kidney donation/transplantation.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  10. What Can We Learn from Taiwanese Teachers about Teaching Controversial Public Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how history teachers in Taiwan make curricular decisions while engaging controversial public issues. The main political controversies discussed in Taiwanese society center on the relationship between Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. This study documents how four social studies teachers formulate their curricular…

  11. Controversy and consensus on a clinical pharmacist in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazen, Ankie C M; Wal, Aletta W Van Der; Sloeserwij, Vivianne M.; Zwart, Dorien L M; Gier, Johan J De; de Wit, Niek J; Leendertse, Anne J.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Bont, Antoinette A De

    2016-01-01

    Background Controversy about the introduction of a non-dispensing pharmacist in primary care practice hampers implementation. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically map the debate on this new role for pharmacists amongst all stakeholders to uncover and understand the controversy and

  12. The World Congress on Controversies in Breast Cancer (CoBRA in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rabinoff-Sofer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Congress on Controversies in Breast Cancer (CoBRA will take place October 22-24, 2015 in Melbourne, Australia.CoBRA is a concept congress dealing with controversial topics in breast cancer in the format of debates and discussions, allowing ample time for speaker-participant interaction.CLICK HERE for more information

  13. The Role of Historical-Philosophical Controversies in Teaching Sciences: The Debate between Biot and Ampere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, Jose Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the viability of using controversies in teaching. An educational project has been elaborated in which some historical-philosophical clashes were introduced into the classical syllabus of physics. The historical-philosophical controversy dealt with here, took place between the French physicists Biot and Ampere in the 19th…

  14. 42 CFR 405.817 - Principles for determining amount in controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principles for determining amount in controversy... the Medicare Part B Program § 405.817 Principles for determining amount in controversy. (a) Individual... may assert that the aggregation principles contained in this subpart may be applied to determine the...

  15. Emergence of controversy in technology transitions: Green revolution and Bt cotton in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramani, S.V.; Thutupalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology transitions following radical technological breakthroughs are often marked by controversies and the transitions to Green Revolution (GR) and Genetically Modified (GM) seeds in India were no exceptions to this rule. Controversies can trigger social dilemmas, but in economics we do not yet

  16. Release from 'prison' in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In my study I introduce the Hungarian conditional release and presidential pardon and new compulsory presidential pardon system. This study is based on research carried out in the Ministry of Justice at the Pardon Department in which I analyzed several dozen petition pardons. In connection with the new compulsory presidential pardon I examined the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, which has condemned Hungary because of its adoption of real (whole life imprisonment.

  17. Sirenomelia: A Multi-systemic Polytopic Field Defect with Ongoing Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Morava, Eva; Klein, Willemijn M; Schepens-Franke, Annelieke N; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-06-01

    The most impressive phenotypic appearance of sirenomelia is the presence of a 180°-rotated, axially positioned, single lower limb. Associated gastrointestinal and genitourinary anomalies are almost always present. This rare anomaly is still the subject of ongoing controversies concerning its nosology, pathogenesis, and possible genetic etiology. Sirenomelia can be part of a syndromic continuum, overlapping with other complex conditions including caudal dysgenesis and VATER/VACTERL/VACTERL-H associations, which could all be part of a heterogeneous spectrum, and originate from an early defect in blastogenesis. It is imaginable that different "primary field defects," whether or not genetically based, induce a spectrum of caudal malformations. In the current study, we review the contemporary hypotheses and conceptual approaches regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of sirenomelia, especially in the context of concomitant conditions. To expand on the latter, we included the external and internal dysmorphology of one third trimester sirenomelic fetus from our anatomical museum collection, in which multiple concomitant but discordant anomalies were observed compared with classic sirenomelia, and was diagnosed as VACTERL-H association with sirenomelia. Birth Defects Research 109:791-804, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Two faces of patient advocacy: the current controversy in newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cosby G

    2014-08-01

    Newborn screening programmes began in the 1960s, have traditionally been conducted without parental permission and have grown dramatically in the last decade. Whether these programmes serve patients' best interests has recently become a point of controversy. Privacy advocates, concerned that newborn screening infringes upon individual liberties, are demanding fundamental changes to these programmes. These include parental permission and limiting the research on the blood samples obtained, an agenda at odds with the viewpoints of newborn screening advocates. This essay presents the history of newborn screening in the USA, with attention to factors that have contributed to concerns about these programmes. The essay suggests that the rapid increase in the number of disorders screened for and the addition of research without either public knowledge or informed consent were critical to the development of resistance to mandatory newborn screening and research. Future newborn screening initiatives should include public education and comment to ensure continued support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  20. Surgical treatment of dislocated acromioclavicular syndesmolysis remains controversial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Mihaljevič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Operative treatment of acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocations Allman-Tossy III type is controversial. There are more than 30 types of operative treatments described. At the Department of Traumatology of Celje General and Teaching Hospital (CGTH we operate the AC joint dislocation by the AC joint opened reduction and fixation using two Kirschner wires and additional figure of eight wire loop over the AC joint. The purpose of the analysis is to evaluate the results of acromioclavicular joint complete dislocation Allman-Tossy III type operative treatment.Patients and methods: In the 2-year period from July 1st 1997, to June 31st, 1999, at the Department of Traumatology of CGTH we operatively treated 59 injured persons with the AC joint dislocation. There were 55 men (93 % and 4 women (7 %. The average age was 40 years (from 20 to 72 years. 56 (95 % injured persons had the AC joint injury of Allman-Tossy III type. In first three weeks (early reconstruction we operated 45 injured persons (76.3 %. The applied material was removed after 8 weeks. 47 (79.7 % injured persons were re-examined at least one year after the injury (27 months in average; 14–39 months. The results were evaluated according to University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA scale for the shoulder function evaluation. The impact of factors on a good treatment result was presented by the odds ratio and uni-variant analysis calculation.Results: Out of 47 injured persons re-examined according to the UCLA scale at least one year after the injury there were 17 injured persons (36.2 % rated with an excellent result (UCLA 34– 35, 22 good (46.8 % (UCLA 28–33, 5 satisfactory (10.6 % (UCLA 21–27 and 3 bad (6.4 % (UCLA 0–20. In total we achieved 83 % of excellent and good results. The injured persons age did not significantly affect the treatment result. Complications occurred in 14 (29.8 % injured patients. If no complications were occurred the odds ratio for good

  1. The heritage and museums field: A controversial cultural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta Urtizberea, Iñaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of acceptance as heritage and musealisation do not respond to history or aesthetics-related criteria, but rather to identity-related criteria. They do not concern scientists, specialists and policy-makers alone, but also social groups. The choice of cultural assets is not an objective consequence of their formal characteristics. It is the result of the selection made by social agents so as to represent a group identity. But no social group is homogeneous; on the contrary they are diverse and complex so the identity references, and therefore the cultural assets, do not have to be univocal. Beyond the aseptic discourses, many of these processes are controversial. Differences regarding the identity references and the uses to be made of cultural assets lead to the field of heritage and museums being spaces where interests and values clash. This article presents and analyses the conflicts that arose in the Basque municipality of Legazpi when the process of musealisation and acceptance of iron production as heritage first started.

    Los procesos de patrimonialización y musealización de la cultura no responden a criterios históricos o estéticos, sino identitarios. No atañen a científicos, especialistas y políticos solamente, sino a colectivos sociales. La elección de unos bienes culturales no es una consecuencia objetiva de sus características formales, es el resultado de la selección llevada a cabo por agentes sociales con el fin de representar una identidad grupal. Pero ningún colectivo social es uniforme, sino, al contrario, es diverso y complejo, de tal modo que los referentes identitarios y, consecuentemente, los bienes culturales no tienen por qué ser unívocos. Más allá de los discursos asépticos, muchos de esos procesos se presentan conflictivos. Diferencias acerca de los referentes identitarios y de los usos que se les quieren dar a los bienes culturales acarrean que el campo patrimonial y museístico sea un

  2. The Neglected Patent Controversies in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.

  3. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sugar consumption on health continues to be a controversial topic. The objective of this review is to discuss the evidence and lack of evidence that allows the controversy to continue, and why resolution of the controversy is important. There are plausible mechanisms and research evidence that support the suggestion that consumption of excess sugar promotes the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) both directly and indirectly. The direct pathway involves the unregulated hepatic uptake and metabolism of fructose, which leads to liver lipid accumulation, dyslipidemia, decreased insulin sensitivity and increased uric acid levels. The epidemiological data suggest that these direct effects of fructose are pertinent to the consumption of the fructose-containing sugars, sucrose and HFCS, which are the predominant added sugars. Consumption of added sugar is associated with development and/or prevalence of fatty liver, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and many of these associations are independent of body weight gain or total energy intake. There are diet intervention studies in which human subjects exhibited increased circulating lipids and decreased insulin sensitivity when consuming high sugar compared with control diets. Most recently, our group has reported that supplementing the ad libitum diets of young adults with beverages containing 0, 10, 17.5 or 25% of daily energy requirement (Ereq) as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and uric acid in a dose response manner. However, un-confounded studies conducted in healthy humans under a controlled, energy-balanced diet protocol that allow determination of the effects of sugar with diets that do not allow for body weight gain are lacking. Furthermore, there are recent reports that conclude that there are no adverse effects of consuming beverages

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  10. The Emergency Public Relations Protocol: How to Work Effectively on Controversial Projects in an Academic Health Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B. R. Simon; Kilian, Gunna; West, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Certain research topics - including studies of sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV risk -- are more likely to be scrutinized by the media and groups opposed to this area of research. When studying topics that others might deem controversial, it is critical that researchers anticipate potential negative media events prior to their occurrence. By developing an Emergency Public Relations Protocol at the genesis of a study, researchers can identify and plan for events that might result in higher scrutiny. For each identified risk, a good protocol details procedures to enact before, during and after a media event. This manuscript offers recommendations for developing a protocol based on both Situational Crisis Communication Theory and our experience as an HIV prevention research group who recently experienced such an event. The need to have procedures in place to monitor and address social media is highlighted. PMID:23565067

  11. The Emergency Public Relations Protocol: How to Work Effectively on Controversial Projects in an Academic Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B R Simon; Kilian, Gunna; West, William G

    2013-03-01

    Certain research topics - including studies of sexual behavior, substance use, and HIV risk -- are more likely to be scrutinized by the media and groups opposed to this area of research. When studying topics that others might deem controversial, it is critical that researchers anticipate potential negative media events prior to their occurrence. By developing an Emergency Public Relations Protocol at the genesis of a study, researchers can identify and plan for events that might result in higher scrutiny. For each identified risk, a good protocol details procedures to enact before, during and after a media event. This manuscript offers recommendations for developing a protocol based on both Situational Crisis Communication Theory and our experience as an HIV prevention research group who recently experienced such an event. The need to have procedures in place to monitor and address social media is highlighted.

  12. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  13. Education Department Effort to Prevent Colleges from Releasing Crime Records Suffers Setback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)

  14. Corporate Responsibility in Communication: Empirical Analysis of Press Releases in a Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimaki, Hanna; Kujala, Johanna; Heikkinen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how the tensions of corporate responsibility are articulated and reconciled in a controversial situation of a foreign investment. We conducted a conventionalist analysis on the company press releases in a case where a Finnish forest industry company invested in a pulp mill in South America. The findings show that the use of…

  15. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  16. List of U.S. Army Research Institute Research and Technical Publications for Public Release/Unlimited Distribution. Fiscal Year 2007 (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index United States Army Research Institute for...Fiscal Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index CONTENTS Page Introduction...39 Author Index .................................................................................................................. 39

  17. Systematic assessment of the various controversies, difficulties, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Accurate occlusal plane orientation is an essential factor in the fabrication of complete denture prosthesis. Over the years, it has ... Studies describing research studies, case series and assorted clinical reports were retrieved and evaluated from 1963 to 2013. Most of the ...

  18. Controversy in the classroom: How eighth-grade and undergraduate students reason about tradeoffs of genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Sherry Lynn

    Current issues in science provide a rich context for learning because they can involve complex tradeoffs that cut across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Despite this potential benefit, and the need for citizens to make decisions about such issues, science controversy remains rare in the classroom. Consequently, there is much unknown about how students make sense of complex, multidisciplinary science. This research examined eighth-grade (n = 190) and undergraduate (n = 9) students' reasoning about tradeoffs in the genetically modified food controversy (main study). To extend the findings from the main study, undergraduate students' reasoning was followed as they learned about ten additional science controversies (extension). The studies took place in the context of curricula designed on the basis of the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration Framework, which posits a set of design principles that help students form a rich, integrated network of ideas about a topic. Two new methodologies were developed for this work. The Embedded Perspective of Science Controversy was used to study students' integration of content in their written arguments (main study) and oral and written questions (extension). The Perspective views science controversy as a set of nested levels, where tradeoffs are one of the levels, but connecting to other levels (underlying scientific details, bigger picture context, etc.) is important for the weighing of tradeoffs. A scheme based on Toulmin's (1958) work on argumentation provided a way of comparing the structure of students' arguments. As indicated by pre and post test scores, the curriculum helped both eighth-grade students (t = 11.7, p genetically modified food. In their final papers, both eighth-grade and undergraduate students presented evidence for and against their positions, in contrast with prior literature showing individuals have difficulty coming up with evidence against their positions. The students were also moving across the levels

  19. Profiling as a logical form of reasoning in order to solve controversial circumstances on the crime scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palcu Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While conducting research on the scene or during the entire phase of criminal prosecution, especially for the identification of the authors or settlement of the controversial circumstances, criminal profiling by a forensic psychologist will reduce the circle of suspects, as well as provide assistance in determining possible connections with other crimes and offer to judicial organs sustainable strategies for the solution of the case. In addition to identifying and processing the material traces found on the scene, concern falling strictly within forensics, in the future, efforts against criminality of the third millennium will be oriented towards the interpretation of human behaviour with criminogenic finality.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  14. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T; Cogburn, Courtney D; Williams, David R

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research examining the impact of self-reported experiences of discrimination on mental and physical health has increased dramatically. Studies have found consistent associations between exposure to discrimination and a wide range of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-diagnosed mental disorders as well as objective physical health outcomes. Associations are seen in cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies and persist even after adjustment for confounding variables, including personality characteristics and other threats to validity. However, controversies remain, particularly around the best approach to measuring experiences of discrimination, the significance of racial/ethnic discrimination versus overall mistreatment, the need to account for "intersectionalities," and the importance of comprehensive assessments. These issues are discussed in detail, along with emerging areas of emphasis including cyber discrimination, anticipatory stress or vigilance around discrimination, and interventions with potential to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on health. We also discuss priorities for future research and implications for interventions and policy.

  15. Gender and social controversies of in vitro fertilization in Serbia: Discrimination against childless women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kričković-Pele Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses gender and social controversies of assisted reproductive technologies and the discrimination of childless women in Serbia. Primary goals of this paper are critical analysis of new reproductive technologies phenomenon, discrimination against women without children and critical analysis of the legal framework regulating biomedical assisted reproduction in Serbia from gender studies and feminist methodology perspectives, as well as presentation of the research results on discrimination of childless women. For the purpose of this research the survey and the content analysis have been used. A survey was conducted of 50 female participants in the in vitro fertilization program at the Department for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Novi Sad. The results indicate that the regulations on biomedical assisted reproduction and the criteria for inclusion in the in vitro fertilization program are discriminatory and that women involved in the program feel discriminated against, usually at work and in their own surroundings. The conclusion is that it is necessary to change the regulations governing this area, further work on the elimination of discrimination against childless women and destigmatisation of women and couples that cannot or do not want to have children.

  16. Controversy in Biology Classrooms—Citizen Science Approaches to Evolution and Applications to Climate Change Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Yoho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sciences encompass topics considered controversial by the American public, such as evolution and climate change. We believe that the development of climate change education in the biology classroom is better informed by an understanding of the history of the teaching of evolution. A common goal for science educators should be to engender a greater respect for and appreciation of science among students while teaching specific content knowledge. Citizen science has emerged as a viable yet underdeveloped method for engaging students of all ages in key scientific issues that impact society through authentic data-driven scientific research. Where successful, citizen science may open avenues of communication and engagement with the scientific process that would otherwise be more difficult to achieve. Citizen science projects demonstrate versatility in education and the ability to test hypotheses by collecting large amounts of often publishable data. We find a great possibility for science education research in the incorporation of citizen science projects in curriculum, especially with respect to “hot topics” of socioscientific debate based on our review of the findings of other authors.

  17. The Paravascular Pathway for Brain Waste Clearance: Current Understanding, Significance and Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bacyinski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paravascular pathway, also known as the “glymphatic” pathway, is a recently described system for waste clearance in the brain. According to this model, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF enters the paravascular spaces surrounding penetrating arteries of the brain, mixes with interstitial fluid (ISF and solutes in the parenchyma, and exits along paravascular spaces of draining veins. Studies have shown that metabolic waste products and solutes, including proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyloid-beta, may be cleared by this pathway. Consequently, a growing body of research has begun to explore the association between glymphatic dysfunction and various disease states. However, significant controversy exists in the literature regarding both the direction of waste clearance as well as the anatomical space in which the waste-fluid mixture is contained. Some studies have found no evidence of interstitial solute clearance along the paravascular space of veins. Rather, they demonstrate a perivascular pathway in which waste is cleared from the brain along an anatomically distinct perivascular space in a direction opposite to that of paravascular flow. Although possible explanations have been offered, none have been able to fully reconcile the discrepancies in the literature, and many questions remain. Given the therapeutic potential that a comprehensive understanding of brain waste clearance pathways might offer, further research and clarification is highly warranted.

  18. The Paravascular Pathway for Brain Waste Clearance: Current Understanding, Significance and Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacyinski, Andrew; Xu, Maosheng; Wang, Wei; Hu, Jiani

    2017-01-01

    The paravascular pathway, also known as the "glymphatic" pathway, is a recently described system for waste clearance in the brain. According to this model, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the paravascular spaces surrounding penetrating arteries of the brain, mixes with interstitial fluid (ISF) and solutes in the parenchyma, and exits along paravascular spaces of draining veins. Studies have shown that metabolic waste products and solutes, including proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyloid-beta, may be cleared by this pathway. Consequently, a growing body of research has begun to explore the association between glymphatic dysfunction and various disease states. However, significant controversy exists in the literature regarding both the direction of waste clearance as well as the anatomical space in which the waste-fluid mixture is contained. Some studies have found no evidence of interstitial solute clearance along the paravascular space of veins. Rather, they demonstrate a perivascular pathway in which waste is cleared from the brain along an anatomically distinct perivascular space in a direction opposite to that of paravascular flow. Although possible explanations have been offered, none have been able to fully reconcile the discrepancies in the literature, and many questions remain. Given the therapeutic potential that a comprehensive understanding of brain waste clearance pathways might offer, further research and clarification is highly warranted.

  19. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P

    1998-01-01

    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  20. Controlled drug release for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-10

    Tissue engineering is often referred to as a three-pronged discipline, with each prong corresponding to 1) a 3D material matrix (scaffold), 2) drugs that act on molecular signaling, and 3) regenerative living cells. Herein we focus on reviewing advances in controlled release of drugs from tissue engineering platforms. This review addresses advances in hydrogels and porous scaffolds that are synthesized from natural materials and synthetic polymers for the purposes of controlled release in tissue engineering. We pay special attention to efforts to reduce the burst release effect and to provide sustained and long-term release. Finally, novel approaches to controlled release are described, including devices that allow for pulsatile and sequential delivery. In addition to recent advances, limitations of current approaches and areas of further research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.