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Sample records for released wood-chip fermentation

  1. Addition of wood chips in red wine during and after alcoholic fermentation: differences in color parameters, phenolic content and volatile composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyraleou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the time of wood chip addition on phenolic content, color parameters and volatile composition of a red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko was evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak and Acacia were added in the wine during and after fermentation. Various chemical parameters of wines were studied after one, two and three months of contact with chips. The results showed that the addition of oak chips during alcoholic fermentation did not favor ellagitannin extraction and the reactions involved in tannin condensation and anthocyanin stabilization. Moreover, wines fermented with wood chips contained higher contents of whiskey lactones, eugenol, ethyl vanillate and acetate esters while their ethyl ester content was lower compared with the wines where chip addition took place after fermentation. Practical Application: The outcomes of this study would be of practical interest to winemakers since they could improve the control over the wood extraction process. When chips are added after fermentation wines seem to have a greater ageing potential compared to the wines fermented with chips due to their higher ellagitannin content and enhanced condensation reactions. On the other hand, color stabilization and tannin polymerization occur faster when chips are added during fermentation resulting in shorter ageing periods suitable for early consumed wines.

  2. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  3. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ΔEab(*), %Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C and %Δ(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  5. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  7. Low-NO{sub x}, wood chip combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Oravainen, H.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The regulations for nitrogen oxide emissions vary in different countries, but the general trend in the future will probably be that the emissions limits will be lowered also for wood combustion plants, which are small or medium size units. Thus, the development of wood chip burning furnaces (grate furnaces, fluidized bed combustors, stoker furnaces) with lower nitrogen oxide emissions, is important. The wood used in the combustor, its particle size, moisture and fuel properties (nitrogen content) affect the nitrogen emissions. The nitrogen oxide release is also much affected by the design and operation of the combustor (air staging, fuel air preheat, flue gas circulation, air to fuel mass ratio). The fate of nitrogen compounds originally in the virgin wood depends much on the design of the combustor system and by proper planning it is possible to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Basic knowledge of the release of nitrogen compounds from single wood particles is attained. The release of gaseous nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis and combustion is studied experimentally and by modelling. Nitrogen release is studied experimentally by two ways, by analysing the gas and by quenching the particle and analysing the char residue. Formation of nitrogen oxide emissions in a fuel bed is studied by modelling and by combustion experiments with a pot furnace. This research gives general information of nitrogen oxide formation in wood bunting especially in fixed beds. The development of a horizontal stoker burner for wood chips with low emissions is the practical aim of the research. (orig.)

  8. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  9. Firing with wood chips in heating and cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The document was produced for use as detailed teaching material aimed at spreading information on the use of wood chips as fuel for heating and cogeneration plants. It includes information and articles on wood fuels generally, combustion values, chopping machines, suppliers, occupational health hazards connected with the handling of wood chips, measuring amounts, the selection of types, prices, ash, environmental aspects and information on the establishment of a wood-chip fired district heating plant. (AB)

  10. Methods for size classification of wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter [Forest and Landscape FLD, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Temmerman, Michaeel; Rabier, Fabienne [Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques CRA-W Departement Genie rural, 146, Chaussee de Namur, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Golser, Michael [Holzforschung Austria HFA Franz Grill-Stra beta e 7, A-1031 Wien (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Methods for size classification of wood chips were analysed in an international round robin using 13 conventional wood chip samples and two specially prepared standard samples, one from wood chips and one from hog fuel. The true size distribution of these two samples (according to length, width and height) had been determined stereometrically (reference method) using a digital calliper gauge and by weighing each of the about 7000 wood particles per sample. Five different horizontal and three rotary screening devices were tested using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63mm, round holes). These systems are compared to a commercially available continuously measuring image analysis equipment. The results show that among the devices of a measuring principle-horizontal and rotary screening-the results are quite comparable, while there is a severe incompatibility when distributions are determined by different measuring principles. Highest conformity with the reference values is given for measurements with an image analysis system, whereas for all machines with horizontal screens the median value of the size distribution only reached between one-third to half of the reference median value for the particle length distribution. These deviations can be attributed to a higher particle misplacement, which is particularly found in the larger fractions. Such differences decrease when the particle's shape is more roundish (i.e. sphericity closer to one). The median values of length distributions from screenings with a rotary classifier are between the measurements from an image analysis and horizontal screening devices. (author)

  11. MOISTURE HUMIDITY EQUILIBRIUM OF WOOD CHIPS FROM ENERGETIC CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barwicki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring during storage of wood chips for energetic or furniture industry purposes were presented. As a result of carried out investigations, dependences of temperature and relative humidity changes of surrounding air were shown. Modified Henderson equation can be utilized for computer simulation of storing and drying processes concerning wood chips for energetic and furniture industry purposes. It reflects also obtained results from experiments carried out with above mentioned material. Using computer simulation program we can examine different wood chips storing conditions to avoid overheating and loss problems.

  12. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  13. Low temperature fluidized wood chip drying with monoterpene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridget N. Bero; Alarick Reiboldt; Ward Davis; Natalie Bedard; Evan Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the drying of ponderosa pine wood chips at low (20°C and 50°C) temperatures using a bench-scale batch pulsed fluidizer to evaluate both volatile pine oils (monoterpenes) and moisture losses during drying.

  14. Determining wood chip size: image analysis and clustering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Febbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the standard methods for the determination of the size distribution of wood chips is the oscillating screen method (EN 15149- 1:2010. Recent literature demonstrated how image analysis could return highly accurate measure of the dimensions defined for each individual particle, and could promote a new method depending on the geometrical shape to determine the chip size in a more accurate way. A sample of wood chips (8 litres was sieved through horizontally oscillating sieves, using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63 mm; the wood chips were sorted in decreasing size classes and the mass of all fractions was used to determine the size distribution of the particles. Since the chip shape and size influence the sieving results, Wang’s theory, which concerns the geometric forms, was considered. A cluster analysis on the shape descriptors (Fourier descriptors and size descriptors (area, perimeter, Feret diameters, eccentricity was applied to observe the chips distribution. The UPGMA algorithm was applied on Euclidean distance. The obtained dendrogram shows a group separation according with the original three sieving fractions. A comparison has been made between the traditional sieve and clustering results. This preliminary result shows how the image analysis-based method has a high potential for the characterization of wood chip size distribution and could be further investigated. Moreover, this method could be implemented in an online detection machine for chips size characterization. An improvement of the results is expected by using supervised multivariate methods that utilize known class memberships. The main objective of the future activities will be to shift the analysis from a 2-dimensional method to a 3- dimensional acquisition process.

  15. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE MOISTURE EFFECT ON GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SELF-HEATING OF WOOD CHIPS

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    Hana VĚŽNÍKOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are stored in large quantities and may be susceptible to self-ignition. The possible methods of indication of temperature increase include the analysis of the gaseous products of heating where concentrations of certain gases may increase with increasing temperature. Gas release is also affected by the moisture of the material given that the moisture level changes surface accessibility for oxygen on the one side and serves as a catalyst of the oxidation reactions on the other. The present project analysed the effect of temperature and moisture on gaseous products of heating of wood chips, one of frequently used biofuels, with the aim to determine a suitable gaseous indicator of beginning self-ignition.

  17. Dissipation of atrazine, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethazine in wood chip bioreactors and impact on denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood chip bioreactors are receiving increasing attention as a means of reducing nitrate in subsurface tile drainage systems. Agrochemicals in tile drainage water entering wood chip bioreactors can be retained or degraded and may impact denitrification. The degradation of 5 mg L-1 atrazine, enrofloxa...

  18. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  19. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  20. Wood chip delivery and research project at Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, a large-scale energywood production chain was started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. Over 60 000 m 3 (about 46 000 MWh of energy) of forest processed chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 60 % of these chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 51 FIM/m 3 (68 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 40 FIM/m 3 (53 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of wood chips could compete with those of fuel peat only in the most favourable cases. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of forestry plans. According to the study, there is enough raw material for permanent, large-scale delivery of forest processed chips (up to 250 000 m 3 /a) in the forests located at a distance of under 40 road kilometers from the Pursiala heat and power plant. The following project stages will involve further development of the wood chip delivery chain logistics, as well as improvement of logging and chipping equipment and methods in energywood and logging waste production. Also the effects of wood energy production on the economy and environment of the whole Mikkeli region will be studied. (author)

  1. First Nation partner in wood-chip cogen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Ginoogaming First Nation is working with Long Lake Forest Products to develop a cogeneration plant at a local mill which would burn wood chips and waste wood to produce heat and electrical energy for the mill and the community. The plan is part of a larger development project by the community that calls for the construction of new infrastructure, services and business for the town of 250 people near Thunder Bay, Ontario. It is a widely held view that energy is a major factor in achieving self reliance for First Nations especially in remote communities. Concern was expressed by Ontario Hydro that if the town takes over its own electricity production, Ontario Hydro may still be legally required to maintain back up generation. The preferred remedy would be to lift Ontario Hydro's obligation to provide all power to remote communities of Ontario

  2. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m 3 (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m 3 (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m 3 (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m 3 /ha

  3. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  4. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

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    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  5. Airtight storage of wood chips for use as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamond, W.J.; Graham, R.; Boyd, J.E.L.; Harling, R.; Lowe, J.F.

    1993-11-01

    This study was carried out to see if airtight storage was a possible alternative to drying as a procedure for the successful storage of chipped wood for fuel. Twelve insulated bins, with a capacity of approximately 0.1 m{sup 3} each, were filled with freshly cut Sitka Spruce wood chips. Ten of these bins were sealed immediately after filling and the remaining two left unsealed for the duration of the experiment (12 months). The programme of sampling for gas, moisture content, mycology and bacteriology is described. The results showed that sealed storage reduced the overall dry matter loss in the bins to around 1% per month compared to 2% for the unsealed bins. This compares favourably with losses of around 3% per month which have been reported for open stacks of chips with much lower initial moisture contents than that used in these experiments. There was a slight reduction in the colorific value of oven dried chips between the initial and after storage samples. The moisture content of the chips in all the bins increased over the storage period. The average energy loss was 2.9% per month for sealed and 2.0% per month for unsealed treatment. A typical ecological succession was shown by the chips, commencing with field fungi and terminating with a dominant yeast population. Potential costs for suitable stores vary from Pounds 1.27 per m{sup 3} per year for a plastic covered outdoor stack to Pounds 11.72 per m{sup 3} per year for a vitreous enamel silo. (UK)

  6. Quality wood chips - an alternative to pellets; Alternative zu Pellets. Qualischnitzel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, A.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at a new wood-chip product that features wood-chips that are dryer than traditional ones. The new 'quality chips' are also of a calibrated size and are supplied dust-free. Their low water content permits their use in the same areas as wood pellets, where, especially in summer, low water-content is important. The increasing use of pellets and the growing shortages of clean sawdust and shavings for their production is commented on, as is the use of forestry wastes in pellet production. The new wood-chip product is further discussed as being a direct alternative to pellets. The low 'grey energy' content for tree-felling, hacking, transport and the drying of the chips is quoted as being less than 5% of the energy in the chippings.

  7. Ashes from straw and wood-chip fired plants for agricultural usage. Pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsing, M.; Westborg, S.

    1994-08-01

    The content of nutrients and heavy metals in ashes from the combustion of straw and wood chips at district heating plants is studied, on the basis of results of analyses from Danish municipalities, to determine whether such ashes are suitable for use as fertilizers. Results of the analysis of ashes from 9 wood-chip fired and 26 straw-fired plants are presented. They show significant variations in nutrient and heavy metal content which could be caused by combustion and operational conditions and/or testing methods. On condition that the phosphorous content of straw and wood-chip ashes amount to 1% of the dry matter, 50%-75% of the straw ashes and under 50% of wood chip ashes analyses are within the limit for cadmium stipulated in the Danish Ministry of the Environment's Executive Order no. 736 on the use of wastes for agricultural purposes. This is found to be unsatisfactory. It is suggested that a closer investigation should be undertaken in order to determine which amount of straw and wood-chip ashes can be accepted for use as fertilizers in consideration of the stipulated limits for cadmium content of wastes to be used for agricultural purposes. In addition the technological and economic potentials of dosing of these ashes for this use should be investigated. Fly ash and slag were also included in the analysis results studied and it was found that the cadmium content of slag did not prevent its use as fertilizer, but that the distribution of cadmium in slag, in fly ash and in slam from flue gas cleaning systems related to the combustion of wood chips should be further investigated. (AB)

  8. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  9. Effect of oxalic acid pretreatment of wood chips on manufacturing medium-density fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) wood chips pretreatment prior to refining, which is done to reduce energy used during the refining process. Selected mechanical and physical performances of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) – internal bonding (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), water absorption (WA)...

  10. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  11. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  12. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl., hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry, and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton as well as from two wood chipping sites using mixes of lodgepole pine and hybrid or black spruce. Leachate was generated using rainfall simulation, a static 28-day laboratory assay, and a field-based exposure. Leachate generated by these exposures was analyzed for organic matter content, phenols, ammonia, pH, and toxicity. Findings indicate that all wood chip types produced a toxic leachate despite differences in their chemistry. The consistent toxicity response highlights the need for runoff management that will disconnect processing sites from aquatic environments.

  13. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  14. Nitrifying aerobic granular sludge fermentation for releases of carbon source and phosphorus: The role of fermentation pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Pan, Jiyang; He, Hangtian; Wu, Shuyun; Xiao, Naidong; Ni, Yongjiong; Li, Jun

    2018-07-01

    The effect of fermentation pH (uncontrolled, 4 and 10) on the releases of carbon source and phosphorus from nitrifying aerobic granular sludge (N-AGS) was investigated. Meanwhile, metal ion concentration and microbial community characterization were explored during N-AGS fermentation. The results indicated that N-AGS fermentation at pH 10 significantly promoted the releases of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs). However, SCOD and TVFA released from N-AGS were inhibited at pH 4. Moreover, acidic condition promoted phosphorus release (mainly apatite) from N-AGS during anaerobic fermentation. Nevertheless, alkaline condition failed to increase phosphorus concentration due to the formation of chemical-phosphate precipitates. Compared with the previously reported flocculent sludge fermentation, N-AGS fermentation released more SCOD and TVFAs, possibly due to the greater extracellular polymeric substances content and some hydrolytic-acidogenic bacteria in N-AGS. Therefore, N-AGS alkaline fermentation facilitated the carbon source recovery, while N-AGS acidic fermentation benefited the phosphorus recovery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewluan, Sommas; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of rubber wood chip gasification were carried out in a 100-kW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier to investigate the effect of air to fuel ratio (represented as equivalence ratio - ER) on the yield and properties of synthesis gas. For all experiments, the flow rate of ambient air was fixed, while the feed rate of rubber wood chip was adjusted to vary ER in the range of 0.32-0.43. Increasing ER continuously raised the bed temperature, which resulted in higher synthesis gas yield and lower yield of ash and tar. However, higher ER generally gave synthesis gas of lower heating value, partly due to the dilution of N 2 . Considering the energy efficiency of the process, the optimum operation was achieved at ER = 0.38, which yielded 2.33 Nm 3 of synthesis gas per kg of dry biomass at the heating value of 4.94 MJ/Nm 3 . The calculated carbon conversion efficiency and gasification efficiency were 97.3% and 80.2%, respectively. The mass and energy balance of the gasification process showed that the mass and energy distribution was significantly affected by ER and that the energy losses accounted for ∼25% of the total output energy. The economical assessment of synthesis gas utilisation for heat and electricity production based on a 1-MW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and the operational data resulting from the rubber wood chip gasification experiments in this study clearly demonstrated the attractiveness of replacing heavy fuel oil and natural gas by the synthesis gas for heat applications in terms of 70% and 50% annual saving of fuel cost, respectively. However, the case of electricity production does not seem a preferable option due to its current technical and non-technical barriers.

  16. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  17. Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Río, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ruijter, de Norbert C.A.; Cone, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips,

  18. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  19. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  20. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  1. Linear equations on thermal degradation products of wood chips in alkaline glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    Wood chips of 0.3 and 2 mm depth from poplar and spruce wood samples, respectively, were degraded by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline glycerol with and without Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH catalysts at different degradation temperatures: 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490 and 500 K. By products from the degradation processes of the ligno celluloses include lignin degradation products. Lignin and its degradation products have fuel values. The total degradation degree and cellulose degradation of the wood chips were determined to find the relationship, if any, between the yields of total degradation degree (YTD) and degradation temperature (T). There is a good linear relationship between YTD or the yields of cellulose degradation (YCD) and T (K). For the wood samples, the regression equations from NaOH (10%) catalytic runs for 0.3 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm chip size are: For poplar wood: (YTD=0.7250T-267.507) (YCD=0.1736T-71.707) For spruce wood: (YTD=0.2650T-105.979) (YCD=0.0707T-27.507) For Eqs., the square of the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) were 0.9841, 0.9496, 0.9839 and 0.9447, respectively

  2. The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Cone, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by stimulating the colonization. Wheat straw and wood chips were treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes with various amounts of colonized millet grains (0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 % per g

  3. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  4. Development of stoker-burner wood chip combustion systems for the UK market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The document makes a case for the development of a design of wood chip stoker-burner more suited to the UK than those currently imported from Sweden and Finland. The differences would centre on market conditions, performance and cost-effectiveness and the devices would be manufactured or part-manufactured in the UK. Econergy Limited was contracted by the DTI as part of its Sustainable Energy Programmes to design and construct an operational prototype stoker-burner rated at 120 kWth. A test rig was built to: (i) study modified burner heads and (ii) develop control hardware and a control strategy. Both (i) and (ii) are described. Tests brought about an increase in performance of the burner head and its wet wood performance. It was considered that further improvements are achievable and six areas for future study were suggested.

  5. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  6. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region; Puuhakkeen hankinta- ja tutkimusprojekti Mikkelin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, T. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Station; Auvinen, P. [Mikkeli city (Finland). Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry

    1996-12-31

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m{sup 3} (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m{sup 3} (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m{sup 3} (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m{sup 3}/ha

  7. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region; Puuhakkeen hankinta- ja tutkimusprojekti Mikkelin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, T [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Station; Auvinen, P [Mikkeli city (Finland). Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry

    1997-12-31

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m{sup 3} (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m{sup 3} (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m{sup 3} (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m{sup 3}/ha

  8. Combined heat and power unit using renewable raw materials. A cogeneration power plant with wood chips and pellets; BHKW auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe. KWK mit Holzhackschnitzeln und Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-07-15

    The combined heat and power units of the next generation operate with renewable resources. The plants working with wood chips or pellets now are ready for mass production. So, farmers and foresters, trade and municipalities may pile in the decentralized, energetic self-sufficiency. Two companies have developed procedures with which combined heat and power plants based can be operated on wood chips or pellets.

  9. Numerical analysis of the interaction between high-pressure resin spray and wood chips in a vapour stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Milani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the interaction between the resin spray and the wood chips in a vapour stream using a multi-phase multi-component computational fluid dynamics approach. The interaction between the spray and the chips is one of the main issues in the industrial process for manufacturing medium density fibre boards. Thus, the optimization of this process can lead to important benefits, such as the reduction in the emission of formaldehyde-based toxic chemicals, the reduction in energy consumption in the blending process and energy saving in the fibreboard drying process. First step of the study is the numerical analysis of the resin injector in order to extend the experimental measurements carried out with water to the resin spray. The effects of the injector’s geometrical features on the spray formation are highlighted under different injection pressure values and needle displacements. Afterwards, the results obtained in the analysis of the single injector are used for the complete simulation of multi-injector rail where the mixing of the resin spray and wood chips takes place. The influence of the main operating conditions, such as the vapour and the wood chip flow rates, on the resin distribution is addressed in order to optimize the resination process.

  10. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  11. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  12. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M; Pankakari, P [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  13. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  14. Modeling of electrodialytic and dialytic removal of Cr, Cu and As from CCA-treated wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    + and NO3 used as electrolyte solutions in the electrode compartments, and oxalate ions and protons incorporated with the oxalic acid solution during wood chips incubation. The model simulation also takes into account that OH generated on the cathode, during electrodialytic remediation, is periodically...... neutralized by addition of nitric acid in the cathode compartment. The anion and cation-exchange membranes are simply represented as ionic filters that preclude the transport of co-ions (the cations and anions respectively) with the exception of H+, which is retarded but considered to pass through the anion...

  15. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of

  16. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  17. Mathematical model of CO2 release during milk fermentation using natural kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goršek, Andreja; Ritonja, Jožef; Pečar, Darja

    2018-03-12

    Milk fermentation takes place in the presence of various micro-organisms, producing a variety of dairy products. The oldest of them is kefir, which is usually produced by the fermentation of milk with kefir grains. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), as one of the process products, also contributes to the characteristic flavor of kefir. The amount of CO 2 generated during fermentation depends on bioprocessing conditions and may change, which is not desirable at the industrial level. In this study we developed a simplified mathematical model of CO 2 release in the milk-fermentation process. An intuitive approach based on superposition and experimental analysis was used for the modeling. The chemical system studied was considered as a two-input (temperature, rotational frequency of the stirrer) one-output (CO 2 concentration) dynamic system. Based on an analysis of CO 2 release transients in the case of non-simultaneous stepwise changed input quantities, two differential equations were defined that describe the influence of the two input quantities on the output quantity. The simulation results were verified by experiments. The proposed model can be used for a comprehensive analysis of the process that is being studied and for the design and synthesis of advanced control systems, which will ensure a controlled CO 2 release at the industrial level. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  19. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  20. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  1. Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

    2013-10-01

    Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease.

  2. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt

    2006-06-15

    Harpsund is well-known for being the representation residence for the Swedish prime minister. Besides this function, it is also a production unit for milk and meat, with a livestock of about 500 animals. At Harpsund, a new production plant for heating and domestic hot water with a new distribution net was built by the Swedish authorities. Wood chips from the forests belonging to the estate are used for the heat production, together with wood pellets and solar heat. The old heating system was based on a technique with local production in each building and was in need of modernization. The new plant has been designed very attractively - great care has been taken to make it fit into the atmosphere of the surroundings. The solar collectors are placed on the roof of a garage for farming machines. The heat central contains three burners: one for wood chips with thermal power 250 kW, one 400 kW burner for pellets and one small 25 kW burner for pellets. The smallest unit is intended to support the solar system during the summer season. From the garage with the 327 m{sup 2} Aquasol Big AR solar collectors the solar heated glycol/ water is transported to the heat central in a culvert. The distance is 150 m. At the heat central, there is also a heat accumulator with a volume of 40 m{sup 3} of water. This is used both for the burners and for the solar heat. The monitoring and analysis of the plant show that it has good reliability and it is evident that the production capacity is adequate for all conceivable climate conditions. During one year of monitoring, the heat central produced 1,494 MWh of which 86 % came from wood chips, 9 % from pellets and 5 % from solar heat. It is unfavourable that the solar heat has to work against the return temperature of the heat distribution system. Also, the collector area seems to be somewhat too large for the demand for domestic hot water. The result for the specific investment for solar heat is therefore high: 13.21 SEK/kWh,year. It might

  3. Organic emissions from co-combustion of RDF with wood chips and milled peat in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, Raili; Flyktman, Martti

    1996-01-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been burned with wood chips and milled peat in a 4 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in flue gases expressed as TCDD-equivalents were significantly below the emission limit 0.1 ng/m 3 n I-TEQ (11 % O 2 ). Also the PCDD/F-concentrations of fly ashes separated by an electrostatic precipitator are significantly below the 1 ng/g I-TEQ limit for agricultural soil in Germany. The carbon monoxide content was rather high, but typical for many small district heating plants. The concentrations of other chlorinated aromatic compounds were also low, in some tests below the detection limit. The concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were rather high. The leachable metal content of the fly ash generated were analyzed using U.S. EPA TCLP test (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). All concentrations fell below boundary levels. (author)

  4. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  5. The Leachate Release and Microstructure of the Sewage Sludge under the Anaerobic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqie Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant release, pore structure, and thermal effect of sewage sludge during anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Results showed that the pH value firstly declined and then increased during anaerobic fermentation. The BOD5 and organics of sewage sludge declined, and the BOD5 of samples which was originally neutral declined as much as 53.6%. The micropore of samples was relatively developed. The biggest adsorption amount was 69.2 cm3/g. The average pore size was enlarged about 16.0–19.8% under anaerobic fermentation. There existed endothermic valley during heating procedure of 0–200∘C because of the dehydration, and the mass loss was 60.9–72.5%. The endothermic valley of the sample fluctuated at the 14th day in the anaerobic fermentation. During the heating procedure of 200–600∘C, there existed exothermal peaks because of the oxidation and burning of the organics. The curve of sample which was originally neutral had comparatively large endothermic valley and exothermal peak.

  6. Bioaccessible peptides released by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fermented goat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Jauregi, Paula; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Amigo, Lourdes; Miralles, Beatriz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed. Evaluation of the cleavage specificity suggested a lower proteolytic activity of the probiotic strain. Some of the potentially identified peptides had been previously reported as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial and might account for the in vitro activity previously reported for these fermented milks. Simulated digestion of the products was conducted in the presence of a dialysis membrane to retrieve the bioaccessible peptide fraction. Some sequences with reported physiological activity resisted digestion but were found in the non-dialyzable fraction. However, new forms released by digestion, such as the antioxidant α s1 -casein 144 YFYPQL 149 , the antihypertensive α s2 -casein 90 YQKFPQY 96 , and the antibacterial α s2 -casein 165 LKKISQ 170 , were found in the dialyzable fraction of both fermented milks. Moreover, in the fermented milk including the probiotic strain, the k-casein dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) 51 INNQFLPYPY 60 as well as additional ACE inhibitory or antioxidant sequences could be identified. With the aim of anticipating further biological outcomes, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was applied to the bioaccessible fragments and led to potential ACE inhibitory sequences being proposed. Graphical abstract Ultrafiltered goat milks were fermented with the classical starter bacteria (St) and with St plus the

  7. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  9. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijk, van, S.J.A.; Rio, del, José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungaltreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk and the changesoccurring during fungal degradation were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometryand detergent fiber analysis.Results: L. edodes preferentially degraded lignin,...

  10. The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M.; Noon, C.; Daly, M.; Moore, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock

  11. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application....... This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase...... in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash...

  12. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of human lung cells to combustion smoke particles of Miscanthus straw, softwood and beech wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ali Talib; Maschowski, Christoph; Garra, Patxi; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Petithory, Tatiana; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Dieterlen, Alain; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Khanaqa, Polla; Nazarenko, Irina; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) from residential biomass combustion is epidemiologically associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. This study investigates PM0.4-1 emissions from combustion of commercial Miscanthus straw (MS), softwood chips (SWC) and beech wood chips (BWC) in a domestic-scale boiler (40 kW). The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of the MS, SWC and BWC were characterized by ICP-MS/OES, XRD, SEM, TEM, and DLS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial A549 and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were assessed by the WST-1 assay and the DNA-Alkaline Unwinding Assay (DAUA). PM0.4-1 uptake/translocation in cells was investigated with a new method developed using a confocal reflection microscope. SWC and BWC had a inherently higher residual water content than MS. The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of SWC and BWC exhibited higher levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a greater variety of mineral species and a higher heavy metal content than PM0.4-1 from MS combustion. Exposure to PM0.4-1 from combustion of SWC and BWC induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human alveolar and bronchial cells, whereby the strongest effect was observed for BWC and was comparable to that caused by diesel PM (SRM 2 975), In contrast, PM0.4-1 from MS combustion did not induce cellular responses in the studied lung cells. A high PAH content in PM emissions seems to be a reliable chemical marker of both combustion efficiency and particle toxicity. Residual biomass water content strongly affects particulate emissions and their toxic potential. Therefore, to minimize the harmful effects of fine PM on health, improvement of combustion efficiency (aiming to reduce the presence of incomplete combustion products bound to PM) and application of fly ash capture technology, as well as use of novel biomass fuels like Miscanthus straw is recommended.

  13. Effects of polymer coated slow-release urea on ruminal fermentation and nutrient total tract digestion of beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gardinal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymer coated slow-release urea (SRU in high-forage diets of beef steers on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and energy balance. Eight 24-mo-old rumen-fistulated castrated Nellore steers (average body weight = 418.0±40.0 kg were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Animals were randomly distributed to receive one of the following diets: no urea inclusion; 1.0% inclusion of feed grade urea in the diet (dry matter [DM] basis; 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 1 in the diet (DM basis; and 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 2 in the diet (DM basis. Slow-release urea 2 had a similar composition to that of slow-release urea 1 and differed in that it contained 2.95% sulfur. A high-forage diet was provided (75% of total DM and corn silage was used as the forage source. Diets with urea had increased crude protein (CP intake, and CP and total digestible nutrients total tract digestion. Urea sources increased ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and acetate, and decreased butyrate concentrations. The polymer coated urea did not alter ruminal fermentation when compared with feed grade urea. Diets did not affect the energy balance of steers. Feed grade urea presented greater microbial protein synthesis than polymer coated slow-release urea. The partial replacement of soybean meal by 1% slow-release urea in a diet with 75% forage does not improve ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, and shows similar results as feeding feed grade urea to beef steers.

  14. Increased release of fermentable sugars from elephant grass by enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegol, Daiane; Scholl, Angélica Luisi; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Camassola, Marli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Milling is an attractive method to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. • Surfactants improve the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. • Pretreatment with NaOH, smaller particle size and Tween 80® were more efficient. - Abstract: In the search for renewable energy sources, elephant grass is an alternative substrate for ethanol production, but this substrate must be hydrolyzed by cellulases and xylanases to liberate fermentable sugars. During enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulase activity is reduced by the irreversible adsorption of cellulase onto cellulose, decreasing the rate of hydrolysis. Adding surfactants during hydrolysis can improve the process. The effects of Tween® and Triton® surfactants on the enzymatic hydrolysis of elephant grass were evaluated in this context. The data indicate that pretreatment with sodium hydroxide, along with a smaller particle size (0.075–0.152 mm) and the use of Tween 80®, increased the efficiency of releasing reducing sugars from pretreated elephant grass biomass. Thus, it is possible to reduce grinding costs in second-generation ethanol production through the use of surfactants, as they allow efficient hydrolysis of larger biomass particles

  15. The contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanshun; Li, Lin; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Gao, Pei; Zang, Jinhong; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids (FFA) release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish, three groups of processed fish, including bacteriostatic-acidification group (BAG), bacteriostatic group (BG), and spontaneous fermented fish (CG) were established. Results showed that addition of NaN 3 reduced microbial load in BAG and BG below 3.5 log CFU/g after 3 weeks of incubation. Activities of lipases and lipoxygenase declined markedly with increasing time, where BG had the highest activities, followed by CG and BAG. There is a 36.3% higher in the total FFA content in CG than that in BAG, indicating both microbial and endogenous lipases contributed to the FFA liberation in fermented fish while endogenous lipases play a major role. However, compared to BAG and BG, largely higher levels of volatile compounds were observed in CG, suggesting that autochthonous microflora dominated the generation of volatile flavor compounds in fermented fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrient intake in the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea and Protaetia orientalis submarmorea (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips: Results from stable isotope analyses of nitrogen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masahito; Iwata, Ryutaro; Yamane, Akiomi; Katase, Takao; Ueda, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea (Ac) and Protaerita orientalis submarmorea (Pos) (Colepotera: Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips of two wood species (Cryptomeria japonica and Quercus mongolica), was assayed by the stable isotope technique. The values of δ 15 N and δ 13 C (deviations of 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C from the standard materials) were measured in the following samples: (1) the integument plus the head of the 3rd instar larvae of both species reared in 1999 autumn fed with a mixture of cow dung and wood chips or with leaf mold, (2) cow dung, (3) wood ships, and (4) leaf mold as the larval food before onset of rearing. The δ values of bodies of larvae fed with leaf mold differed with the beetle species. The δ 15 N values of the larval bodies of both species fed with the mixture were close to those of cow dung, whereas the δ 13 C values were in between those of cow dung and wood chips. Therefore, both species were presumed to obtain almost all their nitrogen from cow dung, and their carbon from both dung and wood chips. (author)

  17. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy

  18. Effect of biofilm formation by Oenococcus oeni on malolactic fermentation and the release of aromatic compounds in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eBastard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The winemaking process involves the alcoholic fermentation of must, often followed by malolactic fermentation. The latter, mainly carried out by the lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni, is used to improve wine quality when acidity reduction is required. Moreover, it prevents microbial spoilage and improves the wine’s organoleptic profile. Prior observations showed that O. oeni is able to resist several months in harsh wine conditions when adhered on oak barrels. Since biofilm is a prevailing microbial lifestyle in natural environments, the capacity of O. oeni to form biofilms was investigated on winemaking material such as stainless steel and oak chips. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed that O. oeni was able to adhere to these surfaces and form spatially organized microcolonies embedded in extracellular substances. To assess the competitive advantage of this mode of life in wine, the properties of biofilm and planktonic cells were compared after inoculation in a fermented must (pH 3.5 or 3.2 and 12% ethanol The results indicated that the biofilm culture of O. oeni conferred (i increased tolerance to wine stress, and (ii functional performance with effective malolactic activities. Relative gene expression focusing on stress genes and genes involved in EPS synthesis was investigated in a mature biofilm and emphasized the role of the matrix in increased biofilm resistance.As oak is commonly used in wine aging, we focused on the O. oeni biofilm on this material and its contribution to the development of wine color and the release of aromatic compounds. Analytical chromatography was used to target the main oak aging compounds such as vanillin, gaiacol, eugenol, whisky-lactones and furfural. The results reveal that O. oeni biofilm developed on oak can modulate the wood-wine transfer of volatile aromatic compounds during malolactic fermentation and aging by decreasing furfural, gaiacol and eugenol in

  19. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  20. Startup and long-term performance of biotrickling filters packed with polyurethane foam and poplar wood chips treating a mixture of ethylmercaptan, H2S, and NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J; Lafuente, J; Prado, O J; Gabriel, D

    2013-04-01

    Treatment of a mixture of NH3, H2S, and ethylmercaptan (EM) was investigated for more than 15 months in two biotrickling filters packed with poplar wood chips and polyurethane foam. Inlet loads ranging from 5 to 10 g N-NH3 m-3 hr-1, from 5 to 16 g S-H2S m-3 hr-1, and from 0 to 5 g EM m-3 hr-1 were applied. During startup, the biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam was re-inoculated due to reduced biomass retention as well as a stronger effect of nitrogen compounds inhibition compared with the biotrickling filter packed with poplar wood. Accurate pH control between 7 and 7.5 favored pollutants abatement. In the long run, complete NH3 removal in the gas phase was achieved in both reactors, while H2S removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. EM abatement was significantly different in both reactors. A systematically lower elimination capacity was found in the polyurethane foam bioreactor. N fractions in the liquid phase proved that high nitrification rates were reached throughout steady-state operation in both bioreactors. CO2 production showed the extent of the organic packing material degradation, which allowed estimating its service lifetime in around 2 years. In the long run, the bioreactor packed with the organic packing material had a lower stability. However, an economic analysis indicated that poplar wood chips are a competitive alternative to inorganic packing materials in biotrickling filters. We provide new insights in the use of organic packing materials in biotrickling filters for the treatment of H2S, NH3, and mercaptans and compare them with polyurethane foam, a packing commonly used in biotrickling filters. We found interesting features related with the startup of the reactors and parameterized both the performance under steady-state conditions and the influence of the gas contact time. We provide relevant conclusions in the profitability of organic packing materials under a biotrickling filter configuration, which is infrequent but proven reliable

  1. Anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment for phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge: Release of carbon source and phosphorus as well as hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Li, Yongmei

    2016-10-01

    Releases of organic compounds and phosphorus from phosphorus-accumulating granular sludge (PGS) and phosphorus-accumulating flocculent sludge (PFS) during low-temperature thermal pretreatment and anaerobic fermentation were investigated. Meanwhile, biogas production potential and microbial community structures were explored. The results indicate that much more soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and phosphorus were released from PGS than from PFS via low-temperature thermal pretreatment because of the higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in PGS and higher ratio of phosphorus reserved in EPS. Furthermore, PGS contains more anaerobes and dead cells, resulting in much higher SCOD and volatile fatty acids release from PGS than those from PFS during fermentation. PGS fermentation facilitated the n-butyric acid production, and PGS exhibited the hydrogen production potential during fermentation due to the presence of hydrogen-producing bacteria. Therefore, anaerobic fermentation combined with low-temperature thermal pretreatment can facilitate the recovery of carbon and phosphorus as well as producing hydrogen from PGS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  3. Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC of Wood Chips in a Semi-Commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Using Manganese Ore as Bed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rydén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC is realized by using an active oxygen-carrying bed material in fluidized bed boilers. The active material is reduced in fuel rich parts of the boiler and oxidized in air rich parts. Advantages could be achieved such as new mechanisms for oxygen transport in space and time. Here calcined manganese ore has been used as active bed material in a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel was wood chips and the campaign lasted more than two weeks. From an operational point of view, manganese ore worked excellently. From the temperature profile of the boiler it can be concluded that fuel conversion was facilitated, especially in the dense bottom bed. The effect did not always translate to reduced emissions, which suggests that final combustion in the cyclone outlet was also influenced. Substituting 10% of the sand bed with manganese ore made it possible to reduce the air to fuel ratio without generating large amounts of CO. The use of 100% manganese ore resulted in higher emissions of CO than the sand reference, but, when combined sulphur feeding, dramatic reductions in CO emissions, up to 90% compared to sand reference, was achieved.

  4. Ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by a recombinant xylose- and cellooligosaccharide-assimilating yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Satoshi; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Div. of Molecular Science; Mizuike, Atsuko; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2006-10-15

    The sulfuric acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood chips, from the forest industry is an important material for fuel bioethanol production. In this study, we constructed a recombinant yeast strain that can ferment xylose and cellooligosaccharides by integrating genes for the intercellular expressions of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis, and xylulokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a gene for displaying ss-glucosidase from Aspergillus acleatus on the cell surface. In the fermentation of the sulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips, xylose and cellooligosaccharides were completely fermented after 36 h by the recombinant strain, and then about 30 g/l ethanol was produced from 73 g/l total sugar added at the beginning. In this case, the ethanol yield of this recombinant yeast was much higher than that of the control yeast. These results demonstrate that the fermentation of the lignocellulose hydrolysate is performed efficiently by the recombinant Saccharomyces strain with abilities for xylose assimilation and cellooligosaccharide degradation. (orig.)

  5. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  6. Effects of polymer-coated slow-release urea on performance, ruminal fermentation, and blood metabolites in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Delfino Calomeni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to quantify the effects of feeding polymer-coated slow-release urea on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, milk yield and composition, nutrient balances, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and blood parameters in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (580±20 kg of live weight (mean ± standard deviation; 90 to 180 days in milk (DIM; and 28 kg/d of average milk yield were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. The animals were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to receive one of the following experimental diets: 1 control (without urea addition; urea (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; polymer-coated slow release urea 1 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis; and polymer-coated slow release urea 2 (addition of 1% on the diet DM basis. All diets contained corn silage as forage source and a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Milk and protein yield, production of volatile fatty acids, and propionate decreased when cows were fed diets containing urea. Addition of urea decreased nitrogen efficiency and nitrogen excreted in the feces. However, the diets did not change the cows' microbial protein synthesis, ruminal pH, or ammonia concentration. The inclusion of urea in cow diets decreases milk and protein yield due to lower production of volatile fatty acids. No advantages are observed with supplementation of polymer-coated slow-release urea when compared with feed-grade urea.

  7. Study on Release Characteristics and Recovery of Nitrogen and Phosphorus during the Anaerobic Fermentation of Excess Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuqian; Hu, Shulong

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia nitrogen and phosphate are produced from activated excess sludge under anaerobic conditions,and will cause eutrophication upon release to the environment. A study of sludge from a eutrophication was carried out, to obtain knowledge of the nitrogen and phosphorus release patterns of the excess sludge during anaerobic fermentation and the recycling efficiency of both nitrogen and phosphorus, by adding magnesium salt and alkali solution to the supernatant liquors. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen and phosphate of the supernatant liquors continued to increase during the process of anaerobic digestion, and both reached a maximum in 12 days, at 41.56mg / L and 47.02 mg / L respectively. By adding magnesium salt to the supernatant with c(Mg): c(P) = 1.1:1, adjusting pH value to 9.0 ∼ 9.5, phosphorus recovery rate reached up to 95.0%, while the recovery rate of ammonia was 47.4%, resulting in the formation of a sediment of magnesium ammonium phosphate, or MAP, which may he used as a high-quality fertilizer.

  8. Preparation for full scale demonstration of an air staged gasifier plant. Technical project development; For combined heat and power production with wood chips; Forberedelse til fuldskala demonstration af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg. Teknisk projektudvikling. Delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2011-04-15

    The project has aimed to further develop the technology for staged biomass gasification and establish an organizational and financial model to ensure that the technology can be introduced on the market. This report describes the technique in an upcoming demonstration plant. A complete planning and design of a demonstration plant with a capacity of 300 kW electric power and 700 kW heat was prepared. That is four times more than the pilot plant at Graested District Heating (Castor plant) can produce. A full scale demonstration plant with bio-gasification technology for wood chips will be established and put into operation in 2012. (ln)

  9. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae To Release 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol during Fermentation through Overexpression of an S. cerevisiae Gene, STR3, for Improvement of Wine Aroma▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Sylvester; Cordente, Antonio G.; Williams, Simon J.; Capone, Dimitra L.; Jitjaroen, Wanphen; Menz, Ian R.; Curtin, Chris; Anderson, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur-containing aroma compounds are key contributors to the flavor of a diverse range of foods and beverages. The tropical fruit characters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc wines are attributed to the presence of the aromatic thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol-acetate, and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP). These volatile thiols are found in small amounts in grape juice and are formed from nonvolatile cysteinylated precursors during fermentation. In this study, we overexpressed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, STR3, which led to an increase in 3MH release during fermentation of a V. vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Characterization of the enzymatic properties of Str3p confirmed it to be a pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent cystathionine β-lyase, and we demonstrated that this enzyme was able to cleave the cysteinylated precursors of 3MH and 4MMP to release the free thiols. These data provide direct evidence for a yeast enzyme able to release aromatic thiols in vitro that can be applied in the development of self-cloned yeast to enhance wine flavor. PMID:21478306

  10. High titer ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, T Q; Gleisner, Roland; Zhu, J Y; Dien, Bruce S; Hector, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole wood chips were pretreated by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) at 25% solids loading and 180 °C for 20 min with sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite charges of 2.2 and 8 wt/wt% on an oven-dry wood basis, respectively. The pretreated wood chips were disk-milled with pretreatment spent liquor and water, and the solid fraction was separated from the liquor stream. The liquor was neutralized and concentrated through vacuum evaporation. Quasi-simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of the cellulosic solids and combined fermentation with the concentrated liquor was conducted at up to 20% total solids loading. Fed-batching of the solids facilitated liquefaction and saccharification, as well as managing instantaneous inhibitor concentrations. At a commercial cellulase (CTec2) loading of only 9 FPU or 0.06 mL/g untreated wood, a maximum ethanol titer of 47.4 g/L was achieved, resulting in a calculated yield of 285 L/tonne of wood using Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH400 at 35 °C and pH 5.5. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  12. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  13. Potential influence of compounds released in degradation of phytates on the course of alcoholic fermentation of high gravity mashes – simulation with analogs of these compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulski Dawid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of high gravity media with mineral compounds and myo-inositol, at concentration which would be obtained as a result of degradation of phytates present in raw material during alcoholic fermentation. The process of alcoholic fermentation was conducted under laboratory conditions in a 72 h system at 37°C with the use of S. cerevisiae D-2 strain. Calcium chloride proved to be the most effective of all supplements tested. Final ethanol concentration increased by 1.2% v v−1 and the yield of process increased by ca. 7 dm−3 ethanol 100 kg−1 of starch in comparison with control. Selective supplementation with KH2PO4, ZnSO4 and MgSO4 also increased the ethanol concentration, but the effect was accompanied by a deterioration in composition of volatile products. The hydrolysis of phytate complexes with microbial phytases can be an alternative solution to supplementation of HG mashes presented in this work.

  14. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... 2003). Besides, several alcoholic beverages such as wine or liqueurs are obtained from fruit juices fermented by Saccharomyces ..... (2003). Kinetics of pigment release from hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris under the ...

  15. The Research and Application of Sustainable Long-release Carbon Material with Agricultural Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    (1) The element analysis shown that ten kinds of agricultural wastes containing a certain amount of C, N, H elements, the highest content of C element, and t value ranges from 36.02% 36.02%, and the variation of C, N, H elements content in difference materials was not significant. The TOC concentration of sugar cane was up to 38.66 mg·g-1, and quality ratio was 39‰, significantly lower than C elements content. The released TOC quality of the rest materials were 2.36 2.36 mg·g-1, and the order from high to low were the soybean straw, rice straw, corn straw, rice husk, poplar branches, wheat straw, reeds, corn cob and wood chips respectively. The long-term leaching experiment of selected Optimized agricultural waste showed that the TOC content in leaching solution rise rapidly to peak value and was stable afterwards, with the concentration of 4.59 19.46 mg·g-1. The TOC releasing amount order was same with the short-term leaching experiment. (2) The releasing of nitrate nitrogen in ten kinds of agricultural waste was low (corn straw was up to 0.12mg·g-1, and the rest were all below 0.04mg·g-1 without accumulation. Most of the ammonia nitrogen concentration in leachate was lower than 0.3mg·g-1. The kjeldahl nitrogen in the corn straw, soybean straw, rice straw, reed, rice husk, and sugar cane leachate (0.81 1.65mg·g-1) were higher than that of poplar branches, corn cob and wood chips (corn straw, rice husk and wheat straw leachate. Above all, it can be concluded that the sugar cane, corn straw, rice husk, wheat straw, corn cob, wood were ideal carbon source material in ten kinds of agricultural.

  16. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Fermentation process for the production of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Theron; Reinhardt, James; Yu, Xiaohui; Udani, Russell; Staples, Lauren

    2018-05-01

    This invention relates to improvements in the fermentation process used in the production of organic acids from biological feedstock using bacterial catalysts. The improvements in the fermentation process involve providing a fermentation medium comprising an appropriate form of inorganic carbon, an appropriate amount of aeration and a biocatalyst with an enhanced ability to uptake and assimilate the inorganic carbon into the organic acids. This invention also provides, as a part of an integrated fermentation facility, a novel process for producing a solid source of inorganic carbon by sequestering carbon released from the fermentation in an alkali solution.

  18. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  19. High titer ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and combined fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.Q. Lan; Roland Gleisner; J.Y. Zhu; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector

    2012-01-01

    Lodgepole wood chips were pretreated by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) at 25% solids loading and 180 °C for 20 min with sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite charges of 2.2 and 8 wt/wt% on an oven-dry wood basis, respectively. The pretreated wood chips were disk-milled with pretreatment spent liquor and water, and the...

  20. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  1. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, A S; Holland, J W

    1958-09-10

    The lactose of whey and other milk products is rapidly fermented to ethanol by means of Candida pseudotropicalis strain XI. The fermentation is complete in about 12 hours and yields about 45% ethanol based on the weight of lactose. Conditions favoring the fermentation and inhibiting lactic acid production include pH 4.5, 30/sup 0/, and continuous aeration.

  3. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  4. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  5. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  6. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture cont...... of the torrefied pellets was higher and the particle size distribution after grinding the pellets was more uniform compared to conventional wood pellets....

  7. Solving wood chip transport problems with computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; Sharon A. Winsauer

    1976-01-01

    Efficient chip transport operations are difficult to achieve due to frequent and often unpredictable changes in distance to market, chipping rate, time spent at the mill, and equipment costs. This paper describes a computer simulation model that allows a logger to design an efficient transport system in response to these changing factors.

  8. A State Space Model for the Wood Chip Refining Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Di Ruscio

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed dynamic model of the fibre size distribution between the refiner discs, distributed along the refiner radius, is presented. Both one- and two-dimensional descriptions for the fibre or shive geometry are given. It is shown that this model may be simplified and that analytic solutions exist under non-restrictive assumptions. A direct method for the recursive estimation of unknown parameters is presented. This method is applicable to linear or linearized systems which have a triangular structure.

  9. Controlling alchohol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedham, P A; Tubb, R S

    1983-09-21

    In the initial stages of a fermentation of carbohydrate to EtOH, the growth of the yeast is controlled by monitoring the pH of a fermenting liquid or wort and controlling the supply of O/sub 2/ in accordance with the pH. The temperature of the fermenting liquid is also controlled in dependence upon the pH. The control of the fermentation process is carried out automatically by an apparatus including a fermentation vessel, a pH sensor arranged to provide an output signal representative of the pH of the liquid in the vessel, memory means to store information on the required pH with regard to the fermentation time, means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid and control means to compare the output signal of the pH sensor at a particular time with that of the required pH at that time, and in the event of the pH of the fermenting liquid lagging behind that required, actuate the means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid to increase the O/sub 2/ content of the fermenting liquid.

  10. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  11. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  12. Research in fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A K

    1966-01-01

    The following aspects of the biochemistry of fermentation were discussed: carbohydrate, amino acid, S, and phosphate metabolisms in the yeast cell; pantothenic acid and biotin as the essential growth factors in yeast metabolisms; effects of different aeration conditions on yeast growth, mitochondria development, and lipid contents. Gas chromatographic studies of fermentation products are also discussed.

  13. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  15. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  16. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elke; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application. PMID:28649371

  17. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var....... oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were...

  18. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  19. Ferment first, then compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-01

    If communal organic waste is simply dumped, it is harmful to the environment. But if it is used to produce biogas, it can become a significant source of energy. Currently, there are two dry fermentation processes available. (orig.)

  20. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  1. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  2. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  3. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  4. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  5. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  6. Changes in sparkling wine aroma during the second fermentation under CO2 pressure in sealed bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Rafael; García-Martínez, Teresa; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Juan

    2017-12-15

    High quality sparkling wine made by the traditional method requires a second alcoholic fermentation of a base wine in sealed bottles, followed by an aging time in contact with yeast lees. The CO 2 overpressure released during this second fermentation has an important effect on the yeast metabolism and therefore on the wine aroma composition. This study focuses on the changes in chemical composition and 43 aroma compounds released by yeast during this fermentation carried out under two pressure conditions. The data were subjected to statistical analysis allowing differentiating between the base wine and the wine samples taken in the middle and at the end of fermentation. The differentiation among wines obtained to the end of fermentation with or without CO 2 pressure is only achieved by a principal component analysis of 15 selected minor compounds (mainly ethyl dodecanoate, ethyl tetradecanoate, hexyl acetate, ethyl butanoate and ethyl isobutanoate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethyl alcohol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-02-13

    Ethanol is made from solutions poor in sugar and free of yeast carriers, e.g. from whey, by fermentation under sterile conditions. The CO/sub 2/ formed in the decomposition of sugar is used as an agitating medium to ensure good contact between the yeast and the sugar.

  8. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  9. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  10. Establishing the relative importance of damaged starch and fructan as sources of fermentable sugars in wheat flour and whole meal bread dough fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Lefevere, Bianca; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-03-01

    It is generally believed that maltose drives yeast-mediated bread dough fermentation. The relative importance of fructose and glucose, released from wheat fructan and sucrose by invertase, compared to maltose is, however, not documented. This is surprising given the preference of yeast for glucose and fructose over maltose. This study revealed that, after 2h fermentation of wheat flour dough, about 44% of the sugars consumed were generated by invertase-mediated degradation of fructan, raffinose and sucrose. The other 56% were generated by amylases. In whole meal dough, 70% of the sugars consumed were released by invertase activity. Invertase-mediated sugar release seems to be crucial during the first hour of fermentation, while amylase-mediated sugar release was predominant in the later stages of fermentation, which explains why higher amylolytic activity prolonged the productive fermentation time only. These results illustrate the importance of wheat fructan and sucrose content and their degradation for dough fermentations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  14. Butanol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, M

    1960-07-19

    BuOH is produced by inoculating a carbohydrate mash with Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum (ATCC 13564), fermenting the inoculated mash, and recovering the BuOH by fractional distillation. Thus, a medium containing sugar 4, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.2, Ca superphosphate 0.1, and CoCO/sub 3/ 0.3% is inoculated with a C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum culture and cultivated at 30/sup 0/ until the acidity begins to decrease. Then the culture is transferred to a second medium of similar composition. This transfer is repeated a third time, and then the culture is transferred to the main mash (same composition) and fermented for 60 hours at 30/sup 0/. The yield of BuOH is 11.5 g/1 or 25.5% of the sugar supplied.

  15. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierz, J

    1962-01-01

    The first Polish plant for ontinuous alcohol fermentation of molasses is described. Continuous fermentation permits a better use of the installation, automatic control, and shorter fermentation time. It yields more CO/sub 2/ for dry ice manufacture and decreases corrosion of apparatus. From 22 to 24% mash is used, giving a yield of 61.1 of 100-proof alc./kg. sucrose and an average of 37 kg. of dry yeast/1000 l. alcohol

  16. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  17. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.

  18. Yeast vitality during cider fermentation: assessment by energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, M G; Lloyd, D; McIntyre, P; Jarvis, B

    1999-03-15

    In an apple juice-based medium, an ethanol-tolerant Australian wine-yeast used for cider manufacture produced more than 10% ethanol over a 5 week period. Growth of the inoculum (10(6) organisms ml(-1)) occurred to a population of 3.1 x 10(7) ml(-1) during the first few days; at the end of the fermentation only 5 x 10(5) yeasts ml(-1) could be recovered as colony-forming units on plates. Respiratory and fermentative activities were measured by mass spectrometric measurements (O2 consumption and CO2 and ethanol production) of washed yeast suspensions taken from the cider fermentation at intervals. Both endogenous and glucose-supported energy-yielding metabolism declined, especially during the first 20 days. Levels of adenine nucleotides also showed decreases after day 1, as did adenylate energy charge, although in a prolonged (16.5 week) fermentation the lowest value calculated was 0.55. AMP was released into the medium. 31P-NMR spectra showed that by comparison with aerobically grown yeast, that from the later stages of the cider fermentation showed little polyphosphate. However, as previously concluded from studies of 'acidification power' and fluorescent oxonol dye exclusion (Dinsdale et al., 1995), repitching of yeast indicated little loss of viability despite considerable loss of vitality.

  19. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  20. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  1. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  2. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  3. Carbon source for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-25

    Molasses is hydrolyzed and treated with Ca/sup 2 +/ to produce fructose and a good C-source for glutamic acid and lysine fermentation. Thus, sugarcane molasses was diluted with H/sub 2/O, adjusted to pH 1.5, and kept at 60/sup 0/ for 4 hr. Three liters of this solution was cooled to 0/sup 0/ and 262 g Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a 30% solution was added, along with seed crystals of Ca-fructose additional product. Crystal addition product was recovered and dissolved; the solution contained 6.4g glucose and 168 g fructose, a 50% yield of fructose. The mother liquor was neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to precipitate the Ca. The supernatant contained 284 g glucose and 159 g fructose and was used as the C source in a fermentation medium in which Coryne-bacterium lilum produced glutamic acid. Yield was 49.0 g/L compared to 48.3 g/L when molasses was used as the C source.

  4. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daragh Hill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application.

  6. Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifeng Zhou; J.Y. Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shao-Yuan Leu; Xiaolei Wu; Roland Gleisner; Bruce S. Dien; Ronald E. Hector; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu; Eric Horn; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from reaction kinetics, was used to design a scale-up...

  7. Bioconversion of beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL: Process scale-up design, lignin co-product, and high solids fermentation without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from rea...

  8. Energy consumption in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to limit energy used to aerate the anaerobic fermentation processes. In yeast production the aeration process consumes the greatest part of the total energy required. A mathematical model, based on literature data, is presented for a yeast fermenter. the effect of various aeration and raw product strategies can be calculated. Simulation of yeast fermentation proves it to be independent of oxygen transport. However interaction between flow conditions and biological kinetics (glucose effect) is a limiting factor. With many feeding point the use of enegy for aeration (mixing) can be reduced to 1/3 of the present one.

  9. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Feng Chan; Ching-Cheng Huang; Ming-Yuan Lee; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  10. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  11. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  12. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  13. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  14. Comparative study of the antioxidant and immunomodulant activities between yeast and lab fermented papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary supplements of Carica papaya Linn fermented with yeast using a biotechnological process have well recognized positive effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters, utilized as biomarkers of chronic and degenerative diseases. Although many natural products fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB have shown beneficial effects on the immune system and on antioxidant defenses, formulations of papaya fermented with LAB have not yet been studied. Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the immunomodulatory activity linked to the type of papaya fermentation (yeast vs LAB in macrophages and to evaluate whether the type of fermentation differently modulates oxidative stress both in cell free system and in a model of embryonic brain cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was evaluated through cell proliferation kinetic and lactate dehydrogenase release assays; immunomodulatory activity through the transcriptional activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα by qRT-PCR in RAW 264.7 macrophages; antioxidant capacity was assessed, in cell free system and in pheochromocytoma cells embryonic brain cells, by measuring the intracellular ROS levels through a fluorescent dye. Results: Our data showed that all the formulations studied are safe at low concentrations (3-6 mg/ml; the LAB- fermented formulations promoted the expression of iNOS and TNFα more efficiently than yeast-fermented papaya preparation (p <0.001. In a cell free system, the LAB-fermented formulation acted as mild scavengers of ROS while, in cells, both formulations didn’t show any significant effect. Conclusions: This study corroborates previous reports showing the efficacy of yeast fermented papaya as a potent immunostimulant and highlights the beneficial contribution of lactic bacteria fermentation.

  15. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  16. Milk fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii induces apoptosis of HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien J Cousin

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The "economically developed countries" life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate.A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells. Fermented milk supernatant induced typical features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA laddering, cell cycle arrest and emergence of a subG1 population, phosphatidylserine exposure at the plasma membrane outer leaflet, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Remarkably, this new fermented milk containing P. freudenreichii enhanced the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a drug used in gastric cancer chemotherapy.Such new probiotic fermented milk may thus be useful as part of a preventive diet designed to prevent gastric cancer and/or as a food supplement to potentiate cancer therapeutic treatments.

  17. Milk Fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii Induces Apoptosis of HGT-1 Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J.; Jouan-Lanhouet, Sandrine; Dimanche-Boitrel, Marie-Thérèse; Corcos, Laurent; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The “economically developed countries” life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. Methodology/Principal Findings A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells. Fermented milk supernatant induced typical features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA laddering, cell cycle arrest and emergence of a subG1 population, phosphatidylserine exposure at the plasma membrane outer leaflet, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Remarkably, this new fermented milk containing P. freudenreichii enhanced the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a drug used in gastric cancer chemotherapy. Conclusions/Significance Such new probiotic fermented milk may thus be useful as part of a preventive diet designed to prevent gastric cancer and/or as a food supplement to potentiate cancer therapeutic treatments. PMID:22442660

  18. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  19. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHITE, T G; SHUMAN, R D

    1961-10-01

    White, Thomas G. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa), and Richard D. Shuman. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J. Bacteriol. 82:595-599. 1961.-A study was made to determine the effect of four different basal media, to which fermentable carbon compounds had been added, upon 22 selected strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (insidiosa). Acid production was measured by (i) chemical indicator, (ii) change in pH, and (iii) production of titrable acidity. At least two determinations, usually four, were made for each test on each strain. The fermentation pattern varied according to the medium, the indicator, and the method of measuring acid production. Andrade's base plus serum was the most dependable medium because it permitted the least variation in the total number of different patterns. Of the three methods used to measure acid production, the chemical indicator gave the most valid and reproducible results. The within-strain variation was not extreme and most strains persisted in a given fermentation pattern under like conditions of growth and acid production. Results of the study indicated that, regardless of the medium and indicator routinely used, one should be familiar with the fermentation pattern of known strains of the erysipelas organism.

  20. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  1. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of starchy and sugary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, S P

    1958-06-25

    To promote complete fermentation of the sugar and to reduce the formation of glycerol and other by-products, the ester-aldehyde fraction is introduced to the fermentation mixture at the beginning of the process.

  3. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate and the second fermentation product is in a more oxidised state than the substrate yet in a less oxidised state than the final oxidation product CO2, such that the concurrent synthesis of the firs...

  4. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  5. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  6. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  7. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... fermented ground cassava. J. T. Nwabanne ... The drying characteristics of fermented ground local variety of ... effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented .... Figure 2 shows that the bulk density of each cultivar ... very close thermal conductivities as depicted in the shape of Figure ...

  8. Enhanced substrate conversion efficiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  9. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  10. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  11. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  12. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  13. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  14. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  15. Fermentation performance optimization in an ectopic fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotong; Geng, Bing; Zhu, Changxiong; Li, Hongna; He, Buwei; Guo, Hui

    2018-07-01

    Ectopic fermentation systems (EFSs) were developed for wastewater treatment. Previous studies have investigated the ability of thermophilic bacteria to improve fermentation performance in EFS. Continuing this research, we evaluated EFS performance using principle component analysis and investigated the addition of different proportions of cow dung. Viable bacteria communities were clustered and identified using BOX-AIR-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and 16S rDNA analysis. The results revealed optimal conditions for the padding were maize straw inoculated with thermophilic bacteria. Adding 20% cow dung yielded the best pH values (6.94-8.56), higher temperatures, increased wastewater absorption, improved litter quality, and greater microbial quantities. The viable bacteria groups were enriched by the addition of thermophilic consortium, and exogenous strains G21, G14, G4-1, and CR-15 were detected in fermentation process. The proportion of Bacillus species in treatment groups reached 70.37% after fermentation, demonstrating that thermophilic bacteria, especially Bacillus, have an important role in EFS, supporting previous predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficiency and environmental compatibility of premium cogeneration plants operated by fermentation gas; Effizienz und Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogasbetriebener Blockheizkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschmann, V.; Kissel, R.; Gronauer, A.

    2007-07-15

    Due to the climatic protection as well as shortage and raising the price of fossil fuels, a supply of a sustainable and future power supply is necessary. Therefore, the importance of the production of electricity and heat by means of premium cogeneration plants operated by fermentation gas increases. In the comparison to the conventional power production from fossil fuels, the utilization of fermentation gas reduces the release of climatic relevant gases. A compromise between high achievement and low emission with the burn of fermentation gas in premium cogeneration plants has to be established. It is the subject of the investigation of the contribution under consideration, to what extent this is feasible in practice.

  17. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  18. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  19. ENDOSPORES OF THERMOPHILIC FERMENTATIVE BACTERIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  20. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  1. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  2. Combinatorial pretreatment and fermentation optimization enabled a record yield on lignin bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Xie, Shangxian; Lin, Furong; Jin, Mingjie; Yuan, Joshua S

    2018-01-01

    Lignin valorization has recently been considered to be an essential process for sustainable and cost-effective biorefineries. Lignin represents a potential new feedstock for value-added products. Oleaginous bacteria such as Rhodococcus opacus can produce intracellular lipids from biodegradation of aromatic substrates. These lipids can be used for biofuel production, which can potentially replace petroleum-derived chemicals. However, the low reactivity of lignin produced from pretreatment and the underdeveloped fermentation technology hindered lignin bioconversion to lipids. In this study, combinatorial pretreatment with an optimized fermentation strategy was evaluated to improve lignin valorization into lipids using R. opacus PD630. As opposed to single pretreatment, combinatorial pretreatment produced a 12.8-75.6% higher lipid concentration in fermentation using lignin as the carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that combinatorial pretreatment released more aromatic monomers, which could be more readily utilized by lignin-degrading strains. Three detoxification strategies were used to remove potential inhibitors produced from pretreatment. After heating detoxification of the lignin stream, the lipid concentration further increased by 2.9-9.7%. Different fermentation strategies were evaluated in scale-up lipid fermentation using a 2.0-l fermenter. With laccase treatment of the lignin stream produced from combinatorial pretreatment, the highest cell dry weight and lipid concentration were 10.1 and 1.83 g/l, respectively, in fed-batch fermentation, with a total soluble substrate concentration of 40 g/l. The improvement of the lipid fermentation performance may have resulted from lignin depolymerization by the combinatorial pretreatment and laccase treatment, reduced inhibition effects by fed-batch fermentation, adequate oxygen supply, and an accurate pH control in the fermenter. Overall, these results demonstrate that combinatorial

  3. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  4. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  5. MASS TRANSFER IN FERMENTATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shevchenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of anaerobic fermentation processes with the accumulation of dissolved ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the culture media are considered in the article.The solubility of CO2 is limited by the state of saturation in accordance with Henry’s law. This, with all else being equal, limits the mass transfer on the interface surface of yeast cells and the liquid phase of the medium. A phenomenological model of the media restoration technologies based on the unsaturation index on СО2 is developed. It is shown that this restoration in the existing technologies of fermentation of sugar-rich media occurs, to a limited extent, in self-organized flow circuits, with variable values of temperatures and hydrostatic pressures, due to the creation of unsaturated local zones.It is shown that increasing the height of the media in isovolumetric apparatuses leads to an increase in the levels of flow circuits organization and to the improvement of the desaturation and saturation modes of the liquid phase and intensification of mass transfer processes. Among the deterministic principles of restoring the saturation possibilities of the media, there are forced variables of pressures with time pauses on their lower and upper levels. In such cases, the possibilities of short-term intensive desaturations in full media volumes, the restoration of their saturation perception of CO2, and the activation of fermentation processes are achieved. This direction is technically feasible for active industrial equipment.The cumulative effect of the action of variable pressures and temperatures corresponds to the superposition principle, but at the final stages of fermentation, the pressure and temperature values are leveled, so the restoration of the unsaturation state slows down to the level of the bacteriostatic effect. The possibility of eliminating the disadvantages of the final stage of fermentation by means of programmable variable pressures is shown

  6. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  7. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr; Kręgiel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015-0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red ( S. cerevisiae ) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  8. Effects of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 on a murine breast cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra de; Matar, Chantal; LeBlanc, Nicole; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    Antitumour activity is one of the health-promoting effects attributed to the lactic acid bacteria and their products of fermentation. Previous studies in mice demonstrated that bioactive compounds released in milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus R389 contribute to its immunoenhancing and antitumour properties. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of the consumption of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 or its proteolytic-deficient variant, L. helveticus L89, on a murine hormone-dependent breast cancer model. Mice were fed with milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 or L. helveticus L89, during 2 or 7 days. The tumour control group received no special feeding. At the end of the feeding period, the mice were challenged by a subcutaneous injection of tumour cells in the mammary gland. Four days post-injection, the mice received fermented milk on a cyclical basis. The rate of tumour development and the cytokines in serum, mammary gland tissue and tumour-isolated cells were monitored. Bcl-2-positive cells in mammary glands and cellular apoptosis in tumour tissue were also studied. Seven days of cyclical administration of milk fermented by either bacterial strain delayed or stopped the tumour development. Cytokines demonstrated that L. helveticus R389 modulated the immune response challenged by the tumour. IL-10 and IL-4 were increased in all the samples from this group. In comparison with the tumour control, all test groups showed a decrease of IL-6, a cytokine involved in oestrogen synthesis. Seven days of cyclical feeding with milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 produced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, compared with all other groups. This study demonstrated that 7 days of cyclical administration of milk fermented by both strains of L. helveticus diminishes tumour growth, stimulating an antitumour immune response. Compounds released during milk fermentation with L. helveticus R389 would be implicated in its immunoregulatory capacity

  9. Electro-Fermentation in Aid of Bioenergy and Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The soaring levels of industrialization and rapid progress towards urbanization across the world have elevated the demand for energy besides generating a massive amount of waste. The latter is responsible for poisoning the ecosystem in an exponential manner, owing to the hazardous and toxic chemicals released by them. In the past few decades, there has been a paradigm shift from “waste to wealth”, keeping the value of high organic content available in the wastes of biological origin. The most practiced processes are that of anaerobic digestion, leading to the production of methane. However; such bioconversion has limited net energy yields. Industrial fermentation targeting value-added bioproducts such as—H2, butanediols; polyhydroxyalkanoates, citric acid, vitamins, enzymes, etc. from biowastes/lignocellulosic substrates have been planned to flourish in a multi-step process or as a “Biorefinery”. Electro-fermentation (EF is one such technology that has attracted much interest due to its ability to boost the microbial metabolism through extracellular electron transfer during fermentation. It has been studied on various acetogens and methanogens, where the enhancement in the biogas yield reached up to 2-fold. EF holds the potential to be used with complex organic materials, leading to the biosynthesis of value-added products at an industrial scale.

  10. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  11. Microprocessors control of fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawzy, A S; Hinton, O R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents three schemes for the solution of the optimal control of fermentation process. It also shows the advantages of using microprocessors in controlling and monitoring this process. A linear model of the system is considered. An optimal feedback controller is determined which maintains the states (substrate and organisms concentration) at desired values when the system is subjected to disturbances in the influent substrate and organisms concentration. Simulation results are presented for the three cases.

  12. Manioc alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, V; de Queiroz Araujo, N; Miceli, A; Souza e Silva, P C; da Silva Burle, J A

    1976-01-01

    EtOH was produced from dry cassava meal by first obtaining a glucose syrup by enzymic action, then fermenting the syrup with yeast. Bacillus subtilis amylase and Aspergillus awamori amyloglucosidase were prepared by growing the organisms on cassava meal. Both enzymes were used to saccharify the cassava starch to syrup. Saccharomyces cervisiae ATCC 1133 was then used in a continuous process to produce EtOH.

  13. Probiotics in Dairy Fermented Products

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Pires, Ana Clarissa dos Santos; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; Jan, Gwénaël; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the role of probiotics for human health began as early as 1908 when Metchnikoff associated the intake of fermented milk with prolonged life (Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001b). However, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and good health and nutrition has only recently been investigated. Therefore, it was not until the 1960’s that health benefit claims began appearing on foods labels. In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in probiotic foods, which...

  14. Hydrothermal catalytic gasification of fermentation residues from a biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zöhrer, Hemma; Vogel, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plants, increasing in number, produce a stream of fermentation residue with high organic content, providing an energy source which is by now mostly unused. We tested this biomass as a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production using a batch reactor system. The coke formation tendency during the heat-up phase was evaluated as well as the cleavage of biomass-bound sulfur with respect to its removal from the process as a salt. We found that sulfur is not sufficiently released from the biomass during heating up to a temperature of 410 °C. Addition of alkali salts improved the liquefaction of fermentation residues with a low content of minerals, probably by buffering the pH. We found a deactivation of the carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst at low catalyst-to-biomass loadings, which we attribute to sulfur poisoning and fouling in accordance with the composition of the fermentation residue. A temperature of 400 °C was found to maximize the methane yield. A residence time dependent biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.45 g g −1 h −1 was found to result in nearly full conversion with the Ru/C catalyst. A Ru/ZrO 2 catalyst, tested under similar conditions, was less active. -- Highlights: ► Fermentation residue of a biogas plant could be successfully liquefied with a low rate of coke formation. ► Liquefaction resulted in an incomplete removal of biomass-bound sulfur. ► Low catalyst loadings result in incomplete conversion, implicating catalyst deactivation. ► At 400 °C the observed conversion to methane was highest. ► A residence time dependent biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.45 g g −1 h −1 was determined to yield nearly complete conversion

  15. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Results from tests of a Stirling engine and wood chips gasifier plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell; Werling, J.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification and a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants based on biomass, because the need for gas cleaning is eliminated and problems with fouling of the Stirling engine heater are considerably reduced....... Furthermore, the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a small CHP plant based on a Stirling engine and an updraft gasifier has been developed and tested successfully. The advantages of updraft gasifiers are the simplicity and that the amount...... of the Stirling engine reduces the problems with tar to a minor problem in the design of the burner. The Stirling engine, which has an electric power output of 35 kW, is specifically designed for utilisation of fuels with a content of particles. The gas burner for the engine is designed for low specific energy...

  17. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  18. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  19. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  20. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  1. Climate Effect of Bioenergy and Agriculture Integration Based on Lowtar Gasification of Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    potential is included in the analysis, by accounting for both the atmospheric load of biogenic carbon emissions and the carbon captured by forest re-growth. The energy conversion is based on thermal gasification. The gasifier allows changing the carbon conversion fraction, from the conventional maximum...... energy generation to maximum biochar production.For a 100 year time horizon the biogenic global warming potential varies from 0.65 for maximum energy generation to 0.30for maximum biochar production. The total carbon footprint per kWh electricity produced decreases towards maximum biochar production...

  2. Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subagyono, Dirgarini J.N.; Marshall, Marc; Jackson, W. Roy; Chaffee, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H 2 O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N 2 , at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc. - Highlights: • Liquefaction of algae gave more oil than that of Pinus radiata and grape marc. • Reactions under CO/H 2 O produced higher yields of oil than N 2 . • Water to biomass ratio had little effect on the yields. • Bio-oil from algae contained substantial amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. • Pinus radiata oil was low in N but high in O

  3. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  4. Optimization of a flexible multi-generation system based on wood chip gasification and methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Algren, Loui

    2017-01-01

    of ± 25% in investment costs and methanol price, and considering two different electricity price scenarios.In addition, a change in the interest rate from 5% to 20% was found to reduce the lower bound of the NPVto 181.3 M€ for reference operating conditions. The results suggest that the applied interest...... rate andoperating conditions, in particular the methanol price, would have a much higher impact on the economicperformance of the designs than corresponding uncertainties in investment costs. In addition,the study outcomes emphasize the importance of including systematic uncertainty analysis...... with an existing combined heat and power (CHP) unit and industrial energy utility supply in the Danish city of Horsens. The objective was to optimize economic performance and minimize total CO2 emission of the FMG while it was required to meet the local district heating demand plus the thermal utility demand...

  5. The impact of the addition of Eucalyptus grandis wood chips on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of plantation residues, as a result of clearfelling, on nutrient availability in plantation systems, as well as the difficulties during subsequent planting and harvesting, should be considered in the development of plantation management strategies. The aim of this experiment was to determine if the addition of stump ...

  6. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  7. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  8. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  9. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1997-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  10. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  11. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  12. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  13. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  14. Clinical significance of fermentation and lactose malabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Merete; Gudmand-Høyer, Eivind

    2001-01-01

    Fermentation, the bacterial process of gaining energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates, takes place in the human large intestine as well as that of the animals. This process is important for the health of the colon. Due to changing dietary habits, the available substrates for fermentation in the human colon are scarce, and this fact may contribute to the increased number of colonic diseases in the Western world. Lactose in lactose-maldigesters increase the amounts of fermentable substrate,...

  15. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  17. Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia ... between 4.27 and 8.33 % for the fully fermented and the partially fermented seeds, respectively.

  18. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  19. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  20. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  1. Colonic fermentation influences lower esophageal sphincter function in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piche, Thierry; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colonic fermentation of carbohydrates is known to influence gastric and esophageal motility in healthy subjects. This study investigated the effects of colonic fermentation induced by oral administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux...... were monitored. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, FOS led to a significant increase in the number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) and reflux episodes, esophageal acid exposure, and the symptom score for GERD. The integrated plasma response of GLP-1 was significantly higher...... after FOS than placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates increases the rate of TLESRs, the number of acid reflux episodes, and the symptoms of GERD. Although different mechanisms are likely to be involved, excess release of GLP-1 may account, at least in part...

  2. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from alkaline fermentation liquid of waste activated sludge and application of the fermentation liquid to promote biological municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-07-01

    In previous publications we reported that by controlling the pH at 10.0 the accumulation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) during waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation was remarkably improved [Yuan, H., Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Jiang, S., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2006. Improved bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from excess sludge under alkaline conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 2025-2029], but significant ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)-N) and soluble ortho-phosphorus (SOP) were released [Chen, Y., Jiang, S., Yuan, H., Zhou, Q., Gu, G., 2007. Hydrolysis and acidification of waste activated sludge at different pHs. Water Res. 41, 683-689]. This paper investigated the simultaneous recovery of NH(4)-N and SOP from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid and the application of the fermentation liquid as an additional carbon source for municipal wastewater biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The central composite design (CCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and model the simultaneous NH(4)-N and SOP recovery from WAS alkaline fermentation liquid. Under the optimum conditions, the predicted and experimental recovery efficiency was respectively 73.4 and 75.7% with NH(4)-N, and 82.0 and 83.2% with SOP, which suggested that the developed models described the experiments well. After NH(4)-N and SOP recovery, the alkaline fermentation liquid was added to municipal wastewater, and the influence of volume ratio of fermentation liquid to municipal wastewater (FL/MW) on biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal was investigated. The addition of fermentation liquid didn't significantly affect nitrification. Both SOP and total nitrogen (TN) removal were increased with fermentation liquid, but there was no significant increase at FL/MW greater than 1/35. Compared to the blank test, the removal efficiency of SOP and TN at FL/MW=1/35 was improved from 44.0 to 92.9%, and 63.3 to 83.2%, respectively. The enhancement of phosphorus and nitrogen

  3. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  4. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  7. Characterization of fermented black soybean natto inoculated with Bacillus natto during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongjin; Ge, Changrong; Yuan, Wei; Zhu, Renjun; Zhang, Wujiu; Du, Lijuan; Xue, Jie

    2010-05-01

    To make nutrients more accessible and further increase biological activity, cooked black soybeans were inoculated with Bacillus natto and fermented at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The changes in physiochemical properties of fermented black soybean natto were investigated. The inoculation procedure significantly increased moisture, viscosity, color, polyphenol compounds and anthocyanin, and significantly decreased hardness after 48 h fermentation. Fibrinolytic and caseinolytic protease, beta-glucosidase activities, TCA-soluble nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen contents in the inoculated samples significantly increased as fermentation time increased. Genistin and daidzin concentrations gradually decreased with increased fermentation time. However, genistein and daidzein increased with fermentation time, which reached 316.8 and 305.2 microg g(-1) during 48 h fermentation, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the fermented black soybeans increased linearly with fermentation time and concentration. Compared with the soaked black soybeans and cooked black soybeans, the fermented black soybeans with B. natto resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH radicals, which correlated well with the content of total phenols (r = 0.9254, P natto fermented by B. natto has the potential to become a functional food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  8. Redox reactions in food fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2018-01-01

    involves oxidative steps in the early part of the pathways whereas a multitude of different reactions are used as compensating reductions. Much of the diversity seen between food fermentations arise from the different routes and the different electron acceptors used by microorganisms to counterbalance...... and this contributes to the diversity in flavor, color, texture, and shelf life. The review concludes that these reactions are still only incompletely understood and that they represent an interesting area for fundamental research and also represent a fertile field for product development through a more conscious use...... of the redox properties of strains used to compose food cultures....

  9. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  10. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  11. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation indicated that the techniques of nixtamalization, fermentation and cowpea fortification used for the processing of the products did not influence their acceptability by the panel. Nixtamalized maize can therefore be subjected to spontaneous fermentation with cowpea fortification to enhance the functional, ...

  12. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  13. Experimental study of methanic fermentation of straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopter, P; Beerens, H

    1952-12-03

    The amount of liquid manure obtainable was a limiting factor in methanic fermentation of wheat straw. An equal volume of 0.2% aqueous solution of Na formate could be substituted for 90% of the normal requirements of liquid manure. This shortened the preliminary stages of cellulosic fermentation when no methane was produced and slightly increased the subsequent yield of methane.

  14. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  15. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  16. Improving wood hydrolyzate fermentation by using schizosaccharomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnyi, M Ya; Ustinova, V I; Petrushko, G I

    1967-01-01

    The development of Schizosaccharomycetes (I) in wood hydrolyzates is not observed when fermentation is carried out by the convetional batch process, evidently because of the highly inhibitory action of the medium. More recently, with the introduction of continuous fermentation of wood and other hydrolyzates, the occurrence of I has been frequently reported, and in some hydrolysis plants, I became predominant, eliminating the budding yeast strains. The phenomenon can be attributed to higher temperatures employed in continuous fermentation, and to a more favorable medium, as the hydrolyzate is diluted with spent fermentation liquor (the flow of fresh medium constitutes about 20% of the fermentation-vat volume). The I cells, when grown under favorable conditions, have a high fermenting power, adapt easily to the fermentation of galactose, and give higher yields of ethanol than the budding yeast. As observed at plants using I, however, the cells are sensitive to variations in the fermentation process, and are inactivated upon storage. This is usually attributed to their inability to store polysaccharides, and especially glycogen. An experimental study undertaken to determine conditions under which reserve polysaccharides accumulate in I cells showed that the important factor is the quality of the medium in which the cells are grown and the conditions of storage. In media enriched with spent fermentaion liquor or with cell autolyzate and purified from toxic components, considerable amounts of glycogen accumulate in the cells.

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial activity in Kombucha fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2001-01-01

    Fermented tea drink, Kombucha, can inhibit the growth of Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Several metabolites were analyzed every two days during a 14-day Kombucha fermentation. Levels of acetic acid and gluconic acid were found to increase with

  18. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... beetroot, fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, betalain compounds. ... by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (González et al., .... Both red and yellow pigments were influenced during S. .... in beverages such as white wine, grape fruit, and green.

  19. (ajst) influence of fermentation and cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Statgraphics (Graphics Software System, STCC, Inc. U.S.A). Comparisons .... 7 2. 0.473. 0.597. 1.056. 0.14. Co-fermentation. Fermented maize and cowpea blends showed varied effects ...... Oligosaccharides in eleven Legumes and their air-.

  20. Physiochemical Properties and Antinutrient Content of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn and groundnut composite flours were fermented using pure strains of Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid substrate fermentation method. There was decrease in pH with increase in total titrable acidity in all the samples. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that there was an ...

  1. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  2. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  3. Direct spray drying and microencapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri from slurry fermentation with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, M; Göpel, A; Beermann, C

    2013-10-01

    Formulations of dietary probiotics have to be robust against process conditions and have to maintain a sufficient survival rate during gastric transit. To increase efficiency of the encapsulation process and the viability of applied bacteria, this study aimed at developing spray drying and encapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri with whey directly from slurry fermentation. Lactobacillus reuteri was cultivated in watery 20% (w/v) whey solution with or without 0·5% (w/v) yeast extract supplementation in a submerged slurry fermentation. Growth enhancement with supplement was observed. Whey slurry containing c. 10(9)  CFU g(-1) bacteria was directly spray-dried. Cell counts in achieved products decreased by 2 log cycles after drying and 1 log cycle during 4 weeks of storage. Encapsulated bacteria were distinctively released in intestinal milieu. Survival rate of encapsulated bacteria was 32% higher compared with nonencapsulated ones exposed to artificial digestive juice. Probiotic L. reuteri proliferate in slurry fermentation with yeast-supplemented whey and enable a direct spray drying in whey. The resulting microcapsules remain stable during storage and reveal adequate survival in simulated gastric juices and a distinct release in intestinal juices. Exploiting whey as a bacterial substrate and encapsulation matrix within a coupled fermentation and spray-drying process offers an efficient option for industrial production of vital probiotics. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of blackstrap molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzani, W; Aquarone, E

    1957-01-01

    The sugar concentration and the fermentation-cycle time can be related by an equation, theoretically justified, if it is assumed that the sugar consumption has a reaction rate of -1. Agitation is probably the rate-determining factor for continous alcohol fermentation. Penicillin increases the efficiency by preventing contamination. After 30 hours of fermentation, the penicillin concentration was 25 to 60% of the initial antibiotic concentration. Laboratory and plant-scale fermentations with 1.0 unit/ml of penicillin were studied and found favorable. An increase in the alcohol yield (4.8 to 19.5%) and a reduction of the acid production (17.0 to 66.6%) were observed. Penicillin did not affect the final yeast count or the fermentation time, and Leuconostoc contamination was inhibited by 8.0 units/ml.

  5. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  6. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  8. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  9. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own

  10. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  11. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    no improvement in ethanol yields. We showed that saccharification of lignocellulosic material with a wood-rot fungal process is quite feasible. Corn fiber from wet milling was best degraded to sugars using aerobic solid state fermentation with the soft-rot fungus T. reesei. However, it was shown that both the white-rot fungus P. chrysosporium and brown-rot fungus G. trabeum had the ability to produce additional consortia of hemi/cellulose degrading enzymes. It is likely that a consortium of enzymes from these fungi would be the best approach in saccharification of lignocellulose. In all cases, a subsequent anaerobic yeast process under submerged conditions is required to ferment the released sugars to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time report on production of cellulolytic enzymes from wet-milled corn fiber using white- and brown-rot fungi for sequential fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzate to ethanol. Keywords: lignocellulose, ethanol, biofuel, bioeconomy, biomass, renewable resources, corn fiber, pretreatment, solid-substrate fermentation, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), white-rot fungus, brown-rot fungus, soft-rot fungus, fermentable sugars, enzyme activities, cellulytic enzymes Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloleophyllum trabeum, Trichoderma reesei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Antioxidative properties of milk protein preparations fermented by Polish strains of Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Katarzyna W; Gustaw, Waldemar Z; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa D; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Sławińska, Aneta; Radzki, Wojciech P; Gustaw, Klaudia M; Waśko, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    The increasing significance of food products containing substances with antioxidative activi- ties is currently being observed. This is mainly due to the fact that pathogenic changes underlying some diseases are related to the carcinogenic effects of free radicals. Antioxidative compounds play an important role in supporting and enhancing the body’s defense mechanisms, which is useful in preventing some civili- zation diseases. Unfortunately, it has been already proved that some synthetic antioxidants pose a potential risk in vivo. Therefore, antioxidant compounds derived from a natural source are extremely valuable. Milk is a source of biologically active precursors, which when enclosed in structural protein sequences are inactive. The hydrolysis process, involving bacterial proteolytic enzymes, might release biopeptides that act in various ways, including having antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties of milk protein preparations fermented by Polish strains of L. helveticus. The research also focused on evaluating the dynamics of milk acidification by these strains and analyzing the textural properties of the skim milk fermented products obtained. The research studied Polish strains of L. helveticus: B734, 141, T80 and T105, which have not yet been used industrially. The antioxidant properties of 1% (w/v) solutions of milk protein preparations (skim milk powder, caseinoglycomacropeptide and α-lactoalbumin) fermented by these strains were determined by neutralizing the free radicals with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙). Moreover, solutions of skim milk powder (SMP) fermented by the microorganisms being tested were analyzed on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The dynamics of milk acidification by these microorganisms was also analyzed L. helveticus strains were used to prepare fermented regenerated skim milk products that were subjected to texture profile analysis (TPA) performed using a TA-XT2i

  13. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  14. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells.

  15. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man-Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells.

  17. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  18. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  19. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  20. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  1. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  2. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases...... in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering...... focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields...

  3. Introduction of a cyclic-fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, C P

    1958-01-01

    Equipment is described, consisting of 8 kettles, which permits a cyclic fermentation process and continuous ethanol production; 100% yields of ethanol are obtained, based on the starch content in grain.

  4. Continuous saccharification and fermentation in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, I Ya; Gracheva, I M; Mikhailova, L E; Babaeva, S A; Ustinnikov, B A

    1968-01-01

    Submerged cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 and A. batatae 61, or a mixture of submerged A. niger culture with a surface culture of A. oryzae Kc are used for fermentations and compared with the usual barley malt procedure. The latter yields 71% maltose and 24 to 28% glucose, wherease the fungal procedure gives 14 to 21% maltose and 80 to 85% glucose in a continuous mashing-fermentation process with barley. The fungal method gives a higher degree of fermentation for sugars and dextrins and a lower content of total and high-molecular-weight residual dextrins. The amounts of propanol PrOH and iso-BuOH isobutyl alcohol are almost equal, whereas the amount of isoamylalcohol is lower in fungal fermentations.

  5. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  6. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  8. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  9. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  10. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  11. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation.

  12. A novel steam explosion sterilization improving solid-state fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Traditional sterilization of solid medium (SM) requires lengthy time, degrades nutrients, and even sterilizes inadequately compared with that of liquid medium due to its low thermal conductivity. A novel sterilization strategy, high-temperature and short-time steam explosion (SE), was exploited for SM sterilization in this study. Results showed that SE conditions for complete sterilization were 172 °C for 2 min and 128 °C for 5 min. Glucose and xylose contents in medium after SE sterilization increased by 157% and 93% respectively compared with those after conventional sterilization (121 °C, 20 min) while fermentation inhibitors were not detected. FTIR spectra revealed that the mild SE conditions helped to release monosaccharides from the polysaccharides. Bacillus subtilis fermentation productivity on medium after SE sterilization was 3.83 times of that after conventional sterilization. Therefore, SE shortened sterilization time and improved SM nutrition, which facilitated fermentability of SM and should promote economy of solid-state fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others. Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  14. Aureobasidium pullulans Fermented Feruloyl Oligosaccharide: Optimization of Production, Preliminary Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran (WB was subjected to processing with Aureobasidium pullulans (A. pullulans under selected conditions to partially break down the xylan into soluble products (mainly feruloyl oligosaccharides, FOs. The objective of this study was to investigate the technology for one-step fermentation of WB by A. pullulans without melanin secretion to produce FOs as well as to determine their structural features and antioxidant activity. Initial pH, inoculation quantity, and fermentation temperature were found to be efficient for releasing FOs according to the Plackett-Burman design (PBD. Based on the D-Optimal design, a yield of 904 nmol of FOs / L of fermentation broth was obtained under optimal conditions of initial pH 6.0, inoculation quantity 4.50%, and fermentation temperature 29 oC. Purification of FOs was performed with alcohol precipitation and Amberlite XAD-2. GC, IR, and ESI-MS demonstrated that FOs consist of feruloyl arabinosyl xylopentose (FAX5, Mw986, feruloyl arabinosyl xylotetraose (FAX4, Mw854, feruloyl arabinosyl xylotriose (FAX3, Mw722, and feruloyl arabinosyl xylobiose (FAX2, Mw590. Increasing the FO dose led to increased activity of SOD and GSH-Px in serum of S180 tumor-bearing mice, while the level of MDA was reduced, thus improving its in vivo antioxidant activity.

  15. Metabolic flux analysis during the exponential growth phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wine fermentations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Quirós

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the increase in global average temperature, grapes with the adequate phenolic and aromatic maturity tend to be overripe by the time of harvest, resulting in increased sugar concentrations and imbalanced C/N ratios in fermenting musts. This fact sets obvious additional hurdles in the challenge of obtaining wines with reduced alcohols levels, a new trend in consumer demands. It would therefore be interesting to understand Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during the fermentation of must with these altered characteristics. The present study aims to determine the distribution of metabolic fluxes during the yeast exponential growth phase, when both carbon and nitrogen sources are in excess, using continuous cultures. Two different sugar concentrations were studied under two different winemaking temperature conditions. Although consumption and production rates for key metabolites were severely affected by the different experimental conditions studied, the general distribution of fluxes in central carbon metabolism was basically conserved in all cases. It was also observed that temperature and sugar concentration exerted a higher effect on the pentose phosphate pathway and glycerol formation than on glycolysis and ethanol production. Additionally, nitrogen uptake, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was strongly influenced by environmental conditions. This work provides the most complete stoichiometric model used for Metabolic Flux Analysis of S. cerevisiae in wine fermentations employed so far, including the synthesis and release of relevant aroma compounds and could be used in the design of optimal nitrogen supplementation of wine fermentations.

  16. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  18. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Pardeep; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...

  1. Hybridization of halotolerant yeast for alcohol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limtong, S.

    1991-01-01

    Attempt have been made to construct a new yeast strain from alcohol fermenting strains and salt tolerant strains. It is anticipated that the new yeast strain will be able to ferment alcohol in molasses mash with high salinity, up to 3% of NaCl. Another characteristics is its ability to tolerate up to 40 C temperature which is desirable for alcohol fermentation in tropical countries. Commercial and wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened for their fermenting ability and strain SC90, 191 TJ3, and AM12 were selected as parental strains for fusion among themselves and with other halo tolerant species. Halo tolerant strains selected at 5% NaCl in molasses mash were tentatively identified as Torulopsis grabrata, T. candida, T. Bovina and S. Rouxii whereas all of those strains selected at 17% NaCl were Citeromyces sp. It was found that fusant TA73 derived from wild strain and sake fermenting strain performed best among 4,087 fusants investigated. This fusant fermented much better than their parental strains when salt concentrations were increased to 5 and 7% NaCl. Experiment was carried out in fermentor, 1.5 liter working volume using molasses mash with 3% NaCl and temperature was controlled at 35 degree C. Fermentation rate of TA73, TJ3 and AM12 were 2.17, 1.50 and 1.87 g/L/hr respectively, Maximum ethanol concentration obtained were 7.6, 6.7 and 7.4% by weight after 60 and 78 hours respectively. Other fusants derived from fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with other halo tolerant species were mostly inferior to their parental strains and only 7 fusants were slightly better than parental strains. (author)

  2. Defective quiescence entry promotes the fermentation performance of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomuro, Mayu; Kato, Taku; Zhou, Yan; Watanabe, Daisuke; Motoyama, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hiromi; Akao, Takeshi; Aizawa, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    One of the key processes in making beer is fermentation. In the fermentation process, brewer's yeast plays an essential role in both the production of ethanol and the flavor profile of beer. Therefore, the mechanism of ethanol fermentation by of brewer's yeast is attracting much attention. The high ethanol productivity of sake yeast has provided a good basis from which to investigate the factors that regulate the fermentation rates of brewer's yeast. Recent studies found that the elevated fermentation rate of sake Saccharomyces cerevisiae species is closely related to a defective transition from vegetative growth to the quiescent (G 0 ) state. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between the fermentation rate of brewer's yeast and entry into G 0 , we constructed two types of mutant of the bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70: a RIM15 gene disruptant that was defective in entry into G 0 ; and a CLN3ΔPEST mutant, in which the G 1 cyclin Cln3p accumulated at high levels. Both strains exhibited higher fermentation rates under high-maltose medium or high-gravity wort conditions (20° Plato) as compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, G 1 arrest and/or G 0 entry were defective in both the RIM15 disruptant and the CLN3ΔPEST mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that regulation of the G 0 /G 1 transition might govern the fermentation rate of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast in high-gravity wort. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High Antioxidant Action and Prebiotic Activity of Hydrolyzed Spent Coffee Grounds (HSCG) in a Simulated Digestion-Fermentation Model: Toward the Development of a Novel Food Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzella, Lucia; Pérez-Burillo, Sergio; Pastoriza, Silvia; Martín, María Ángeles; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2017-08-09

    Spent coffee grounds are a byproduct with a large production all over the world. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a simulated digestion-fermentation treatment on hydrolyzed spent coffee grounds (HSCG) and to investigate the antioxidant properties of the digestion and fermentation products in the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. The potentially bioaccessible (soluble) fractions exhibited high chemoprotective activity in HepG2 cells against oxidative stress. Structural analysis of both the indigestible (insoluble) and soluble material revealed partial hydrolysis and release of the lignin components in the potentially bioaccessible fraction following simulated digestion-fermentation. A high prebiotic activity as determined from the increase in Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) following microbial fermentation of HSCG was also observed. These results pave the way toward the use of HSCG as a food supplement.

  4. In vitro batch fecal fermentation comparison of gas and short-chain fatty acid production using "slowly fermentable" dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Rose, Devin J; Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2011-01-01

    Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to provide a benchmark to compare to other "slowly fermentable" fibers. Dietary fibers with previous reports of slow fermentation, namely, long-chain inulin, psyllium, alkali-soluble corn bran arabinoxylan, and long-chain β-glucan, as well as starch-entrapped microspheres were subjected to in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion and human fecal fermentation and measured over 48 h for pH, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch was used as another form of fermentable starch and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) served as a fast fermenting control. Corn bran arabinoxylan and long-chain β-glucan initially appeared slower fermenting with comparatively low gas and SCFA production, but later fermented rapidly with little remaining in the final half of the fermentation period. Long-chain inulin and psyllium had slow and moderate, but incomplete, fermentation. The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch fermented rapidly and appeared similar to FOS. In conclusion, compared to the benchmark slowly fermentable starch-entrapped microspheres, a number of the purported slowly fermentable fibers fermented fairly rapidly overall and, of this group, only the starch-entrapped microspheres appreciably fermented in the second half of the fermentation period. Consumption of dietary fibers, particularly commercial prebiotics, leads to uncomfortable feelings of bloating and flatulence due to their rapid degradation in our large intestine. This article employs claimed potential slowly fermenting fibers and compares their fermentation rates

  5. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  6. Quality and Composition of Red Wine Fermented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe as Sole Fermentative Yeast, and in Mixed and Sequential Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Palomero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the physiology of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (represented by strain 938 in the production of red wine, as the sole fermentative yeast, and in mixed and sequential fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 796. For further comparison, fermentations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole fermentative yeast were also performed; in these fermentations a commercial lactic acid bacterium was used to perform malolactic fermentation once alcoholic fermentation was complete (unlike S. cerevisiae, the Sc. pombe performs maloalcoholic fermentation and therefore removes malic acid without such help. Relative density, acetic, malic and pyruvic acid concentrations, primary amino nitrogen and urea concentrations, and pH of the musts were measured over the entire fermentation period. In all fermentations in which Sc. pombe 938 was involved, nearly all the malic acid was consumed from an initial concentration of 5.5 g/L, and moderate acetic acid concentrations below 0.4 g/L were formed. The urea content of these wines was notably lower, showing a tenfold reduction when compared with those that were made with S. cerevisiae 796 alone. The sensorial properties of the different final wines varied widely. The wines fermented with Sc. pombe 938 had maximum aroma intensity and quality, and they were preferred by the tasters.

  7. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  8. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J D

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  10. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Key words: Madhuca indica, ethanol, reducing sugar, fermentation. ... The mahua flowers obtained were cleaned and dried in hot air oven at 60°C ... methanol in the fermented sample was determined with the help of.

  11. Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

    2011-03-01

    In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    이창희

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... Keywords: Dietary fibre, faecal short-chain fatty acid emissions, ... of IBW in accordance with a randomized complete block design. ..... Fermented liquid feed and fermented grain to piglets-effect on gastrointestinal ecology.

  13. Traditional fermented protein condiments in Nigeria | Achi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional fermented condiments (dawadawa, iru, ogiri) based on vegetable proteins, and ... in the scope of the microbiology and biochemical changes of the raw materials. ... Fermented vegetable proteins have potential food uses as protein ...

  14. Potential of bacterial fermentation as a biosafe method of improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... the organic acid content of fermented feeds has been reported to improve ..... fatty acid and ethanol concentration resulting from the natural fermentation of ..... energy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets. Aquaculture 210:.

  15. Fermentation value of molasses for the alcohol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobkiewicz, G

    1963-01-01

    Molasses of pH 7 to 8 containing invert sugar in quantity not exceeding 1% showed the highest fermentation value. The purity coefficient should not exceed 56%, since non-sugars, minerals, and nitrogen compounds stimulated fermentation.

  16. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aslankoohi

    Full Text Available Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  17. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  18. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CACAO POD SUPPLEMENTATION ON SHEEP RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wulandari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to improve beneficial value of cacao pod as sheep feedingredients comprising up to 50% total feed. This research was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 wascacao pod fermentation. Completely randomized design with 3x3 factorial patterns was used in thisstage, in which factor I was microbial inoculum dosage of 0%, 0.05% and 0.1% and factor II wasincubation period of 0, 3 and 6 days. Result demonstrated that six-day fermentation with 0.05%microbial inoculum could lower cacao NDF, ADF and theobromine. The optimum inoculum dosage andfermentation time from stage 1 was applied to stage 2. Stage 2 was rumen microbial fermentation test.This research administrated 3x3 of latin square design. In period I sheep were fed with CF0 (nonfermentedcomplete feed, in period II sheep were given CF 1 (complete feed containing fermentedcacao pod and in period III sheep were given CF2 (fermented complete feed based cacao pod. Resultdemonstrated that pH value of sheep microbial liquid in treatment of CF0, CF1 and CF2 was in normalpH range and did not affect volatile fatty acids (VFA and ammonia. In conclusion, supplementing up to 50% of feed with complete feed containing fermented or non-fermented cacao pod did not affect theprocess of rumen microbial fermentation.

  19. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Mahmud, M.S. (Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment (Malaysia). Nuclear Energy Unit) (and others)

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70% useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation occurred were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range 25-28[sup o]C, relative pH 6-8, moisture 60-70% and medium composition of CaCO[sub 3]: were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that there were substantial reductions in cellulosic component such as crude fibre (CF, 18%); acid detergent fibre (ADF, 45%), neutral detergent fibre (NDF, 61%) and acd detergent lignin (ADL, 14%). However, crude protein (CP, 10%) increase resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in the fermentation process corresponds to CO[sub 2] released during fermentation. A digestibility study has been carried out to determine the usefulness of this product to ruminants. Aflatoxin content was low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxins, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminants. (author).

  20. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Mahmud, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70% useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation occurred were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range 25-28 o C, relative pH 6-8, moisture 60-70% and medium composition of CaCO 3 : were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that there were substantial reductions in cellulosic component such as crude fibre (CF, 18%); acid detergent fibre (ADF, 45%), neutral detergent fibre (NDF, 61%) and acd detergent lignin (ADL, 14%). However, crude protein (CP, 10%) increase resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in the fermentation process corresponds to CO 2 released during fermentation. A digestibility study has been carried out to determine the usefulness of this product to ruminants. Aflatoxin content was low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxins, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminants. (author)

  1. Radiation pasteurised oil palm empty fruit bunch fermented with Pleurotus sajor-caju as feed supplement to ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mat Rasol; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Mahmud, Mohd. Shukri; Wan Husain, Wan Badrin; Osman, Tajuddin; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Kassim, Asmahwati; Wan Mahmud, Zal U'yun; Manaf, Ishak; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-10-01

    In solid state fermentation, Pleurotus sajor-caju has been found to be able to degrade at least 30% oil palm empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibre leaving 70 % useful materials. Conditions under which fermentation carried out were investigated. It was found that, in the temperature range between 25- 28 °C, relative ph between 6-8, moisture between 60-70 % and medium composition of CaCO 3: rice bran 2 %: 5 % were the optimum conditions. The results showed in fermented products that, there were substantial reduction in cellulosic component such as Crude Fiber (CF, 18 %); Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF, 45 %), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF, 61 %) and Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL, 14 %). However, Crude Protein (CP, 10%) increased resulted from single cell protein enrichment of mycelial microbial mass. The mass reductions of substrate in fermentation process corresponds to the CO 2 released during fermentation. Hence, attributable to the decreased in content of CF, ADF, NDF, and ADL. The digestibility study has also been carried out to determine the useful level of this product to ruminant. Aflatoxin content was detected low in both the initial substrates and products. Based on nutritional value and low content of aflatoxin, the product is useful as a source of roughage to ruminant.

  2. The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara; Pietrzak, Marlena

    2013-12-15

    Pea seeds were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in monoculture under different time and temperature conditions and the fermented products were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. After fermentation and digestion ACE inhibitory activity was determined. In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68.62%) were noted for control sample, although the lowest IC50 value (0.19 mg/ml) was determined for product after 7 days fermentation at 22 °C. The hydrolysate characterised by the highest ACE inhibitory activity was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptides fractions were obtained. The highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=64.04 μg/ml) for the first fraction was noted. This fraction was separated by HPLC and identified by LC-MS/MS and the sequence of peptide derived from pea proteins was determined as KEDDEEEEQGEEE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

    1980-12-01

    Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

  4. Lignases and aldo-keto reductases for conversion of lignin-containing materials to fermentable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael; Sethi, Amit

    2016-09-13

    Termites have specialized digestive systems that overcome the lignin barrier in wood to release fermentable simple sugars. Using the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its gut symbionts, high-throughput titanium pyrosequencing and proteomics approaches experimentally compared the effects of lignin-containing diets on host-symbiont digestome composition. Proteomic investigations and functional digestive studies with recombinant lignocellulases conducted in parallel provided strong evidence of congruence at the transcription and translational levels and provide enzymatic strategies for overcoming recalcitrant lignin barriers in biofuel feedstocks. Briefly described, therefore, the disclosure provides a system for generating a fermentable product from a lignified plant material, the system comprising a cooperating series of at least two catalytically active polypeptides, where said catalytically active polypeptides are selected from the group consisting of: cellulase Cell-1, .beta.-glu cellulase, an aldo-keto-reductase, a catalase, a laccase, and an endo-xylanase.

  5. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estela Escalante, Waldir D; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel; Guerrero Ochoa, Manuel R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  6. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  7. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  8. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  9. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.S.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  10. Contamination of alcoholic molasses mashes in respect to continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvacek, O; Barta, J; Vintika, J

    1957-01-01

    Contamination (I) of molasses mashes during and after continuous alcohol fermentation was caused by species of Lactobacillus, belonging both to the hetero and homofermentative type. The latter types were not found in discontinuous fermentation. I affected considerably the content of residual sugar (II) in the fermented molasses mash, reaching in some cases zero values. II thus cannot be an objective criterion of the fermentation process.

  11. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  12. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  13. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  14. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Koni TNI

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented...

  15. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer

    OpenAIRE

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations i...

  16. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J. S.; Maxcy, R. B.

    1985-07-15

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product.

  17. Lutein bioavailability from lutein ester-fortified fermented milk: in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmer; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Pérez-Sacristán, Belén

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the bioavailability of lutein from lutein-fortified fermented milk using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Twenty-four volunteers were randomized to take lutein-fortified fermented milk at two levels of fortification. Single-dose bioavailability study (2x100 ml, ca. 8 or 16 mg of lutein) was performed using a three-point approach (baseline, 3.5 and 6.5 h). Multiple-dose study consisted of consuming one serving/day (ca. 4 or 8 mg/100 ml) for 14 days. Blood samples for biochemical, hematological and lutein analysis were drawn at baseline, Day 7 and Day 14. In vitro bioaccessibility was assessed by a static gastrointestinal digestion model. Lutein content, in vitro ester hydrolysis and micellarization, and lutein concentrations achieved in serum were analyzed by HPLC. In vivo, post-prandial response was higher using the high content fermented milk, but the percentage of absorption was not different according to the dose consumed. Net increments at Day 7 and Day 14 were significantly higher on consuming the high-dose milk as well. In vitro, lutein ester hydrolysis was incomplete regardless of the amount initially present. Free lutein released was higher using the high-dose fermented milk, but the percentage of hydrolysis was similar at both levels of fortification. In the micellar phase, the percentage of free and total lutein was not different according to the dose. Our results support the suitability of the fermented milk as a carrier of lutein esters and an in vivo dose-dependent effect upon regular consumption and suggest the usefulness of in vitro models to provide relevant information to predict in vivo responses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of pumpkin juice fermentation by the basidiomycetous fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Dong; Zhou, Chunli; Song, Yi; Zhang, Yuyu; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-02-01

    A new protocol for processing of pumpkin juice was set up which included fermentation by the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum at 28 °C for 7 d. The growth curve of G. lucidum in pumpkin juice was successfully (R(2)  = 0.99) fitted by a 4-parameter logistic model and the ideal highest biomass was estimated to be 4.79 g/L. G. lucidum was found to have a significant acidification effect on pumpkin juice. The lowest pH (4.05 ± 0.05) and highest total titratable acidity (14.31 ± 0.16 mL 0.1 M NaOH/100 mL) were found on the 4th day during fermentation. Sugars in pumpkin juice fermented with G. lucidum showed a significant decrease, especially glucose and fructose. On the contrary, the release of exo-polysaccharides and free amino acids greatly enriched the pumpkin juice. The variation of color index and viscosity also mirrored the above behavior. Based on headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 68 volatile compounds were identified, including 17 esters, 14 alcohols, 13 phenyl compounds, 11 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 3 acids, 1 furan, and 1 benzothiazole. The pumpkin juices fermented for different days were markedly differentiated with principal component analysis and the fermentation process was tentatively divided into 3 periods: the booming (from the 1st to 4th day), steady (from the 5th to 6th day), and decline (the 7th day) period. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effects of defaunation on fermentation characteristics and biotin balance in an artificial rumen-simulation system (RUSITEC) receiving diets with different amounts and types of cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, H; Schröder, B; Lebzien, P; Flachowsky, G

    2006-01-01

    Biotin is required by rumen microbes for efficient fermentation. To evaluate the role of protozoa in ruminal biotin metabolism, five diets composed of grass hay or of grass hay/cereal grain mixtures were supplied to faunated or defaunated RUSITEC fermenters. In the mixed diets, hay was replaced to 33:67 or 67:33 w/w on an air-dried basis by either wheat or maize grain in order to simulate different cellulolytic and amylolytic fermentation conditions. Defaunation increased SCFA production, whereas NH4 concentration and the release of CH4 were reduced. Biotin input declined when cereal grain was used to replace the hay. With the exception of the high-wheat treatment, defaunated fermenters yielded higher biotin outputs than faunated fermenters. The biotin balance, calculated as the difference between the total biotin output (biotin in the solid residue contained in the nylon bags after fermentation plus the biotin in the effluent) and the biotin input with the feed, was negative for all the dietary treatments apart from fermenters supplied with the high-maize diet. It was less negative or, in the case of the high-maize diets, more positive for defaunated compared with faunated fermenters. It was concluded that, under normal faunated conditions, protozoa directly utilise or indirectly affect the bacterial synthesis and/or utilisation of biotin. With diets of a high fermentation potential, as realised with the high-wheat diet, protozoa prevent the development of a bacterial population that would utilise high or synthesise low amounts of biotin.

  20. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h......, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic...... coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes....

  1. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    OpenAIRE

    Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Santos Júnior,Vitório dos; Galvan,Diego; Fiorio,Jhonatan Luiz; Gomez,Raul Jorge Hernan Castro

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vineg...

  2. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  3. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  4. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  5. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice is...

  6. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations prescribed...

  7. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  8. Statistical Optimisation of Fermentation Conditions for Citric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the optimisation of fermentation conditions during citric acid production via solid state fermentation (SSF) of pineapple peels using Aspergillus niger. A three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) comprising 17 experimental runs was used to develop a statistical model for the fermentation ...

  9. Effects of Fermentation on the Fatty Acids, Sterols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Walnut contains fatty acids that are essential for infants' growth and development. This study explored the possibility of fermenting walnuts for use as a complementary food. Raw fermented (RF), cooked fermented (CF), raw unfermented (RUF) and cooked unfermented (CUF) samples of walnuts products were analyzed for ...

  10. Fermentation capability of bulk milk under usual conditions

    OpenAIRE

    BOUŠKOVÁ, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of changes during fermentation of heat-modified milk in connection with different fermentation temperatures was main goal of this thesis. Titrable acidity, active acidity and growth dynamics of bacteria strains - Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus were observed during fermentation process.

  11. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  12. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. 573.450... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is produced by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation of whey with the addition of ammonia. (b...

  13. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  14. Effect of controlled fermentation on the oligosaccharides content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For oloyin beans slurry, fermentation for 72 h also resulted in significant reduction in the raffinose content when fermented with L. plantarum, L. fermentum and P. acidilactici with 53.68, 73.17 and 64.02% reductions, respectively. Sucrose content showed significant increase for both beans slurry fermented for 72 h with all of ...

  15. Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio ...

  16. Microbe-microbe interactions in mixed culture food fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Lacroix, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most known natural and industrial food fermentation processes are driven by either simple or complex communities of microorganisms. Obviously, these fermenting microbes will not only interact with the fermentable substrate but also with each other. These microbe–microbe interactions are complex but

  17. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  18. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  19. Production, characteristics and fermentation of soymilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for soybean increases because of its extraordinary nutritive and health characteristics. In West countries soymilk is intended for population that cannot consume cow’s milk, due to lactose intolerance, allergies to cow’s milk proteins or non consumption of animal foodstuffs from belief. Health benefits of soymilk increase significantly by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Because of that, in this paper composition of soybean is described, with special overview on proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates as well as antinutritive factors and isoflavones. Soymilk composition and production, and its nutritive value are represented also. Advantages of fermentation of soybean and soymilk are described, especially with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  20. Treatment of wastewaters and methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J P; Bourlet, P

    1980-01-01

    The laboratory, pilot plant, and industrial scale experiments were conducted on the anaerobic fermentation of spent sugar beet pulps and wastewater from wineries. The product of the fermentation was a gas typically containing CH/sub 4/ 65, CO/sub 2/ 15, H/sub 2/S 2.4, 0.3, N 0.8, and nonidentified substances 16.1 volume %. A 500 L pilot plant could process 10 kg/day of the spent beet pulp containing 20% solids and produce 500-600 L/day gas. The conversion of organic C was 66-91%.

  1. Alcoholic fermentation under oenological conditions. Use of a combination of data analysis and neural networks to predict sluggish and stuck fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insa, G. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Inst. des Produits de la Vigne, Lab. de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, 34 - Montpellier (France); Sablayrolles, J.M. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Inst. des Produits de la Vigne, Lab. de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, 34 - Montpellier (France); Douzal, V. [Centre National du Machinisme Agricole du Genie Rural des Eaux et Forets, 92 - Antony (France)

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of predicting sluggish fermentations under oenological conditions was investigated by studying 117 musts of different French grape varieties using an automatic device for fermentation monitoring. The objective was to detect sluggish or stuck fermentations at the halfway point of fermentation. Seventy nine percent of fermentations were correctly predicted by combining data analysis and neural networks. (orig.)

  2. The Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and H2S Production during Cider Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau IV, Thomas Francis

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia cider industry has grown rapidly in the past decade, and demands research-based recommendations for cider fermentation. This study evaluated relationships between the unique chemistry of apples and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cider fermentations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and composition and residual fungicides influence H2S production by yeast during fermentation, but these factors have to date only been studied in wine grape fermentations. This ...

  3. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  4. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  5. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Cardozo, P W; Castillejos, L; Ferret, A

    2007-06-01

    Microorganisms in the rumen degrade nutrients to produce volatile fatty acids and synthesize microbial protein as an energy and protein supply for the ruminant, respectively. However, this fermentation process has energy (losses of methane) and protein (losses of ammonia N) inefficiencies that may limit production performance and contribute to the release of pollutants to the environment. Antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in reducing these energy and protein losses in the rumen, but the use of antibiotics in animal feeds is facing reduced social acceptance, and their use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006. For this reason, scientists have become interested in evaluating other alternatives to control specific microbial populations to modulate rumen fermentation. Essential oils can interact with microbial cell membranes and inhibit the growth of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. As a result of such inhibition, the addition of some plant extracts to the rumen results in an inhibition of deamination and methanogenesis, resulting in lower ammonia N, methane, and acetate, and in higher propionate and butyrate concentrations. Results have indicated that garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde (the main active component of cinnamon oil), eugenol (the main active component of the clove bud), capsaicin (the active component of hot peppers), and anise oil, among others, may increase propionate production, reduce acetate or methane production, and modify proteolysis, peptidolysis, or deamination in the rumen. However, the effects of some of these essential oils are pH and diet dependent, and their use may be beneficial only under specific conditions and production systems. For example, capsaicin appears to have small effects in high-forage diets, whereas the changes observed in high-concentrate diets (increases in dry matter intake and total VFA, and reduction in the acetateto-propionate ratio and ammonia N concentration) may be beneficial

  6. Fermentation performance of engineered and evolved xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, M.; Jeppsson, M.; Larsson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components in the hydrol......Lignocellulose hydrolysate is an abundant substrate for bioethanol production. The ideal microorganism for such a fermentation process should combine rapid and efficient conversion of the available carbon sources to ethanol with high tolerance to ethanol and to inhibitory components...... in the hydrolysate. A particular biological problem are the pentoses, which are not naturally metabolized by the main industrial ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several recombinant, mutated, and evolved xylose fermenting S. cerevisiae strains have been developed recently. We compare here the fermentation...

  7. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Diane D.; Grohmann, Karel; Wyman, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  8. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-25

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35 degrees according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/1 of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  9. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-29

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35/sup 0/ according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/l of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  10. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  12. Multivariate Analysis of Industrial Scale Fermentation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregård, Rasmus; Stocks, Stuart M.

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate analysis allows process understanding to be gained from the vast and complex datasets recorded from fermentation processes, however the application of such techniques to this field can be limited by the data pre-processing requirements and data handling. In this work many iterations...

  13. Fermentation of starches and sugars to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertman, G I; Berenshtein, A F; Gulyaev, J P

    1958-02-25

    To prevent the growth of acid-forming bacteria in the started wort, the ester-aldehyde fraction or the amino alcohol obtained in the rectification process is returned to the wort in amounts sufficient to give an alcohol concentration of approximately 1.5% by volume. The fermenting wort is also acidified to 0.5 to 0.6.

  14. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented ground cassava was studied in order to generate data for design and optimum performance of various dryers used in cassava processing. This research attempts to provide data on the engineering properties such as moisture content, specific heat ...

  15. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  16. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  17. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... soybean residues as basic substrates in the composition of the medium, and to evaluate the ... Ma (2002) studied the components required for the liquid ... esculenta fermentation and growth. While most studies were focused on the production of polysaccharides using cultural conditions of mycelia in M.

  18. Biotransformation of the fish waste by fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... 1920, Virtanen used a sulphuric and hydrochloric acid mixture for the ... investment and by using acidifying microorganisms and molasses (source of carbon) ... The yeast was isolated from sugar-based juice. Their selection is ... agitated medium leads to a reduction of the length of fermentation to three days ...

  19. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent years the application of metal nanoparticles is gaining attention in various fields. The present study focuses on the additive effect of `green' synthesized iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) on dark fermentative hydrogen (H2) production by a mesophilic soil bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. The FeNPs were synthesized by ...

  20. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  1. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor.

  2. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redl, Stephanie; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases

  3. Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications.

  4. Mixed sugar fermentation by Pichia stipitis, Sacharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... A yeast strain with higher rates and yields in the fermentation of ... highest Qpmax (1.09 gl-1h-1) and substrate utilization efficiency (E,>99%). ... P. stipitis to reach the concentration higher than 30 g/l ethanol concentration.

  5. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the 'tea fungus' and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the

  6. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    academicjournal

    single carbon source because the ethanol conversion of glucose was higher than that of xylose. Using parallel fermentation of corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and the artificially prepared hydrolysate, it was found that complex components in the corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate probably promoted ethanol ...

  7. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakin Marica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85

  8. Membrane gas sensors for fermentation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F

    1987-12-01

    Results of a study on membrane gas sensors are presented to show their general applicability to fermentation monitoring of volatiles, such as alcohols, organic acids and aldehydes under various process and reactor conditions. Permeable silicone (Noax AB) and teflon (fluorcarbon AB) are tested as material for a gas sensor. The silicone tubing method is mainly used and ethanolic fermentation is performed in the study. Investigation is made to determine the dependence of the sensitivity of the sensors on the temperature, pH, concentration and other properties of fermentation liquid. The effect of temperature on the ethanol response is investigated in the temperature range of 7-50/sup 0/C to reveal that the response time decreases while the sensor's sensitivity increases with an increasing temperature. Comparison among methanol, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde and ethanol is made with respect to the effect of their concentration on the sensitivity of a sensor. Results of a three-month measurement with the sensor immersed in fermentation liquid are compared with those of GC analysis to investigate the correlation between the sensor's sensitivity and GC analysis data. (11 figs, 17 refs)

  9. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  10. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    ... of Ghana,. P. O. Box LG 134, Legon-Accra, Ghana ... and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as well as .... Fig. 1. Effect of fermentation on the pH of maize-based cowpea-fortified ..... 1991; 7: 203-210. 4. ... International Workshop on Food-based Approaches for Healthy Nutrition in.

  11. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition of browses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browses are important sources of feed and are widely used for animal nutrition to enhance productivity. They are commonly ensiled with other forages such as maize (Zea mays). However, the fermentation pattern and chemical composition of browses, that are commonly used are largely unknown. Thus, a study was carried ...

  12. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). The study was conducted utilizing a 2 3 central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g -1 ), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L -1 . These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L -1 ), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L -1 and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  13. Health and Safety Considerations of Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askild Holck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are highly treasured traditional foods. A large number of distinct sausages with different properties are produced using widely different recipes and manufacturing processes. Over the last years, eating fermented sausages has been associated with potential health hazards due to their high contents of saturated fats, high NaCl content, presence of nitrite and its degradation products such as nitrosamines, and use of smoking which can lead to formation of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we review the recent literature regarding possible health effects of the ingredients used in fermented sausages. We also go through attempts to improve the sausages by lowering the content of saturated fats by replacing them with unsaturated fats, reducing the NaCl concentration by partly replacing it with KCl, and the use of selected starter cultures with desirable properties. In addition, we review the food pathogenic microorganisms relevant for fermented sausages (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Toxoplasma gondii and processing and postprocessing strategies to inhibit their growth and reduce their presence in the products.

  14. [Effect of products of thermophilous methane fermentation on the fermentation of fruit must by Saccharomyces vini].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, E D; Kotomina, E N; Pisarnitsky

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of extracts from products of thermophilous methane fermentation at a dose of 0.7+2.0 ml/100 ml on the proliferation and fermentation activity of yeast Saccharomyces vini of the Yablochnaya-7 and Vishnevaya-33 race during their cultivation in the Hansen medium and in the apple and cranberry must with a normal and elevated content of sugar and acid. In some experiments the must was enriched in (NH4)2HPO4 at a dose of 0.3 g/l. Additions of small amounts of products of thermophilous methane fermentation accelerated fermentation of fruit musts with a normal sugar content and to a greater extent musts with an increased sugar content (27%). In the must enriched in (NH4)2HPO4 an almost complete (over 98%) fermentation of sugar developed for 27 days. In the must with an increased acidity (due to citric acid added to bring titrable acidity to 25 g/l) additions of the preparation also accerlerated the begining of the fermentation and increased its intensity.

  15. Waste activated sludge fermentation: effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory scale, room temperature, semi-continuous reactors were set-up to investigate the effect of solids retention time (SRT, equal to HRT hydraulic retention time) and biomass concentration on generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the non-methanogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) originating from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. It was found that VFA yields increased with SRT. At the longest SRT (10d), improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield from the influent COD (0.14g VFA-COD/g TCOD). It was also observed that under the same SRT, VFA yields increased when the biomass concentration decreased. At a 10d SRT the VFA yield increased by 46%, when the biomass concentration decreased from 13g/L to 4.8g/L. Relatively high nutrient release was observed during fermentation. The average phosphorus release was 17.3mg PO(4)-P/g TCOD and nitrogen release was 25.8mg NH(4)-N/g TCOD.

  16. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    , is converted to a basic, universal fermentation medium by lactic acid fermentation, is outlined. The resulting all-round fermentation medium can be used for the production of many useful fermentation products when added a carbohydrate source, which could possibly be another agricultural by-product. Two...... examples of such products-polylactic acid and L-lysine-are given. A cost calculation shows that this fermentation medium can be produced at a very low cost approximate to 1.7 Euro cent/kg, when taking into account that the green crop industry has expenses amounting to 270,000 Euro/year for disposal...... of the brown juice. A newly built lysine factory in Esbjerg, Denmark, can benefit from this process by buying a low price medium for the fermentation process instead of more expensive traditional fermentation liquids such as corn steep liquor....

  17. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  18. Methane and organic fertilizers from wood waste and manure fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashkevich, I F; Karelina, G N

    1961-01-01

    Fermentation of sawdust of foliate trees by mesophyllic microflora is feasible, producing CH/sub 4/; the yield of gas is 500 cu m/ton, which surpasses that from manure and other agricultural wastes. Preliminary acid hydrolysis is unnecessary. At 5% organic matter, sawdust fermentation proceeds normally and with good yield, but 10% initial concentration of organic matter results in poor performance. Fermentation of common manure, that of sawdust and manure, or that of sawdust alone yields essentially the same gases. Fir sawdust does not ferment, but it does not stop manure or ash sawdust from fermenting if mixed with these. Fermented sawdust behaves like a fertilizer; it is beneficial to plants and crops. Nonfermented sawdust does not. Lupine N content is increased by both fermented and nonfermented sawdusts.

  19. Modelling of the process yields of a whey fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakebrough, N; Moresi, M

    1981-09-01

    The biomass yields (y) and COD reduction efficiencies (eta) of a whey fermentation by Kluyveromyces fragilis were studied in a 100-l fermenter at various stirrer speeds and lactose concentrations, and compared to those obtained in 10-l and 15-l fermenters at constant values of the oxygen transfer coefficient (ksub(L)a) and air velocity. The empirical models previously constructed by using the 15-l fermenter data could be used to predict the yields on the other scales by calculating for each run the 15-l fermenter which would provide the same oxygen transfer coefficient measured by the sulphite method on each fermenter under study. To make this model independent of stirrer speeds used in each generic fermenter, the effect of aeration and mixing was incorporated into an overall parameter (ksub(L)a) and the values of y and eta were correlated only with temperature, lactose level and ksub(L)a since these variables were approximately orthogonal.

  20. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the

  1. A functional food: a traditional Tarhana fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANÇ

    Full Text Available Abstract White wheat flour, concentrated full fat yoghurt, tomato paste, onion, red and green paprika, and mint and salt are used in the preparation of Tarhana. During the 7-day Tarhana fermentation period, the acidity increased from 1.10% to 3.25%, the pH decreased from 5.22 to 4.13, and the moisture decreased from 70.12% to 26.15%. The chemical composition of the Tarhana at the end of fermentation was determined as: moisture 9.55%, protein 12.05%, total ash 5.65%, salt 5.65%, and fat 4.88%. During the fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria count of increased from 1.32 X 102 to 4.20 X 104 CFU/g, the total mesophilic aerobe bacteria count increased from 1.75 X 101 to 2.28 X 102 CFU/g, the yeast count increased from 3.45 X 10 1 to 2.40 X 105 CFU/g, the mould count from 1.55 X 10 1 to 2.45 X 104 CFU/g, in the content of Tarhana dough. It was observed that Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus durans, Pediococcus spp., Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria played a role during the fermentation of Tarhana dough. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia mexicana, Pichia angusta, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida sorboxylosa, Candida fluviatilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during the Tarhana fermentation.

  2. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  3. Influence of fermentation liquid from waste activated sludge on anoxic/oxic- membrane bioreactor performance: Nitrogen removal, membrane fouling and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Zhen; Mei, Xiaojie; Ma, Yan; Xie, Zhenfang

    2018-02-01

    In order to investigate effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation liquid on anoxic/oxic- membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR), two A/O-MBRs with and without WAS fermentation liquid addition were operated in parallel. Results show that addition of WAS fermentation liquid clearly improved denitrification efficiency without deterioration of nitrification, while severe membrane fouling occurred. WAS fermentation liquid resulted in an elevated production of proteins and humic acids in bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and release of organic matter with high MW fractions in soluble microbial product (SMP) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS). Measurement of deposition rate and fluid structure confirmed increased fouling potential of SMP and LB-EPS. γ-Proteobacteria and Ferruginibacter, which can secrete and export EPS, were also found to be abundant in the MBR with WAS fermentation liquid. It is implied that when WAS fermentation liquid was applied, some operational steps to control membrane fouling should be employed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the Degradation of Gallotannins Catalyzed by Tannase Produced by Aspergillus niger GH1 for Ellagic Acid Production in Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Mónica L; Guyot, Sylvain; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Prado-Barragán, Arely; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2018-06-01

    Due to great interest on producing bioactive compounds for functional foods and biopharmaceuticals, it is important to explore the microbial degradation of potential sources of target biomolecules. Gallotannins are polyphenols present in nature, an example of them is tannic acid which is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. This hydrolysis is performed by tannase or tannin acyl hydrolase, releasing in this way, biomolecules with high-added value. In the present study, chemical profiles obtained after fungal degradation of tannic acid under two bioprocesses (submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF)) were determined. In both fermentation systems (SmF and SSF), Aspergillus niger GH1 strain and tannic acid as a sole carbon source and inducer were used (the presence of tannic acid promotes production of enzyme tannase). In case of SSF, polyurethane foam (PUF) was used like as support of fermentation; culture medium only was used in case of submerged fermentation. Fermentation processes were monitored during 72 h; samples were taken kinetically every 8 h; and all extracts obtained were partially purified to obtain polyphenolic fraction and then were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Molecules like gallic acid and n-galloyl glucose were identified as intermediates in degradation of tannic acid; during SSF was identified ellagic acid production. The results obtained in this study will contribute to biotechnological production of ellagic acid.

  5. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate

  6. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  7. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  8. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production.

  9. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  10. Soaking assisted thermal pretreatment of cassava peels wastes for fermentable sugar production: Process modelling and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruwajoye, Gabriel S.; Faloye, Funmilayo D.; Kana, Evariste Gueguim

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Soaking Assisted Thermal Pretreatment (SATP) of Cassava Peels’ waste is reported. • Maximum fermentable sugar of 0.93 g/g and 90.90% sugar recovery was achieved. • This technique gave a 31% sugar yield improvement over enzymatic pretreatment. • SEM and FTIR analysis confirms the efficiency of SATP. - Abstract: This study reports a hybrid pretreatment strategy for optimum fermentable sugar (FS) release from cassava peels waste. The Response Surface design method was used to investigate the effect of soaking temperature, soaking duration, autoclave duration, acid concentration and solid loading on reducing sugar yield. The model gave a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.87. The optimum pretreatment conditions of 69.62 °C soaking temperature, 2.57 h soaking duration, 5 min autoclave duration, 3.68 v/v acid concentration and 9.65% w/v solid loading were obtained. Maximum reducing sugar of 89.80 ± 2.87 g/L corresponding to a fermentable sugar yield of 0.93 ± 0.03 g/g cassava peels was achieved upon model validation. A percentage sugar recovery of 90.79% was achieved with a 31% improvement in the FS yield from the enzyme pretreatment. The combined severity factor (CSF) of 0.77 and the low concentration of inhibitory compounds achieved further demonstrates the efficiency of this technique.

  11. Mathematical modeling of lipase and protease production by Penicillium restrictum in a batch fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, D M; Sant'Anna, G L; Alves, T L

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model that describes time course variations of extracellular lipase and protease activities for the batch fermentation of the fungus Penicillium restrictum, a new and promising strain isolated from soil and wastes of a Brazilian babassu coconut oil industry. The fermentation process was modeled by an unstructured model, which considered the following dependent variables: cells, fat acid, dissolved oxygen concentrations, lipase and protease activities, and cell lysate concentration. The last variable represents the amount of cells that has been lysed by the shear stress and natural cell death. Proteases released to the medium, as consequence of this process, enhance lipase inactivation. The model is able to predict the effects of some operation variables such as air flow rate and agitation speed. The mathematical model was validated against batch-fermentation data obtained under several operating conditions. Because substrate concentration has antagonistic effects on lipase activity, a typical optimization scheme should be developed in order to minimize these deleterious effects while maximizing lipase activity.

  12. Use of Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 for Manufacturing Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Lukic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 isolated from human intestines shows antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and during fermentation in milk releases peptides with demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, it was found that strain BGRA43 exhibits antimicrobial activity against human pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strain BGRA43 was able to survive in simulated gastric juice containing milk and retained cell number stability during the incubation in simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, LC/MS/MS analysis showed the ability of BGRA43 to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin. Abundant growth of strain BGRA43 occurred in the presence of prebiotics inulin or concentrated oat bran β-glucan (Nutrim®, even when used as the sole carbon source. Similarly, strain BGRA43 grew satisfactorily in pure cow's or goat's milk as well as in the milk containing inulin or Nutrim®. Using the probiotic strain BGRA43 as a single starter strain, fermented milk products obtained from cow's or goat's milk with or without inulin or Nutrim® contained about 107 CFU/mL. The products were homogeneous and viscous and the best sensory scores were observed for fermented milk beverage made from reconstituted skimmed milk, whole cow's milk and whole goat's milk supplemented with 1 % inulin.

  13. Parameter Optimization of Black Tea Fermentation Machine Based on RSM and BP-AdaBoost-GA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Chunwang; Zhao, Jiewen; Zhu, Hongkai

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation is the key procedure in processing of congou black tea, which directly decides the quality and flavor of tea products. Fermentation experiments were conducted on a novel drum-type fermentation machine as the platform, the performance parameters of fermentation machine were clarified...... of black tea, moderate rotation and mixing material can enhance the quality of black tea and shorten the fermentation time....

  14. Sugaring-out extraction of acetoin from fermentation broth by coupling with fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Ma, Lin-Hui; Wang, Zhuang-Fei; Guan, Wen-Tian; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2017-03-01

    Acetoin is a natural flavor and an important bio-based chemical which could be separated from fermentation broth by solvent extraction, salting-out extraction or recovered in the form of derivatives. In this work, a novel method named as sugaring-out extraction coupled with fermentation was tried in the acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis DL01. The effects of six solvents on bacterial growth and the distribution of acetoin and glucose in different solvent-glucose systems were explored. The operation parameters such as standing time, glucose concentration, and volume ratio of ethyl acetate to fermentation broth were determined. In a system composed of fermentation broth, glucose (100%, m/v) and two-fold volume of ethyl acetate, nearly 100% glucose was distributed into bottom phase, and 61.2% acetoin into top phase without coloring matters and organic acids. The top phase was treated by vacuum distillation to remove solvent and purify acetoin, while the bottom phase was used as carbon source to produce acetoin in the next batch of fermentation.

  15. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  16. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganism......, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature....... cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  17. Fermentation process diagnosis using a mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, L; Volesky, B; Votruba, J

    1988-09-01

    Intriguing physiology of a solvent-producing strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum led to the synthesis of a mathematical model of the acetone-butanol fermentation process. The model presented is capable of describing the process dynamics and the culture behavior during a standard and a substandard acetone-butanol fermentation. In addition to the process kinetic parameters, the model includes the culture physiological parameters, such as the cellular membrane permeability and the number of membrane sites for active transport of sugar. Computer process simulation studies for different culture conditions used the model, and quantitatively pointed out the importance of selected culture parameters that characterize the cell membrane behaviour and play an important role in the control of solvent synthesis by the cell. The theoretical predictions by the new model were confirmed by experimental determination of the cellular membrane permeability.

  18. Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering.

  19. Rapid discrimination of strain-dependent fermentation characteristics among Lactobacillus strains by NMR-based metabolomics of fermented vegetable juice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Tomita

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics to discriminate strain-dependent fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are important microorganisms for fermented food production. To evaluate the discrimination capability, six type strains of Lactobacillus species and six additional L. brevis strains were used focusing on i the difference between homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species and ii strain-dependent characteristics within L. brevis. Based on the differences in the metabolite profiles of fermented vegetable juices, non-targeted principal component analysis (PCA clearly separated the samples into those inoculated with homo- and hetero-lactic fermentative species. The separation was primarily explained by the different levels of dominant metabolites (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, based on a regions-of-interest (ROIs approach, revealed the contribution of low-abundance metabolites: acetoin, phenyllactic acid, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, glycerophosphocholine, and succinic acid for homolactic fermentation; and ornithine, tyramine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA for heterolactic fermentation. Furthermore, ROIs-based PCA of seven L. brevis strains separated their strain-dependent fermentation characteristics primarily based on their ability to utilize sucrose and citric acid, and convert glutamic acid and tyrosine into GABA and tyramine, respectively. In conclusion, NMR metabolomics successfully discriminated the fermentation characteristics of the tested strains and provided further information on metabolites responsible for these characteristics, which may impact the taste, aroma, and functional properties of fermented foods.

  20. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. β-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and...

  2. Fermentation of cassava and other vegetable substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, W R; Wallbridge, A J

    1972-06-07

    The fermentation consists of a process in which a mucoraceous fungus of the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, or Acrinomucor or a fungus of the genus Monilia is fermented on a solid or paste like substrate which is a mixture of an edible protein-deficient vegetable material known as cassava, of which the carbohydrate is mainly starch and a compound containing N in nonproteinaceous form and assimilable by the fungus to synthesize protein. Thus, tubers obtained from M. esculenta (M. utilissima are peeled, dried, and ground to give a tapioca flour. The N source is prepared by dissolving 45.8g NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and 8 g KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ in 200 to 300 ml distilled H/sub 2/O and to this is added inculum, 15 ml of a spore suspension of R stolonifer. The mixture is stirred into 1 kg of milled cassava flour and 300 ml of H/sub 2/O is added, so that the final moisture level is 45 +- 3%. The pH is 5.4 to 6.7 and the mixture is mixed with a machine for 10 to 12 minutes to give a stiff paste. The dough is extruded as a spaghetti 3 to 5 mm diam and strands are cut into 10 cm lengths. The strands are packed into shallow fermentation trays, which are covered with a loose fitting Al lid and placed in fermentor. Temperature is kept at 30/sup 0/ and relative humidity is kept at 95 to 97% for 72 hours. Fermentation is stopped by cooking or by deep freezing. The protein content is raised by the process from 0.2 to 4%. The initial toxicity of the cassava is also reduced.

  3. Alcohol for cellulosic material using plural ferments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoge, W H

    1977-02-22

    A process is described for producing ethanol (EtOH) from cellulosic materials by first hydrolyzing the material to sugars and then converting the sugars to alcohol by digestion and fermentation. Thus, fibrous cellulosic material obtained from municipal waste slurry was sterilized by autoclaving, followed by inoculation with Trichoderma viride cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 100 g of raw material, 25 mL of 95% EtOH was produced by this method.

  4. Energy from fermentation gas. Testing of basic design; Energie uit gistingsgas. Toetsing van ontwerpgrondslagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    When stabilizing sewage sludge by means of fermentation, fermentation gas is released, consisting for 67% of methane. This gas is an important energy source for waste water treatment plants (wwtp). A previous STORA study (Fermentation gas as a source of energy in waste water treatment plants; 1981) has shown that the most significant energy saving in wwtps using sludge fermentation can be realized through energy generation. The aim of this study is to assess the current practical situation of wwtps that are in operation and generate their own energy. The main parameters in determining the appeal of own energy generation have been examined for these wwtps and compared to the technological and economic starting points of the study from 1981. The results indicate whether and which optimizations are possible for existing and new own systems for generating energy and which parameters from the previous STORA study need to be revised [Dutch] Bij stabilisatie van zuiveringsslib door middel van gisting komt gistingsgas vrij, dat voor circa 67% uit methaan bestaat. Dit gas vormt een belangrijke energiebron voor rioolwaterzuiveringsinrichtingen (rwzi). In een eerder STORA-onderzoek (Gistingsgas als energiebron op rioolwaterzuiveringsinrichtingen; 1981) is gebleken, dat de belangrijkste energiebesparing op rwzi's met slibgisting kan worden verkregen door toepassing van eigen energieopwekking. Doelstelling van deze studie is de huidige praktijksituatie op de reeds in bedrijf zijnde rwzi's met eigen energieopwekking na te gaan. De belangrijkste parameters die de aantrekkelijkheid van eigen energieopwekking bepalen, zijn voor deze rwzi's nader onderzocht en vergeleken met de technologische en economische uitgangspunten van het onderzoek uit 1981. De resultaten geven aan of en welke optimalisaties voor bestaande en nieuwe eigen energieopwekkingssystemen mogelijk zijn, en welke parameters in de eerdere STORA-studie opnieuw moeten worden bezien.

  5. Fermentation couples Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing bacteria to Cyanobacteria in hypersaline microbial mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Z Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of hydrogen cycling in hypersaline microbial mats have shown an active nighttime cycle, with production largely from Cyanobacteria and consumption from sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB. However, the mechanisms and magnitude of hydrogen cycling have not been extensively studied. Two mats types near Guerrero Negro, Mexico -- permanently submerged Microcoleus microbial mats (GN-S, and intertidal Lyngbya microbial mats (GN-I -- were used in microcosm diel manipulation experiments with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, molybdate, ammonium addition, and physical disruption to understand the processes responsible for hydrogen cycling between mat microbes. Across microcosms, H2 production occurred under dark anoxic conditions with simultaneous production of a suite of organic acids. H2 production was not significantly affected by inhibition of nitrogen fixation, but rather appears to result from constitutive fermentation of photosynthetic storage products by oxygenic phototrophs. Comparison to accumulated glycogen and to CO2 flux indicated that, in the GN-I mat, fermentation released almost all of the carbon fixed via photosynthesis during the preceding day, primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenase transcripts predominated. Molybdate inhibition experiments indicated that SRBs from a wide distribution of dsrA phylotypes were responsible for H2 consumption. Incubation with 13C-acetate and nanoSIMS (secondary ion mass-spectrometry indicated higher uptake in both Chloroflexi and SRBs relative to other filamentous bacteria. These manipulations and diel incubations confirm that Cyanobacteria were the main fermenters in Guerrero Negro mats and that the net flux of nighttime fermentation byproducts (not only hydrogen was largely regulated by the interplay between Cyanobacteria, SRBs, and Chloroflexi.

  6. Comparison of methods for glycogen analysis of in vitro fermentation pellets produced with strained ruminal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial glycogen measurement is used to account for fates of carbohydrate substrates. It is commonly applied to washed cells or pure cultures which can be accurately subsampled, allowing the use of smaller sample sizes. However, the nonhomogeneous fermentation pellets produced with strained rumen inoculum cannot be accurately subsampled, requiring analysis of the entire pellet. In this study, two microbial glycogen methods were compared for analysis of such fermentation pellets: boiling samples for 3h in 30% KOH (KOH) or for 15min in 0.2M NaOH (NaOH), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and detection of released glucose. Total α-glucan was calculated as glucose×0.9. KOH and NaOH did not differ in the α-glucan detected in fermentation pellets (29.9 and 29.6mg, respectively; P=0.61). Recovery of different control α-glucans was also tested using KOH, NaOH, and a method employing 45min of bead beating (BB). For purified beef liver glycogen (water-soluble) recovery, BB (95.0%)>KOH (91.4%)>NaOH (87.4%; PBB (93.8%)>KOH (91.0%; Pglycogen (water-insoluble granules) did not differ among KOH (87.0%), NaOH (87.6%), and BB (86.0%; P=0.81), but recoveries for all were below 90%. Differences among substrates in the need for gelatinization and susceptibility to destruction by alkali likely affected the results. In conclusion, KOH and NaOH glycogen methods provided comparable determinations of fermentation pellet α-glucan. The tests on purified α-glucans indicated that assessment of recovery in glycogen methods can differ by the control α-glucan selected. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotong, N.

    1991-01-01

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  8. Fermentation based carbon nanotube multifunctional bionic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-06-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Here we produced living hybrid materials by giving to unicellular organisms the nutrient to grow. Based on bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the CNTs were internalized by the cell after fermentation bridging the cells. Tensile tests on dried composite films have been rationalized in terms of a CNT cell bridging mechanism where the strongly enhanced strength of the composite is governed by the adhesion energy between the bridging carbon nanotubes and the matrix. The addition of CNTs also significantly improved the electrical conductivity along with a higher photoconductive activity. The proposed process could lead to the development of more complex and interactive structures programmed to self-assemble into specific patterns, such as those on strain or light sensors that could sense damage or convert light stimulus in an electrical signal.

  9. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, G; Zhu, Y; Knol, W

    2000-06-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha.

  11. Kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha is not yet well defined due to lack of knowledge of reaction mechanisms taking place during this process. In this research kinetics of saccharose fermentation by Kombucha was analysed using the suggested empirical model. The data were obtained on 1.5 g L-1 of black tea, with 66.47 g L-1 of saccharose and using 10% (v/v or 15% (v/v of Kombucha. Total number of viable cells was as follows: approximately 5x105 of yeast cells per mL of the inoculum and approximately 2x106 of bacteria cells per mL of the inoculum. The samples were analysed after 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 days. Their pH values and contents of saccharose, glucose, fructose, total acids and ethanol were determined. A saccharose concentration model was defined as sigmoidal function at 22oC and 30oC, and with 10% (v/v and 15% (v/v of inoculum quantity. Determination coefficients of the functions were very high (R2>0.99. Reaction rates were calculated as first derivatives of Boltzmann’s functions. No simple correlation between rate of reaction and independent variables (temperature and inoculum concentration was found. Analysis of empirical model indicated that saccharose fermentation by Kombucha occurred according to very complex kinetics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  12. The economics of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugulis, A J; Axford, D B; McLellan, P J [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Extractive fermentation is a processing strategy in which reaction and recovery occur simultaneously in a fermentation vessel through the use of a water-immiscible solvent which selectively removes an inhibitory product. An ethanol-extractive fermentation process has been developed, incorporating continuous operation and the ability to ferment concentrated feedstocks. A detailed economic assessment of this process is provided relative to current technology for an annual capacity of 100 million litres of ethanol. Extractive fermentation provides significant economic advantages for both grass roots and retrofitted plants. Total production costs are estimated at 45{cents}/l for a conventional plant and 29.4{cents}/l for a retrofitted plant. The main cost saving achievable by extractive fermentation is in energy, used for evaporation and drying, since the process uses significantly less water in its conversion of concentrated feedstocks. Producing anhydrous ethanol without distillation is also a prospect. 15 refs., 5 fig., 10 tabs.

  13. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  14. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-01-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  15. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  16. Genetic diversity for fermentable carbohydrates production in alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, Y.; Bertrand, A.; Duceppe, M.O.; Dube, M.P.; Michaud, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Alfalfa has many attributes that renders it suitable for bioethanol production, including its adaptability to diverse environmental conditions without any need for nitrogen fertilizer. However research is needed to develop biofuel-type alfalfa with improved biomass production and standability, increased persistence, and better cell wall degradability. The ethanol conversion rates from alfalfa biomass could be increased by genetically improving the accumulation of readily fermentable non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). This presentation reported on a screening project where genotypes with superior cell wall degradability were identified. NSC accumulation within 300 genotypes was randomly selected within six genetic backgrounds from Europe and North America. Biochemical analyses of dried stems revealed a large genetic variability for NSC content, with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 mg per g DW. NSC variability was considerably higher in a genetic background of European origin compared to the other populations, therefore emphasizing the potential for genetic improvement for that trait. A modified commercial enzymatic cocktail known as AcceleraseTM 1000 Genencor is being developed to optimize the degradation of alfalfa biomass. DNA extracted from genotypes with the highest and lowest cell wall degradability or NSC accumulation will be pooled and used for bulk segregant analysis of DNA polymorphisms using the PCR-based sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique. It was concluded that the commercial release of biofuel-type alfalfa can be accelerated if the genetic markers associated with these traits can be identified.

  17. Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efka AR

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of  liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd  2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of  energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01, but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral was similar ( p<0.05 among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2: 53-61 (2001 Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

  18. Integration of Gas Enhanced Oil Recovery in Multiphase Fermentations for the Microbial Production of Fuels and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-de la Cuesta, Susana; Keijzers, Lore; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2018-04-01

    In multiphase fermentations where the product forms a second liquid phase or where solvents are added for product extraction, turbulent conditions disperse the oil phase as droplets. Surface-active components (SACs) present in the fermentation broth can stabilize the product droplets thus forming an emulsion. Breaking this emulsion increases process complexity and consequently the production cost. In previous works, it has been proposed to promote demulsification of oil/supernatant emulsions in an off-line batch bubble column operating at low gas flow rate. The aim of this study is to test the performance of this recovery method integrated to a fermentation, allowing for continuous removal of the oil phase. A 500 mL bubble column is successfully integrated with a 2 L reactor during 24 h without affecting cell growth or cell viability. However, higher levels of surfactants and emulsion stability are measured in the integrated system compared to a base case, reducing its capacity for oil recovery. This is related to release of SACs due to cellular stress when circulating through the recovery column. Therefore, it is concluded that the gas bubble-induced oil recovery method allows for oil separation and cell recycling without compromising fermentation performance; however, tuning of the column parameters considering increased levels of SACs due to cellular stress is required for improving oil recovery. © 2018 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCHVerlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on brewer's yeast fermentation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharandiuk, Tetiana; Kosiv, Ruslana; Palianytsia, Liubov; Berezovska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of temperature treatment of brewer's yeast strain Saflager W-34/70 at temperatures of -17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C on their fermentative activity was studied. It was established that the freezing of yeast leads to a decrease of fermentation activity in directly proportional to the duration way. Fermentative activity of yeast samples can be increased by 20-24% by heat treatment at 35 °C during 15-30 minutes.

  20. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  1. Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Danilo; Marshall, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    "This booklet is intended to heighten awareness about the potential of fermented foods and beverages as a viable enterprise that can contribute to small-scale farmers' income, building on, and in full respect of, important social and cultural factors. It also looks at how fermented food and beverages contribute to food security through preservation and improved nutritional quality. It highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with small-scale fermentation activities, as well as m...

  2. Butanol-acetone fermentation. Bibliographic synthesis and current trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, R. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    This article gives a synthesis of what is known about butyl-acetone fermentation from both the microbiological and technological standpoints. Different aspects of the metabolism of the microorganism used and of how it is regulated are considered. The performances of fermentation on traditional substrates (cornmeal or molasses) are compared with those recently obtained using Jerusalem artichokes at Institut Francais du Petrole as part of a new project on this fermentation for the purpose of producing substitute fuel.

  3. Chemical mechanism of the fluoride-inhibition of fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburg, O; Christian, W

    1941-08-01

    Among the fluoride-sensitive fermentation elements, enolase is the most sensitive. An investigation was made, quantitatively, of fluoride inhibition for chemically pure magnesium-enolase using an optical enolase test. Data show that the effective compound for fluoride inhibition is a complex magnesium-fluoro-phosphate and that the magnesium-fluoro-phosphate inhibits fermentation by combining proportionally to its concentration with the ferment-protein in a dissociating manner.

  4. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  5. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  6. [Wood manufacture and dioxins: a case prospective study on maintenance of boilers powered by wood chips and shavings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Marco; Paciaccioni, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    to verify if a carpenter using wood scraps, treated or not, to operate the heating system may involve an exposure to dioxins in a given target of workers. the research was structured on literature sources analysis, study on field of the most relevant exposure, occurs through sampling. The results were recorded and plotted, and compared with the data available in literature. the study has involved maintenance workers of the heating system by means of wood refuse incineration. These workers were informed of the methods and aims of the sample. the results confirm a potential exposure to ash containing dioxins, presumably also in other similar situations, in this case not even evaluated by the employer. the average exposure to the light ash during the maintenance operations of the plant dust abatement in emissive phase is about 5 mg/m(3), with a consequent exposure to dioxins inferred, at about 20 pg. operators are exposed to dioxins: this implies that in some operations it is crucial to review the risk assessment and consequently the measures on prevention and health protection to activate.

  7. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoruk, Tara M; Hartley, Ian D; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-12-31

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  8. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VI. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm: the natural system interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-05-01

    A review of pertinent literature covered the following: eucalypt background, the candidate species, biomass plantation considerations, effects of site production, leachate and allelopathy, and some exotic flora considerations. The comparative eucalypt field survey covers mined land stands, unmined south Florida stands, and Glade County eucalypt stands. The problem of eucalypt naturalization is discussed.

  9. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  10. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  11. Bleaching of kraft pulps produced from green liquor pre-hydrolyzed South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -ability. Savings in chlorine dioxide for PHK pulps ranged between 2-18% for sequences that used chlorine dioxide as the primary oxidative bleaching chemical. When ozone was used in combination with chlorine dioxide, mixed results were obtained – PHK pulps showed...

  12. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing.The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed Fibar and seven schools randomized to sand that installed sand. Noncompliant schools were added to the analysis to complete a cohort type analysis by treatment received (two schools that were randomized to Fibar but installed sand and seven schools that were randomized to sand but installed Fibar. Among compliant schools, an arm fracture rate of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-6.9 per 100,000 student-months was observed for falls into sand, compared with an arm fracture rate of 9.4 (95% CI 3.7-21.4 for falls onto Fibar surfaces (p< or =0.04905. Among all schools, the arm fracture rate was 4.5 (95% CI 0.26-15.9 per 100,000 student-months for falls into sand compared with 12.9 (95% CI 5.1-30.1 for falls onto Fibar surfaces. No serious head injuries and no fatalities were observed in either group.Granitic sand playground surfaces reduce the risk of arm fractures from playground falls when compared with engineered wood fibre surfaces. Upgrading playground surfacing standards to reflect this information will prevent arm fractures.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02647424.

  13. Process Simulation and Cost Analysis for Removing Inorganics from Wood Chips using Combined Mechanical and Chemical Preprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hongqiang; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert; Aston, John E.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Naturally occurring and introduced inorganic species (ash) in biomass feedstocks negatively impact thermochemical energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction, gasification and combustion to biopower. As such, it is desirable to better understand the cost:benefit ratios of various ash reduction processes. Here, a novel process simulation model was developed using AspenPlus to reduce the ash content of Loblolly logging residues using both air classification and a dilute-acid leaching process. For costing purposes, a throughput of 25 tons/hour was selected. At this scale, the process cost for a standalone air classification process was $3 per ton for a biomass feedstock. Ash reduction via dilute –acid leaching was simulated based on experimentally determined kinetics of ion diffusion at an acid concentration of 0.5% H2SO4 and temperature of 75°F. The total estimated processing cost for leaching at these conditions was approximately $14/ton of dry biomass. Sensitivity analysis of three parameters on mineral reduction in the leaching process revealed that increasing leaching temperature was not economically feasible, while it was viable to apply a longer retention time in leaching for higher ash removal or achieve a lower water content in final products with reasonable extra costs. In addition, scenarios combining air classification with leaching were examined. A whole process cost of approximately $16/ton of biomass at a biomass feedstock rate of 25 ton/hour considering a 9% of biomass classified as light fraction to be leached. The leaching operating costs constituted 75% of this amount, of which the heating costs of dryer was 44%. This suggests that the process costs would be substantially reduced if more efficient drying methods are applied in future.

  14. Changes in SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time in response to wood chip ash fertilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Saarsalmi, Anna; Peltre, Clement

    2016-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) analysis of bulk soil samples. Ash fertilisation of forest soils affected SOM composition in the O-horizon, but not in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil. The pH and biodegradability of SOM were increased in the O-horizon. The changes in SOM composition consisted of enrichment of Fe...... in Denmark, where ash had been spread at different times. Changes in SOM biodegradability were estimated based on an incubation experiment, expressed as percentage of initial carbon. Changes in SOM composition were characterised using thermal analysis and Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic......- and Al-oxides/hydroxides, depletion of carboxylic and aromatic groups and lower thermal stability in soils with older and greater ash application. Ash fertilisation increased soil pH, either right after ash application or through a buffering effect of the ash on acidification caused by decomposing...

  15. Meat and fermented meat products as a source of bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Joanna; Kęska, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are short amino acid sequences, that upon release from the parent protein may play different physiological roles, including antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and other bioactivities. They have been identified from a range of foods, including those of animal origin, e.g., milk and muscle sources (with pork, beef, or chicken and various species of fish and marine organism). Bioactive peptides are encrypted within the sequence of the parent protein molecule and latent until released and activated by enzymatic proteolysis, e.g. during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. Bioactive peptides derived from food sources have the potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the muscle-derived bioactive peptides, especially those of fermented meats and the potential benefits of these bioactive compounds to human health.

  16. What is alcoholic fermentation? A study about the alcoholic fermentation conception through the history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. F. Cardoso

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the historical development of the alcoholic fermentation conception, based on expe-rimental results obtained from European scientists, from Renascence to the beginning of 20th century(1930. From this, ve concepts were identied for the phenomenon: putrefactive, spiritual, chemical,biological and biochemical. The current conception of alcoholic fermentation was also evaluated. Forthis proposal, three groups of teachers were interviewed through the question? What is alcoholicfermentation? The P group (pilot, n=12 made of professionals that teach on secondary and highschools, group A composed of PhDs from the Center of Technology Education - NUTES (n=9 andgroup B from Department of Medical Biochemistry (called group B, n=41 both of Federal Universityof Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Key words associated with the fermentative process were identiedidentify in the interviewees answers. The group A components mentioned only six key words andpointed out the alcoholic fermentation products. Dierently, subjects from P and B groups cited ahigher number and also more unusual key words (n = 9 and 12, respectively. We also analyzedtheir answers throughout fermentative descriptive words (sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, anaerobic,yeast and ATP. These words were established after an evaluation of alcoholic fermentation conceptstated in the Biology/Biochemistry books most adopted in high schools and Universities. Our analysisshowed that group A used only three descriptive words (sugar, alcohol and yeast while componentsof group B used all the selected descriptive words. However, only one interviewee used all the sixwords together. From this analysis, we proposed that the chemical concept of alcoholic fermentationprevailed on the other concepts found on the historical research (spiritual, putrefactive, biological ebiochemical.

  17. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shuidouchi (Natto is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein, and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL and pH of gastric juice (3.1 of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL, gastrin (Gas level and increase somatostatin (SS, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide (NO and malonaldehyde (MDA contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing.

  18. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  19. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  20. A Perspective on PSE in Fermentation Process Development and Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the chemical industry, the use of PSE methods and tools is not as widespread in industrial fermentation processes. This paper gives an overview of some of the main engineering challenges in industrial fermentation processes. Furthermore, a number of mathematical models are highlighted...... as examples of PSE methods and tools that are used in the context of industrial fermentation technology. Finally, it is discussed what could be done to increase the future use of PSE methods and tools within the industrial fermentation technology area....

  1. Effect of mixing during fermentation in yogurt manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Ezkauriatza, E J; Galarza-González, M G; Uribe-Bujanda, A I; Ríos-Licea, M; López-Pacheco, F; Hernández-Brenes, C M; Alvarez, M M

    2008-12-01

    In traditional yogurt manufacturing, the yogurt is not agitated during fermentation. However, stirring could be beneficial, particularly for improving heat and mass transport across the fermentation tank. In this contribution, we studied the effect of low-speed agitation during fermentation on process time, acidity profile, and microbial dynamics during yogurt fermentation in 2 laboratory-scale fermenters (3 and 5 L) with different heat-transfer characteristics. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as fermenting bacteria. Curves of pH, lactic acid concentration, lactose concentration, and bacterial population profiles during fermentation are presented for static and low-agitation conditions during fermentation. At low-inoculum conditions, agitation reduced the processing time by shortening the lag phase. However, mixing did not modify the duration or the shape of the pH profiles during the exponential phase. In fermentors with poor heat-transfer characteristics, important differences in microbial dynamics were observed between the agitated and nonagitated fermentation experiments; that is, agitation significantly increased the observable specific growth rate and the final microbial count of L. bulgaricus.

  2. Low energy Kombucha fermented milk-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates manufacturing of fermented beverages from two types of milk (1 % w/w and 2.2 % w/w fat by applying of Kombucha, which contains several yeasts and bacterial strains. The starter was the inoculum produced from previous Kombucha fermentation. The applied starter concentrations were: 10 % v/v, 15 % v/v and 20 % v/v. Also, the traditional yoghurt starter was used to produce the control samples. All fermentations were performed at 42oC and the changes in the pH were monitored. The fermentation process was about three times faster in the control yoghurt than in the Kombucha samples. Influence of Kombucha inoculum concentration on the rate of fermentation appeared not to be significant. All fermentations were stopped when the pH reached 4.4. After the production, the quality of the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha was determined and compared with the quality of the control yoghurt samples. It was concluded that the difference in fat contents in milks affects the difference in quantities of other components in the fermented milk beverages with Kombucha. Sensory characteristics of the beverages manufactured from the partially skimmed milk are much better than those of the fermented beverages produced from the low fat milk.

  3. Utilization of date carbohydrate as substrate in microbial fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, B.S.

    1979-06-01

    In a study of 3 yeasts, ogi yeast showed the highest conversion rate and cell production in both shake flasks and fermenters using a juice with 4% soluble solids extracted from dates with an average of 65% sugar. Corn steep liquor increased the growth rate, 4% having the greatest effect. The highest cell production of the ogi yeast was at 37 degrees (4.92 g/L) and 50% of the sugar was converted. An associative fermentation using a mixed culture of Candida utilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave better results than fermentations using each organism alone. The fermentation using S.rouxxi NRRL Y-2547 was also studied.

  4. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Picataggio, Stephen K.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  5. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived... (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... to submit to support the CMC information for fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and...

  6. Microbiological analysis and antibacterial effects of the indigenous fermented Puer tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Xu, X.Q.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several

  7. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  8. Adaptation of the xylose fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 for improving ethanol production in different fed-batch SSF processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Pejó, E; Ballesteros, M; Oliva, J M; Olsson, L

    2010-11-01

    An efficient fermenting microorganism for bioethanol production from lignocellulose is highly tolerant to the inhibitors released during pretreatment and is able to ferment efficiently both glucose and xylose. In this study, directed evolution was employed to improve the xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 strain for bioethanol production at high substrate loading. Adapted and parental strains were compared with respect to xylose consumption and ethanol production. Adaptation led to an evolved strain more tolerant to the toxic compounds present in the medium. When using concentrated prehydrolysate from steam-pretreated wheat straw with high inhibitor concentration, an improvement of 65 and 20% in xylose consumption and final ethanol concentration, respectively, were achieved using the adapted strain. To address the need of high substrate loadings, fed-batch SSF experiments were performed and an ethanol concentration as high as 27.4 g/l (61% of the theoretical) was obtained with 11.25% (w/w) of water insoluble solids (WIS).

  9. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  10. APASS Data Release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Arne A.; Levine, Stephen; Terrell, Dirk; Welch, Douglas L.; Munari, Ulisse; Kloppenborg, Brian K.

    2018-06-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) has been underway since 2010. This survey covers the entire sky from 7.5 knowledge of the optical train distortions. With these changes, DR10 includes many more stars than prior releases. We describe the survey, its remaining limitations, and prospects for the future, including a very-bright-star extension.

  11. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  12. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  13. Effect of Fermentation Conditions and Plucking Standards of Tea Leaves on the Chemical Components and Sensory Quality of Fermented Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fermentation conditions (temperature, time, and pH and plucking standards (one leaf and a bud to four leaves and a bud on the chemical components and sensory quality of the fermented juices processed from crushed fresh tea leaves were investigated. The results showed that optimum fermentation conditions that resulted in fermented juices of the best sensory quality and the highest content of TFs were a temperature of 35°C, time duration of 75 min, and pH 5.1. The fermented juices processed from new shoots with three leaves and a bud or four leaves and a bud afforded high overall acceptability and TF concentration. These differences arise because tea leaves with different plucking standards have different catechin content and enzyme activities. Fermented tea juice possessed higher concentrations of chemical components such as soluble solids, amino acids, and TFs and exhibited better sensory quality as compared to black tea infusion. The TF concentrations decreased as the pH of the fermenting juice increased, and the fermented juice showed the best overall acceptability. These results provide essential information for the improvement of the processing of black tea beverage by suggesting fermentation of fresh tea leaves as a better alternative to their infusion.

  14. Salmonella adhesion, invasion and cellular immune responses are differentially affected by iron concentrations in a combined in vitro gut fermentation-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Alexandra; Gagnon, Mélanie; Chassard, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; O'Mahony, Liam; Lacroix, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In regions with a high infectious disease burden, concerns have been raised about the safety of iron supplementation because higher iron concentrations in the gut lumen may increase risk of enteropathogen infection. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica Typhimurium with intestinal cells under different iron concentrations encountered in the gut lumen during iron deficiency and supplementation using an in vitro colonic fermentation system inoculated with immobilized child gut microbiota combined with Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture monolayers. Colonic fermentation effluents obtained during normal, low (chelation by 2,2'-dipyridyl) and high iron (26.5 mg iron/L) fermentation conditions containing Salmonella or pure Salmonella cultures with similar iron conditions were applied to cellular monolayers. Salmonella adhesion and invasion capacity, cellular integrity and immune response were assessed. Under high iron conditions in pure culture, Salmonella adhesion was 8-fold increased compared to normal iron conditions while invasion was not affected leading to decreased invasion efficiency (-86%). Moreover, cellular cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α secretion as well as NF-κB activation in THP-1 cells were attenuated under high iron conditions. Low iron conditions in pure culture increased Salmonella invasion correlating with an increase in IL-8 release. In fermentation effluents, Salmonella adhesion was 12-fold and invasion was 428-fold reduced compared to pure culture. Salmonella in high iron fermentation effluents had decreased invasion efficiency (-77.1%) and cellular TNF-α release compared to normal iron effluent. The presence of commensal microbiota and bacterial metabolites in fermentation effluents reduced adhesion and invasion of Salmonella compared to pure culture highlighting the importance of the gut microbiota as a barrier during pathogen invasion. High iron concentrations as

  15. Purification and fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenkui; Chi, Yujie

    2017-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are the end products of carbohydrate fermentation in the gut, mainly contribute to energy metabolism in mammals. The amount of SCFAs produced during fermentation is an important parameter that characterizes the fermentation capacity of a system. This paper reports on the fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz, a wood-rot fungal species. We isolated and purified the main EPS fraction by freeze drying and DEAE-Sepharose fast flow chromatography. We then analyzed the monosaccharide composition of EPS. The isolated EPS was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose, and arabinose. The characteristic absorption peaks of sugar esters were also detected. Fresh fecal extracts from healthy adults and children were used as fermentation substrate to simulate the human intestinal environment (anaerobic conditions at 37°C) and study the fermentation characteristics of the purified EPS. Adding the isolated EPS to the fermentation system of the simulated intestinal environment increased the SCFAs content in the fecal extract of adults and children. However, the yield of SCFAs, particularly butyric acid, in the fermentation system of fecal extract in children was higher than that in adults. Furthermore, adding exogenous lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus fecalis and Enterococcus fecium, to the fermentation system effectively increased the SCFAs concentration in the model intestinal system of the children. By contrast, adding E. fecalis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and E. fecium increased the content of the produced SCFAs in the system of adults. Those results indicate that EPS isolated from F. castaneus Imaz was effectively fermented in the simulated intestinal environments, and the fermentation capability was enhanced by adding microbial flora. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermentation instead of animal feeding; In den Fermenter statt in den Magen des Schweins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombach, T.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2006, Germany has prohibited the feeding of class K3 waste food from gastronomy, canteens and the food industry to pigs. Fermentation is a creative solution. In Haid on the Schwaebische Alb mountain range, two creative waste managers developed a plant for power generation from fat and used oils. (orig.)

  17. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  18. La fermentation éthanolique. Les microorganismes Ethanol Fermentation. The Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballerini D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude précise l'état actuel des connaissances concernant la fermentation éthanolique, d'un point de vue microbiologique. Outre les microorganismes utilisés depuis longtemps, sont décrites les nouvelles espèces de levures et de bactéries capables de transformer en éthanol des substrats aussi divers que les composés cellulosiques et hémicellulosiques issus de la biomasse et leurs produits d'hydrolyse. Pour la fermentation des substrats traditionnels tels que les mélasses et les jus d'extraction de plantes sucrières, ou encore l'amidon de maïs, les performances des levures du genre Saccharomyces sont comparées à celles des bactéries du genre Zymomonas. This review gives the state-of-the-art of what is known about ethanol fermentation from the microbiological viewpoint. In addition to the microorganisms that have been used for a long time, it describes new species of yeasts and bacteria capable of transforming, in ethanol, substrates including such different ones as cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds issuing from biomass and their hydrolysis products. For the fermentation of traditional substrates such as molasses and juices extracted from sugar plants, or cornstarch, the performances of yeasts of the Saccharomyces type are compared to those of bacteria of the Zymomonas type.

  19. Re-fermentation of washed spent solids from batch hydrogenogenic fermentation for additional production of biohydrogen from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2012-03-01

    In the first batch solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting (SSAHF-IV) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), a cumulative production of 16.6 mmol H(2)/reactor was obtained. Releases of hydrogen partial pressure first by intermittent venting and afterward by flushing headspace of reactors with inert gas N(2) allowed for further hydrogen production in a second to fourth incubation cycle, with no new inoculum nor substrate nor inhibitor added. After the fourth cycle, no more H(2) could be harvested. Interestingly, accumulated hydrogen in 4 cycles was 100% higher than that produced in the first cycle alone. At the end of incubation, partial pressure of H(2) was near zero whereas high concentrations of organic acids and solvents remained in the spent solids. So, since approximate mass balances indicated that there was still a moderate amount of biodegradable matter in the spent solids we hypothesized that the organic metabolites imposed some kind of inhibition on further fermentation of digestates. Spent solids were washed to eliminate organic metabolites and they were used in a second SSAHF-IV. Two more cycles of H(2) production were obtained, with a cumulative production of ca. 2.4 mmol H(2)/mini-reactor. As a conclusion, washing of spent solids of a previous SSAHF-IV allowed for an increase of hydrogen production by 15% in a second run of SSAHF-IV, leading to the validation of our hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without pulp contact and protease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenye ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the chemical and volatile composition of jujube wines fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae A1.25 with and without pulp contact and protease treatment during fermentation. Yeast cell population, total reducing sugar and methanol contents had significant differences between nonextracted and extracted wine. The nonextracted wines had significantly higher concentrations of ethyl 9-hexadecenoate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl oleate than the extracted wines. Pulp contact also could enhance phenylethyl alcohol, furfuryl alcohol, ethyl palmitat and ethyl oleate. Furthermore, protease treatment can accelerate the release of fusel oils. The first principal component separated the wine from the extracted juice without protease from other samples based on the higher concentrations of medium-chain fatty acids and medium-chain ethyl esters. Sensory evaluation showed pulp contact and protease could improve the intensity and complexity of wine aroma due to the increase of the assimilable nitrogen.

  2. Industrial energy conservation by methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D L

    1981-11-01

    An engineering study was conducted to evalutate the possibility of making an entire dairy cooperative self-sufficient by methane fermentation of the whey permeate from the cheese plant and the dairy cattle manure from the dairy farms to fuel gas. A cooperative consisting of 284 dairy farms and one central cheese plant producing 9.5 Gg of cheese annually was used as the basis for evaluation. The feasibility was evaluated at four practical levels of technology. Preliminary economic analysis revealed that the cost of methane was competitive with current prices for purchased fuel. (Refs. 29).

  3. Peptides in fermented Finnish milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Kahala

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the rate of proteolysis and peptide profiles of different Finnish fermented milk products. The highest rate of proteolysis was observed in Biokefir, while the greatest change in the rate of proteolysis was observed in Gefilus®. Differences in starters and manufacturing processes reflected on the peptide profiles of the products. Most of the identified peptides originated from either the N- or C-terminal region of β-casein or from the N-terminal region of αs1-casein.

  4. Seed of sweet sorghum: studies on fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, F A; Onetto, E; Angeloro, H; Victorio Gugliucci, S

    1961-01-01

    Both the percentage of starch transformed by saccharification with malt and the alcohol fermentation efficiency for four varieties of sweet sorghum is determined, and it is compared with those of a corn sample. Seeds of the varieties with low peel content yield values comparable to those of corn. Seeds of the varieties with high peel content give values lower than those of the low peel content, but, if they are previously peeled, the yield of both, in terms of transformed starch and alcohol produced, is improved, the values approaching those obtained with corn.

  5. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  6. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...

  7. Transference of mass in fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios E, R.; Buitrago H, G

    1998-01-01

    Based on bibliographical references, in a theoretical model based on a fermentation process, the relationship between the speed of oxygen transfer and the biochemistry demand is implemented, in order to discover the different conditions of aeration and of agitation speed, under those which the microbial growth is not affected by deficiency in the oxygen supply. This correlation was adapted to the cultivation of B. Thuringiensis, and of this form, maximum biomass concentration to the one, which is possible to supply oxygen efficiently with a group of defined operation conditions, could be estimated

  8. Purifying synthetic or fermentation ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-22

    Synthetic or fermentation grade ethanol is treated with an alkaki metal sulfite for about 10 hours then rectified to give a product free of odor and taste defects. For example, ethanol from molasses was treated with 10g Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/O per liter of alcohol, (70/sup 0/ Gay-Lussac) for 10 hours. Synthetic ethanol was treated with 3g Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/O for 10 hours.

  9. Purifying synthetic or fermentation ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-22

    Synthetic or fermentation grade ethanol is treated with an alkali metal sulfite for about 10 hours then rectified to give a product free of odor and taste defects. For example, ethanol from molasses was treated with 10g, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/0 per liter of alcohol, (70/sup 0/ Gay-Lussac) for 10 hours. Synthetic ethanol was treated with 3 g Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/O for 10 hours.

  10. Increasing alcohol yield in sugar fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1962-02-20

    The yield of alcohol from yeast fermentations of sugar solutions is increased 1.5 to 5% by the addition of 0.1 to 0.5 parts by volume of a monohydric saturated aliphatic alcohol of at least 6 C atoms in a straight chain such as hexanol or heptanol, or branched chain, such as 2-ethylbutanol or 2-ethylhexanol, or a mixture consisting mostly of C/sub 7/, C/sub 8/, C/sub 9/, or C/sub 10/ alcohols.

  11. Fermentation of melon seeds for “Ogiri egusi” as affected by fermentation variables using Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueke, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Manipulation of fermentation variables during ‘Ogiri egusi’ production using Bacillus subtilis was studied with the view to improving the fermentation process and quality of product. The variables studied were relative humidity (RH, temperature and pore size of wrapping material. Methodology and results: Effect of variables on amino nitrogen, pH and peroxide value was determined on 24 h basis for 96 h. Attempt on optimization of process using response surface method was made. Amino nitrogen increased with fermentation time, the highest value (6.25 mg N/g being obtained from sample fermented at 75% RH, temperature 35 °C and 90 µm pore size of wrapping material. Fermentation attained its peak at 48 h fermentation time. pH increased into the alkaline range within the period, the highest value (7.81 being from sample that gave the highest amount of amino nitrogen. Peroxide values obtained in all samples were far below the recommended value of 30 Meq/kg. However, the highest value (4.16 Keq/kg was obtained in sample fermented at 85% RH, temperature 30 °C and 70 µm pore size of wrapper. Statistical analysis and response surface plots associated with analysis showed that the quadratic effect of variables was significant (p = 0.05. Effects of relative humidity and pore size of wrapping material were also significant and accounted for 99.56% of the amino nitrogen variation. Conclusion, significance and impact study: Manipulation of the fermentation variables significantly improved the process. Thus use of response surface method optimized the fermentation process especially the effects of relative humidity and pore size of wrapping materials. The suggested combination of variables for optimum fermentation is 75% RH, temperature 35 °C and 70 µm pore size of wrapper. This ultimately will improve product quality and reduce fermentation time.

  12. FERMENTATION INHIBITION BY 2,6-DICHLORO-4-NITROANILINE (DCNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of DCNA (2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline) on the fermentation rate of peach wine produced in Georgia was determined. DCNA was identified by GC-MS and quantitated (1.2 mg/l) by GLC in peach concentrates that fermented more slowly than normal. The effect of the DCNA on the g...

  13. Fermentation: an age old technology with brand new challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, PJ

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The presentation is based on the new challenges facing an age old technology of fermentation. These challenges were presented at the SASM Conference, the conclusion been that the future of fermentation is only limited by our imagination. Nonetheless...

  14. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  15. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... of cassava on chemical and sensory characteristics of fufu flour ... cassava fufu flour has the highest protein content; this shows the influence of fermentation in .... 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, during the natural fermentation of cassava ...

  16. Effects of fermentation conditions on the production of 4-α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... studied the recombinant protein of human IGF-1 in rich and minimal ... recombinant protein A-β-lactamase compared to the medium pH at 7.0. ... shake flask fermentation and provided desired conditions for fermentation in 5 L ..... expression kinetics study in bioreactor, which would help to enhance cell ...

  17. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential Transform Method. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The method of differential transform was used to obtain the solution governing the fermentation process; the system of equation was transformed using the differential ...

  18. In vitro fermentability of differently digested resistant starch preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fässler, C.; Arrigoni, E.; Venema, K.; Brouns, F.; Amadò, R.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro fermentability of two resistant starch preparations type 2 (RS2) and type 3 (RS3) was investigated using human colonic microbiota. Prior to the fermentation experiments, samples were digested using two in vitro models, a batch (ba) and a dynamic (dy), as well as an in vivo method (il)

  19. Introduction to fermentation technology. Einfuehrung in die Fermentationstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttzall, K [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Chemieingenieurwesen

    1993-01-01

    The book is an introduction to industrial fermentation technology, e.g. biological processes for producing ethanol, baker's yeast, single-cell protein, and penicillin. In spite of all technical process, it is still impossible to describe all details of the behaviour of living cells. The textbook gives an outline of the cost and economic efficiency of fermentation processes. (EF)

  20. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiota of Tayohounta, a fermented baobab flavour food of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Jonkman, J.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present work provides data on the microbial composition of Tayohounta, a product of natural fermentation of baobab seed kernels. Samples were collected from 3 different small scale producers from Benin at the end of the fermentation process. Microorganisms were enumerated and identified using

  2. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  3. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the mathematical model of batch fermentation process of ethanol was formulated. The method of differential transform was used to obtain the solution governing the fermentation process; the system of equation was transformed using the differential transform method. The result obtained from the ...

  4. Effect of fermentation and sterilization on anthocyanins in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qixing; Feng, Lei; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Chen, Haihong; Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-03-01

    Blueberry products have various health benefits due to their high content of dietary anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fermentation and sterilization on total anthocyanin content, composition and some quality attributes of blueberry puree. The blueberry puree used here was fermented for 40 h at 37 °C by Lactobacillus after sterilization. The method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized for the rapid analysis of anthocyanins. Quality attributes including pH, color, total soluble solids and viscosity were measured. A total of 21 anthocyanins and five anthocyanidins were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Fermented blueberry had reduced total anthocyanin content (29%) and levels of individual anthocyanins compared with fresh blueberry. Total anthocyanin content was decreased 46% by sterilization, and different degradation behavior of individual anthocyanin was appeared between fermented and sterilized-fermented blueberry puree. Fermentation and sterilization decreased the total soluble solids and pH and changed color parameters, while minimally influencing viscosity. The loss of total anthocyanin content by fermentation was related to the unstable structure of blueberry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are sensitive to temperature (>80 °C), and degradation of anthocyanins by sterilization in blueberry should be considered in the fermentation procedure. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Integration of fermentation and cooling crystallisation to produce organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation products are gaining more attention in the last years due to the fact that the metabolic and genetic engineering field has been developing techniques to enhance fermentation yields and make biochemical processes competitive compared to traditional chemical production. However, as

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing “stuck” fermentations, which i...

  7. Breaking the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fermentation of G. lucidum with Lactobacillus plantarum was applied to break down the sporoderm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the spores. The broken spores were found on the 3rd day and complete breaking on the 5th day of fermentation. Lactic acid, acetic acid and ...

  8. Acceptability of prebiotic fiber-treated whey drink fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to develop a fermented drink by diversifying the quantities of Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculum and prebiotic fiber in the form of inulin and using the total dry extract of whey and sucrose. After fermentation, the following measurements were made after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 6°C: titratable ...

  9. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  10. The legend of laphet: A Myanmar fermented tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Han

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Fermentation is the traditional method. Epigallocatechin gallate is a powerful constituent of laphet for human health. Its caffeinated effect is also popular in Myanmar society. This study will contribute to understanding Myanmar fermented tea leaves and spread the legend of laphet around the world.

  11. Lactic acid fermentation from refectory waste: Factorial design analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... method. At the end of the fermentation process, lactic acid exists in the complex medium of fermentation broth that contains whey proteins, biomass, salts and other impurities. Lactic acid is then recovered from this complex medium. Since the high cost of lactic acid purification process limits the utilization of ...

  12. Urea production by yeasts other than Saccharomyces in food fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Cui, Kaixiang; Lin, Jianchun; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is an important intermediate in the synthesis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate in various food fermentations. Identifying urea-producing microorganisms can help control or reduce ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor fermentation as a model system, we identified the yeasts responsible

  13. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  14. Mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of Sufu Pehtze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Kuijpers, F.A.; Thanh, N.V.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in China and Vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. The final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several

  15. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Fermented foods play an important socio–economic role in developing countries as well as making a major contribution to the protein requirements of natural populations. In general, traditional fermented foods are made under primitive conditions, which result in low yield and poor quality. This paper outlines the present ...

  16. Koji – where East meets West in fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhu, Yang; Tramper, J.

    2013-01-01

    Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of

  17. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  18. Health benefits of fermented foods : microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  19. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant ethanol-fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermotolerant yeasts, which are expected to be applicable for high-temperature fermentation as an economical process, were isolated from four provinces in Laos. Of these yeasts, five isolates exhibited stronger fermentation abilities in a 16% sugars-containing medium of glucose, sucrose, sugarcane or molasses at 40°C ...

  20. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of extrusion and fermentation on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of six combinations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) of sorghum - soya blend were investigated. A total number of 19 microorganisms were isolated during the fermentation of sorghum-soya extrudates; these ...