WorldWideScience

Sample records for released chemical energy

  1. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  2. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  3. Assessment of chemicals released in the marine environment by dielectric elastomers useful as active elements in wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Bele, Adrian; Vasiliu, Lavinia; Gradinaru, Luiza; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Racles, Carmen; Cazacu, Maria

    2018-01-05

    A series of elastomers, either natural or synthetic (some of them commercial, while others prepared in the laboratory), suitable for use as active elements in devices for wave energy harvesting, were evaluated concerning their behavior and effects on the marine environment. In this aim, the elastomer films, initially evaluated regarding their aspect, structure, surface wettability, and tolerance of microorganisms growth, were immersed in synthetic seawater (SSW) within six months for assessing compounds released. There were analyzed the changes occurred both in the elastomers and salt water in which they were immersed. For this, water samples taken at set time intervals were analyzed by using a sequence of sensitive spectral techniques: UV-vis, IR, and in relevant cases 1 H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), able to detect and identify organic compounds, while after six months, they were also investigated from the point of view of aspect, presence of metal traces, pH, and biological activity. The changes in aspect, structure and morphology of the dielectric films at the end of the dipping period were also evaluated by visual inspection, IR spectroscopy by using spectral subtraction method, and SEM-EDX technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed

  5. Minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, R.W.; Stobbe, T.J.; Mogensen, J.E.; Jeram, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes procedures for minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases and suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used in the event of such chemical release. How individuals, employees, supervisors, or companies perceive the risks of chemical exposure (risk meaning both probability of exposure and effect of exposure) determines to a great extent what precautions are taken to avoid risk. In Part I, the authors develop and approach which divides the project into three phases: kinds of procedures currently being used; the types of toxic chemical release accidents and injuries that occur; and, finally, integration of this information into a set of recommended procedures which should decrease the likelihood of a toxic chemical release and, if one does occur, will minimize the exposure and its severity to employees. Part II covers the use of personal protective equipment. It addresses the questions: what personal protective equipment ensembles are used in industry in situations where the release of a toxic or dangerous chemical may occur or has occurred; and what personal protective equipment ensembles should be used in these situations

  6. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  7. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  8. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  9. Method for producing chemical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2004-09-21

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  10. Low temperature radio-chemical energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a radio-chemical method of converting radiated energy into chemical energy form comprising the steps of: (a) establishing a starting chemical compound in the liquid phase that chemically reacts endothermically to radiation and heat energy to produce a gaseous and a solid constituent of the compound, (b) irradiating the compound in its liquid phase free of solvents to chemically release therefrom in response to the radiation the gaseous and solid constituents, (c) physically separating the solid and gaseous phase constituents from the liquid, and (d) chemically processing the constituents to recover therefrom energy stored therein by the irradiation step (b)

  11. Gravitational vacuum and energy release in microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, V.N.; Nikolaev, Yu.M.; Stanyukovich, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that gravitati.onal interaction can be connected with the processes of energy release in microworld. Suggested is a planckeon model within the frames of which gradual production of the observed substance of the Universe during the whole evolution is explained. Burst processes in nuclei of the Galaxy are explained. It is concluded that the theory of gravitational vacuum creates preconditions for developing the general theory of the field explaining the basic peculiarities of the micro- and macroworld, reveals significant applications in the physics of elementary particles and atomic nucleus. The process of 235 U fission is considered for testing the hypothesis that the coefficient of energy release depends on the nature of the reaction in different processes of energy release in the micro- and macroworld [ru

  12. 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act SEC 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), and Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management, the US Department of Energy has prepared and submitted a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory for the Hanford Site covering activities performed during calendar year 2001. EPCRA Section 313 requires facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use listed toxic chemicals in quantities exceeding established threshold levels to report total annual releases of those chemicals. During calendar year 2001, Hanford Site activities resulted in one chemical used in amounts exceeding an activity threshold. Accordingly, the Hanford Site 2001 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, DOE/RL-2002-37, includes total annual amount of lead released to the environment, transferred to offsite locations, and otherwise managed as waste

  13. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  14. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  15. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  16. Modeling release of chemicals from multilayer materials into food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of chemicals from materials into food is predictable by various mathematical models. In this article, a general mathematical model is developed to quantify the release of chemicals through multilayer packaging films based on Fick's diffusion. The model is solved numerically to elucidate the effects of different diffusivity values of different layers, distribution of chemical between two adjacent layers and between material and food, mass transfer at the interface of material and food on the migration process.

  17. 1997 toxic chemical release inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaloudek, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Two listed toxic chemicals were used at the Hanford Site above established activity thresholds: phosphoric acid and chlorine. Because total combined quantities of chlorine released, disposed, treated, recovered through recycle operations, co-combusted for energy recovery, and transferred to off-site locations for the purpose of recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and/or disposal, amounted to less than 500 pounds, the Hanford Site qualified for the alternate one million pound threshold for chlorine. Accordingly, this Toxic Chemical Release Inventory includes a Form A for chlorine, and a Form B for phosphoric acid

  18. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  19. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one.

  20. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a method of determining the toxicological consequences of accidental releases from Hanford Tank Farms. A determination was made of the most restrictive toxic chemicals that are expected to be present in the tanks. Concentrations were estimated based on the maximum sample data for each analyte in all the tanks in the composite. Composite evaluated were liquids and solids from single shell tanks, double shell tanks, flammable gas watch list tanks, as well as all solids, all liquids, head space gases, and 241-C-106 solids. A sum of fractions of the health effects was computed for each composite for unit releases based emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). Where ERPGs were not available for chemical compounds of interest, surrogate guidelines were established. The calculation method in this report can be applied to actual release scenarios by multiplying the sum of fractions by the release rate for continuous releases, or the release amount for puff releases. Risk guidelines are met if the product is less than for equal to one

  1. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  2. Energy market review releases draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Market Review Releases draft report has made recommendations consistent with the Australian Gas Association (AGA)'s submissions in a number of areas. In particular, it has endorsed: 1. the need for an independent review of the gas access regime, to address the deficiencies with current access regulation identified by the Productivity Commission's Review of the National Access Regime; 2. the need for greater upstream gas market competition; 3. the principle that significant regulatory decisions should be subject to clear merits and judicial review; and 4. the need to avoid restrictions on retail energy prices. The report also endorses the need for a 'technology neutral' approach to greenhouse emissions abatement policy. It states that 'many of the current measures employed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are poorly targeted', and that they 'target technologies or fuel types rather than greenhouse gas abatement.' Additionally, it explicitly recognises the key conclusions of the AGA's recently-released Research Paper, Reducing Greenhouse Emissions from Water Heating: Natural Gas as a Cost-effective Option. The draft report recommends the development of an economy-wide emissions trading system, to achieve a more cost-effective approach to greenhouse abatement

  3. The surface-forming energy release rate versus the local energy release rate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Si; Wang, He-ling; Landis, Chad M; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies two ways to extract the energy (or power) flowing into a crack tip during propagation based on the power balance of areas enclosed by a stationary contour and a comoving contour. It is very interesting to find a contradiction that two corresponding energy release rates (ERRs), a surface-forming ERR and a local ERR, are different when stress singularity exists at a crack tip. Besides a rigorous mathematical interpretation, we deduce that the stress singularity leads to an...

  4. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing... (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical...

  5. The Dark Energy Survey Data Release 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We describe the first public data release of the Dark Energy Survey, DES DR1, consisting of reduced single epoch images, coadded images, coadded source catalogs, and associated products and services assembled over the first three years of DES science operations. DES DR1 is based on optical/near-infrared imaging from 345 distinct nights (August 2013 to February 2016) by the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4-m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. We release data from the DES wide-area survey covering ~5,000 sq. deg. of the southern Galactic cap in five broad photometric bands, grizY. DES DR1 has a median delivered point-spread function of g = 1.12, r = 0.96, i = 0.88, z = 0.84, and Y = 0.90 arcsec FWHM, a photometric precision of < 1% in all bands, and an astrometric precision of 151 mas. The median coadded catalog depth for a 1.95" diameter aperture at S/N = 10 is g = 24.33, r = 24.08, i = 23.44, z = 22.69, and Y = 21.44 mag. DES DR1 includes nearly 400M distinct astronomical objects detected in ~10,000 coadd tiles of size 0.534 sq. deg. produced from ~39,000 individual exposures. Benchmark galaxy and stellar samples contain ~310M and ~ 80M objects, respectively, following a basic object quality selection. These data are accessible through a range of interfaces, including query web clients, image cutout servers, jupyter notebooks, and an interactive coadd image visualization tool. DES DR1 constitutes the largest photometric data set to date at the achieved depth and photometric precision.

  6. Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (α-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process.

  7. Bubble Jet agent release cartridge for chemical single cell stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, N; Welsche, M; Blazek, M; Blessing, M; Vervliet-Scheebaum, M; Reski, R; Müller, C; Reinecke, H; Steigert, J; Roth, G; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method for the distinct specific chemical stimulation of single cells and small cell clusters within their natural environment. By single-drop release of chemical agents with droplets in size of typical cell diameters (d agent release cartridge with integrated fluidic structures and integrated agent reservoirs are shown, tested, and compared in this publication. The single channel setup features a fluidic structure fabricated by anisotropic etching of silicon. To allow for simultaneous release of different agents even though maintaining the same device size, the second type comprises a double channel fluidic structure, fabricated by photolithographic patterning of TMMF. Dispensed droplet volumes are V = 15 pl and V = 10 pl for the silicon and the TMMF based setups, respectively. Utilizing the agent release cartridges, the application in biological assays was demonstrated by hormone-stimulated premature bud formation in Physcomitrella patens and the individual staining of one single L 929 cell within a confluent grown cell culture.

  8. Probabilistic consequence model of accidenal or intentional chemical releases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Samsa, M. E.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.

    2008-06-02

    In this work, general methodologies for evaluating the impacts of large-scale toxic chemical releases are proposed. The potential numbers of injuries and fatalities, the numbers of hospital beds, and the geographical areas rendered unusable during and some time after the occurrence and passage of a toxic plume are estimated on a probabilistic basis. To arrive at these estimates, historical accidental release data, maximum stored volumes, and meteorological data were used as inputs into the SLAB accidental chemical release model. Toxic gas footprints from the model were overlaid onto detailed population and hospital distribution data for a given region to estimate potential impacts. Output results are in the form of a generic statistical distribution of injuries and fatalities associated with specific toxic chemicals and regions of the United States. In addition, indoor hazards were estimated, so the model can provide contingency plans for either shelter-in-place or evacuation when an accident occurs. The stochastic distributions of injuries and fatalities are being used in a U.S. Department of Homeland Security-sponsored decision support system as source terms for a Monte Carlo simulation that evaluates potential measures for mitigating terrorist threats. This information can also be used to support the formulation of evacuation plans and to estimate damage and cleanup costs.

  9. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.

  11. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  12. Electric ignition energy evaluation and the energy distribution structure of energy released in electrostatic discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingming; Huang Jinxiang; Shao Huige; Zhang Yunming

    2017-01-01

    Ignition energy is one of the important parameters of flammable materials, and evaluating ignition energy precisely is essential to the safety of process industry and combustion science and technology. By using electric spark discharge test system, a series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor-stored energy in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The evaluation method for energy consumed by electric spark, wire, and switch during capacitor discharge process has been studied respectively. The resistance of wire, switch, and plasma between electrodes has been evaluated by different methods and an optimized evaluation method has been obtained. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch, and electric spark-induced plasma between electrodes were obtained and the energy structure of capacitor-released energy was analyzed. The dynamic process and the characteristic parameters (the maximum power, duration of discharge process) of electric spark discharge process have been analyzed. Experimental results showed that, electric spark-consumed energy only accounts for 8%–14% of the capacitor-released energy. With the increase of capacitor-released energy, the duration of discharge process becomes longer, and the energy of plasma accounts for more in the capacitor-released energy. The power of electric spark varies with time as a damped sinusoids function and the period and the maximum value increase with the capacitor-released energy. (paper)

  13. Key figures for energy. Release 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Maps, graphs and tables illustrate the share of energy in the French economy (contributions of energy industries to the GDP), the monthly and annual evolution of gas and oil prices, the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy, the energy bill evolutions (per energy type, with respect to GDP, imported crude oil price), the assessment of energy in France (production, imports, exports, consumption by different sectors, share of primary energy consumption per energy type), the French energy mix in 2011, the evolution of energy production and consumption per energy type and per sector. Then, this report addresses the different energy types: coal (production, thermal power plants, evolution of consumption per sector, of imports), oil (evolution of production, of global consumption and per sector, evolution of consumption of refined oil products and of automotive fuels, including agro-fuels, evolution of imports and bill), gas (transport, storage, compression and production sites and networks, natural gas production and consumption, imports), electricity (gross production, conventional thermal production, global assessment, consumption, nuclear sites, imports and exports, volume of radioactive wastes produced in 2010), renewable energies (total production and per sector, share in electricity consumption, evolution of wind energy, of wood consumption, of energy produced from renewable urban wastes, and solar energy), heat networks (evolution of consumption, of the number of networks). The last parts address the rational use of energy (energy intensity, evolution of GDP and energy consumption, evolution of car fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions), the evolution of energy prices, the relationship between energy and environment (CO 2 emissions)

  14. Modelling transient energy release from molten fuel coolant interaction debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.F.

    1984-05-01

    A simple model of transient energy release in a Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction is presented. A distributed heat transfer model is used to examine the effect of heat transfer coefficient, time available for rapid energy heat transfer and particle size on transient energy release. The debris is assumed to have an Upper Limit Lognormal distribution. Model predictions are compared with results from the SUW series of experiments which used thermite-generated uranium dioxide molybdenum melts released below the surface of a pool of water. Uncertainties in the physical principles involved in the calculation of energy transfer rates are discussed. (author)

  15. Transport of chemically bonded nuclear energy in a closed cycle with special consideration to energy disconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossami, S.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the utilisation of nuclear energy in the form of 'nuclear long-distance energy'. Heat produced by nuclear fission is bonded to a reversible chemical reaction (cracking gas) which release the heat again at the place of comsumption by catalytic transformation. The article deals in particular with the process of methane cracking/methanisation, the disconnection of the energy (heat) by the methanisation process and the decisive role of the methanisation catalyzers. (orig.) [de

  16. 1992 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know-Act of 1986 Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The following document is the July 1993 submittal of the EPCRA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R). Included is a Form R for chlorine and for lead, the two chemicals used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during calendar year 1992

  17. Variation of kinetic energy release with temperature and electron energy for unimolecular ionic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabia, M.A.; Fahmy, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic energy released during seven unimolecular ionic transitions, generated from benzyl alcohol and benzyl amine have been studied as a function of ion source temperature and ionizing electron energy. Only, the kinetic energy released during H CN elimination from fragment [C 7 H 8 N]+ ion of benzyl amine displays a temperature dependence. For only two transitions, generated from benzyl alcohol, the kinetic energy released show a significant ionizing electron energy dependence. These results may reveal the role of the internal energy of reacting ions in producing the kinetic energy released some transitions produced from benzyl alcohol

  18. Specific energy released in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaritskaya, T.S.; Kiselev, G.V.; Rudik, A.P.; Tsenter, Eh.M.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of determination are described and analysis of specific energy for different methods of critically maintance of RBMK and WWER-440 reactors are conducted. Characteristics of the optimal mode of critically maintanance are determined

  19. 76 FR 7841 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... agencies, and others to promote reductions in toxic chemical releases. Industrial facilities use the TRI... Activities; Proposed Collections; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Request for Comments on Proposed Renewal... the individual listed in the preceding FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. Title: Toxic Chemical...

  20. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Process for the transport of heat energy released by a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, H.W.; Wolff, G.

    1978-01-01

    The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is converted into latent chemical binding energy. The heat can be released again below 400 0 C by recombination after transport by decomposition of ethane or propane into ethylene or propylene and hydrogen. (TK) [de

  2. Chemical Characteristics of C-14 Released from YGN-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidoo Kang; Kyungrok Park; Kyoungdoek Kim; Jonghyun Ha [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. P.O.Box 149, Yusung Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: C-14 is resulting from the activation reaction of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon in the fuel and coolant of PWR. The amount of Carbon-14 released from PWR is small and not easy to detect, it is not used as a main monitored nuclide released in PWR in general. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) had monitored Carbon-14 at five main ventilation lines of Yonggwang-4 from 2003 for 2 years. In order to monitor C-14, KHNP devised C-14 sampling instrument which can collect CO{sub 2} and hydrocarbons separately. It is composed of three main components, that is, primary CO{sub 2} sampler, a hydrocarbon oxidation assembly and a secondary CO{sub 2} sampler. The primary CO{sub 2} sampler has one water bubbler and two NaOH bubblers. To analyze C-14 in NaOH, CO{sub 3} ion was precipitated as CaCO{sub 3} or BaCO{sub 3} using CaCl{sub 2} and BaCl{sub 2} and performed mass analysis. But it was difficult due to over-precipitation by OH ion. This problem was solved by pH control using buffer solution NH{sub 4}Cl and adding some heat to the solution. The collecting efficiency was calculated to 92% and the test result was verified by C-14 tracer (NaHCO{sub 3}). According to the analysis results, the total activity is estimated to be 0.147 TBq/GWe.Yr. This activity would be about 67% of world's PWR average: 0.22 TBq/Gwe (UNSCEAR 2000) The area of highest concentration is the Fuel Building (RMS 035, which reaches 98% of total activity) followed by the Reactor Building, the Radwaste Building and the Auxiliary Building. The ventilation time of the Reactor Building is 3.3 hours per month, and 720 hours for the others (continuous) In the point of chemical form, the results show CO{sub 2} is dominant chemical form in fuel building, while methane compound is dominant in other areas. (authors)

  3. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agust eGudmundsson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  4. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  5. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  6. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  7. Volatiles and energy released by Puracé volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Luisa Fernanda Meza; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Jaramillo, Marco Tulio; Valencia, Gustavo Garzón; Mazot, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    Total CO2 output of Puracé volcano (Colombia) was estimated on the basis of fluids discharged by fumaroles, soil gases, and dissolved carbon species in the aquifer. The soil CO2 emission was computed from a field survey of 512 points of CO2 soil flux measurements at the main degassing areas of Puracé volcano. The CO2 flux from Puracé's plume was estimated using an indirect method, that used the SO2 plume flux and CO2/SO2 ratio of the main high temperature fumarole. The total output of CO2 was estimated at ≅ 1500 t/day. The main contribution of CO2 comes from the plume (summit degassing) and from soil degassing that emit 673 and 812 t/day, respectively. The contributions of summit and soil degassing areas are comparable, indicating an intermediate degassing style partitioned between closed and open conduit systems. The estimated water vapor discharge (as derived from the chemical composition of the fumaroles, the H2O/CO2 ratio, and the SO2 plume flux) allowed calculation of the total thermal energy (fumarolic, soil degassing, and aquifer) released from the Puracé volcanic system. This was 360 MW.

  8. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and ...

  9. Energy consumption of chemical uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, T.; Takeda, K.; Obanawa, H.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of chemical separation energy for enriching uranium-235 by the redox chromatography was conducted. Isotope exchange reactions between U 4+ -UO 2 2+ ions in the enrichment column are maintained by the redox reactions. The chemical separation energy is ultimately supplied by hydrogen and oxygen gas for regenerating redox agents. The redox energy for the isotope separation is theoretically predicted as a function of the dynamic enrichment factor observed in the chromatographic development of uranium adsorption band. Thermodynamic treatments of the equilibrium reactions implies and inverse redox reaction which can be enhanced by the chemical potential of the ion-exchange reaction of oxidant. Experimental results showed 30 to 90% recovery of the redox energy by the inverse reaction. These results will devise a simplified redox chromatography process where a number of columns in one module is reduced

  10. 40 CFR 350.18 - Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. 350.18 Section 350.18... INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.18 Release of chemical identity determined to be non-trade secret; notice of intent to release chemical identity. (a...

  11. Consumption of energy and release of entropy into the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, G.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term threat on humanity is not the shortage of energy but rather the contamination of the environment. The concept of entropy is useful to assess the impact of humane activities on the environment. During most of earth history the increase of entropy was more than compensated by the energy brought by the sun. Today the intensive use of fossil fuels has reversed the trend: the biosphere entropy increases as CO 2 piles up in the atmosphere. The release of entropy is linked to the amount of energy we consume and to the efficiency of the process we use to produce it. Nuclear power plants release entropy as low-temperature heat but this amount of entropy is far less than the entropy released by fossil-fuel power plants under the form of CO 2 . (A.C.)

  12. The energy future and the chemical fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockris, J.O'M.

    1976-01-01

    An account is first given of the origin of present chemical fuels, with particular reference to the lastingness of coal. Methods of estimation of these fuels are discussed and the greenhouse effect arising from the burning of coal is described. Consideration is then given to methods available for extending the uses of chemical fuels, including interfacing them with new inexhaustible, clean energy sources. Finally, accounts are given of the Hydrogen Economy and of the production of chemical fuels from wind energy in massive wind belts. The paper includes references to the part that nuclear power was expected to play in future energy policy. Problems of breeder reactor development and the safety and management of plutonium and radioactive wastes are discussed. (author)

  13. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific.

  14. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific

  15. Coronal Flux Rope Catastrophe Associated With Internal Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Youqiu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic energy during the catastrophe was predominantly studied by the previous catastrophe works since it is believed to be the main energy supplier for the solar eruptions. However, the contribution of other types of energies during the catastrophe cannot be neglected. This paper studies the catastrophe of the coronal flux rope system in the solar wind background, with emphasis on the transformation of different types of energies during the catastrophe. The coronal flux rope is characterized by its axial and poloidal magnetic fluxes and total mass. It is shown that a catastrophe can be triggered by not only an increase but also a decrease of the axial magnetic flux. Moreover, the internal energy of the rope is found to be released during the catastrophe so as to provide energy for the upward eruption of the flux rope. As far as the magnetic energy is concerned, it provides only part of the energy release, or even increases during the catastrophe, so the internal energy may act as the dominant or even the unique energy supplier during the catastrophe.

  16. Fission-energy release for 16 fissioning nuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.

    1981-03-01

    Results are presented of a least-squares evaluation of the components of energy release per fission in 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu. For completeness, older (1978) results based on systematics are presented for these and ten other isotopes of interest. There have been recent indications that the delayed energy components may be somewhat higher than those used previously, but the LSQ results do not seem to change significantly when modest (approx. 1 MeV) increases in the total delayed energy are included in the inputs. Additional measurements of most of the energy components are still needed to resolve remaining discrepancies

  17. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of uniden...

  18. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  19. Fracture patterns and the energy release rate of phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Hong, Jiawang; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-03-14

    Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorus, has been enjoying popularity in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, it's relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure have limited its application in mechanical devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the fracture patterns and energy release rate of phosphorene. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate phosphorene's fracture mechanism. The results indicate that fracture under uniaxial tension along the armchair direction is attributed to a break in the interlayer bond angles, while failure in the zigzag direction is triggered by the break in both intra-layer angles and bonds. Furthermore, we developed a modified Griffith criterion to analyze the energy release rate of phosphorene and its dependence on the strain rates and orientations of cracks. Simulation results indicate that phosphorene's energy release rate remains almost unchanged in the armchair direction while it fluctuates intensively in the zigzag direction. Additionally, the strain rate was found to play a negligible role in the energy release rate. The geometrical factor α in the Griffith's criterion is almost constant when the crack orientation is smaller than 45 degree, regardless of the crack orientation and loading direction. Overall, these findings provide helpful insights into the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene.

  20. Research progress about chemical energy storage of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haifeng; Xie, Gengxin; Jie, Zheng; Hui, Xiong; Yang, Duan; Du, Chaojun

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the application of solar energy has been shown obvious advantages. Solar energy is being discontinuity and inhomogeneity, so energy storage technology becomes the key to the popularization and utilization of solar energy. Chemical storage is the most efficient way to store and transport solar energy. In the first and the second section of this paper, we discuss two aspects about the solar energy collector / reactor, and solar energy storage technology by hydrogen production, respectively. The third section describes the basic application of solar energy storage system, and proposes an association system by combining solar energy storage and power equipment. The fourth section briefly describes several research directions which need to be strengthened.

  1. Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J.; Davis, J.S.; Dukes, L.L.; Hansen, D.J.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Sutherland, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex

  2. Chemically assisted release of transition metals in graphite vaporizers for atomic spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katskov, Dmitri; Darangwa, Nicholas; Grotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    decomposition of metal oxide, is the most probable source of chemical energy, which facilitates the vaporization. Intensity of the process depends on chemical properties of the sample and substrate and efficiency of mass and heat transfer by the protective gas. The discussed mechanism of chemically assisted vapor release signifies the energy exchange between all participants of the vaporization process in ET AAS including the matrix, modifier, purge gas and analyte. The finding contributes in the ET AAS theory regarding the mechanisms of vaporization and mass transfer in the presence of matrix and modifiers

  3. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    116. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. T.S. Brand. 1, 2,3#. , D.A. Brandt. 1, 2,4 and C.W. ... alternatives (Wiseman, 1987; Brand et al., 1995). ..... The Ca, P and trace element concentrations for lupins, faba beans and peas recorded in the present.

  4. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  5. 1995 Toxic chemical release inventory: Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincey, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) requires the annual submittal of toxic chemical release information to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Executive Order 12856, 'Federal Compliance With Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements' extends the requirements of EPCRA to all Federal agencies. The following document is the August 1996 submittal of the Hanford Site Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report. Included is a Form R for ethylene glycol, the sole chemical used in excess of the established regulatory thresholds at the Hanford Site by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and its contractors during Calendar Year 1995

  6. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, S

    1999-01-01

    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  7. Fragmentation and mean kinetic energy release of the nitrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.C.F.; Melo, W.S.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation of the N 2 molecule in coincidence with the final projectile charge state have been measured for the impact of 0.188-0.875 MeV/amu He + projectiles. The average kinetic energy release (KER) of the target ionic fragments is derived from the peak widths of their time-of-flight distributions. It is shown that the KER's for singly-charged products follow scaling laws irrespectively to the collision channel

  8. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eleven environmental relevant chemicals were investigated for their ability to affect adipogenesis in vitro, biomarker release from adipocytes and PPARα and γ activation. We found that butylparaben stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased release of leptin, adiponectin and resis...

  9. Safety consequences of the release of radiation induced stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1994-08-01

    Due to the disposal of HLW in a salt formation gamma energy will be deposited in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat, whilst a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. Energy is stored in the damaged crystals. Due to uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1000 J/g in the most heavily damaged crystals close to the waste containers. The amount of radiation damage decays exponentially with increasing distance from the containers and at distances larger than 0.2 m the stored energy can be neglected. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be excluded completely. Therefore the thermo-mechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. To account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures an amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appeared that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (more than 100 m), the probability of a release of radiation induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater, is extremely low. The radiological consequences of a groundwater intrusion scenario induced by this very unprobable pathway are bounded by the 'standard' groundwater intrusion

  10. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  11. Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields in continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared to the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares. (Auth.)

  12. Thermodynamic chemical energy transfer mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2015-01-01

    Chemical energy transfer mechanisms at finite temperature are explored by a chemical energy transfer theory which is capable of investigating various chemical mechanisms of non-equilibrium, quasi-equilibrium, and equilibrium. Gibbs energy fluxes are obtained as a function of chemical potential, time, and displacement. Diffusion, convection, internal convection, and internal equilibrium chemical energy fluxes are demonstrated. The theory reveals that there are chemical energy flux gaps and broken discrete symmetries at the activation chemical potential, time, and displacement. The statistical, thermodynamic theory is the unification of diffusion and internal convection chemical reactions which reduces to the non-equilibrium generalization beyond the quasi-equilibrium theories of migration and diffusion processes. The relationship between kinetic theories of chemical and electrochemical reactions is also explored. The theory is applied to explore non-equilibrium chemical reactions as an illustration. Three variable separation constants indicate particle number constants and play key roles in describing the distinct chemical reaction mechanisms. The kinetics of chemical energy transfer accounts for the four control mechanisms of chemical reactions such as activation, concentration, transition, and film chemical reactions. - Highlights: • Chemical energy transfer theory is proposed for non-, quasi-, and equilibrium. • Gibbs energy fluxes are expressed by chemical potential, time, and displacement. • Relationship between chemical and electrochemical reactions is discussed. • Theory is applied to explore nonequilibrium energy transfer in chemical reactions. • Kinetics of non-equilibrium chemical reactions shows the four control mechanisms

  13. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  14. The physical and chemical stability of suspensions of sustained-release diclofenac microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Boni, R L; Adeyeye, C M

    1998-01-01

    The major challenge in liquid sustained-release oral suspensions is to minimize drug diffusion into the suspending medium and to retain the original properties of the microparticles during storage. Diclofenac wax microspheres prepared by the hydrophobic congealable disperse phase method were formulated as a sustained release suspension and stored at three different temperatures (25, 37 and 45 degrees C) for 3 months, to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of the suspended microspheres. Suspensions of microspheres stored at ambient temperatures were both physically and chemically stable, but at higher temperatures, up to 45 degrees C, there was a decrease in drug release due to scaling and melting on the microsphere surface as observed by scanning electron microscopy. However, on prolonged storage, up to 90 days, especially at 45 degrees C, temperature became a dominant factor causing an increase in drug release. The suspension of diclofenac microspheres was chemically stable for 3 months, while the plain drug suspension exhibited slight degradation.

  15. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Shunbo; Wang, Limu; Yi, Xin; Hui, Yu Sanna; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  16. Microfluidic Device for Controllable Chemical Release via Field-Actuated Membrane Incorporating Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We report a robust magnetic-membrane-based microfluidic platform for controllable chemical release. The magnetic membrane was prepared by mixing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbonyl-iron nanoparticles together to obtain a flexible thin film. With combined, simultaneous regulation of magnetic stimulus and mechanical pumping, the desired chemical release rate can easily be realized. For example, the dose release experimental data was well fitted by a mathematical sigmoidal model, exhibiting a typical dose-response relationship, which shows promise in providing significant guidance for on-demand drug delivery. To test the platform’s feasibility, our microfluidic device was employed in an experiment involving Escherichia coli culture under controlled antibiotic ciprofloxacin exposure, and the expected outcomes were successfully obtained. Our experimental results indicate that such a microfluidic device, with high accuracy and easy manipulation properties, can legitimately be characterized as active chemical release system.

  17. Principles for establishing acceptance criteria for releases of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkeskov Jensen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The Danish National Agency of Environmental Protection is in the process of making guidelines for setting limit values on chemicals emission. They are going to serve the following purposes: to promote consistency and improve quality in judicial settlements; to make it possible for the population to evaluate and discuss these settlements; to make it possible for the technical experts to plan their investigations in order to make use of them in a subsequent evaluation; to provide information to the public and enable them to take the necessary precautions against air pollution; and to make it possible to use the guidelines in future planning in e.g. local authorities

  18. Chemical identities of radioiodine released from U3O8 in oxygen and inert gas atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, E.; Nakashima, M.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiated U 3 O 8 was heated from room temperature to 1100 0 C in a temperature-programmed oven (5 0 C/min) in a flow of carrier gas. The iodine released to an inert gas was deposited in the temperature range from 200 to 300 0 C with a peak at 250 0 C (speciesA). This species is neither in a form combined with other fission products nor in elemental form. It is possibly a chemical combination with uranium. It reacts with oxygen, yielding species B characterized by its deposition at a temperature close to room temperature. The activation energy of this oxidation reaction was determined to be 6.0 +-0.5 Kcal/mol. Comparing the deposition-profile with those obtained with carrier-free I 2 and HI indicated that species B was I 2 . As for the formation of organic iodides accompanying the release in an inert gas, it was concluded that these were produced in radical reactions. Thus, in a presence of oxygen, organic iodides were formed in competition with the reactions of organic radicals with oxygen. (author)

  19. Toxics release inventory: List of toxic chemicals within the polychlorinated alkanes category and guidance for reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires certain facilities manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using listed toxic chemicals to report their environmental releases of such chemicals annually. On November 30, 1994 EPA added 286 chemicals and chemical categories. Six chemical categories (nicotine and salts, strychnine and salts, polycyclic aromatic compounds, water dissociable nitrate compounds, diisocyanates, and polychlorinated alkanes) are included in these additions. At the time of the addition, EPA indicated that the Agency would develop, as appropriate, interpretations and guidance that the Agency determines are necessary to facilitate accurate reporting for these categories. This document constitutes such guidance for the polychlorinated alkanes category.

  20. 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2009-10-01

    For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  1. Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, S. P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications to reactions leading to NOx and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

  2. Tunneling and reflection in unimolecular reaction kinetic energy release distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.

    2018-02-01

    The kinetic energy release distributions in unimolecular reactions is calculated with detailed balance theory, taking into account the tunneling and the reflection coefficient in three different types of transition states; (i) a saddle point corresponding to a standard RRKM-type theory, (ii) an attachment Langevin cross section, and (iii) an absorbing sphere potential at short range, without long range interactions. Corrections are significant in the one dimensional saddle point states. Very light and lightly bound absorbing systems will show measurable effects in decays from the absorbing sphere, whereas the Langevin cross section is essentially unchanged.

  3. Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, L; Piccolroaz, A; Mishuris, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated

  4. Can nanofluidic chemical release enable fast, high resolution neurotransmitter-based neurostimulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology — rather than microfluidic — will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission.This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years.

  5. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  6. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the electric power in the current-carrying conductors (so-called Joule’s heat or the energy radiation penetrating into the body of a semitransparent material, etc. The volume power release characterizes an intensity of these processes.The extensive list of references to the theory of heat conductivity of solids offers solutions to problems to determine a stationary (steady over time and non-stationary temperature state of the solids (as a rule, of the canonical form, which act as the sources of volume power release. Thus, in general case, a possibility for changing power release according to the body volume and in solving the nonstationary problems also a possible dependence of this value on the time are taken into consideration.However, in real conditions the volume power release often also depends on the local temperature, and such dependence can be nonlinear. For example, with chemical reactions the intensity of heat release or absorption is in proportion to their rate, which, in turn, is sensitive to the temperature value, and a dependence on the temperature is exponential. A further factor that in such cases makes the analysis of the solid temperature state complicated, is dependence on the temperature and the thermal conductivity of this body material, especially when temperature distribution therein  is significantly non-uniform. Taking into account the influence of these factors requires the mathematical modeling methods, which allow us to build an adequate

  7. Influence of LOD variations on seismic energy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguzzi, F.; Krumm, F.; Wang, K.; Kiszely, M.; Varga, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tidal friction causes significant time variations of geodynamical parameters, among them geometrical flattening. The axial despinning of the Earth due to tidal friction through the change of flattening generates incremental meridional and azimuthal stresses. The stress pattern in an incompressible elastic upper mantle and crust is symmetric to the equator and has its inflection points at the critical latitude close to ±45°. Consequently the distribution of seismic energy released by strong, shallow focus earthquakes should have also sharp maxima at this latitude. To investigate the influence of length of day (LOD) variations on earthquake activity an earthquake catalogue of strongest seismic events (M>7.0) was completed for the period 1900-2007. It is shown with the use of this catalogue that for the studied time-interval the catalogue is complete and consists of the seismic events responsible for more than 90% of released seismic energy. Study of the catalogue for earthquakes M>7.0 shows that the seismic energy discharged by the strongest seismic events has significant maxima at ±45°, what renders probably that the seismic activity of our planet is influenced by an external component, i.e. by the tidal friction, which acts through the variation of the hydrostatic figure of the Earth caused by it. Distribution along the latitude of earthquake numbers and energies was investigated also for the case of global linear tectonic structures, such as mid ocean ridges and subduction zones. It can be shown that the number of the shallow focus shocks has a repartition along the latitude similar to the distribution of the linear tectonic structures. This means that the position of foci of seismic events is mainly controlled by the tectonic activity.

  8. Observable Signatures of Energy Release in Braided Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontin, D. I. [University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Tiwari, S. K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Galsgaard, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, Geological Museum Østervoldgade 5-7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-03-10

    We examine the turbulent relaxation of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial field line braiding. Such field line tangling in the corona has long been postulated in the context of coronal heating models. We focus on the observational signatures of energy release in such braided magnetic structures using MHD simulations and forward modeling tools. The aim is to answer the following question: if energy release occurs in a coronal loop containing braided magnetic flux, should we expect a clearly observable signature in emissions? We demonstrate that the presence of braided magnetic field lines does not guarantee a braided appearance to the observed intensities. Observed intensities may—but need not necessarily—reveal the underlying braided nature of the magnetic field, depending on the degree and pattern of the field line tangling within the loop. However, in all cases considered, the evolution of the braided loop is accompanied by localized heating regions as the loop relaxes. Factors that may influence the observational signatures are discussed. Recent high-resolution observations from Hi-C have claimed the first direct evidence of braided magnetic fields in the corona. Here we show that both the Hi-C data and some of our simulations give the appearance of braiding at a range of scales.

  9. Carbon dioxide degassing and thermal energy release at Vesuvio (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frondini, F.; Chiodini, G.; Caliro, S.; Cardellini, C.; Granieri, D.

    2003-04-01

    At Vesuvio, basing on the data of the CO2 flux surveys carried out in April and May 2000, are discharged about 130 t d-1 of CO2 through soil diffuse degassing. In the crater area the distribution of the soil temperatures show a general correspondence between the CO2 flux anomalies and the high temperatures, suggesting that the heating of the soil is mainly due to the condensation of the rising volcanic-hydrothermal fluids. Considering that the original H2O/CO2 ratio of hydrothermal fluids is recorded by fumarolic effluents, the steam associated to the CO2 output has been computed and amount to is 475 t d-1. The energy produced by the steam condensation and cooling of the liquid phase is 1.26 1012 J d-1 (14.6 MW). The amounts of gas and energy released by Vesuvio are comparable to those released by other volcanic degassing areas of the world and their estimates, through periodical CO2 flux surveys, can constitute a powerful tool to monitor the activity of the volcano.

  10. Mimicking Neurotransmitter Release in Chemical Synapses via Hysteresis Engineering in MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew J; Razavieh, Ali; Nasr, Joseph R; Schulman, Daniel S; Eichfeld, Chad M; Das, Saptarshi

    2017-03-28

    Neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses is fundamental to diverse brain functions such as motor action, learning, cognition, emotion, perception, and consciousness. Moreover, improper functioning or abnormal release of neurotransmitter is associated with numerous neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sclerosis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We have utilized hysteresis engineering in a back-gated MoS 2 field effect transistor (FET) in order to mimic such neurotransmitter release dynamics in chemical synapses. All three essential features, i.e., quantal, stochastic, and excitatory or inhibitory nature of neurotransmitter release, were accurately captured in our experimental demonstration. We also mimicked an important phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP), which forms the basis of human memory. Finally, we demonstrated how to engineer the LTP time by operating the MoS 2 FET in different regimes. Our findings could provide a critical component toward the design of next-generation smart and intelligent human-like machines and human-machine interfaces.

  11. Chemical energy in electro arc furnace - examples from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shushlevski, Ljupcho; Georgievski, Panche; Hadzhidaovski, Ilija

    2004-01-01

    Great competition on the market in steel-producing and chemical lack of electrical energy leads to realization of new project in section Steelworks AD 'Makstil' - Skopje named: 'Substitution of electrical energy i.e. entering of additional chemical energy in Electrical arc furnace for steel melting using fuels-naturual gas (CH 4 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon (C)'. It is accumulate experience from two and one half year of intensive use of chemical energy with its accompanying problems, appropriate efficiency and economy in process for steel producing. In 2001 year we announced and described project for using of an additional alternative chemical energy in aggregate Electrical are furnace. In this work we will present realization, working experience and efficiency of the system for generating chemical energy. Practical realization needs serious approach in chemical energy usage The usage of chemical energy brings restrictions and needs many innovation for protection of equipment from shown aggressiveness during the combustion of fuel gasses. (Author)

  12. Emergency planning and preparedness for the deliberate release of toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Simpson, John

    2010-03-01

    Society in developed and developing countries is hugely dependent upon chemicals for health, wealth, and economic prosperity, with the chemical industry contributing significantly to the global economy. Many chemicals are synthesized, stored, and transported in vast quantities and classified as high production volume chemicals; some are recognized as being toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Chemical accidents involving chemical installations and transportation are well recognized. Such chemical accidents occur with relative frequency and may result in large numbers of casualties with acute and chronic health effects as well as fatalities. The large-scale production of TICs, the potential for widespread exposure and significant public health impact, together with their relative ease of acquisition, makes deliberate release an area of potential concern. The large numbers of chemicals, together with the large number of potential release scenarios means that the number of possible forms of chemical incident are almost infinite. Therefore, prior to undertaking emergency planning and preparedness, it is necessary to prioritize risk and subsequently mitigate. This is a multi-faceted process, including implementation of industrial protection layers, substitution of hazardous chemicals, and relocation away from communities. Residual risk provides the basis for subsequent planning. Risk-prioritized emergency planning is a tool for identifying gaps, enhancing communication and collaboration, and for policy development. It also serves to enhance preparedness, a necessary prelude to preventing or mitigating the public health risk to deliberate release. Planning is an iterative and on-going process that requires multi-disciplinary agency input, culminating in the formation of a chemical incident plan complimentary to major incident planning. Preparedness is closely related and reflects a state of readiness. It is comprised of several components, including training and exercising

  13. Chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic arsenic from Pleistocene aquifer sediments to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillispie, Elizabeth C; Andujar, Erika; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2016-08-10

    Over 150 million people in South and Southeast Asia consume unsafe drinking water from arsenic-rich Holocene aquifers. Although use of As-free water from Pleistocene aquifers is a potential mitigation strategy, such aquifers are vulnerable to geogenic As pollution, placing millions more people at potential risk. The goal of this research was to define chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic As to groundwater. Batch incubations of sediments with natural chemical variability from a Pleistocene aquifer in Cambodia were conducted to evaluate how interactions among arsenic, manganese and iron oxides, and dissolved and sedimentary organic carbon influenced As mobilization from sediments. The addition of labile dissolved organic carbon produced the highest concentrations of dissolved As after >7 months, as compared to sediment samples incubated with sodium azide or without added carbon, and the extent of As release was positively correlated with the percent of initial extractable Mn released from the sediments. The mode of As release was impacted by the source of DOC supplied to the sediments, with biological processes responsible for 81% to 85% of the total As release following incubations with lactate and acetate but only up to 43% to 61% of the total As release following incubations with humic and fulvic acids. Overall, cycling of key redox-active elements and organic-carbon reactivity govern the potential for geogenic As release to groundwater, and results here may be used to formulate better predictions of the arsenic pollution potential of aquifers in South and Southeast Asia.

  14. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  15. MODELING DISPERSION FROM CHEMICALS RELEASED AFTER A TRAIN COLLISION IN GRANITEVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Addis, R; Matt Parker, M

    2006-08-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies following the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for nine fatalities, and caused injuries to more than five hundred others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing two days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Emergency Operations Center (EOC), Department of Energy Headquarters, and hazmat teams dispatched from the SRS. Although model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher resolution

  16. Consequences of the release of chemical pollutants on the transfers of radiioactive products in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing rate of industrial activities, aquatic systems undergo, more and more frequently, the accumulation of chemical and radioactive wastes released separatly or associated in the same discharge. An attempt is made to evaluate the consequence of the association of pollutants on the transfers of neutron activation radionuclides. Emphasis is given to heavy metal pollution and complexing agents [fr

  17. 76 FR 69136 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide; Correction. SUMMARY: The... Administrative Stay of the reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide. The Office of the Federal Register...

  18. Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The chemical reactions that occur in batteries are complex, spanning a wide range of time and length scales from atomic jumps to the entire battery structure. The NECCES team of experimentalists and theorists made use of, and developed new methodologies to determine how model compound electrodes function in real time, as batteries are cycled. The team determined that kinetic control of intercalation reactions (reactions in which the crystalline structure is maintained) can be achieved by control of the materials morphology and explains and allows for the high rates of many intercalation reactions where the fundamental properties might indicate poor behavior in a battery application. The small overvoltage required for kinetic control is technically effective and economically feasible. A wide range of state-of-the-art operando techniques was developed to study materials under realistic battery conditions, which are now available to the scientific community. The team also investigated the key reaction steps in conversion electrodes, where the crystal structure is destroyed on reaction with lithium and rebuilt on lithium removal. These so-called conversion reactions have in principle much higher capacities, but were found to form very reactive discharge products that reduce the overall energy efficiency on cycling. It was found that by mixing either the anion, as in FeOF, or the cation, as in Cu1-yFeyF2, the capacity on cycling could be improved. The fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring in electrode materials gained in this study will allow for the development of much improved battery systems for energy storage. This will benefit the public in longer lived electronics, higher electric vehicle ranges at lower costs, and improved grid storage that also enables renewable energy supplies such as wind and solar.

  19. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  20. Hot neutron stars at birth and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    1994-01-01

    For the discussion of hot neutron stars at birth, it is necessary to calculate the equation of state for a so-called 'supernova matter' consisting of a neutron-rich nuclear matter and degenerated leptons. One of the aims of this paper is to obtain the realistic results for the equation of state. In 10-20s after the birth, new born hot neutron stars are cooled down by neutrino diffusion process, and gradually contract to usual cold neutron starts. It is another aim of this paper to determine how much energy is released during this cooling stage. The points to which attention was paid are explained. A three-nucleon interaction was introduced phenomenologically, as a two-nucleon interaction is insufficient to satisfy the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matters. The separation of uncertain part from well-known part has the merit to clarify the dependence of the results on the present theoretical uncertainties. The validity of the simplified calculation as an approximation for the exact calculation is discussed. The results by both calculations were compared for the case of hot symmetric nuclear matters. The comparison of the density profiles for a hot neutron star and a cold neutron star is shown. The binding energy for hot and cold neutron stars was plotted. These results are examined. (K.I.)

  1. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  2. Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Center for Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Chemical Sciences & Engineering DOE Logo CSE Home About CSE Research Facilities People Publications Awards News & Highlights Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical

  3. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malana, Muhammad A; Zohra, Rubab

    2013-01-18

    Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n) derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1) showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of the systems indicate that these co-polymeric hydrogels have a great potential to

  4. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur regional energy observatory - Assessment 2002, Assessment 2003, Assessment 2004, Assessment 2005, Release 2007, Release 2008, Release 2009, Release 2010, Release 2011, Assessment 2011/Release 2012, Release 2013; Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Energy, Climate and Air regional observatory - 2013-Release 2014, 2014-Release 2015, 2015-Release 2016, 2016-Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabannes, Carole; Pamelle, Yohann; Le Maitre, Stephanie; Lyant, Valentin; Gondolo, Philippe; Belhcen, Ludovic; Laverdiere, Folco; Moynet, Matthieu; Luneau, Gaelle; Borel, F.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs, maps and tables, this set of documents provides and comments (sometimes in a rather developed way for some issues, depending on the publication year), for years between 2002 and 2016, information and data related to regional energy consumption (in terms of consuming sector and in terms of energy source), energy production (from different sources: wood, coal, hydraulic, wastes, solar photovoltaic and thermal), greenhouse gas emissions, electric power production and demand (with a focus on some specific sectors). Issues addressed in these documents evolve in time as the concept of renewable energy emerged, as important consuming sector are identified (transports, buildings, for example), and also as the issue of energy saving is more precisely studied. Activities of the regional energy observatory are also mentioned. From 2013, issues related to climate and air quality are also addressed at the same level as power production, solar photovoltaic and thermal energy, wind energy, wood-energy, energy savings, energy prices, studies performed by the observatory, and issues related to transports

  5. Study about the integrated treatment of chemical and radioactive effluents, introducing the zero release concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierzwa, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    An Integrated System to the treatment of Chemical and Radioactive Effluents to the Centro Experimental Aramar is proposed and evaluated, introducing the Effluent Zero Release concept, where factors related to the environmental regulation in vigor in the country, as well as the availability of hydrological resources in the place where CEA have been implanted, are considered. Through a literature analysis of the main effluents treatment techniques available nowadays and after a case of study selection, take into account two industrial installations that will be implanted at CEA, it was defined an arrangement to compose the Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents, focusing the Zero Release concept consolidation. A defined arrangement uses a combination among three treatment processes, it means chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis and evaporation, that were experimentally evaluated. The proposed arrangement was evaluated using synthetic effluents, that were prepared based on data from literature and conception documents of the installation considered in this work. Three kinds of effluents were simulated, one arising from a nuclear reactor laundry, one arising from the water refrigeration system and demineralized water production to the nuclear reactor and the other one arising from a nuclear material production laboratory. Each effluent were individually submitted to the selected treatment processes, to get the best operational conditions for each treatment process. The results got during the laboratory assays show that the proposed Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents is feasible, consolidating the Effluent Zero Release concept, which is the proposition of this work. (author)

  6. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  7. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  8. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26 Al, 49 V, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 93 Nb, and 94 Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  9. Aldehyde-functionalized chitosan-montmorillonite films as dynamically-assembled, switchable-chemical release bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Jamal; Jennah, Oumayma; Katir, Nadia; Lahcini, Mohamed; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2018-03-01

    Temporal release of synergistic and/or complementary chemicals (e.g.: drugs) is recognized as extremely challenging because of their frequently intertwined kinetic delivery and presently, straightforward concepts enabling to circumvent this bottleneck are missing in the open literature. In this framework, we report herein on aldehyde-functionalized, transparent and flexible chitosan-montmorillonite hybrid films that act as a new generation of eco-friendly, controlled-chemical release bioplastics. These dynamically-assembled nanomaterials are designed by a ternary assembly from biowaste derived chitin biopolymer, aromatic aldehydes and layered clay nanoparticles. On the basis of their geometrical and conformational properties, the oxygenated groups on the grafted aromatics interact preferentially with either the base Schiff belonging to the carbohydrate (via intramolecular CNHO-Ar known as "imine clip") or with the hydroxyl groups belonging to the clay surface (via intermolecular Si-OHO-Ar). The exfoliated clay nanoparticles within the carbohydrate polymer enables either accelerating or slowing down of the imine (CN) hydrolysis depending on the interaction of the conjugated aromatics. This provides the driving force for fine tuning host-guest interactions at the molecular level and constitutes an entry toward subtle discrimination of different chemicals (e.g. complementary fertilizers, synergistic drugs) during their sequential release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of Energy Transduction in a Molecular Chemical Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Kazuo; Kanada, Ryo; Amari, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of the two-state ratchet type is proposed for molecular chemical engines that convert chemical free energy into mechanical work and vice versa. The engine works by catalyzing a chemical reaction and turning a rotor. Analytical expressions are obtained for the dependences of rotation and reaction rates on the concentrations of reactant and product molecules, from which the performance of the engine is analyzed. In particular, the efficiency of energy transduction is discussed in...

  11. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  12. Which research for tomorrow's energy? 2012 Energy Colloquium 2. release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Gerard; Arrif, Teddy; Bain, Pascal; Beguin, Francois; Bruneaux, Gilles; Cetin, Derya; Czernichowski, Isabelle; Escudie, Dany; Folacci, Marie-Ange; Gosse, Kevin; Hareux, Sylvie; Metaye, Romain; Morel, Herve; Odru, Pierre; Oukacine, Linda; Pons, Liz; Tournier, Aline; Corgier, David; Thollin, Jacques; Barret, Mickael; Mosdale, Renaut; Hervouet, Veronique; Pourcelly, Gerald; Brousse, Thierry; Lincot, Daniel; Schmidt-Laine, Claudine; Artero, Vincent; Robinson, Darren; Bigot, Bernard; Salha, Bernard; Minster, Jean-Francois; Hauet, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This huge publication gathers interventions and contributions of a colloquium which notably addressed the following issues: bio-energies, hydrogen and fuel cells, energy storage, photovoltaic solar energy, energy efficiency in buildings, transports and industry, CO 2 capture and storage. On the first day, after two interventions on Energies Programmes at the ANR and an overview of R and D world challenges regarding energy, the contributions addressed the above mentioned issues. During the next day, besides these issues, contributions addressed challenges for tomorrow's society and perspectives for research. Thematic sessions addressed bio-energies (optimized production of cellulose ethanol, the third generation, technological deadlocks for the thermal-chemical route), photovoltaic solar energy (new concepts, massive crystalline silicon and photovoltaic thin layers), high energy efficiency buildings, energetic equipment and climate engineering, CO 2 storage, CO 2 capture, fuel cells, hydrogen production, transport and storage, electrochemical and non-electrochemical storage of energy, transports (internal combustion engine and power units, electric transports)

  13. Energy density enhancement of chemical heat storage material for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myagmarjav, Odtsetseg; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    A novel candidate chemical heat storage material having higher reaction performance and higher thermal conductivity used for magnesium oxide/water chemical heat pump was developed in this study. The material, called EML, was obtained by mixing pure Mg(OH)_2 with expanded graphite (EG) and lithium bromide (LiBr), which offer higher thermal conductivity and reactivity, respectively. With the aim to achieve a high energy density, the EML composite was compressed into figure of the EML tablet (ϕ7.1 mm × thickness 3.5 mm). The compression force did not degrade the reaction conversion, and furthermore it enabled us to achieve best heat storage and output performances. The EML tablet could store heat of 815.4 MJ m_t_a_b"−"3 at 300 °C within 120 min, which corresponded to almost 4.4 times higher the heat output of the EML composite, and therefore, the EML tablet is the solution which releases more heat in a shorter time. A relatively larger volumetric gross heat output was also recorded for the EML tablet, which was greater than one attained for the EML composite at certain temperatures. As a consequence, it is expected that the EML tablet could respond more quickly to sudden demand of heat from users. It was concluded that the EML tablet demonstrated superior performances. - Highlights: • A new chemical heat storage material, donated as EML, was developed. • EML composite made from pure Mg(OH)_2, expanded graphite and lithium bromide. • EML tablet was demonstrated by compressing the EML composite. • Compression force did not degrade the conversion in dehydration and hydration. • EML tablet demonstrated superior heat storage and output performances.

  14. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, Jacqueline L; Miranda, Nelson A F; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs) turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  15. Chemical cues released by an alien invasive aquatic gastropod drive its invasion success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Raw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical cues provide aquatic organisms with sensory information that guides behavioural responses and thus interactions among themselves, each other and the environment. Chemical cues are considered important for predator avoidance, foraging, larval settlement and broadcast spawning in aquatic environments. However, the significance of their role as drivers of direct interactions between heterospecifics has been largely overlooked. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A video camera and a demarcated arena were used in situ to record behavioural responses of three native gastropod species, Assiminea cf. capensis, Melanoides tuberculata and Coriandria durbanensis, exposed to treatments representing chemical cues released by a non-native invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera. The responses were measured quantitatively as displacement and orientation of movement at locations in St Lucia Estuary, within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the east coast of South Africa. All native gastropods exhibited a negative taxis response to chemical cues released by T. granifera, while T. granifera individuals responded randomly to conspecifics. Displacement was measured relative to the source of the extract, the number of steps taken were determined with path analysis and orientation was determined from the mean (±95% CIs turning angles, with significant negative turning angles representing negative taxis. Responses to treatments corresponding to the environment and conspecifics were random and undirected, indicating kinesis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence for interactions driven by chemical cues between a non-native invasive gastropod and several gastropods native to South Africa. The results indicate that chemical cues can facilitate invasion success as the behavioural response of native gastropods is to move away allowing additional food and space resources to become available to T. granifera.

  16. The Midi-Pyrenees regional energy observatory - Release 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, Martin; Daubigny, Jean; Fraysse, Jean-Marie; Dedieu-Casties, Francoise; RIEY, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Illustrated with maps and graphs, this publication proposes a synthetic and brief energy assessment for the Midi-Pyrenees region. It briefly presents the regional energy situation in terms of final energy consumption between 1990 and 2003, of primary energy production during the same period, of inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, and of CO 2 emissions by the energy sector. It also proposes an overview of the situation, evolution and production of various energy sources: hydroelectricity, wood, wind, solar photovoltaic, solar and thermal energy, co-generation, and other types of energy valorisation modes (biogas, combustion). It proposes a focus on two important sectors, transports and housing

  17. Chemical effects of ionizing radiation and sonic energy in the context of chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron Mendoza, A.; Albarran, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and sonic energy are considered as sources for chemical evolution processes. These sources have still a modest place in the interdisciplinary approach for the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds. Studies in Radiation Chemistry and Sonochemistry can provide a deeper insight into the chemical processes that may have importance for prebiotic chemistry. The present work concerns the analysis of some chemical reactions induced by ionizing radiation or cavitation in aqueous media that may be relevant to chemical evolution studies. (author)

  18. Unleashing elastic energy: dynamics of energy release in rubber bands and impulsive biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Cox, Suzanne; Egelmeers, Thijs; Patek, S. N.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    Impulsive biological systems - which include mantis shrimp, trap-jaw ants, and venus fly traps - can reach high speeds by using elastic elements to store and rapidly release energy. The material behavior and shape changes critical to achieving rapid energy release in these systems are largely unknown due to limitations of materials testing instruments operating at high speed and large displacement. In this work, we perform fundamental, proof-of-concept measurements on the tensile retraction of elastomers. Using high speed imaging, the kinematics of retraction are measured for elastomers with varying mechanical properties and geometry. Based on the kinematics, the rate of energy dissipation in the material is determined as a function of strain and strain-rate, along with a scaling relation which describes the dependence of maximum velocity on material properties. Understanding this scaling relation along with the material failure limits of the elastomer allows the prediction of material properties required for optimal performance. We demonstrate this concept experimentally by optimizing for maximum velocity in our synthetic model system, and achieve retraction velocities that exceed those in biological impulsive systems. This model system provides a foundation for future work connecting continuum performance to molecular architecture in impulsive systems.

  19. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  20. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  1. Physico-chemical state influences in vitro release profile of curcumin from pectin beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Thi-Binh; Winckler, Pascale; Loison, Pauline; Wache, Yves; Chambin, Odile

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with diverse effects interesting to develop health benefit products but its formulation in functional foods or in food supplement is hampered by its poor water solubility and susceptibility to alkaline conditions, light, oxidation and heat. Encapsulation of curcumin could be a mean to overcome these difficulties. In this paper, curcumin was encapsulated by ionotropic gelation method in low methoxyl pectin beads associated with different surfactants: Solutol(®), Transcutol(®) and sodium caseinate. After encapsulation, physico-chemical properties of encapsulated curcumin such as its solubility, physical state, tautomeric forms and encapsulation efficiency as well as encapsulation yield were characterized. In vitro dissolution of curcumin from beads displayed different kinetic profiles according to bead composition due to different matrix network. As Solutol(®) was a good solvent for curcumin, the drug was present into amorphous form in these beads inducing a rapid release of curcumin in the simulated digestive fluids. In contrast, drug release was slower from sodium caseinate beads since curcumin was not totally dissolved during the manufacturing process. Moreover, the FLIM studies showed that a part of curcumin was encapsulated in caseinate micelles and that 34% of this drug was in keto form which may delay the curcumin release. The Transcutol beads showed also a slow drug release because of the low curcumin solubility and the high density of the matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonreductive chemical release of intact N-glycans for subsequent labeling and analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangbei; Wang, Chengjian; Sun, Yujiao; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2014-10-01

    A novel strategy is proposed, using cost-saving chemical reactions to generate intact free reducing N-glycans and their fluorescent derivatives from glycoproteins for subsequent analysis. N-Glycans without core α-1,3-linked fucose are released in reducing form by selective hydrolysis of the N-type carbohydrate-peptide bond of glycoproteins under a set of optimized mild alkaline conditions and are comparable to those released by commonly used peptide-N-glycosidase (PNGase) F in terms of yield without any detectable side reaction (peeling or deacetylation). The obtained reducing glycans can be routinely derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and potentially some other fluorescent reagents for comprehensive analysis. Alternatively, the core α-1,3-fucosylated N-glycans are released in mild alkaline medium and derivatized with PMP in situ, and their yields are comparable to those obtained using commonly used PNGase A without conspicuous peeling reaction or any detectable deacetylation. Using this new technique, the N-glycans of a series of purified glycoproteins and complex biological samples were successfully released and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), demonstrating its general applicability to glycomic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitric Oxide Release for Improving Performance of Implantable Chemical Sensors - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Wang, Xuewei; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been extensive interest in developing in vivo chemical sensors that can provide real-time measurements of blood gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH), glucose/lactate, and potentially other critical care analytes in the blood of hospitalized patients. However, clot formation with intravascular sensors and foreign body response toward sensors implanted subcutaneously can cause inaccurate analytical results. Further, the risk of bacterial infection from any sensor implanted in the human body is another major concern. To solve these issues, the release of an endogenous gas molecule, nitric oxide (NO), from the surface of such sensors has been investigated owing to NO's ability to inhibit platelet activation/adhesion, foreign body response and bacterial growth. This paper summarizes the importance of NO's therapeutic potential for this application and reviews the publications to date that report on the analytical performance of NO release sensors in laboratory testing and/or during in vivo testing.

  4. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ke-feng; Zou, Tao; Wang, Dong; Qian, Xin-hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production proce...

  5. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  6. On the phenomenon of the fast release of energy in irradiated solid methane: discussion of models considering the local space distribution of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    A general idea of the phenomenon, so-called 'a burp', is provided. It is concluded that no justified and consistent theory of the burp phenomenon is proposed. The paper expresses criticism on the application of the classic theory of homogeneous chemical reactions and of thermal explosion to analyze burps as it was in common usage up to now. Two hypotheses to explain features burps display are presented instead. Both of them have to do with mechanism of storing and releasing energy accounting for local non-uniformity of temperature end energy deposition. 11 refs., 4 figs

  7. Soil-release behaviour of polyester fabrics after chemical modification with polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, T. M. R.; Santos, J.; Soares, G. M. B.

    2017-10-01

    The fibres cleanability depends, among other characteristics, on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic fibres are easy-wash materials but hydrophobic fibres are difficult to clean due to their higher water-repellent surfaces. This type of surfaces, like polyester (PET), produce an accumulation of electrostatic charges, which favors adsorption and retention of dirt. Thus, the polyester soil-release properties can be increased by finishing processes that improve fiber hydrophilicity. In present study, PET fabric modification was described by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N´-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) chemically modified resin. Briefly, the modification process was carried out in two steps, one to hydrolyse the polyester and create hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups on the surface and other to crosslink the PEG chains. The resulting materials were characterized by contact angle, DSC and FTIR-ATR methods. Additionally, the soil release behavior and the mechanical properties of modified PET were evaluated. For the best process conditions, the treated PET presented 0° contact angle, grade 5 stain release and acceptable mechanical performance.

  8. Mechanical energy release in CABRI-2 experiments with Viggen-4 fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    1993-07-01

    The results of mechanical energy release evaluations in CABRI-2 experiments with Viggen-4 fuel pins (12 atom % burnup) are described. In general the experience gained by the CABRI-1 experiments is confirmed. Those physical phenomena are enhanced which are influenced by the release of fission products. Especially the late blow-out of pressurized fission gases from the lower test pin plenum led to large flow variations. The corresponding mechanical power releases are low

  9. Mechanical efficiency of the energy release during a steam explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical processes during the expansion phase of a steam explosion with intimately fragmented liquid particles is investigated based on elementary principles and analytical solutions. During a short load pulse, the different densities of the water and the melted particles lead to different velocities. After the load pulse, viscosity effects lead to a slow down of the higher velocities and to a corresponding reconversion of the kinetic energy of the mixture into thermal energy. It is shown that both effects are proportional to each other. The ratio between the residual and the applied mechanical energy is defined as the mechanical efficiency of the steam explosion. Using data typical for a steam explosion in a pressurized water reactor, mechanical efficiencies of <50% are estimated. Considering that the thermodynamic efficiencies are quite limited, the very low conversion rates from thermal energy into mechanical energy observed during steam explosion experiments can be more easily understood

  10. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  11. 75 FR 19319 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Extension of Comment Period... reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical Abstracts Service Number (CAS No.) 7783-06-4) (75 FR... may be potentially affected by this action if you manufacture, process, or otherwise use hydrogen...

  12. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    and the method can be used to measure breath from the nose. A mathematical model of the data was developed to give a quantitative method for description and characterization of the release of flavor compounds. The release profiles consisted of two sequences, one for a chewing period, and one for a phasing out...... process. The proposed method for modeling provided a reasonable description of the release process. In addition to flavor compounds, this new interface and mathematical application could provide information on chemicals in the human breath which could be interesting, for example, within medical diagnosis....... with that of the flavor detection threshold. An application study on the release of menthone and menthol from chewing gum by a group of six test persons was performed. Flavored chewing gum was used as a model matrix because of the long chewing periods and the simplicity of the system. It is concluded that the interface...

  13. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  14. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material...

  15. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  16. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  17. Overview on phenomena of mechanical energy release in the CABRI-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical energy release phenomena observed in the CABRI-experiments are overviewed and discussed. Intensifying and mitigating effects are identified. They are caused by fission gases, inertia effects, pressure dissipation and fissile power

  18. The patterns of energy use in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper was sculpted from a report commissioned by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of proposed energy taxes on energy use by the US chemical industry. The discussion of energy taxes is eliminated here, however the broader discussion of the impact of energy prices on energy use is retained. The US chemical industry is currently the world leader by many important measures, such as technology contributions and employment. This leadership traces to a slate of advantages: science base, low cost energy, large market and economic/political stability. The focus of this paper is on the patterns of energy use: (1) There is an optimum economic trade of capital against energy. Industry optimizes this trade to lower its costs. For the large volume chemicals which dominate energy use, this tradable capital cost exceeds energy cost by a factor of 1.5. (2) The capital/energy trade follows clearly defined rules. The basic rules are rooted in thermodynamics. (3) An increase in energy prices would result in a drop in process energy use: a doubling of process energy prices would cut process energy use by approximately 1/3 but the capital cost would be in excess of $100 billion if driven into a short time span, such as 5 years. This is because of the long useful lifetime of capital facilities. (4) Process energy is about half the total energy use, with feedstock being the balance. Feedstock use is much less sensitive to price. Restated, the doubling of energy price will result in roughly a 1/6 reduction in total energy use. (5) Technology progress will also reduce energy use. This reduction is distinct from the impact of energy price. Technological progress will be at least as important in reducing energy use as will energy pricing, for the foreseeable future. (6) Technology progress can be sorted into two themes: (a) Learning curve improvements, which are almost inherent in the production process and the nature of competition; and (b) Breakthroughs that happen in a

  19. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough

  20. Costs of renewable energies in France. Release 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Marchal, David; Gerson, Raphael; Berrou, Yolene; Grouzard, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    For each renewable energy, this study reports the assessment of the range of the theoretical variation of costs with respect to the most important parameters of the concerned sector. Low range notably corresponds to particularly favourable financing modalities added to a good field quality and to low investment costs. At the opposite, the capital cost is particularly high for high ranges. Thus, after a presentation of the adopted methodology, the report addresses the costs of electric power generation for on-shore wind energy, offshore wind energy, sea hydraulics, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, and geothermal energy. The next part addresses heat production costs in the case of individuals (biomass, individual thermal solar, individual heat pumps) and of collective housing and office and industrial buildings (collective biomass with or without heat network, industrial biomass, thermal solar in collective housing of in network, collective geothermal heat pumps, deep geothermal energy). The fourth chapter addresses the cost of power and heat production by co-generation (biomass co-generation, methanization). Appendices provide computation hypotheses, and reference data

  1. Geological Structure, Seismic energy Release and Forecasting of Rockburst Occurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, Radim; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 16 (2000), s. 171-173 ISSN 1211-1910. [Czech - Polish - Slovak Symposium on Mining Geophysics /27./. Ramzová, 05.10.1999-07.10.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : seismoacustic emission * energy -frequency distribution * multichannel statistic extrapolation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  2. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  3. On transient electric fields observed in chemical release experiments by rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-06-01

    As a follow-up to the successful chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR (Trigger Optimized Repetition) rocket was launched from Esrange on Oct. 24, 1984. Like in the Trigger experiment a large amplitude electric field pulse of 200 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shock-front. The field was directed towards the centre of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarisation electric field source. Expressions for this radial polarisation field and the much weaker azimuthal induced electric field are derived from a simple cylindrical model for the field and the expanding neutral cloud. Time profiles of the radial electric field are shown to be in good agreement with observations. (authors)

  4. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  5. Equatorial F region neutral winds and shears near sunset measured with chemical release techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, A.; Larsen, M. F.; Kudeki, E.

    2015-10-01

    The period near sunset is a dynamic and critical time for the daily development of the equatorial nighttime ionosphere and the instabilities that occur there. It is during these hours that the preconditions necessary for the later development of Equatorial Spread F (ESF) plasma instabilities occur. The neutral dynamics of the sunset ionosphere are also of critical importance to the generation of currents and electric fields; however, the behavior of the neutrals is experimentally understood primarily through very limited single-altitude measurements or measurements that provide weighted altitude means of the winds as a function of time. To date, there have been very few vertically resolved neutral wind measurements in the F region at sunset. We present two sets of sounding rocket chemical release measurements, one from a launch in the Marshall Islands on Kwajalein atoll and one from Alcantara, Brazil. Analysis of the release motions has yielded vertically resolved neutral wind profiles that show both the mean horizontal winds and the vertical shears in the winds. In both experiments, we observe significant vertical gradients in the zonal wind that are unexpected by classical assumptions about the behavior of the neutral wind at these altitudes at sunset near the geomagnetic equator.

  6. Dependence of anaphylactic histamine release from rat mast cells on cellular energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The relation between anaphylactic histamine release and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the mast cells was studied. The cells were incubated with glycolytic (2-deoxyglucose) and respiratory inhibitors (antimycin A and oligomycin) in order to decrease the ATP content of the cells prior...... to initiation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction. The secretory capacity of mast cells was less related to the cellular level of ATP at the time of activation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction than to the rate of cellular energy supply. Furthermore, mast cells were...... pretreated with 2-deoxyglucose. The release of histamine from these cells was reduced when respiratory inhibitors were added to the cell suspension 5 to 20 sec after exposure of the cells to antigen. This may indicate that the secretory process requires energy, and it seems necessary that energy should...

  7. Animal manure phosphorus characterization by sequential chemical fractionation, release kinetics and 31P-NMR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate release kinetics from manures are of global interest because sustainable plant nutrition with phosphate will be a major concern in the future. Although information on the bioavailability and chemical composition of P present in manure used as fertilizer are important to understand its dynamics in the soil, such studies are still scarce. Therefore, P extraction was evaluated in this study by sequential chemical fractionation, desorption with anion-cation exchange resin and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR spectroscopy to assess the P forms in three different dry manure types (i.e. poultry, cattle and swine manure. All three methods showed that the P forms in poultry, cattle and swine dry manures are mostly inorganic and highly bioavailable. The estimated P pools showed that organic and recalcitrant P forms were negligible and highly dependent on the Ca:P ratio in manures. The results obtained here showed that the extraction of P with these three different methods allows a better understanding and complete characterization of the P pools present in the manures.

  8. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2000-01-01

    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  9. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 1: biomechanical analysis related to user benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Eisma, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The energy storing and releasing behaviour of 2 energy storing feet (ESF) and 2 conventional prosthetic feet (CF) were compared (ESF: Otto Bock Dynamic Pro and Hanger Quantum; CF: Otto Bock Multi Axial and Otto Bock Lager). Ten trans-tibial amputees were selected. The study was designed as a

  10. Theoretical energy release of thermites, intermetallics, and combustible metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1998-06-01

    Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, the authors review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  11. Chemical energy conversion as enabling factor to move to a renewable energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abate, Salvatore; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Mesina Univ. (Italy). Section Industrial Chemistry; ERIC aisbl and INSTM/CASPE, Messina (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The role of chemical energy storage and solar fuels as key elements for the sustainable chemical and energy production is discussed in this concept paper. It is shown how chemical energy storage, with the development of drop-in carbon-based solar fuels, will play a central role in the future low-carbon economy, but it is necessary to consider its out-of-the-grid use, rather than being limited to be a tool for smart grids. Related aspects discussed are the possibility to: (i) enable a system of trading renewable energy on a world scale (out-of-the-grid), including the possibility to exploit actually unused remote resources, (ii) develop a solar-driven and low-carbon chemical production, which reduces the use of fossil fuels and (iii) create a distributed energy production, going beyond the actual limitations and dependence on the grid.

  12. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs from conventional and alternative farming systems. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... This study was carried out to investigate the effect of conventional farming systems for laying hens (standard cage batteries) and new alternative systems ...

  14. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  15. Selective chemical detection by energy modulation of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, J.R.; Otagawa, T.

    1985-05-20

    A portable instrument for use in the field in detecting, identifying, and quantifying a component of a sampled fluid includes a sensor which chemically reacts with the component of interest or a derivative thereof, an electrical heating filament for heating the sample before it is applied to the sensor, and modulating means for continuously varying the temperature of the filament (and hence the reaction rate) between two values sufficient to produce the chemical reaction. In response to this thermal modulation, the sensor produces a modulated output signal, the modulation of which is a function of the activation energy of the chemical reaction, which activation energy is specific to the particular component of interest and its concentration. Microprocessor means compares the modulated output signal with standard responses for a plurality of components to identify and quantify the particular component of interest. 4 figs.

  16. Lifetime and kinetic energy release of metastable dications dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagia, M.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Mundim, K.C.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Pirani, F.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A statistical method is proposed for extracting dynamics information from coincidence data in double photoionization of molecules. Highlights: ► When a photon, with sufficient energy, hits a molecule, a doubly charged ion can be formed. This dication has often a large probability of dissociate in two positive singly charged ions. ► Experiments of photoelectron–photoion–photoion coincidence can provide valuable information about the dynamics of such dissociation processes. ► A statistical method is proposed for extracting such information from the coincidence data. - Abstract: A new method for the determination of dynamical features of the molecular dication dissociation processes, following the single photon double ionization, investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique has been developed. The method is based on an extension of the generalized simulated annealing statistical methodology, previously applied in other fields. Here it is described and applied, as an example, to the case of the dissociation of the CO 2 2+ dication giving CO + + O + ion fragments. The results are consistent with previous determination of the metastable lifetime of the dication, but the analysis also provides additional information about the dynamics of the reaction.

  17. Theoretical Energy Release of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-05-14

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  18. A comparison of measured radionuclide release rates from Three Mile Island Unit-2 core debris for different oxygen chemical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Ryan, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and radiochemical analyses of reactor coolant samples taken during defueling of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) reactor provide relevant data to assist in understanding the solution chemistry of the radionuclides retained within the TMI-2 reactor coolant system. Hydrogen peroxide was added to various plant systems to provide disinfection for microbial contamination and has provided the opportunity to observe radionuclide release under different oxygen chemical potentials. A comparison of the radionuclide release rates with and without hydrogen peroxide has been made for these separate but related cases, i.e., the fuel transfer canal and connecting spent-fuel pool A with the TMI-2 reactor plenum in the fuel transfer canal, core debris grab sample laboratory experiments, and the reactor vessel fluid and associated core debris. Correlation and comparison of these data indicate a physical parameter dependence (surface-to-volume ratio) affecting all radionuclide release; however, selected radionuclides also demonstrate a chemical dependence release under the different oxygen chemical potentials. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of reactor coolant samples taken during defueling of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) reactor provide relevant data to assist in understanding the solution chemistry of the radionuclides retained within the TMI-2 reactor coolant system

  19. MIGRATIONS OF RELEASED SEISMIC ENERGY IN VARIOUS GEODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Novopashina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of slow seismic activity migration have been revealed by the space-time analysis of the total earthquake energy (LgEsum. Our study of seismic activity covers the fragments of  the Central Asian, Pacific and Alpine seismic belts: the Baikal rift system (BRS, Russia, the San Andreas fault zone (California, USA, the Christchurch fault (New Zealand, the North and East Anatolian faults (Turkey, the Philippine subduction zone, and the central fragment of the Mid-Atlantic oceanic ridge. The chains of LgEsum clusters mark the propagation of the maximum stresses front in the weaker crust areas, the zones of fault dynamic influence, and the regions of conjugated tectonic structures. The migration process is characterized by a periodicity, changes in direction, and similar modular values of the migration rates within a single fault segment (or a fault zone, which is probably related to the mechanical and rheological crust and upper mantle properties. The data analysis shows that a strong earthquake source may occur at a location wherein the front of seismic activity propagates with periodical changes in direction, and such a source can develop within a period that is multiple of the migration fluctuations, probably associated with the influence of external periodic factors. The main periods of migration fluctuations (2–4 years, and 9–13 years, in different ratios are present in the seismic regimes of different seismic belts. The migration rate, as well as the propagation velocity of the maximum stresses front, directly depends on the velocity of movements between the plates in the region.

  20. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent

  1. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  2. Releasable Kinetic Energy-Based Inertial Control of a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jinsik; Muljadi, Eduard; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) in a wind power plant (WPP) contain different levels of releasable kinetic energy (KE) because of the wake effects. This paper proposes a releasable KE-based inertial control scheme for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) WPP that differentiates the contributions....... The proposed scheme adjusts the two loop gains in a DFIG controller depending on its rotor speed so that a DFIG operating at a higher rotor speed releases more KE. The performance of the proposed scheme was investigated under various wind conditions. The results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme...

  3. Translational and extensional energy release rates (the J- and M-integrals) for a crack layer in thermoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Gommerstadt, B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of papers have been presented on the evaluation of energy release rate for thermoelasticity and corresponding J integral. Two main approaches were developed to treat energy release rate in elasticity. The first is based on direct calculation of the potential energy rate with respect to crack length. The second makes use of Lagrangian formalism. The translational and expansional energy release rates in thermoelasticity are studied by employing the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics and the Crack Layer Approach.

  4. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  5. Development of analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Sook Kwan

    1995-04-01

    A study for the development of an analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release is performed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A methodology is suggested. For the post blowdown period a modified CONTRAST boil-off model is suggested. By using these computer code improved mass and energy release data are generated. Also, a RELAP5/MOD3 analysis for finally the FLOOD-3 computer code has been modified for use in the analysis of hot leg break. The results of analysis using modified FLOOD-3 are reasonable as we expected and their trends are good. 66 figs., 8 tabs. (Author) .new

  6. Protecting buildings from a biological or chemical attack: Actions to take before or during a release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Delp, William W.; Lorenzetti, David M.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Thatcher, Tracy L.; Sextro, Richard G.; Derby, Elisabeth A.; Jarvis, Sondra A.

    2003-01-29

    This report presents advice on how to operate a building to reduce casualties from a biological or chemical attack, as well as potential changes to the building (e.g. the design of the ventilation system) that could make it more secure. It also documents the assumptions and reasoning behind the advice. The particular circumstances of any attack, such as the ventilation system design, building occupancy, agent type, source strength and location, and so on, may differ from the assumptions made here, in which case actions other than our recommendations may be required; we hope that by understanding the rationale behind the advice, building operators can modify it as required for their circumstances. The advice was prepared by members of the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group, which is part of the Indoor Environment Department at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The group's expertise in this area includes: tracer-gas measurements of airflows in buildings (Sextro, Thatcher); design and operation of commercial building ventilation systems (Delp); modeling and analysis of airflow and tracer gas transport in large indoor spaces (Finlayson, Gadgil, Price); modeling of gas releases in multi-zone buildings (Sohn, Lorenzetti, Finlayson, Sextro); and occupational health and safety experience related to building design and operation (Sextro, Delp). This report is concerned only with building design and operation; it is not a how-to manual for emergency response. Many important emergency response topics are not covered here, including crowd control, medical treatment, evidence gathering, decontamination methods, and rescue gear.

  7. Thermal energy storage using thermo-chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Rossides, S.D.; Haj Khalil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Understanding of the performance of thermo chemical heat pump. ► Tool for storing thermal energy. ► Parameters that affect the amount of thermal stored energy. ► Lithium chloride has better effect on storing thermal energy. - Abstract: A theoretical study was performed to investigate the potential of storing thermal energy using a heat pump which is a thermo-chemical storage system consisting of water as sorbet, and sodium chloride as the sorbent. The effect of different parameters namely; the amount of vaporized water from the evaporator, the system initial temperature and the type of salt on the increase in temperature of the salt was investigated and hence on the performance of the thermo chemical heat pump. It was found that the performance of the heat pump improves with the initial system temperature, with the amount of water vaporized and with the water remaining in the system. Finally it was also found that lithium chloride salt has higher effect on the performance of the heat pump that of sodium chloride.

  8. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  9. Chemicals having estrogenic activity can be released from some bisphenol A-free, hard and clear, thermoplastic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, George D; Denison, Michael S; Yang, Chun Z; Stoner, Matthew A; He, Guochun

    2014-12-04

    Chemicals that have estrogenic activity (EA) can potentially cause adverse health effects in mammals including humans, sometimes at low doses in fetal through juvenile stages with effects detected in adults. Polycarbonate (PC) thermoplastic resins made from bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical that has EA, are now often avoided in products used by babies. Other BPA-free thermoplastic resins, some hypothesized or advertised to be EA-free, are replacing PC resins used to make reusable hard and clear thermoplastic products such as baby bottles. We used two very sensitive and accurate in vitro assays (MCF-7 and BG1Luc human cell lines) to quantify the EA of chemicals leached into ethanol or water/saline extracts of fourteen unstressed or stressed (autoclaving, microwaving, UV radiation) thermoplastic resins. Estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent agonist responses were confirmed by their inhibition with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Our data showed that some (4/14) unstressed and stressed BPA-free thermoplastic resins leached chemicals having significant levels of EA, including one polystyrene (PS), and three Tritan™ resins, the latter reportedly EA-free. Exposure to UV radiation in natural sunlight resulted in an increased release of EA from Tritan™ resins. Triphenyl-phosphate (TPP), an additive used to manufacture some thermoplastic resins such as Tritan™, exhibited EA in both MCF-7 and BG1Luc assays. Ten unstressed or stressed glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate (PETG), cyclic olefin polymer (COP) or copolymer (COC) thermoplastic resins did not release chemicals with detectable EA under any test condition. This hazard survey study assessed the release of chemicals exhibiting EA as detected by two sensitive, widely used and accepted, human cell line in vitro assays. Four PC replacement resins (Tritan™ and PS) released chemicals having EA. However, ten other PC-replacement resins did not leach chemicals having EA (EA-free-resins). These results indicate that PC

  10. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  11. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.

  12. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  13. On the energy release rate in a turbulent current sheet on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardakov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that turbulent current sheets on the Sun, realizing in the form of the Parker - Sweet flow, are in quasilinear regime of turbulence (or in the regime of instability threshold). The energy release rate in such sheets does not exceed 10 26 erg/s for typical plasma parameters in active regions

  14. Regional distribution of released earthquake energy in northern Egypt along with Inahass area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-hemamy, S.T.; Adel, A.A. Othman

    1999-01-01

    A review of the seismic history of Egypt indicates sone areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. There are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. Form the tectonic map of Egypt, distribution of Intensity and magnitude show strong activity along Nile Delta. This due to the presence of a thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energy of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area . Its effect on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site is considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy reveals that Inshas site is affected by seismic activity from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-Faiyum, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba seismo-tectonic zones. El-Faiyum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 5.4E +2 1 erg

  15. Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-December 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  16. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: April-June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-04-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during th eperiod April-June 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications.

  17. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Nuri; Munoz, Luis; Cortes, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  18. Chemical Production of Graphene Catalysts for Electrochemical Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seselj, Nedjeljko

    by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), to investigate the nature of L-cysteine bonds on Au. Synthesized electrocatalysts were characterized by spectroscopic, microscopic and electrochemical techniques. Electrocatalysis was examined by electrochemical oxidation of formic acid, methanol and ethanol, and oxygen......Recently developed FC technology is among many approaches aiming at solving the global energy challenges. FCs are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy from fuel molecules into electrical energy via electrochemical reactions. FCs are, however, limited by the scarce and expensive...... was achieved via L-cysteine linker molecules that provided pathways for fast electron transfers during the electrocatalytic reactions. Electrochemical properties of selfassembled L-cysteine monolayers immobilized on single-crystal Au(111) surfaces were studied in ionic liquids and their structures imaged...

  19. Thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, Erez; Epstein, Michael; Kribus, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar plant with thermally regenerative battery unifies energy conversion and storage. • Storage is a flow battery with thermo-chemical charging and electro-chemical discharging. • Sodium-sulfur and zinc-air systems are investigated as candidate storage materials. • Theoretical solar to electricity efficiencies of over 60% are predicted. • Charging temperature can be lowered with hybrid carbothermic reduction. - Abstract: A new approach for solar electricity generation and storage is proposed, based on the concept of thermally regenerative batteries. Concentrated sunlight is used for external thermo-chemical charging of a flow battery, and electricity is produced by conventional electro-chemical discharge of the battery. The battery replaces the steam turbine, currently used in commercial concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, potentially leading to much higher conversion efficiency. This approach offers potential performance, cost and operational advantages compared to existing solar technologies, and to existing storage solutions for management of an electrical grid with a significant contribution of intermittent solar electricity generation. Here we analyze the theoretical conversion efficiency for new thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) plant schemes based on the electro-chemical systems of sodium-sulfur (Na-S) and zinc-air. The thermodynamic upper limit of solar to electricity conversion efficiency for an ideal TECS cycle is about 60% for Na-S at reactor temperature of 1550 K, and 65% for the zinc-air system at 1750 K, both under sunlight concentration of 3000. A hybrid process with carbothermic reduction in the zinc-air system reaches 60% theoretical efficiency at the more practical conditions of reaction temperature <1200 K and concentration <1000. Practical TECS plant efficiency, estimated from these upper limits, may then be much higher compared to existing solar electricity technologies. The technical and economical

  20. IMPACT OF THE CHEMICAL FORM OF IN-CONTAINMENT SOURCE ON FISSION PRODUCT RELEASE FROM WWER-1000/V-320 TYPE NPP CONTAINMENT DURING LOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kecek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant accidents may be followed by a release of fission products into the environment. This release is dependent on several phenomena, such as chemistry, pressure, type of the accident etc. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the chemical form of iodine on the fission product release into the environment.

  1. Forecasting of future earthquakes in the northeast region of India considering energy released concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarola, Amit; Sil, Arjun

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the forecasting of time and magnitude size of the next earthquake in the northeast India, using four probability distribution models (Gamma, Lognormal, Weibull and Log-logistic) considering updated earthquake catalog of magnitude Mw ≥ 6.0 that occurred from year 1737-2015 in the study area. On the basis of past seismicity of the region, two types of conditional probabilities have been estimated using their best fit model and respective model parameters. The first conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (e × 1020 ergs), which is expected to release in the future earthquake, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy (E × 1020 ergs). And the second conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (a × 1020 ergs/year), which is expected to release per year, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy per year (A × 1020 ergs/year). The logarithm likelihood functions (ln L) were also estimated for all four probability distribution models. A higher value of ln L suggests a better model and a lower value shows a worse model. The time of the future earthquake is forecasted by dividing the total seismic energy expected to release in the future earthquake with the total seismic energy expected to release per year. The epicentre of recently occurred 4 January 2016 Manipur earthquake (M 6.7), 13 April 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.9) and the 24 August 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.8) are located in zone Z.12, zone Z.16 and zone Z.15, respectively and that are the identified seismic source zones in the study area which show that the proposed techniques and models yield good forecasting accuracy.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  3. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  4. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  5. The energy distribution structure and dynamic characteristics of energy release in electrostatic discharge process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingming; Shao, Huige; Zhang, Yunming

    2015-01-01

    The detail structure of energy output and the dynamic characteristics of electric spark discharge process have been studied to calculate the energy of electric spark induced plasma under different discharge condition accurately. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor stored energy in the range of 10J 100J and 1000J respectively. And the resistance of wire, switch and plasma between electrodes were evaluated by different methods. An optimized method ...

  6. Chemical form of released tritium from molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} salt under neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Chemical forms of released tritium from FLIBE (the 2:1 mixture of LiF and BeF{sub 2}) by in-pile tritium release experiment were HT and TF and their proportion depended on the chemical composition of purge gas and the dehumidification time of specimen at high temperatures. The chemical form of tritium was determined by the thermodynamic equilibrium of the isotopic exchange reaction (T{sup +} + H{sub 2} {yields} H{sup +} + HT). (author)

  7. Data Analysis of Transient Energy Releases in the LHC Superconducting Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Bottura, L; Di Castro, M; Masi, A; Siemko, A

    2007-01-01

    Premature training quenches are caused by transient energy released within the LHC dipole magnet coils while it is energized. Voltage signals recorded across the magnet coils and on the so-called quench antenna carry information about these disturbances. The transitory events correlated to transient energy released are extracted making use of continuous wavelet transform. Several analyses are performed to understand their relevance to the so called training phenomenon. The statistical distribution of the signals amplitude, the number of events occurring at a given current level, the average frequency content of the events are the main parameters on which the analysis have been focalized. Comparisons among different regions of the magnet, among different quenches in the same magnet and among magnets made by different builders are reported. Conclusions about the efficiency of the raw data treatment and the relevance of the parameters developed with respect to the magnet global behavior are finally given.

  8. Chemical evolution. XXI - The amino acids released on hydrolysis of HCN oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J. P.; Wos, J. D.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Major amino acids released by hydrolysis of acidic and basic HCN oligomers are identified by chromatography as Gly, Asp, and diaminosuccinic acid. Smaller amounts of Ala, Ile and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid are also detected. The amino acids released did not change appreciably when the hydrolysis medium was changed from neutral to acidic or basic. The presence of both meso and d, l-diaminosuccinic acids was established by paper chromatography and on an amino acid analyzer.

  9. Dating gasoline releases using ground-water chemical analyses: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.A.; Perez, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents case studies where geochemical data were analyzed in spatial and temporal relation to documented gasoline releases at typical service station sites. In particular, the authors present ground-water analytical data for sites where (1) the date of the gasoline release is known with a good degree of confidence, (2) the release is confined to a relatively short period of time so as to be considered essentially instantaneous, (3) antecedent geochemical condition are known or can be reasonably expected to have been either unaffected by previous hydrocarbon impacts or minor in comparison to known release events, and (4) where geologic materials can be classified as to structure and composition. The authors' intent is to provide empirical data regarding the hydrogeological fate of certain gasoline components, namely the compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of gasoline weathering as a means of comparing releases in given hydrogeologic environments. Trends seen in a variety of comparative hydrocarbon compound ratios may provide a basis for evaluating relative release dates

  10. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  11. Electron transfer rates and energy releases during denitrification of municipal wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Talib, S.; Ujang, Z; Vollertsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    could be simplified by a two-stage process. In the first stage, nitrate was utilised with significant accumulation of nitrite. In the second stage nitrite was utilised when nitrate depleted. Denitrification rates during the two stages were expressed in terms of electron equivalents (e-eq.) in order...... to compare the process when differennt electron acceptors namlely, nitrate and nitrite were utilised. The energy release rates during the two stages were calculated and compared....

  12. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secondly, a new high -order (4 th -order) convective flux formulation was developed that uses the tabulated information, yet produces a fully consistent...Klippenstein 2012 Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High - Pressure Combustion. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 44:444-474. Cabot, W.H., A.W. Cook, P.L. Miller, D.E...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0054 Energy Transformation, Transfer, and Release Dynamics in High -Speed Turbulent Flows Paul Dimotakis CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE

  13. Energy release and its containment within thin-walled, backed vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    The problem adressed is the containment of a sudden release of energy of a magnitude up to 4 x 10 11 joules in a reusable vessel. The design process began by formulating dynamic models for both the input to such a vessel and the vessel itself and using these models to generate a general response. Modifications to the input and a more specific response are discussed. Computer codes used in calculations are described and listed

  14. Chemical energy powered nano/micro/macromotors and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2015-01-02

    The rise of miniaturized artificial self-powered devices, demonstrating autonomous motion, has brought in new considerations from the environmental perspective. This review addresses the interplay between these nano/micro/macromotors and the environment, recent advances, and their applications in pollution management. Such self-propelled devices are able to actuate chemical energy into mechanical motion in situ, adding another powerful dimension towards solving environmental problems. Use of synthetic nano/micro/macromotors has demonstrated potential in environmental remediation, both in pollutant removal and contaminant degradation, owing to motion-induced mixing. At the same time, the chemical environment exerts influence on the locomotion of the motors. These sensitized self-powered devices demonstrate capabilities for being deployed as sensors and their chemotactic behaviors show efficacy to act as first responders towards a chemical leakage. Thus, the notion of a self-propelling entity also entails further investigation into its inherent toxicity and possible implications as a pollutant. Future challenges and outlook of the use of these miniaturized devices are discussed, with specific regard to the fields of environmental remediation and monitoring, as we move towards their wider acceptance. We believe that these tiny machines will stand up to the task as solutions for environmental sustainability in the 21st century. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chemical engineering challenges and investment opportunities in sustainable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and energy industries are transforming as they adjust to the new era of high-priced petroleum and severe global warming. As a result of the transformation, engineering challenges and investment opportunities abound. Rapid evolution and fast growth are expected in cathode and anode materials as well as polymeric electrolytes for vehicular batteries and in high-performance polymer-ceramic composites for wind turbines, fuel-efficient aircraft, and lighter and safer cars. Unique process-engineering opportunities exist in sand-oil, coal, and possibly also shale liquefaction to produce transportation fuel; and also in genetic engineering of photosynthesizing plants and other organisms for their processing into high-performance biodegradable polymers and high-value-added environmentally friendly chemicals. Also, research on the feasibility of mitigation of global warming through enhancement of CO(2) uptake by the southern oceans by fertilization with trace amounts of iron is progressing. Because chemical engineers are uniquely well trained in mathematical modeling of mass transport, flow, and mixing, and also in cost analysis, they are likely to join the oceanographers and marine biologists in this important endeavor.

  16. Development of KMnO(4)-releasing composites for in situ chemical oxidation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S H; Chen, K F; Wu, C S; Lin, Y H; Kao, C M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a controlled-oxidant-release technology combining in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concepts to remediate trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. In this study, a potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-releasing composite (PRC) was designed for KMnO4 release. The components of this PRC included polycaprolactone (PCL), KMnO4, and starch with a weight ratio of 1.14:2:0.96. Approximately 64% (w/w) of the KMnO4 was released from the PRC after 76 days of operation in a batch system. The results indicate that the released KMnO4 could oxidize TCE effectively. The results from a column study show that the KMnO4 released from 200 g of PRC could effectively remediate 101 pore volumes (PV) of TCE-contaminated groundwater (initial TCE concentration = 0.5 mg/L) and achieve up to 95% TCE removal. The effectiveness of the PRC system was verified by the following characteristics of the effluents collected after the PRC columns (barrier): (1) decreased TCE concentrations, (2) increased ORP and pH values, and (3) increased MnO2 and KMnO4 concentrations. The results of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis show that the PCL and starch completely filled up the pore spaces of the PRC, creating a composite with low porosity. Secondary micro-scale capillary permeability causes the KMnO4 release, mainly through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. The PRC developed could be used as an ISCO-based passive barrier system for plume control, and it has the potential to become a cost-effective alternative for the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan

    2017-11-22

    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  18. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (VP. The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the VP of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W–R (river wetland > W–L (lake wetland > W–M (grassy marsh wetland > W–A (reservoir wetland. The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment–water interface were sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface, and each main factor was Y = −0.105 + 0.096X1 + 0.275X2 − 0.010X3 (r = 0.416, p < 0.01, n = 144, where Y is sediment phosphorus release rates; X1 is sediment B-SO42− content; X2 is sediment B-MBN; and X3 is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO42−, B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment–water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  19. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

  20. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In nonlinear applications of computational fracture mechanics, energy release rate techniques are used increasingly for computing stress intensity parameters of crack configurations. Recently, deLorenzi used the virtual-crack-extension method to derive an analytical expression for the energy release rate that is better suited for three-dimensional calculations than the well-known J-integral. Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. This combined thermo-mechanical formulation of the energy release rate is valid for general fracture, including nonplanar fracture, and applies to thermo-elastic as well as deformation plasticity material models. Two applications of the technique are described here. In the first, semi-elliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loadings

  1. Fluctuations of global energy release and crackling in nominally brittle heterogeneous fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barés, J; Hattali, M L; Dalmas, D; Bonamy, D

    2014-12-31

    The temporal evolution of mechanical energy and spatially averaged crack speed are both monitored in slowly fracturing artificial rocks. Both signals display an irregular burstlike dynamics, with power-law distributed fluctuations spanning a broad range of scales. Yet, the elastic power released at each time step is proportional to the global velocity all along the process, which enables defining a material-constant fracture energy. We characterize the intermittent dynamics by computing the burst statistics. This latter displays the scale-free features signature of crackling dynamics, in qualitative but not quantitative agreement with the depinning interface models derived for fracture problems. The possible sources of discrepancies are pointed out and discussed.

  2. ENERGY RELEASE FROM IMPACTING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FOLLOWING THE 2011 JUNE 7 ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10{sup 26}-5.8 × 10{sup 27} erg) to the radiative energy (≈1.9 × 10{sup 25}-2.5 × 10{sup 26} erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  3. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  4. Thermal desorption and bombardment-induced release of deuterium implanted into stainless steels at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, G.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectra have been obtained for low energy (15-750 eV) deuterons implanted into types 321 and 304 stainless steel, to total fluences in the range 10 13 - 10 17 deuterons/cm 2 . In each case the spectra show a peak at about 350 K, but in the 321 steel there is a second peak in the region of 900 K, the population and peak temperature of which increase with energy. Activation energies of 0.99 and 2.39 eV and a rate constant of 7 x 10 15 /s have been derived for the peaks and it is thought that the first peak corresponds to release from sites close to the surface, while the second peak may be related to trapping at impurities such as Ti. Measurements have also been made of the release of deuterium resulting from post-implantation bombardment with hydrogen ions. It is found that depletion of the first peak in the 321 steel is the result of gas sputtering, but depletion of the second peak is the result of the formation of HD during desorption, while depletion of the peak in the 304 stainless steel also results from HD formation even though this peak is the same as the first peak in the 321 steel. Estimates have also been made of the deuterium self-sputtering cross section at various energies, which show a monotonic decrease as energy increases. (Auth.)

  5. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value

  6. Anisotropic kinetic energy release and gyroscopic behavior of CO2 super rotors from an optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Ogden, Hannah M.; Mullin, Amy S.

    2017-10-01

    An optical centrifuge is used to generate an ensemble of CO2 super rotors with oriented angular momentum. The collision dynamics and energy transfer behavior of the super rotor molecules are investigated using high-resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. New multipass IR detection provides improved sensitivity to perform polarization-dependent transient studies for rotational states with 76 ≤ J ≤ 100. Polarization-dependent measurements show that the collision-induced kinetic energy release is spatially anisotropic and results from both near-resonant energy transfer between super rotor molecules and non-resonant energy transfer between super rotors and thermal molecules. J-dependent studies show that the extent and duration of the orientational anisotropy increase with rotational angular momentum. The super rotors exhibit behavior akin to molecular gyroscopes, wherein molecules with larger amounts of angular momentum are less likely to change their angular momentum orientation through collisions.

  7. Advancing Knowledge on Fugitive Natural Gas from Energy Resource Development at a Controlled Release Field Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, A. G.; Chao, J.; Forde, O.; Prystupa, E.; Mayer, K. U.; Black, T. A.; Tannant, D. D.; Crowe, S.; Hallam, S.; Mayer, B.; Lauer, R. M.; van Geloven, C.; Welch, L. A.; Salas, C.; Levson, V.; Risk, D. A.; Beckie, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Fugitive gas, comprised primarily of methane, can be unintentionally released from upstream oil and gas development either at surface from leaky infrastructure or in the subsurface through failure of energy well bore integrity. For the latter, defective cement seals around energy well casings may permit buoyant flow of natural gas from the deeper subsurface towards shallow aquifers, the ground surface and potentially into the atmosphere. Concerns associated with fugitive gas release at surface and in the subsurface include contributions to greenhouse gas emissions, subsurface migration leading to accumulation in nearby infrastructure and impacts to groundwater quality. Current knowledge of the extent of fugitive gas leakage including how to best detect and monitor over time, and particularly its migration and fate in the subsurface, is incomplete. We have established an experimental field observatory for evaluating fugitive gas leakage in an area of historic and ongoing hydrocarbon resource development within the Montney Resource Play of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Natural gas will be intentionally released at surface and up to 25 m below surface at various rates and durations. Resulting migration patterns and impacts will be evaluated through examination of the geology, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, hydro-geophysics, vadose zone and soil gas processes, microbiology, and atmospheric conditions. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles and remote sensors for monitoring and detection of methane will also be assessed for suitability as environmental monitoring tools. Here we outline the experimental design and describe initial research conducted to develop a detailed site conceptual model of the field observatory. Subsequently, results attained from pilot surface and sub-surface controlled natural gas releases conducted in late summer 2017 will be presented as well as results of numerical modelling conducted

  8. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  9. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukubo, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Nishida, Y.; Kinjyo, T.; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  10. Bioremediation: Application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Levy, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    In situ biodegradation, the activation of microbial processes capable of destroying contaminants where they are found in the environment, is a biological process that responds rapidly to changing environmental factors. Accordingly, in situ sediment enclosures were used to test the efficacy of selected nutrient formulations to enhance the biodegradation of a waxy crude oil in a low-energy shoreline environment. The addition of soluble inorganic fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and slow-release nutrient formulations (sulfur-coated urea) stimulated microbial activity and prolonged the period of oil degradation, despite a decline in seasonal temperatures. Low temperatures reduced the permeability of the coating on the slow-release fertilizers, effectively suppressing nutrient release. Of the nutrient formulations evaluated, the authors recommend the application of granular slow-release fertilizers (such as sulfur-coated urea) when the overlying water temperatures are above 15 degrees C, and the application of soluble inorganic fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate) at lower temperatures. Comprehensive analysis of the experimental results indicate that application protocols for bioremediation (form and type of fertilizer or type and frequency of application), be specifically tailored to account for differences in environmental parameters (including oil characteristics) at each contaminated site

  11. Using SDO's AIA to investigate energy transport from a flare's energy release site to the chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIA's EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims: To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIA's 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 Å channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIA's nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop footpoint on 2001 April 24 with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on timescales comparable to AIA's image cadence. Methods: The nine emission lines observed by CDS cover a wide range of formation temperature from about 0.05 to 8 MK. Line brightenings observed early during the CDS flare occurred at temperatures less than about 0.7 MK, with the largest values around 0.1 MK. These brightenings were consistent with the flare's energy transport being dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Because all of AIA's EUV channels are sensitive to emission from plasma in the 0.1 to 0.7 MK temperature range, we show that all of AIA's EUV channels will brighten simultaneously during flares like this, in which energy transport is dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Results: The 2010 July 31 flare observed by AIA and RHESSI displays this behavior, so we conclude that such beams likely dominated the flare's energy transport early during the event. When thermal conduction from a reconnection-heated, hot (~10 MK) plasma dominates the energy transport, the AIA channels that are sensitive to emission from such temperatures (particularly the 94 and 131 Å channels) will brighten earlier than the channels that are not sensitive to such temperatures (171 and 211 Å). Conclusions: Thus

  12. Energy release from a stream of infalling prominence debris on 2011 September 7-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.; Ofman, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years high-resolution and high-cadence EUV imaging has revealed a new phenomenon, impacting prominence debris, where prominence material from failed or partial eruptions can impact the lower atmosphere and release energy. We present a clear example of this phenomenon occurring on 2011 September 7-8. The initial eruption of prominence material was associated with an X1.8-class flare from AR11283, occurring at 22:30 UT on 2011 September 7, resulting in a semi-continuous stream of this material returning to the solar surface between 00:20 - 00:40 UT on 2011 September 8. A substantial area remote from the original active region experienced brightening in multiple EUV channels observed by SDO/AIA. Using the differential emission measure, we estimated the energetic properties of this event. We found that the radiated energy of the impacted plasma was of order 10^27 ergs, while the upper limit on the thermal energy peaked at 10^28 ergs. Based on these estimates we were able to determine the mass content of the debris to be in the range 2x10^14 energy release takes place during these events, and that such impacts may be used as a novel diagnostic tool for investigating prominence material properties.

  13. Physical-chemical aspects of a coaxial sustained release device based on Poly-Eva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Johannes Antonius Hendrikus van

    2005-01-01

    Sustained release of dugs offers several advantages like increased efficacy, safety, compliance and convenience. As a consequence sustained drug delivery is often preferred above daily administration of drugs. Furthermore, drug delivery systems can be designed to deliver one or more drugs at a

  14. ENERGY RELEASE AND TRANSFER IN SOLAR FLARES: SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Fletcher, L.; Hesse, M.; Neukirch, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations we investigate energy release and transfer in a three-dimensional extension of the standard two-ribbon flare picture. In this scenario, reconnection is initiated in a thin current sheet (suggested to form below a departing coronal mass ejection) above a bipolar magnetic field. Two cases are contrasted: an initially force-free current sheet (low beta) and a finite-pressure current sheet (high beta), where beta represents the ratio between gas (plasma) and magnetic pressure. The energy conversion process from reconnection consists of incoming Poynting flux turned into up- and downgoing Poynting flux, enthalpy flux, and bulk kinetic energy flux. In the low-beta case, the outgoing Poynting flux is the dominant contribution, whereas the outgoing enthalpy flux dominates in the high-beta case. The bulk kinetic energy flux is only a minor contribution in the downward direction. The dominance of the downgoing Poynting flux in the low-beta case is consistent with an alternative to the thick target electron beam model for solar flare energy transport, suggested recently by Fletcher and Hudson, whereas the enthalpy flux may act as an alternative transport mechanism. For plausible characteristic parameters of the reconnecting field configuration, we obtain energy release timescales and energy output rates that compare favorably with those inferred from observations for the impulsive phase of flares. Significant enthalpy flux and heating are found even in the initially force-free case with very small background beta, resulting mostly from adiabatic compression rather than Ohmic dissipation. The energy conversion mechanism is most easily understood as a two-step process (although the two steps may occur essentially simultaneously): the first step is the acceleration of the plasma by Lorentz forces in layers akin to the slow shocks in the Petschek reconnection model, involving the conversion of magnetic energy to bulk kinetic

  15. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present energy supply resources problem is important. Nuclear reactors can, of course, solve this problem, but at the same time there is another issue, concerning safety exploitation of nuclear reactors. That is why, for the last seven years, such experiments as 'Investigation of the processes, conducting severe accidents with core melting' are being carried out at our IGR (impulse graphite reactor) reactor. Leaving out other difficulties of such experiments, it is necessary to notice, that such experiments require more accurate IGR core energy release calculations. The final aim of the present research is verification and correction of the existing method or creation of new method of IGR core energy release calculation. IGR reactor is unique and there is no the same reactor in the world. Therefore, application of the other research reactor methods here is quite useful. This work is based on evaluation of factors affecting core energy release (physical weight of experimental device, different configuration of reactor core, i.e. location of absorbers, initial temperature of core, etc), as well as interference of absorbers group. As it is known, energy release is a value of integral reactor power. During experiments with rays, Reactor power depends on currents of ion production chambers (IPC), located round the core. It is worth to notice that each ion production chamber (IPC) in the same start-up has its own ratio coefficient between IPC current and reactor present power. This task is complicated due to 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients, that change continuously, probably, because of new loading of experimental facility and different position of control rods. That is why, in order to try about reactor power, before every start-up, we have to re-determine the 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients for each ion production chamber (IPC). Therefore, the present work will investigate the behavior of ratio coefficient within the

  16. Kinetic, spectroscopic and chemical modification study of iron release from transferrin; iron(III) complexation to adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Amino acids other than those that serve as ligands have been found to influence the chemical properties of transferrin iron. The catalytic ability of pyrophosphate to mediate transferrin iron release to a terminal acceptor is largely quenched by modification non-liganded histine groups on the protein. The first order rate constants of iron release for several partially histidine modified protein samples were measured. A statistical method was employed to establish that one non-liganded histidine per metal binding domain was responsible for the reduction in rate constant. These results imply that the iron mediated chelator, pyrophosphate, binds directly to a histidine residue on the protein during the iron release process. EPR spectroscopic results are consistent with this interpretation. Kinetic and amino acid sequence studies of ovotransferrin and lactoferrin, in addition to human serum transferrin, have allowed the tentative assignment of His-207 in the N-terminal domain and His-535 in the C-terminal domain as the groups responsible for the reduction in rate of iron release. The above concepts have been extended to lysine modified transferrin. Complexation of iron(II) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was also studied to gain insight into the nature of iron-ATP species present at physiological pH. 31 P NMR spectra are observed when ATP is presented in large excess

  17. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January-March 1998. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies.

  18. Theory of the chemical effects of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, J.L.; Chatterjee, A.

    1978-01-01

    The general nature of radiation chemical yields arising from electron irradiations is examined. A relationship between the G value of an arbitrary radiation product and the initial electron energy (greater than 20 keV) in the form of an integro-differential equation is derived. G values for the water decomposition products in acid solution are obtained by numerical solution of the equation and the use of a model. A differential equation equivalent to the integro-differential equation for the case of Rutherford scattering is introduced and an approximate analytical solution is found (eq 10). The latter turns out to be in agreement with the numerical solution of the integro-differential equation obtained with the more accurate Moeller cross section. Experimental data for ferrous sulfate oxidation (Fricke dosimeter) are examined and found to be in agreement with the relationships obtained here. Primary yields of the water decomposition products are also given. 4 figures, 2 tables, 35 references

  19. From quantum chemical formation free energies to evaporation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of atmospheric aerosols. Large efforts have been made during the past few years to identify which molecules are behind this phenomenon, but the actual birth mechanism of the particles is not yet well known. Quantum chemical calculations have proven to be a powerful tool to gain new insights into the very first steps of particle formation. In the present study we use formation free energies calculated by quantum chemical methods to estimate the evaporation rates of species from sulfuric acid clusters containing ammonia or dimethylamine. We have found that dimethylamine forms much more stable clusters with sulphuric acid than ammonia does. On the other hand, the existence of a very deep local minimum for clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules and two dimethylamine molecules hinders their growth to larger clusters. These results indicate that other compounds may be needed to make clusters grow to larger sizes (containing more than three sulfuric acid molecules.

  20. Status of emission release and associated problems in energy systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Koyama, Shigeo; Ihara, Seijiro.

    1987-11-01

    OECD/IEA/ETSAP (Energy Technology System Analysis Project) has been started in March 1976. Since initiation of the projects, JAERI and ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) have been participating in the projects as operating agent of Japan. From last October, the ETSAP has initiated its Annex III programme, which pursues the problems laid down in energy-environment relationships. Main research objective of the programme is to investigate through the systems analysis ''how various environmental constrains would affect the pattern of fuel and technology use and the choice and timing of implementation of abatement technologies''. In this report, we describe the status of emission release in Japan and associated problems in energy system analysis which has been investigated at the start of these research programme mentioned above. (author)

  1. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  2. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  3. Chemical Characterization and Release Efficiency of Defatted Mustard Meals: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Glucosinolates, compounds that occur in agronomically important crops, may represent a viable source of allelochemic control for various soil-borne plant pests. Toxicity is not attributed to intact glucosinolates, but instead to biologically active products such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), organic cyanides, oxazolidinethiones, and ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) released upon enzymatic degradation by myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1) in the presence of water.

  4. Study on crack propagation of adhesively bonded DCB for aluminum foam using energy release rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Kyo; Cho, Chong Du [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ung [Kongju National University, Choenan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Aluminum foam with initial crack, which has a closed cell form adhesively bonded, is studied to compare and analyze the crack propagation behavior by using both experimental and finite element analysis techniques. The specimen is loaded in Mode I type of fracture as 15 mm/min speed of a displacement control method. The experimental results were used to accommodate the finite element analysis performed with commercial software ABAQUS 6.10. First, using a video recording, five steps of experiment were selected at random and then the energy release rate was calculated. The estimated energy release rate was then used as fracture energy into the finite element analysis. Comparing the experimental axial load-displacement graphs and the finite element analysis results, roughly equivalent peak values were observed in the cohesive strength of the aluminum foam double cantilever beam. However, force versus displacement patterns showed somewhat different: little deformation was observed in aluminum foam, whereas adhesive parts in double cantilever beam were significantly deformed.

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  6. Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Ul-Ain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped GQDs and (B-, Na-, and K-doped GQDs, respectively exhibited red- and blue-shift with respect to the photoluminescence of the undoped GQDs. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS revealed that oxygen functional groups were attached to GQDs. We qualitatively correlate red-shift of the photoluminescence with the oxygen functional groups using literature references which demonstrates that more oxygen containing groups leads to the formation of more defect states and is the reason of observed red-shift of luminescence in GQDs. Further on, time resolved photoluminescence measurements of Cl- and N-GQDs demonstrated that Cl substitution in GQDs has effective role in radiative transition whereas in N-GQDs leads to photoluminescence (PL quenching with non-radiative transition to ground state. Presumably oxidation or reduction processes cause a change of effective size and the bandgap.

  7. Octacosanol educes physico-chemical attributes, release and bioavailability as modified nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Surashree; Ghosh, Mahua

    2017-10-01

    Octacosanol is a lesser known nutraceutical with the potential for treatment of several inflammatory diseases, high cholesterol, Parkinson's symptoms and tumour growth along with the capacity to improve athletic performance. But its lipophilicity and large structure inhibits extended solubility in water resulting in poor absorption and a low bioavailability. In the present work, sodium salt of octacosyl sulfate was synthesized. It displayed improved water solubility. Its nanocrystals, synthesized by means of nanoprecipitation technique, enhanced diffusion velocity, antioxidant capacity, shelf-life, penetrability and bioavailability. Particle size of the nanocrystals ranged between 197 and 220nm. Both modified octacosanol and its nanocrystals displayed maximum lipid peroxidation activities at a concentration 1000ppm, but nanocrystals demonstrated higher prevention. From freeze-thaw cycles it was evident that normal octacosanol crystals were far more prone to temperature variations than the nanocrystals. A pronounced increase in release/diffusion rate and bioavailability was observed for the nanocrystals of the modified octacosanol. In vitro release kinetics, bioavailability and bioequivalence were studied. Relative bioavailability for gastric passage and pancreatic passage of nanocrystals was 2.58 times and 1.81 times that of normal crystals respectively. Furthermore the nanocrystals displayed a superior in vitro release rate, while following a non-Fickian mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dividing by four CO2 releases due to energy: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Negatep scenario aims at dividing CO 2 releases by 4, which means, more or less, dividing the consumption of fossil energies by the same factor, in order to comply with the French 2005 energy act. After a description of the situation in 2006, of trends, and a recall of the objectives defined by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' regarding energy savings and renewable energies, the authors show that reaching such a reduction requires to: decrease to nearly zero oil and gas in the residential and tertiary sectors, reduce significantly the use of oil in the transport sector, reduce significantly the use of fossil fuels in industry, increase massively the share of electricity in the energy mix, maintain the share of nuclear in the electricity generation and, as long as the storage of electricity is not developed, limit the share of intermittent energies to a level compatible with that of gas turbines. The study shows that the proposed measures can fulfill the objectives for 2020 proposed by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'

  9. Technogenic radionuclides of Chernobyl NPP accidental release and their physical and chemical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lypska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of radionuclides in the vertical soil profile on the nearest Chernobyl NPP zone of alienation was investigated. It is showed experimentally that the main activity of radionuclides is concentrated in the topsoil (10 сm. Coefficients of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides by plants are estimated. The physico-chemical forms of radionuclides in soil and plants were defined using the method of sequential chemical extraction. It was established that the main contents of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils are represented in non-exchange and fixed forms, in plants - mainly in exchange-adsorption and organic forms.

  10. Influence of ceramic dental crown coating substrate thickness ratio on strain energy release rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Noor, S. N. F. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of coating substrate thickness ratio effect on the crown coating fracture behaviour. The bi-layer material is examined under four point bending with pre-crack at the bottom of the core material by using finite element. Three different coating thickness of core/substrate was tested which is 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. The fracture parameters are analysed based on bilayer and homogenous elastic interaction. The result shows that the ratio thickness of core/veneer provided a significant effect on energy release rate.

  11. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  12. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  13. Analysis of Wigner energy release process in graphite stack of shut-down uranium-graphite reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bespala, E. V.; Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Data, which finding during thermal differential analysis of sampled irradiated graphite are presented. Results of computational modeling of Winger energy release process from irradiated graphite staking are demonstrated. It's shown, that spontaneous combustion of graphite possible only in adiabatic case.

  14. Linear free energy correlations for fission product release from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, David G; Schwantes, Jon M

    2015-03-03

    This paper extends the preliminary linear free energy correlations for radionuclide release performed by Schwantes et al., following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Through evaluations of the molar fractionations of radionuclides deposited in the soil relative to modeled radionuclide inventories, we confirm the initial source of the radionuclides to the environment to be from active reactors rather than the spent fuel pool. Linear correlations of the form In χ = −α ((ΔGrxn°(TC))/(RTC)) + β were obtained between the deposited concentrations, and the reduction potentials of the fission product oxide species using multiple reduction schemes to calculate ΔG°rxn (TC). These models allowed an estimate of the upper bound for the reactor temperatures of TC between 2015 and 2060 K, providing insight into the limiting factors to vaporization and release of fission products during the reactor accident. Estimates of the release of medium-lived fission products 90Sr, 121mSn, 147Pm, 144Ce, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, and 151Sm through atmospheric venting during the first month following the accident were obtained, indicating that large quantities of 90Sr and radioactive lanthanides were likely to remain in the damaged reactor cores.

  15. Effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virote Pattarajinda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman beef cattle. Fifteen Brahman cattle, 1.5 years old, with an average initial body weight of 184.8±11.1 kg were assigned to one of three treatments according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments contained 3 levels of synchrony index (0.39, 0.56 and 0.74 that were derived from laboratory chemical composition analysis and degradation kinetics using nylon bag technique. Diets were fed at the rate of 2.5% BW by separate concentrate and roughage. Average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05 with increase levels of synchrony index in the diets. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.01. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration increased linearly (P<0.05 at 6 h post feeding. Higher concentration and fluctuation of ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were observed in animals that received lower synchrony index in their diets. Rumen microbial population tended to increase with diets having higher levels of synchrony index. The results indicated that synchronized rate of dietary energy and nitrogen degradation improved ruminal fermentation and digestibility, thus this increased the growth rate in Brahman cattle fed with ricestraw- based diets.

  16. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, Eric

    2003-07-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

  17. DEM code-based modeling of energy accumulation and release in structurally heterogeneous rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.

    2015-10-01

    Based on discrete element method, the authors model loading of a physical specimen to describe its capacity to accumulate and release elastic energy. The specimen is modeled as a packing of particles with viscoelastic coupling and friction. The external elastic boundary of the packing is represented by particles connected by elastic springs. The latter means introduction of an additional special potential of interaction between the boundary particles, that exercises effect even when there is no direct contact between the particles. On the whole, the model specimen represents an element of a medium capable of accumulation of deformation energy in the form of internal stresses. The data of the numerical modeling of the physical specimen compression and the laboratory testing results show good qualitative consistency.

  18. Improvement in energy release properties of boron-based propellant by oxidant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jzliu@zju.edu.cn; Chen, Binghong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, KClO{sub 4} and HMX coated B were used to prepare propellant samples. • FTIR, XRD and SEM were used for the microstructure analysis of the prepared B. • Thermal oxidation and combustion characteristics of the propellants were studied. • HMX coating was the most beneficial to the energy release of the samples. - Abstract: The energy release properties of a propellant can be improved by coating boron (B) particles with oxidants. In the study, B was coated with four different oxidants, namely, NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, LiClO{sub 4}, and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), and the corresponding propellant samples were prepared. First, the structural and morphological analyses of the pretreated B were carried out. Then, the thermal analysis and laser ignition experiments of the propellant samples were carried out. Coating with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} showed a better performance than mechanical mixing with the same component. Coating with KNO{sub 3} efficiently improved the ignition characteristics of the samples. Coating with LiClO{sub 4} was the most beneficial in reducing the degree of difficulty of B oxidation. Coating with HMX was the most beneficial in the heat release of the samples. The KNO{sub 3}-coated sample had a very high combustion intensity in the beginning, but then it rapidly became weak. Large amounts of sparks were ejected during the combustion of the LiClO{sub 4}-coated sample. The HMX-coated sample had the longest self-sustaining combustion time (4332 ms) and the highest average combustion temperature (1163.92 °C).

  19. Chemical Disequilibria and Sources of Gibbs Free Energy Inside Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-photosynthetic organisms use chemical disequilibria in the environment to gain metabolic energy from enzyme catalyzed oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. The presence of carbon dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, methanol, methane and other hydrocarbons in the eruptive plume of Enceladus [1] implies diverse redox disequilibria in the interior. In the history of the moon, redox disequilibria could have been activated through melting of a volatile-rich ice and following water-rock-organic interactions. Previous and/or present aqueous processes are consistent with the detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2]. A low K/Na ratio in the grains [2] and a low upper limit for N2 in the plume [3] indicate low temperature (possibly enzymes if organisms were (are) present. The redox conditions in aqueous systems and amounts of available Gibbs free energy should have been affected by the production, consumption and escape of hydrogen. Aqueous oxidation of minerals (Fe-Ni metal, Fe-Ni phosphides, etc.) accreted on Enceladus should have led to H2 production, which is consistent with H2 detection in the plume [1]. Numerical evaluations based on concentrations of plume gases [1] reveal sufficient energy sources available to support metabolically diverse life at a wide range of activities (a) of dissolved H2 (log aH2 from 0 to -10). Formaldehyde, carbon dioxide [c.f. 4], HCN (if it is present), methanol, acetylene and other hydrocarbons have the potential to react with H2 to form methane. Aqueous hydrogenations of acetylene, HCN and formaldehyde to produce methanol are energetically favorable as well. Both favorable hydrogenation and hydration of HCN lead to formation of ammonia. Condensed organic species could also participate in redox reactions. Methane and ammonia are the final products of these putative redox transformations. Sulfates may have not formed in cold and/or short-term aqueous environments with a limited H2 escape. In contrast to

  20. Biogeochemistry of Lead. Its Release to the Environment and Chemical Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jay T; McAlister, Jason

    2017-04-10

    Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes. The biogeochemical cycle of Pb is significantly altered by anthropogenic inputs. This alteration began in antiquity but accelerated during the industrial revolution, which sparked increases in both mining activities and fossil fuel combustion. Estimates of the flux of Pb to the atmosphere, its deposition and processing in soils and freshwater systems are presented. Finally, the basin scale distribution of dissolved Pb in the ocean is interpreted in light of the chemical speciation and association with inorganic and organic particulate matter. The utility of stable radiogenic Pb isotopes, as a complement to concentration data, to trace inputs to the ocean, better understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pb and track water mass circulation in the ocean is discussed. An ongoing international survey of trace elements and their isotopes in seawater will undoubtedly increase our understanding of the deposition, biogeochemical cycling and fate of this infamous toxic metal.

  1. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  2. Endocannabinoid Release Modulates Electrical Coupling between CCK Cells Connected via Chemical and Electrical Synapses in CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iball, Jonathan; Ali, Afia B.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholecystokinin (CCK) interneurons which co-express cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labeling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18–20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral-associated cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSPs) that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5 μM) resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization. PMID

  3. Endocannabinoid release modulates electrical coupling between CCK cells connected via chemical and electrical synapses in CA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eIball

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholesystokinin (CCK interneurons which co-express cannbinoid type-1 (CB1 receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labelling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18-20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral associated (SCA cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released IPSPs that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5M resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI, maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization.

  4. Sustainable chemical processing and energy-carbon dioxide management: review of challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Vooradi, Ramsagar; Bertran, Maria-Ona

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the available energy sources for consumption, their effects in terms of CO2-emission and its management, and sustainable chemical processing where energy-consumption, CO2-emission, as well as economics and environmental impacts are considered. Not all available...... energy sources are being utilized efficiently, while, the energy source causing the largest emission of CO2 is being used in the largest amount. The CO2 management is therefore looking at "curing" the problem rather than "preventing" it. Examples highlighting the synthesis, design and analysis...... of sustainable chemical processing in the utilization of biomass-based energy-chemicals production, carbon-capture and utilization with zero or negative CO2-emission to produce value added chemicals as well as retrofit design of energy intensive chemical processes with significant reduction of energy consumption...

  5. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  6. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  7. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathway for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such observables as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method with the Dunning correlation consistent basis sets to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. Applications to complex reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion are discussed.

  8. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 -- 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed...

  9. Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic energy release and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations (δB/B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their energy distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker & Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path (λsc) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.

  10. Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic energy release and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations ( δB / B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their energy distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck equation numerically, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker and Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path ( λ {sub sc}) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.

  11. An analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Chung, Hae Yong; Lee, Sang Jong

    1996-07-01

    An analysis methodology for the hot leg break mass and energy release is developed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A analysis is suggested. For the post-blowdown period a new computer model named COMET is developed. Differently from previous post-blowdown analysis model FLOOD3, COMET is capable of analyzing both cold leg and hot leg break cases. The cold leg break model is essentially same as that of FLOOD3 with some improvements. The analysis results by the newly proposed hot leg break model in the COMET is in the same trend as those observed in scaled-down integral experiment. And the analyses results for the UCN 3 and 4 by COMET are qualitatively and quantitatively in good agreement with those predicted by best-estimate analysis by using RELAP5/MOD3. Therefore, the COMET code is validated and can be used for the licensing analysis. 6 tabs., 82 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  12. Detection of cold gas releases in space via low energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-eV hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper the authors examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, they examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then they review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of angstrom) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (> 10 10 cm -2 s -1 ) UV background to which the low energy detectors are sensitive. They conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made releases. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral releases, in the space environment

  13. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

  14. Fusing Mobile In Situ Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing of Chemical Release Emissions to Improve Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Leifer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and spacebased remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and space-based remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Understanding urban atmospheric transport in the Los Angeles Basin, where topographic influences on transport patterns are significant, was improved by leveraging the Aliso Canyon leak as an atmospheric tracer. Plume characterization data was collected by the AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG Surveyor, a commuter car modified for science. Mobile surface in situ CH4 and winds were measured by AMOG Surveyor under Santa Ana conditions to estimate an emission rate of 365±30% Gg yr-1. Vertical profiles were collected by AMOG Surveyor by leveraging local topography for vertical profiling to identify the planetary boundary layer at ~700 m. Topography significantly constrained plume dispersion by up to a factor of two. The observed plume trajectory was used to validate satellite aerosol optical depth-inferred atmospheric transport, which suggested the plume first was driven offshore, but then veered back towards land. Numerical long-range transport model predictions confirm this interpretation. This study demonstrated a novel application of satellite aerosol remote

  15. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1998-07-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July--September 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within nine major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Biotechnology, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information.

  16. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  17. Mesoscale simulations of shockwave energy dissipation via chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillon, Edwin; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-02-28

    We use a particle-based mesoscale model that incorporates chemical reactions at a coarse-grained level to study the response of materials that undergo volume-reducing chemical reactions under shockwave-loading conditions. We find that such chemical reactions can attenuate the shockwave and characterize how the parameters of the chemical model affect this behavior. The simulations show that the magnitude of the volume collapse and velocity at which the chemistry propagates are critical to weaken the shock, whereas the energetics in the reactions play only a minor role. Shock loading results in transient states where the material is away from local equilibrium and, interestingly, chemical reactions can nucleate under such non-equilibrium states. Thus, the timescales for equilibration between the various degrees of freedom in the material affect the shock-induced chemistry and its ability to attenuate the propagating shock.

  18. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: zhouxiang@njust.edu.cn; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  19. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2003-01-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin

  20. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin.

  1. Improving containment mass and energy releases for CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaSilva, H.C.; Choe, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    In order to obtain boundary conditions for RELAP5/MOD3 best estimate (BE) large break (LB) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) calculations, it is necessary to utilize a separate containment analysis code CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU, which in turn accepts mass and energy releases from the RELAP5/MOD3 calculation. When these boundary conditions are obtained, they are observed to be significantly lower than those reported in FSAR containment analyses. This motivates the present study, where RELAP5/MOD3 mass and energy releases are generated using the same assumptions listed in the FSAR containment calculations. Then CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU pressures and temperatures calculated with both sets of mass and energy releases are compared. It is seen that those obtained with the RELAP5/MOD3 input are still significantly lower, indicating a level of conservatism in the FSAR mass and energy releases that is even above that explicitly listed and also incorporated into the RELAP5/MOD3 calculation. An important conclusion from this finding is that Environmental Qualification (EQ) issues requiring containment re-analyses are likely to be easily resolved if new mass and energy releases are calculated with state-of-the-art LOCA codes modeling the entire reactor coolant system, even when conservative assumptions are incorporated

  2. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...

  3. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  4. Toxic chemical release inventory reporting form R and instructions. Revised 1992 version. Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Reporting is required to provide the public with information on the releases of listed toxic chemicals in their communities and to provide EPA with release information to assist the Agency in determining the need for future regulations. Facilities must report the quantities of both routine and accidental releases of listed toxic chemicals, as well as the maximum amount of the listed toxic chemical on-site during the calendar year and the amount contained in wastes transferred off-site. These instructions supplement and elaborate on the requirements in the reporting rule (40 CFR Part 372). Together with the reporting rule, they constitute the reporting requirements. All references in these instructions are to sections in the reporting rule unless otherwise indicated

  5. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy statistics in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2004 to find causes for these irregularities. We discovered that chemical products have occasionally been included, resulting in statistics with an inconsistent system boundary. Lack of guidance in the survey for the complex energy conversions in the chemical industry in the survey also resulted in large fluctuations for certain energy commodities. The findings of our analysis have been the basis for a new survey that has been used since 2007. We demonstrate that the annual questionnaire used for the international energy statistics can result in comparable problems as observed in the Netherlands. We suggest to include chemical residual gas as energy commodity in the questionnaire and to include the energy conversions in the chemical industry in the international energy statistics. In addition, we think the questionnaire should be explicit about the treatment of basic chemical products produced at refineries and in the petrochemical industry to avoid system boundary problems

  6. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST GALAXY METALLICITY AND GAMMA-RAY ENERGY RELEASE FOR LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo

    2010-01-01

    We compare the redshifts, host galaxy metallicities, and isotropic (E γ,iso ) and beaming-corrected (E γ ) gamma-ray energy release of 16 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z γ,iso , or E γ . These results are at odds with previous theoretical and observational predictions of an inverse correlation between gamma-ray energy release and host metallicity, as well as the standard predictions of metallicity-driven wind effects in stellar evolutionary models. We consider the implications that these results have for LGRB progenitor scenarios, and discuss our current understanding of the role that metallicity plays in the production of LGRBs.

  7. High-energy chemical processes: Laser irradiation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Liu, A.D.; Loffredo, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of the high-energy photochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solution have furthered our fundamental understanding of the way in which radiation interacts with matter. A new comprehensive mechanism that unifies many of the seemingly contradictory observations in radiation and photochemistry has been proposed on basis of evidence gathered using specialized techniques such as transient optical spectroscopy and transient dc conductivity. The PAH molecules were activated by two-photon ionization, and behavior of the transient ions were monitored as a function of photon energy. It was found that a greater percentage of ions retain sufficient energy to decompose when higher energy light was used. When these cations decompose they leave a trail of products that establish a ''high-energy'' decomposition pathway that involves proton transfer from the ion, a mechanism hitherto not considered in photoionization processes

  8. Chemical potential and internal energy of the noninteracting Fermi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entropy by T, dV is the change in volume by p and µ is the chemical potential. When S .... thin films are actually not 2D objects, but fractals with Hausdorff dimensionalities between 2D ..... sharpness of the edge of the Fermi surface is lost. In the ...

  9. A reversible, unidirectional molecular rotary motor driven by chemical energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, SP; Dumur, F; Pollard, MM; Feringa, BL

    2005-01-01

    With the long-term goal of producing nanometer-scale machines, we describe here the unidirectional rotary motion of a synthetic molecular structure fueled by chemical conversions. The basis of the rotation is the movement,of a phenyl rotor relative to a naphthyl stator about a single bond axle. The

  10. 1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, Marjorie B.

    1999-01-01

    The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998

  11. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  12. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  13. Phase changing nanocomposites for low temperature thermal energy storage and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop new elastomeric phase change materials (PCM for the thermal energy storage/release below room temperature. In particular, poly(cyclooctene (PCO/paraffin blends filled with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, were prepared by a melt compounding process. The microstructural, thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of the resulting materials were investigated. The microstructure of these materials was characterized by the presence of paraffin domains inside the PCO, and CNTs were located only inside the paraffin domains in forms of aggregated clusters. DSC tests evidenced the existence of two distinct crystallization peaks at –10 and at 6 °C, respectively associated to the paraffin and the PCO phases, indicating that both the polymeric constituents are thermally active below room temperature. Moreover, CNT addition did not substantially alter the melting/crystallization properties of the material. Noticeable improvements of the mechanical properties and of the electrical conductivity with respect to the neat PCO/paraffin blend could be obtained upon CNT addition, and also thermal conductivity/diffusivity values were considerably enhanced above the percolation threshold. Finite element modeling demonstrated the efficacy of the prepared nanocomposites for applications in the thermal range from –30 to 6 °C.

  14. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300 0 C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed

  15. Dark energy as consequence of release of cosmological nuclear binding-energy, and its further extension towards a new theory of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Pradhan, Anirudh; Gupta, Sushant

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively recent observations on Type-Ia supernovae and low density (Um = 0.3) measurement of matter including dark matter suggest that the present day universe consists mainly of repulsive-gravity type 'exotic matter' with negative-pressure often said 'dark energy' (Ux = O7). But the nature of dark energy is mysterious and its puzzling questions, such as why, how, where and when about the dark energy, are intriguing. In the present paper the authors attempt to answer these questions while making an effort to reveal the genesis of dark energy, and suggest that the cosmological nuclear binding energy liberated during primordial nucleo-synthesis remains trapped dormant for a long time and then is released free which manifests itself as dark energy in the universe. It is also explained why for dark energy the parameter w = -2/3. Noting that w = 1 for stiff matter and w = 1/3 for radiation; w = -2/3 is for dark energy because '- 1' is due to 'deficiency of stiff- nuclear-matter' and that this binding energy is ultimately released as 'radiation' contributing '+ 1/3', making w = -1+ 1/3 = -2/3. When dark energy is released free at Z = 80, w = -2/3. But as on present day at Z = 0 when radiation strength has diminished to ä ? 0, the parameter w = -1 + ä 1/3 = -1. This, thus almost solves the dark- energy mystery of negative pressure and repulsive-gravity. The proposed theory makes several estimates/predictions which agree reasonably well with the astrophysical constraints and observations. Though there are many candidate-theories, the proposed model of this paper presents an entirely new approach (cosmological nuclear energy) as a possible candidate for dark energy. The secret of acceleration of big-universe is hidden in the small-nucleus. (author)

  16. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe2O3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe2O3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe2O3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe2O3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  17. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were performed to assess the energy characteristics of the collected wood .... Methods. Wood processing activities were physically observed for. 6 days/wk at the sawmills for 15weeks. ..... [10] Oladeji, J T “Fuel characterization of briquettes.

  18. An overview of chemical additives present in plastics: Migration, release, fate and environmental impact during their use, disposal and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Velis, Costas A; Weber, Roland; Iacovidou, Eleni; Purnell, Phil

    2018-02-15

    Over the last 60 years plastics production has increased manifold, owing to their inexpensive, multipurpose, durable and lightweight nature. These characteristics have raised the demand for plastic materials that will continue to grow over the coming years. However, with increased plastic materials production, comes increased plastic material wastage creating a number of challenges, as well as opportunities to the waste management industry. The present overview highlights the waste management and pollution challenges, emphasising on the various chemical substances (known as "additives") contained in all plastic products for enhancing polymer properties and prolonging their life. Despite how useful these additives are in the functionality of polymer products, their potential to contaminate soil, air, water and food is widely documented in literature and described herein. These additives can potentially migrate and undesirably lead to human exposure via e.g. food contact materials, such as packaging. They can, also, be released from plastics during the various recycling and recovery processes and from the products produced from recyclates. Thus, sound recycling has to be performed in such a way as to ensure that emission of substances of high concern and contamination of recycled products is avoided, ensuring environmental and human health protection, at all times. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  20. Specific environmental release categories--A tool for improving chemical safety assessment in the EC--report of a multi-stakeholder workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sättler, Daniel; Schnöder, Frank; Aust, Nannett; Ahrens, Andreas; Bögi, Christian; Traas, Theo; Tolls, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    In April 2011, experts from industry and authorities met for a workshop to discuss experience and future developments regarding the use of specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) in chemicals safety assessment (CSA) under the European Chemicals Regulation Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH). This article provides a summary of the workshop. It briefly explains what a SPERC is, why SPERCs are needed, where the challenges of the concept are, and what improvements are needed to make SPERCs a useful tool for assessments under REACH. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe 2 O 3 unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe 2 O 3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  2. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hao, Haixia [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hui, Longfei [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Zhao, Fengqi [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hao, E-mail: fenghao98@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Fluorine and Nitrogen Chemicals, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  3. Minimizing the Free Energy: A Computer Method for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Emerson F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts using material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Method for the calculation of chemical equilibrium, the computer program used to solve equilibrium problems and applications of the method are also included. (HM)

  4. INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION ON SOME CHEMICAL AND ENERGY PROPERTIES OF MARITIME PINE AND PEDUNCULATE OAK

    OpenAIRE

    Floran Pierre; Giana Almeida; José Otavio Brito; Patrick Perré

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition and energy properties of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur). Samples were treated in a new experimental device at 220, 250, or 280 degrees C for 1 or 5 hours. Chemical and energy analyses were performed using standard methods. Our results clearly demonstrated an increased degradation of the material due to the combined effects of temperature and treatment duration. This mass los...

  5. Analysis of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet with indirect combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiang; Cheng, Kunlin; Zhang, Silong; Zhang, Duo; Bao, Wen; Han, Jiecai

    2016-01-01

    The working process of scramjet with regenerative cooling, which was actually the chemical recuperation process, was analyzed in view of energy cascade utilization. The indirect combustion was realized through pyrolysis reaction of fuel. The relative yields of thermal exergy obtained by indirect combustion have been predicted both assuming an ideal pyrolysis reaction and using the experimental results of thermal pyrolysis of n-decane. The results showed that the influence mechanism of regenerative cooling improved the scramjet engine performance by the energy cascade utilization, and the combustion process was supposed to be designed with the cooling process together to utilize the chemical energy of fuel in a more effective way. A maximum value of 11% of the relative yield was obtained with the ideal pyrolysis reaction while a value less than 3% existed in the thermal pyrolysis experiments because of the domination of chemical kinetics rather than chemical thermodynamics in the real experiments. In spite of the difference between the ideal and the present experimental results, the indirect combustion was prospective to achieve a better energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet if the pyrolysis reaction was further optimized. The results in this paper were beneficial for the performance optimization of a regenerative cooling scramjet. - Highlights: • A new method of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet. • 11% exergy loss is reduced by ideal pyrolysis reaction with indirect combustion. • Regenerative cooling with chemical recuperation can improve engine performance.

  6. Photoassisted electrolysis of water - Conversion of optical to chemical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighton, M. S.; Bolts, J. M.; Kaiser, S. W.; Ellis, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of devices, termed photoelectrochemical cells, which can, in principle, be used to directly convert light to fuels and/or electricity. The fundamental principles on which the photoelectrochemical cell is based are related to the observation that irradiation of a semiconductor electrode in an electrochemical cell can result in the flow of an electric current in the external circuit. Attention is given to the basic mechanisms involved, the energy conversion efficiency, the advantages of photoelectrochemical cells, and the results of investigations related to the study of energy conversion via photoelectrochemical cells.

  7. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin; Inventaire des rejets chimiques des installations nucleaires du Nord-Cotentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-15

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  8. A method for measurements of neutral fragments kinetic energies released to a specific dissociation threshold: optical translational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, A.; Frigon, C.; Larzilliere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The optical translational spectroscopy technique, based on the principles of fast ion beam laser spectroscopy (FIBLAS) and translational spectroscopy, allows the kinetic energies study of neutral fragments released through free dissociation of a neutral molecule. This method presents interesting features such as near-threshold energy measurements and selection of a specific dissociation limit. The fragments resulting from free dissociation (not induced) of neutral molecules, produced by charge exchange processes with a fast ion beam, are probed by laser radiation. Monitoring of the laser-induced fluorescence allows high-resolution spectra due to the kinematic compression of the velocity spread. Measurements of kinetic energies released to the second limit of dissociation H(1s) + H(2l) of H 2 are put forth and compared with those obtained by means of off-axis translational spectroscopy

  9. A unified model of hydride cracking based on elasto-plastic energy release rate over a finite crack extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.J.; Metzger, D.R.; Sauve, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    A fracture criterion based on energy balance is proposed for elasto-plastic cracking at hydrides in zirconium, assuming a finite length of crack advance. The proposed elasto-plastic energy release rate is applied to the crack initiation at hydrides in smooth and notched surfaces, as well as the subsequent delayed hydride cracking (DHC) considering limited crack-tip plasticity. For a smooth or notched surface of an elastic body, the fracture parameter is related to the stress intensity factor for the initiated crack. For DHC, a unique curve relates the non-dimensionalized elasto-plastic energy release rate with the length of crack extension relative to the plastic zone size. This fracture criterion explains experimental observations concerning DHC in a qualitative manner. Quantitative comparison with experiments is made for fracture toughness and DHC tests on specimens containing certain hydride structures; very good agreement is obtained. ((orig.))

  10. Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Sales, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.

  11. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  12. Lignocellulosics to ethanol: The future of the chemical and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy and environmental issues are among the major concerns facing the global community today. Biofuel technology is now globally embraced as the promising technology to replace fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic waste biomass from forestry, agriculture and municipal sources are abundant, inexpensive and potential ...

  13. Research, climate, energy : Questions of destiny for the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastinen, A., email: aimo.kastinen@chemind.fi

    2010-07-01

    Registration for the first phase of Reach finishes at the end of November. Then we will see whether the standard of legislation has been set correctly in respect of the EU's operational ability. If it isn't, significant problems will result for the community's treatment of materials and the EU's competitiveness, and Reach's value as a global model will become questionable. Also, the CLP regulation concerning classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals will start to come into effect as from the beginning of December. In the first phase, the question is one of classification of substances, and gradually the requirements will be applied to mixtures too. At the same time, Safety Data Sheets shall be renewed in accordance with their own transition period. The current product legislation concerning chemicals shall be fully revised by the mid-point of the decade, but before then company safety officers will have to do lots of work to change the previous routines

  14. Exact results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: Formalism and applications in chemical kinetics and single-molecule free energy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    In the last two decades or so, a collection of results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics that departs from the traditional near-equilibrium framework introduced by Lars Onsager in 1931 has been derived, yielding new fundamental insights into far-from-equilibrium processes in general. Apart from offering a more quantitative statement of the second law of thermodynamics, some of these results---typified by the so-called "Jarzynski equality"---have also offered novel means of estimating equilibrium quantities from nonequilibrium processes, such as free energy differences from single-molecule "pulling" experiments. This thesis contributes to such efforts by offering three novel results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: (a) The entropic analog of the Jarzynski equality; (b) A methodology for estimating free energies from "clamp-and-release" nonequilibrium processes; and (c) A directly measurable symmetry relation in chemical kinetics similar to (but more general than) chemical detailed balance. These results share in common the feature of remaining valid outside Onsager's near-equilibrium regime, and bear direct applicability in protein folding kinetics as well as in single-molecule free energy estimation.

  15. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: October-December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-02-01

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period October--December 1997. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within six major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included efforts to optimize the processing conditions for Enhanced Sludge Washing of Hanford tank sludge, the testing of candidate absorbers and ion exchangers under continuous-flow conditions using actual supernatant from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks, and attempts to develop a cesium-specific spherical inorganic sorbent for the treatment of acidic high-salt waste solutions. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed and experimental collaborative efforts with Russian scientists to determine the solidification conditions of yttrium barium, and copper oxides from their melts were completed.

  16. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.; Houmoeller, A.P. [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  17. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C; Houmoeller, A P [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  18. The chemical composition, energy and amino acid digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent and true metabolisable energy (AMEn and TMEn) values ranged from 9.88 to 10.02 and 10.29 to 10.78 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The mean digestibilities of the AA's ranged from 72.8 to 81.0%, with methionine having the highest digestibility and lysine the lowest. Cowpeas appear to be suitable for use in poultry ...

  19. Simultaneous water and energy optimization in chemical plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, Thokozani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available flowrates and contaminant concentrations  Sinks with fixed flowrates and known maximum allowable concentration  Water regeneration units (known design parameters)  Freshwater source with known concentration and unlimited supply  Wastewater sink... with maximum allowable concentration and unlimited capacity  Determine:  Minimum flowrate of freshwater into sinks  Minimum wastewater flowrate  Optimum design variables of regenerators for minimal energy usage  Optimum water network...

  20. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  1. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  2. Nuclear reactor for release of nuclear energy, without a chain reaction using the simultaneous implosion of three, or more, atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    A modified form of what is known as a 'streaking nuclear reactor' is described. In this type of reactor it is proposed to obtain release of nuclear energy from atomic nuclei by stripping such nuclei of their electron clouds or shells, to form a high temperature plasma, and breaking nucleons off the surface of the nuclei. In the apparatus described it is proposed to break up nuclei by causing three or more nuclei to collide with each other at very high velocity. Streams of nuclei, stripped of their electron clouds are directed into a reactor vessel to a focal point or implosion center along three or more ducts, equi-angularly spaced around the implosion center in the same plane, the arrangement being such as to permit mutual simultaneous collision of three or more of the nuclei. The importance of achieving a release of nuclear energy in this manner is that it may be able to use any chemical element that can be converted to a plasma, but it is most likely to be successful with elements of high atomic number, such as Pb or Bi. (U.K.)

  3. The influence of the physico-chemical form of the aerosol on the radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Jones, J.A.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR (Liquid Metal-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) were assessed in a study published by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1977. In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. The present study is concerned with the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the physico-chemical form of the released aerosol. Of particular interest is the importance of a mixed sodium-transuranium element aerosol which may be formed in accidental releases of activity from sodium cooled FBRs. Two significant findings emerge from the study. First the predicted consequences in general are relatively insensitive to the range of physico-chemical forms analysed. For generic assessments therefore it is sufficient to assume the properties of the aerosol adopted in the initial study (1 μm AMAD and each element in the oxide form); the exception concerns the estimation of the incidence of early morbidity, and to a lesser extent early mortality, but only for a limited range of release composition. The second finding is that the radiological consequences are not, contrary to what might have been expected, significantly increased for the release of a mixed sodium-element aerosol

  4. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  5. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  6. Influence of ultrasonic energy on dispersion of aggregates and released amounts of organic matter and polyvalent cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Kleber, M.; Berhe, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aggregates play important roles in soil carbon storage and stabilization. Identification of scale-dependent mechanisms of soil aggregate formation and stability is necessary to predict and eventually manage the flow of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Application of ultrasonic energy is a common tool to disperse soil aggregates. In this study, we used ultra sonic energy (100 to 2000 J cm-3) to determine the amount of polyvalent cations and organic matter involved in aggregation processes in three arable and three forest soils that varied in soil mineral composition. To determine the amount of organic matter and cations released after application of different amount of ultrasonic energy, we removed the coarse fraction (>250 µm). The remaining residue (solid residue freeze dried before we analyzed the amounts of water-extracted organic carbon (OC), Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, and Mg in the filtrates. The extracted OM and solid residues were further characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our results show a linear increase in amount of dissolved OC with increasing amounts of ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3 indicating maximum dispersion of soil aggregates at this energy level independent from soil type or land use. In contrast to Mn, and Mg, the amounts of dissolved Ca, Fe, and Al increase with increasing ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3. At 1500 J cm-3, the absolute amounts of OC, Ca, Fe, and Al released were specific for each soil type, likely indicating differences in type of OM-mineral interactions involved in micro-scaled aggregation processes. The amounts of dissolved Fe, and Al released after an application of 1500 J cm-3 are not related to oxalate- and dithionite- extractable, or total Al content indicating less disintegration of pedogenic oxides or clay minerals due to high levels of ultrasonic energy.

  7. Protocol for development of authorized release limits for concrete at U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.-Y.; Parker, F. L.; Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H.; Tripp, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for reuse. Current regulations allow the sites to release surface-contaminated materials if their radioactivity falls below certain levels and to possibly release materials with volumetric contamination or higher levels of surface contamination on a case-by-case basis. In all cases, an ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) analysis that evaluates the risks of releasing volumetrically contaminated concrete or concrete with higher levels of surface contamination is required as a basis for proposing and setting new release limits that allow for reuse of the concrete material. To evaluate the dose impacts of reusing radioactively contaminated material, the measured radiation levels (pCi/g or disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 cm 2 ) must be converted to the estimated dose (mrem/yr) that would be received by affected individuals. The dose depends on the amounts and types of isotopes present and the time, distance, and method of exposure (e.g., inhalation or external exposure). For each disposition alternative, the protocol provides a systematic method to evaluate the impact of the dose on the affected individuals. The cost impacts of reusing concrete also need to be evaluated. They too depend on the disposition alternative and the extent and type of contamination. The protocol provides a method to perform a detailed analysis of these factors and evaluate the dose and cost impacts for various disposition alternatives. Once the dose and cost impacts of the various alternatives have been estimated, the protocol outlines the steps required to propose new release standards that allow release and reuse of the concrete material

  8. Influences of in-fuel physical-chemical processes on serviceability of energy reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibilashvili, Yu K; Nekrasova, G A; Sukhanov, G I

    1989-01-01

    In-fuel physico-chemical processes and their effect on stress corrosion cracking of fuel element zirconium cladding are considered in the review. The mechanism of fission product release from the fuel is studied and the negative role of primarily iodine on the cladding corrosion process is demonstrated. Directions for improving the fuel element claddings and fuel to increase the fuel element serviceability are specified.

  9. Influences of in-fuel physical-chemical processes on serviceability of energy reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Nekrasova, G.A.; Sukhanov, G.I.

    1989-01-01

    In-fuel physico-chemical processes and their effect on stress corrosion cracking of fuel element zirconium cladding are considered in the review. The mechanism of fission product release from the fuel is studied and the negative role of primarily iodine on the cladding corrosion process is demonstrated. Directions for improving the fuel element claddings and fuel to increase the fuel element serviceability are specified

  10. Converting chemical energy into electricity through a functionally cooperating device with diving-surfacing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengmeng; Cheng, Mengjiao; Ju, Guannan; Zhang, Yajun; Shi, Feng

    2014-11-05

    A smart device that can dive or surface in aqueous medium has been developed by combining a pH-responsive surface with acid-responsive magnesium. The diving-surfacing cycles can be used to convert chemical energy into electricity. During the diving-surfacing motion, the smart device cuts magnetic flux lines and produces a current, demonstrating that motional energy can be realized by consuming chemical energy of magnesium, thus producing electricity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  12. Analytical definition of fission chain reaction parameters for cylindrical uranium bar and energy release evaluations for HIF hybrid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Within the conditions of Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) arises a possibility to obtain the fission chain reaction for a cylindrical HIF target. The paper contains the solution interpolated with the diffusion approximation in order to receive the general approximation expressions for the bar critical radius as well as for over-critical state. The obtained critical parameters generalized for uranium envelope are used for rough evaluation of the energy release in HIF hybrid targets [ru

  13. 2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, M.

    2003-01-01

    For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R

  14. 2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecology and Air Quality Group (ENV-EAQ)

    2007-12-12

    For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

  15. 2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Stockton

    2006-01-15

    Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

  16. Chemical modification of polypropylene induced by high energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Chintalapudi, S.N. E-mail: snc@gamma.iuc.res.in

    2000-06-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energy using 3 MV Pelletron. The spectral changes owing to ion bombardment were investigated by UV-VIS and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A gradual increase in absorbance was observed around visible and near visible region with increase in fluence of bombarding ions. The difference absorption spectra show formation of chromophoric groups with wavelength maximum near 380 nm at lower fluence, but at high fluence a shift in peak is observed. The chromophoric groups are likely to be the extended conjugated polyene system and the red shift in peak position at high fluence may be attributed to the greater degree of conjugation. The formation of unsaturated linkage is confirmed by the FTIR spectra with observed stretching band around 1650 cm{sup -1} and its intensity was found to increase with increase in ion fluence studied. The gases (in the range 2-80 amu) which were evolved due to interaction of polypropylene with {sup 12}C{sup +} ions were measured with Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). A large number of gaseous components were detected. This shows that polymer chains break into some smaller fragments which concomitantly leads to extended conjugation.

  17. Biotechnology in China II. Chemicals, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab. Renewable Resources Engineering; Ouyang, Pingkai [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering; Chen, Jian (eds.) [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    , biochemists, molecular biologists, bioengineers, chemical engineers, and food and pharmaceutical chemists, environmental engineers working in industry, at universities or at public institutions. The volume editors and the authors of the individual chapters have been chosen for their recognized expertise and their contributions to the various fields of biotechnology. Their willingness to impart this knowledge to their colleagues forms the basis of the book and is gratefully acknowledged. Moreover, this work could not have been brought to fruition without the foresight and the constant and diligent support from the Springer. The seven chapters are organized by more than 20 outstanding biotechnological groups in China. The first chapter reviews the general development history and the perspectives of the industrial biotechnology in China. The next two chapters consider the biotechnological production of organic chemicals and biofuels in China. The fourth chapter summarizes the development of bioreactors and bioseparation. The fifth chapter gives a profile on the current status of environmental biotechnology in China. Special attention is given here to traditional Chinese biotechnology. The last chapter describes the new biotechnology in China. A carefully selected and distinguished Editorial Board stands behind the series. Its members come from key institutions representing scientific input from about 20 countries. We are grateful to Springer for publishing Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology with their customary excellence. Special thanks are due to Editorial Board, without whose constant efforts the volumes could not be published. Finally, the editors wish to thank the Chinese researchers working in the field for their diligence, courage and wisdom, which greatly facilitate the development of Chinese biotechnology. We believe that we have tried our best to draw a more comprehensive atlas for the development of biochemical engineering and biotechnology in China

  18. Alternative forms of energy transmission from OTEC plants. [Chemical and electrical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, A.; Biederman, N.; Talib, A.; Yudow, B.

    1977-01-01

    The transmission of OTEC-derived chemical and electrical energy is compared. The chemical energy-carriers considered are the following: gaseous and liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, methanol, gasoline, hydrazine hydrate, anhydrous hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1,7-Octadiyne, and tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene. The assessment assumes that each of the above energy carriers were transported by barge and/or pipeline. The delivered costs were then compared with transmission of electricity by submarine cables. Because chemical and electrical energy are not equivalent, however, their comparison can only be done after the outputs are converted to a common form. Thus, in addition to presenting the delivered cost and overall energy efficiency of the chemical energy-carriers, we have provided a discussion of the equipment, costs, and efficiencies of converting the hydrogen and ammonia delivered into electricity, and the electricity delivered into hydrogen and ammonia. A concise technical assessment and economic analysis of components associated with the conversion, storage, transportation, and shore-based receiving facilities for the conversion of OTEC mechanical energy to chemical energy is provided and compared to the conversion and transmission of electrical power. Results concerning the hydrogen and ammonia analysis were determined as part of the OTEC program at IGT from May 1975 through May 1976 under Contract No. NSF-C1008 (AER-75-00033) with the National Science Foundation and ERDA. Information concerning carbonaceous fuels and high-energy fuels production was developed as part of the current IGT OTEC program under Contract No. E(49-18)-2426 with ERDA.

  19. Testing of self-repairing composite airplane components by use of CAI and the release of the repair chemicals from carefully inserted small tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2007-04-01

    The research on self repair of airplane components, under an SBIR phase II with Wright Patterson Air Force Base, has investigated the attributes and best end use applications for such a technology. These attributes include issues related to manufacturability, cost, potential benefits such as weight reduction, and cost reduction. The goal of our research has been to develop self-repairing composites with unique strength for air vehicles. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the composite matrix itself. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the composite senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the composite is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The advantages to the military would be safely executed missions, fewer repairs and eventually lighter vehicles. In particular the research has addressed the issues by correlating the impact of the various factors, such as 1) delivery vessel placement, shape/size and effect on composite strength, chemicals released and their effect on the matrix, release trigger and efficacy and any impact on matrix properties 2) impact of composite processing methods that involve heat and pressure on the repair vessels. Our self repairing system can be processed at temperatures of 300-350F, repairs in less than 30 seconds and does not damage the composite by repair fiber insertion or chemical release. Scaling up and manufacture of components has revealed that anticipating potential problems allowed us to avoid those associated with processing temperatures and pressures. The presentation will focus on compression after impact testing and the placement of repair fibers/tubes into prepreg

  20. Energy and greenhouse gas profile of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region. Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Alain; Poitevin, Lionel; Loeb, Amandine; Philippot, Herve; Rebouillat, Lea; Jacquelin, Antoine

    2017-06-01

    This publication first proposes graphs and comments characterising final energy consumption of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region: regional situation in 2015 (analysis per sector and per energy), primary resources, social-economic analysis (energy bill, level of energy poverty, burden due to old housing and commuting for households), evolution of energy consumption between 2005 and 2015 (per sector, per source of energy, evolution of energy intensity and of the energy bill). The next part addresses greenhouse gas emissions: regional situation in 2015 (distribution in terms of emission type and per gas), evolutions between 1990 and 2015, evolutions per sector. The third part addresses renewable energies: regional situation for the different types of renewable energy, comparison with final energy consumption, comparison with national data, production evolutions, focus per sector (wood and wood by-products, heat pumps in the housing sector, urban waste valorisation units, biogas valorisation, bio-fuels, wind energy, hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic). The last part recalls national objectives related to energy, to greenhouse gas emissions for France and for the region, in relationship with the law on energy transition and for a green growth

  1. Book of abstracts Chemical Engineering: IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists. Chemical engineering of nanomaterials. Energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes and problems of their intensification. Processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics. Ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhodyaeva, Yu.A.; Belova, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the given volume of abstracts of the IV All-Russian Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian Youth Conference on chemical engineering, All-Russian school on chemical engineering for young scientists and specialists (Moscow, March 18-23, 2012) there are the abstracts of the reports concerning chemical engineering of nanomaterials, energy- and resource-saving chemical-engineering processes, processes and apparatuses of chemical engineering, chemical cybernetics, ecological problems of chemical engineering and related fields. The abstracts deal with state-of-the-art and future development of theoretical and experimental investigations as well as with experience in practical realization of development works in the field of chemical engineering and relative areas [ru

  2. Chemical Abundance Measurements of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies Discovered by the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Simon, Joshua D.; Hansen, Terese; Li, Ting; Bernstein, Rebecca; Balbinot, Eduardo; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Pace, Andrew; Strigari, Louis; Pellegrino, Craig; DePoy, Darren L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Bechtol, Keith; Dark Energy Suvey

    2018-01-01

    We present chemical abundance analysis results derived from high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-faint dwarfs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies preserve a fossil record of the chemical abundance patterns imprinted by the first stars in the Universe. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of member stars in several recently discovered Milky Way satellites reveal a range of abundance patterns among ultra-faint dwarfs suggesting that star formation processes in the early Universe were quite diverse. The chemical content provides a glimpse not only of the varied nucleosynthetic processes and chemical history of the dwarfs themselves, but also the environment in which they were formed. We present the chemical abundance analysis of these objects and discuss possible explanations for the observed abundance patterns.

  3. Purposeful synthesis of chemical elements and ecologically pure mobile sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivitsky, V. A.; Gareev, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known [1] that the natural geo-transmutation of chemical elements occurs in the atmosphere and earth in the regions of a strong change in geo-, bio-, acoustic-, and electromagnetic fields. The mineral row materials contain the same accompanying chemical combinations which are independent of mineral deposit [2]. This means that the formation of chemical elements occurs in the same physical and chemical conditions. These conditions were simulated on the fundamental cooperative resonance synchronization principle [1]. The experimental facility was constructed on the basis of our model which provided with the calculated final chemical elements. These experimental results indicate new possibilities for, simulating, inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by low energy external fields. The borrowing from the geo-transmutation mechanisms of chemical elements creates the fundamental directions in low energy nuclear reaction researches for construction of new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent of oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006. [2] V.A. Krivzskii, Transmutazija ximicheskix elementov v evolyuzii Semli (in Russian), Moscow 2003

  4. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Dana Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  5. Free energy calculations, enhanced by a Gaussian ansatz, for the "chemical work" distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Georgios C

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of the free energy is essential in molecular simulation because it is intimately related with the existence of multiphase equilibrium. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate the Helmholtz free energy using a single statistical ensemble along an entire isotherm by accounting for the "chemical work" of transforming each molecule, from an interacting one, to an ideal gas. In this work, we show that it is possible to perform such a free energy perturbation over a liquid vapor phase transition. Furthermore, we investigate the link between a general free energy perturbation scheme and the novel nonequilibrium theories of Crook's and Jarzinsky. We find that for finite systems away from the thermodynamic limit the second law of thermodynamics will always be an inequality for isothermal free energy perturbations, resulting always to a dissipated work that may tend to zero only in the thermodynamic limit. The work, the heat, and the entropy produced during a thermodynamic free energy perturbation can be viewed in the context of the Crooks and Jarzinsky formalism, revealing that for a given value of the ensemble average of the "irreversible" work, the minimum entropy production corresponded to a Gaussian distribution for the histogram of the work. We propose the evaluation of the free energy difference in any free energy perturbation based scheme on the average irreversible "chemical work" minus the dissipated work that can be calculated from the variance of the distribution of the logarithm of the work histogram, within the Gaussian approximation. As a consequence, using the Gaussian ansatz for the distribution of the "chemical work," accurate estimates for the chemical potential and the free energy of the system can be performed using much shorter simulations and avoiding the necessity of sampling the computational costly tails of the "chemical work." For a more general free energy perturbation scheme that the Gaussian ansatz may not be

  6. Observational study on the fine structure and dynamics of a solar jet. II. Energy release process revealed by spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Takahito; Tei, Akiko; Asai, Ayumi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    We report on a solar jet phenomenon associated with the C5.4 class flare on 2014 November 11. The data of the jet was provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. These plentiful data enabled us to present this series of papers to discuss all the processes of the observed phenomena, including energy storage, event trigger, and energy release. In this paper, we focus on the energy release process of the observed jet, and mainly describe our spectral analysis on the Hα data of DST to investigate the internal structure of the Hα jet and its temporal evolution. This analysis reveals that in the physical quantity distributions of the Hα jet, such as line-of-sight velocity and optical thickness, there is a significant gradient in the direction crossing the jet. We interpret this internal structure as the consequence of the migration of the energy release site, based on the idea of ubiquitous reconnection. Moreover, by measuring the horizontal flow of the fine structures in the jet, we succeeded in deriving the three-dimensional velocity field and the line-of-sight acceleration field of the Hα jet. The analysis result indicates that part of the ejecta in the Hα jet experienced additional acceleration after it had been ejected from the lower atmosphere. This secondary acceleration was found to occur in the vicinity of the intersection between the trajectories of the Hα jet and the X-ray jet observed by Hinode/XRT. We propose that a fundamental cause of this phenomenon is magnetic reconnection involving the plasmoid in the observed jet.

  7. The relationship between energy metabolism and the action of inhibitors of histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, L G; Johansen, Torben

    1977-01-01

    1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol/l) and dicu......1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol...

  8. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Grace G D; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-11-13

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid-solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive goal. Herein, we report a combination of photo-switching dopants and organic phase-change materials as a way to introduce an activation energy barrier for phase-change materials solidification and to conserve thermal energy in the materials, allowing them to be triggered optically to release their stored latent heat. This approach enables the retention of thermal energy (about 200 J g -1 ) in the materials for at least 10 h at temperatures lower than the original crystallization point, unlocking opportunities for portable thermal energy storage systems.

  9. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE RELEASE AND CONVERSION VIA RECONNECTION OF ENERGY STORED BY A CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using a simple two-dimensional, zero-{beta} model, we explore the manner by which reconnection at a current sheet releases and dissipates free magnetic energy. We find that only a small fraction (3%-11% depending on current-sheet size) of the energy is stored close enough to the current sheet to be dissipated abruptly by the reconnection process. The remaining energy, stored in the larger-scale field, is converted to kinetic energy in a fast magnetosonic disturbance propagating away from the reconnection site, carrying the initial current and generating reconnection-associated flows (inflow and outflow). Some of this reflects from the lower boundary (the photosphere) and refracts back to the X-point reconnection site. Most of this inward wave energy is reflected back again and continues to bounce between X-point and photosphere until it is gradually dissipated, over many transits. This phase of the energy dissipation process is thus global and lasts far longer than the initial purely local phase. In the process, a significant fraction of the energy (25%-60%) remains as undissipated fast magnetosonic waves propagating away from the reconnection site, primarily upward. This flare-generated wave is initiated by unbalanced Lorentz forces in the reconnection-disrupted current sheet, rather than by dissipation-generated pressure, as some previous models have assumed. Depending on the orientation of the initial current sheet, the wave front is either a rarefaction, with backward-directed flow, or a compression, with forward-directed flow.

  10. Quarterly Progress Report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: July-September 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    2001-04-16

    This report summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period July-September 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within ten major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Physical Properties Research, Biochemical Engineering, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structures and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of the Cell Operations involved the testing of two continuously stirred tank reactors in series to evaluate the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium and transuranics from supernatant. Within the area of Process Chemistry, various topics related to solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge were addressed. Saltcake dissolution efforts continued, including the development of a predictive algorithm. New initiatives for the section included modeling activities centered on detection of hydrogen in {sup 233}U storage wells and wax formation in petroleum mixtures, as well as support for the Spallation Neutron Source (investigation of transmutation products formed during operation). Other activities involved in situ grouting and evaluation of options for use (i.e., as castable shapes) of depleted uranium. In a continuation of activities of the preceding

  11. A hybrid solar and chemical looping combustion system for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel solar–CLC hybrid system is proposed which integrates a CLC with solar thermal energy. ► The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for thermal energy storage. ► A solar cavity reactor is proposed for fuel reactor. ► The absorbed solar energy is stored in the particles to produce a base heat load. -- Abstract: A novel hybrid of a solar thermal energy and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system is proposed here, which employs the oxygen carrier particles in a CLC system to provide diurnal thermal energy storage for concentrated solar thermal energy. In taking advantage of the chemical and sensible energy storage systems that are an inherent part of a CLC system, this hybrid offers potential to achieve cost effective, base load power generation for solar energy. In the proposed system, three reservoirs have been added to a conventional CLC system to allow storage of the oxygen carrier particles, while a cavity solar receiver has been chosen for the fuel reactor. The performance of the system is evaluated using ASPEN PLUS software, with the model being validated using independent simulation result reported previously. Operating temperature, solar efficiency, solar fraction, exergy efficiency and the fraction of the solar thermal energy stored for a based load power generation application are reported.

  12. Role of p38 MAPK in the selective release of IL-8 induced by chemical allergen in naive THp-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, Montserrat; Viviani, Barbara; Lucchi, Laura; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Corsini, Emanuela

    2008-03-01

    At present, the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals is carried out using animal models. Over the last decade, several in vitro methods mainly using primary dendritic cells have been proposed to identify the potential of chemicals to induce skin sensitization to meet current animal welfare and public opinions. The major limitations of such tests are the donor-to-donor variability, the low levels in the source, and a possible shortage of human sources. The aim of the present investigation was to establish an in vitro test to identify chemical allergens using the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 in order to avoid some of these difficulties. We investigated whether the chemokine interleukin-8 or CXCL8 (IL-8) production could provide a methodology for the detection of both respiratory and contact allergens. THP-1 cells were exposed to contact allergens (cinnamaldehyde, dinitrochlorobenzene, nickel sulfate, penicillin G, p-phenylenediamine, tetramethylthiuram disulfide), to respiratory allergens (ammonium hexachloroplatinate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, trimellitic anhydride) and to irritants (salicylic acid, phenol, sodium lauryl sulphate). Following 48 h of incubation, the release of IL-8 was evaluated by sandwich ELISA. IL-8 production was significantly increased after stimulation with all allergens tested, with the exception of trimellitic anhydride, whereas irritants exposure failed to induce IL-8 release. The lack of IL-8 production by trimellitic anhydride can be explained by the rapid hydrolysis of this chemical in water to trimellitic acid, which is not an allergen. In contrast to IL-8 release, CD54 and CD86 expression did not provide a sensitive method failing to correctly identify approximately 30% of the tested compounds. Although CD86 appears to be a more sensitive marker than CD54 when discriminating allergens from irritants neither of these markers provided robust methodology. We also investigated if a common activation pathway in

  13. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic and thermal processes in solar flare energy build-up and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tend, W. van.

    1979-01-01

    A solar flare can be described as an instability in the upper solar atmosphere that converts 10 28 ergs to 10 32 ergs of magnetic energy into other forms of energy, mainly kinetic energy. The solar flare gives rise to a wealth of observable phenomena. The author develops a fairly simple model to explain many of these apparently very diverse features of solar flares. (Auth.)

  15. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  16. Human Exposure Model (HEM): A modular, web-based application to characterize near-field chemical exposures and releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Chemical Safety and Sustainability research program is developing the Human Exposure Model (HEM) to assess near-field exposures to chemicals that occur in various populations over the entire life cycle of a consumer product. The model will be implemented as a...

  17. Control of electro-chemical processes using energy harvesting materials and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xie, Mengying; Adamaki, Vana; Khanbareh, Hamideh; Bowen, Chris R

    2017-12-11

    Energy harvesting is a topic of intense interest that aims to convert ambient forms of energy such as mechanical motion, light and heat, which are otherwise wasted, into useful energy. In many cases the energy harvester or nanogenerator converts motion, heat or light into electrical energy, which is subsequently rectified and stored within capacitors for applications such as wireless and self-powered sensors or low-power electronics. This review covers the new and emerging area that aims to directly couple energy harvesting materials and devices with electro-chemical systems. The harvesting approaches to be covered include pyroelectric, piezoelectric, triboelectric, flexoelectric, thermoelectric and photovoltaic effects. These are used to influence a variety of electro-chemical systems such as applications related to water splitting, catalysis, corrosion protection, degradation of pollutants, disinfection of bacteria and material synthesis. Comparisons are made between the range harvesting approaches and the modes of operation are described. Future directions for the development of electro-chemical harvesting systems are highlighted and the potential for new applications and hybrid approaches are discussed.

  18. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  19. Chemical Denaturants Smoothen Ruggedness on the Free Energy Landscape of Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Pooja; Jethva, Prashant N; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2017-08-08

    To characterize experimentally the ruggedness of the free energy landscape of protein folding is challenging, because the distributed small free energy barriers are usually dominated by one, or a few, large activation free energy barriers. This study delineates changes in the roughness of the free energy landscape by making use of the observation that a decrease in ruggedness is accompanied invariably by an increase in folding cooperativity. Hydrogen exchange (HX) coupled to mass spectrometry was used to detect transient sampling of local energy minima and the global unfolded state on the free energy landscape of the small protein single-chain monellin. Under native conditions, local noncooperative openings result in interconversions between Boltzmann-distributed intermediate states, populated on an extremely rugged "uphill" energy landscape. The cooperativity of these interconversions was increased by selectively destabilizing the native state via mutations, and further by the addition of a chemical denaturant. The perturbation of stability alone resulted in seven backbone amide sites exchanging cooperatively. The size of the cooperatively exchanging and/or unfolding unit did not depend on the extent of protein destabilization. Only upon the addition of a denaturant to a destabilized mutant variant did seven additional backbone amide sites exchange cooperatively. Segmentwise analysis of the HX kinetics of the mutant variants further confirmed that the observed increase in cooperativity was due to the smoothing of the ruggedness of the free energy landscape of folding of the protein by the chemical denaturant.

  20. Energy release rate analysis on the interface cracks of enamel-cement-bracket fracture using virtual crack closure technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samshuri, S. F.; Daud, R.; Rojan, M. A.; Mat, F.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Hassan, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the energy method to evaluate fracture behavior of enamel-cement-bracket system based on cement thickness. Finite element (FE) model of enamel-cement-bracket was constructed by using ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). Three different thickness were used in this study, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.271 mm which assigned as thin, medium and thick for both enamel-cement and cement bracket interface cracks. Virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was implemented as a simulation method to calculated energy release rate (ERR). Simulation results were obtained for each thickness are discussed by using Griffith’s energy balance approach. ERR for thin thickness are found to be the lowest compared to medium and thick. Peak value of ERR also showed a significant different between medium and thick thickness. Therefore, weakest bonding occurred at low cement thickness because less load required to produce enough energy to detach the bracket. For medium and thick thickness, both increased rapidly in energy value at about the mid-point of the enamel-cement interface. This behavior occurred because of the increasing in mechanical and surface energy when the cracks are increasing. However, result for thick thickness are higher at mid-point compared to thin thickness. In conclusion, fracture behavior of enamel cracking process for medium most likely the safest to avoid enamel fracture and withstand bracket debonding.

  1. A Simple Method to Calculate the Temperature Dependence of the Gibbs Energy and Chemical Equilibrium Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Gibbs energy and important quantities such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficients, and chemical equilibrium constants is usually calculated by using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Although, this is a well-known approach and traditionally covered as part of any physical chemistry course, the required…

  2. Chemical absorption of acoustic energy due to an eddy in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Acoustic energy losses due to chemical absorption, within the western Bay of Bengal, in the presence of a subsurface meso-scale cold core eddy has been analysed. These estimates, for two different frequencies - 400 Hz and 10 kHz, find applications...

  3. Conducting Polymers in the Fields of Energy, Environmental Remediation, and Chemical-Chiral Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G; Rincón, Marina E; Gutierrez-Granados, Silvia; Chahma, M'hamed; Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A

    2018-05-09

    Conducting polymers (CPs), thanks to their unique properties, structures made on-demand, new composite mixtures, and possibility of deposit on a surface by chemical, physical, or electrochemical methodologies, have shown in the last years a renaissance and have been widely used in important fields of chemistry and materials science. Due to the extent of the literature on CPs, this review, after a concise introduction about the interrelationship between electrochemistry and conducting polymers, is focused exclusively on the following applications: energy (energy storage devices and solar cells), use in environmental remediation (anion and cation trapping, electrocatalytic reduction/oxidation of pollutants on CP based electrodes, and adsorption of pollutants) and finally electroanalysis as chemical sensors in solution, gas phase, and chiral molecules. This review is expected to be comprehensive, authoritative, and useful to the chemical community interested in CPs and their applications.

  4. The application of nuclear energy to the Canadian chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-03-01

    A study has been made to determine what role nuclear energy, either electrical or thermal, could play in the Canadian chemical process industry. The study was restricted to current-scale CANDU type power reactors. It is concluded that the scale of operation of the chemical industry is rarely large enough to use blocks of electrical power (e) of 500 MW or thermal power (t) of 1500 MW. Thus, with a few predictable exceptions, the role of nuclear energy in the Canadian chemical industry will be as a general thermal/electrical utility supplier, serving a variety of customers in a particular geographic area. This picture would change if nuclear steam generators of 20 to 50 MW(t) become available and are economically competitive. (author)

  5. Collisions of polyatomic ions with surfaces: incident energy partitioning and chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabka, J.; Roithova, J.; Dolejsek, Z.; Herman, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Collision of polyatomic ions with surfaces were investigated in ion-surface scattering experiments to obtain more information on energy partitioning in ion-surface collision and on chemical reactions at surfaces. Mass spectra, translation energy and angular distributions of product ions were measured in dependence on the incident energy and the incident angle of polyatomic projectiles. From these data distributions of energy fractions resulting in internal excitation of the projectile, translation energy of the product ions, and energy absorbed by the surface were determined. The surface investigated were a standard stainless steel surface, covered by hydrocarbons, carbon surfaces at room and elevated temperatures, and several surfaces covered by a self-assembled monolayers (C 12 -hydrocarbon SAM, C 11 -perfluorohydrocarbon SAM, and C 11 hydrocarbon with terminal -COOH group SAM). The main processes observed at collision energies of 10 - 50 eV were: neutralization of the ions at surfaces, inelastic scattering and dissociations of the projectile ions, quasi elastic scattering of the projectile ions, and chemical reactions with the surface material (usually hydrogen-atom transfer reactions). The ion survival factor was estimated to be a few percent for even-electron ions (like protonated ethanol ion, C 2 H 5 O + , CD 5 + ) and about 10 - 10 2 times lower for radical ions (like ethanol and benzene molecular ions, CD 4 + ). In the polyatomic ion -surface energy transfer experiments, the ethanol molecular ion was used as a well-characterized projectile ion. The results with most of the surfaces studied showed in the collision energy range of 13 - 32 eV that most collisions were strongly inelastic with about 6 - 8 % of the incident projectile energy transformed into internal excitation of the projectile (independent of the incident angle) and led partially to its further dissociation in a unimolecular way after the interaction with the surface. The incident energy

  6. A calibrated energy end-use model for the U.S. chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozalp, N.; Hyman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical industry is the second largest energy user after the petroleum industry in the United States. This paper provided a model for onsite steam and power generation in the chemical industry, as well as an end-use of the industrial gas manufacturing sector. The onsite steam and power generation model included the actual conversion efficiencies of prime movers in the sector. The energy end-use model also allocated combustible fuel and renewable energy inputs among generic end-uses including intermediate conversions through onsite power and steam generation. The model was presented in the form of a graphical depiction of energy flows. Results indicate that 35 per cent of the energy output from boilers is used for power generation, whereas 45 per cent goes directly to end-uses and 20 per cent to waste heat tanks for recovery in the chemical industry. The end-use model for the industrial gas manufacturing sector revealed that 42 per cent of the fuel input goes to onsite steam and power generation, whereas 58 per cent goes directly to end-uses. Among the end-uses, machine drive was the biggest energy user. It was suggested that the model is applicable to all other industries and is consistent with U.S. Department of Energy data for 1998. When used in conjunction with similar models for other years, it can be used to identify changes and trends in energy utilization at the prime mover level of detail. An analysis of the economic impact of energy losses can be based on the results of this model. Cascading of waste heat from high temperature processes to low temperature processes could be integrated into the model. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  7. An efficient and accurate method for computation of energy release rates in beam structures with longitudinal cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, efficient, and accurate framework for fracture analysis of beam structures with longitudinal cracks. The three-dimensional local stress field is determined using a high-fidelity beam model incorporating a finite element based cross section analysis tool. The Virtual...... Crack Closure Technique is used for computation of strain energy release rates. The devised framework was employed for analysis of cracks in beams with different cross section geometries. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to that of conventional three......-dimensional solid finite element models while using only a fraction of the computation time....

  8. Effects of geometric non-linearity on energy release rates in a realistic wind turbine blade cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Bitsche, Robert; Belloni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Most wind turbine rotor blades comprise several adhesively connected sub-components typically made from glass fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. It is a well-known fact that wind turbine blades are prone to fail in their adhesive joints. However, owing to the complexity...... of their structural behaviour, little is known about the root causes of adhesive joint failure. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical non-linearity on energy release rates (ERRs) of transversely oriented cracks present in the adhesive joints of a wind turbine rotor blade. Utilising a computationally...

  9. Behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 released into the pond of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milintawisamai, Mesak; Panyathipsakul, Yureeporn

    1989-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in liquid waste released from the waste disposal plant of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace(OAEP) have been followed since 1984. The concentration of both nuclides in surface water outside OAEP boundary is 2 to 30 times less than in the OAEP pond, the reservoir of liquid waste. This indicates that most of the nuclides are effectively absorbed by clay in the bottom of the pond. The nuclide concentration in fresh-water organisms in the pond such as fish, prawn and snail is also investigated to elucidate the behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a static fresh-water ecological system

  10. 78 FR 15913 - Addition of ortho-Nitrotoluene; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... threshold levels to report their environmental releases and other waste management quantities of such... exposed to o-nitrotoluene (Case and Pearson 1954, Vineis and Magnani 1985).'' EPA has reviewed the NTP... collection requirements that require additional approval by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under...

  11. Development of chemical profiles for U.S. Department of Energy low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Wilkins, B.D.; Meshkov, N.K.; Dolak, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and radiological profiles of waste streams from US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed wastes (LLMWs) have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide technical support information for evaluating waste management alternatives in the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The chemical profiles were developed for LLMW generated from both Waste Management (WM) operations and from Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at DOE facilities. Information summarized in the 1994 DOE Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Automated Remedial Assessment Methodology (ARAM), and associated PNL supporting data on ER secondary waste streams that will be treated in WM treatment facilities were used as the sources for developing chemical profiles. The methodology for developing the LLMW chemical profiles is discussed, and the chemical profiles developed from data for contact-handled (CH) non-alpha LLMW are presented in this paper. The hazardous chemical composition of remote-handled (RH) LLMW and alpha LLMW follow the chemical profiles developed for CH non-alpha LLMW

  12. Analysis and prospectives of the mechanism of release of energy efficiency titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, P.

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the Third annual report on the mechanism of release of energetic efficiency titles and considering the Decree Ministerial 21/12/2007, there is an analysis of the better aspects of the mechanism of release of energetic efficiency titles introduced from the norms regarding the previous annual relations. Particularly important is the role carried out from the Authority of the Electric Power and the Gas in the action of control and monitoring of the market. In this direction they have been formulated various deliberations. Analyzing the results obtained from the market of energetic efficiency titles in the course of 2007, it has been caught up 98% of the established objectives. In the course of the same year they have been cancelled many titles, as a result of verification activity. The obtained results refer to the geographic distribution, to the exchanged volumes and to the costs of the titles. At last some criticalities are placed in evidence that remain in the mechanism and that they can be resolved in order to improve the market. [it

  13. Model for screening-level assessment of near-field human exposure to neutral organic chemicals released indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Screening organic chemicals for hazard and risk to human health requires near-field human exposure models that can be readily parametrized with available data. The integration of a model of human exposure, uptake, and bioaccumulation into an indoor mass balance model provides a quantitative framework linking emissions in indoor environments with human intake rates (iRs), intake fractions (iFs) and steady-state concentrations in humans (C) through consideration of dermal permeation, inhalation, and nondietary ingestion exposure pathways. Parameterized based on representative indoor and adult human characteristics, the model is applied here to 40 chemicals of relevance in the context of human exposure assessment. Intake fractions and human concentrations (C(U)) calculated with the model based on a unit emission rate to air for these 40 chemicals span 2 and 5 orders of magnitude, respectively. Differences in priority ranking based on either iF or C(U) can be attributed to the absorption, biotransformation and elimination processes within the human body. The model is further applied to a large data set of hypothetical chemicals representative of many in-use chemicals to show how the dominant exposure pathways, iF and C(U) change as a function of chemical properties and to illustrate the capacity of the model for high-throughput screening. These simulations provide hypotheses for the combination of chemical properties that may result in high exposure and internal dose. The model is further exploited to highlight the role human contaminant uptake plays in the overall fate of certain chemicals indoors and consequently human exposure.

  14. The Quest for Greater Chemical Energy Storage: A Deceiving Game of Nanometer Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C. Michael

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that modern energetic materials based on organic chemistry have nearly reached a plateau in performance with only ~ 40% improvement realized over the past half century. This fact has stimulated research on alternative chemical energy storage schema in various US government funded ``High Energy Density Materials'' (HEDM) programs since the 1950's. These efforts have examined a wide range of phenomena such as free radical stabilization, metallic hydrogen, metastable helium, polynitrogens, extended molecular solids, nanothermites, and others. In spite of the substantial research investments, significant improvements in energetic material performance have not been forthcoming. In this talk we will survey various fundamental modes of chemical energy storage, lesson's learned in the various HEDM programs, and areas that are being explored currently. A recurring theme in all of this work is the challenge to successfully manipulate and stabilize matter at the ~ 1 nm scale.

  15. Novel Fabrication of Biodegradable Superabsorbent Microspheres with Diffusion Barrier through Thermo-Chemical Modification and Their Potential Agriculture Applications for Water Holding and Sustained Release of Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Diejing; Bai, Bo; Wang, Honglun; Suo, Yourui

    2017-07-26

    Synergistic utilization of water and fertilizer has vital contribution to the modern production of agriculture. This work reports on a simple and facile strategy to prepare biodegradable yeast/sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) superabsorbent microspheres with a diffusion barrier merit by thermo-chemical modification route. The integrated performances, including water absorbency, water retention, water evaporation ratio, leaching loss control, sustained-release behaviors, and degradation in soil, were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the modified microspheres were a triumphant water and fertilizer manager to effectively hold water and control the unexpected leakage of fertilizer for sustained release. Therefore, this work provides a promising approach to ameliorate the utilization efficiency of water and fertilizer in potential agriculture applications.

  16. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Reaction dynamics of the four-centered elimination CH2OH + --> CHO + +H2: Measurement of kinetic energy release distribution and classical trajectory calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Seung C.; Kim, Myung Soo

    1996-03-01

    Mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrum of CHO+ generated in the unimolecular dissociation of CH2OH+ was measured. Kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) was evaluated by analyzing the spectrum according to the algorithm developed previously. The average kinetic energy release evaluated from the distribution was extraordinarily large, 1.63 eV, corresponding to 75% of the reverse barrier of the reaction. A global analytical potential energy surface was constructed such that the experimental energetics was represented and that various features in the ab initio potential energy surface were closely reproduced. Classical trajectory calculation was carried out with the global analytical potential energy surface to investigate the causes for the extraordinarily large kinetic energy release. Based on the detailed dynamical calculations, it was found that the strained bending forces at the transition state and strengthening of the CO bond from double to triple bond character were mainly responsible for such a significant kinetic energy release. In addition, the dissociation products H2 and CHO+ ion were found to be rotationally excited in the trajectory calculations. This was attributed to the asymmetry of the transition state and the release of asymmetric bending forces. Also, the bending vibrational modes of CHO+ and the H2 stretching mode, which are coupled with the bending coordinates, were found to be moderately excited.

  18. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  19. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  20. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  1. Measurement of discrete energy-level spectra in individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Bolotin, Kirill I; Shi, Su-Fei

    2008-01-01

    We form single-electron transistors from individual chemically synthesized gold nanoparticles, 5-15 nm in diameter, with monolayers of organic molecules serving as tunnel barriers. These devices allow us to measure the discrete electronic energy levels of individual gold nanoparticles that are......, by virtue of chemical synthesis, well-defined in their composition, size and shape. We show that the nanoparticles are nonmagnetic and have spectra in good accord with random-matrix-theory predictions taking into account strong spin-orbit coupling....

  2. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  3. Quarterly progress report for the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division: January-March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R.T.

    1999-11-01

    This reports summarizes the major activities conducted in the Chemical and Energy Research Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period January--March 1999. The section conducts basic and applied research and development in chemical engineering, applied chemistry, and bioprocessing, with an emphasis on energy-driven technologies and advanced chemical separations for nuclear and waste applications. The report describes the various tasks performed within eight major areas of research: Hot Cell Operations, Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Studies, Chemistry Research, Separations and Materials Synthesis, Fluid Structure and Properties, Biotechnology Research, and Molecular Studies. The name of a technical contact is included with each task described, and readers are encouraged to contact these individuals if they need additional information. Activities conducted within the area of Hot Cell Operations included column loading of cesium from Melton Valley Storage Tank supematants using an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate. A second task was to design and construct a continuously stirred tank reactor system to test the Savannah River-developed process of small-tank tetraphenylborate precipitation to remove cesium, strontium, and transuranics from supematant. Within the area of Process Chemistry and Thermodynamics, the problem of solids formation in process solutions from caustic treatment of Hanford sludge was addressed, including issues such as pipeline plugging and viscosity measurements. Investigation of solution conditions required to dissolve Hanford saltcake was also continued. MSRE Remediation Studies focused on recovery of {sup 233}U and its transformation into a stable oxide and radiolysis experiments to permit remediation of MSRE fuel salt. In the area of Chemistry Research, activities included studies relative to molecular imprinting for

  4. Energy crisis and changes in the structure of the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedov, A G

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the energy crisis together with higher prices and inflation on the chemical industry is reviewed. One effect has been the search for more energy-efficient processes and more widely available raw materials. Measures taken by the industry have included the control of expenses and losses, utilization of secondary materials and energy resources and the development of new technological growth of the industry and has shifted emphasis to small-scale rather than large-scale chemical production. Capital has also been used more for modernizing existing equipment and facilities than for new construction, and industrialized countries have invested more heavily in developing countries. Trade relations between socialist and western countries have also improved. Improvements have been made in the production of aromatic hydrocarbons by extraction with the use of more efficient solvents, in catalytic and thermic hydrodealkylation of toluene, in the chlorine and nitrogen industries, in phosphorus and phosphoric acid production and in benzene and butadiene production. A new scheme for hydroxylamine production and a new technology for styrene and methanol production have been developed. Direct hydration of propylene has been introduced into the production of isopropanol and propylene ammonolysis has been used to obtain acrylonitrile. Changes in the chemical industry have reduced energy consumption per production unit by 14.2% in the U.S.A. in 1977 in comparison with 1972 and by 14.0% in Common Market countries during 1970-1976.

  5. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  6. Energy Saving Potential, Costs and Uncertainties in the Industry: A Case Study of the Chemical Industry in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Guminski, Andrej; Gruber, Anna

    2017-01-01

    In Germany, 19.6 % of the industrial final energy consumption (FEC) can be allocated to the chemical industry. Energy efficiency measures with focus on the chemical industry could thus significantly contribute to reaching the German goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % in 2050 compared...

  7. Evaluating impacts of energy prices release on urban planning of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei Aghdam, Feridoun [Mohaghegh Ardabili University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: Fbabei@uma.ac.ir, email: freydoun2001@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The Parliament of Iran adopted a subsidy reform plan in January, 2010. This reform constitutes one of the most significant changes to Iran's economy in the last 50 years, as it aims to replace subsidies on food and energy with social assistance. This will have important effects on the sectors consuming the most energy such as transport, buildings, industry and agriculture. The aim of this paper is to determine both the positive and negative impacts of this reform. A review of the available information was carried out using library resources, the press and the Internet; interviews with experts were also conducted. Then field investigations were conducted and a comparative survey was done. Results of this research showed that the subsidy reform plan will result in economic, social, political and traffic benefits but will also raise socio-economic issues in urban areas. This study pointed out that the subsidy reform will have more positive than negative impacts.

  8. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  9. Photochemical Energy Storage and Electrochemically Triggered Energy Release in the Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System: UV Photochemistry and IR Spectroelectrochemistry in a Combined Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Olaf; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian; Bachmann, Julien; Libuda, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    The two valence isomers norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) enable solar energy storage in a single molecule system. We present a new photoelectrochemical infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PEC-IRRAS) experiment, which allows monitoring of the complete energy storage and release cycle by in situ vibrational spectroscopy. Both processes were investigated, the photochemical conversion from NBD to QC using the photosensitizer 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone, MK) and the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion from QC to NBD. Photochemical conversion was obtained with characteristic conversion times on the order of 500 ms. All experiments were performed under full potential control in a thin-layer configuration with a Pt(111) working electrode. The vibrational spectra of NBD, QC, and MK were analyzed in the fingerprint region, permitting quantitative analysis of the spectroscopic data. We determined selectivities for both the photochemical conversion and the electrochemical cycloreversion and identified the critical steps that limit the reversibility of the storage cycle.

  10. Energy saving analysis and management modeling based on index decomposition analysis integrated energy saving potential method: Application to complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Zhiqiang; Gao, Huachao; Wang, Yanqing; Han, Yongming; Zhu, Qunxiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The integrated framework that combines IDA with energy-saving potential method is proposed. • Energy saving analysis and management framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. • This proposed method is efficient in energy optimization and carbon emissions of complex chemical processes. - Abstract: Energy saving and management of complex chemical processes play a crucial role in the sustainable development procedure. In order to analyze the effect of the technology, management level, and production structure having on energy efficiency and energy saving potential, this paper proposed a novel integrated framework that combines index decomposition analysis (IDA) with energy saving potential method. The IDA method can obtain the level of energy activity, energy hierarchy and energy intensity effectively based on data-drive to reflect the impact of energy usage. The energy saving potential method can verify the correctness of the improvement direction proposed by the IDA method. Meanwhile, energy efficiency improvement, energy consumption reduction and energy savings can be visually discovered by the proposed framework. The demonstration analysis of ethylene production has verified the practicality of the proposed method. Moreover, we can obtain the corresponding improvement for the ethylene production based on the demonstration analysis. The energy efficiency index and the energy saving potential of these worst months can be increased by 6.7% and 7.4%, respectively. And the carbon emissions can be reduced by 7.4–8.2%.

  11. Biomass as feedstock for chemicals and energy on the threshold of the 21st. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A historical background is first given in which the role of biomass is described in relation to its competition with fossil biomass for the production of chemicals and energy. Occurrences of reserves from both sources are then compared. Petrochemical and biomass routes are then analyzed in terms of their relative competitive advantages. The oleochemical and biotechnology cases are analyzed in more detail as examples of biomass utilization. Latin American examples of industrial manufacturing of biomass derived chemicals are then provided. Alcochemicals are analyzed in detail as well as essential oils and other chemicals. Finally, references are made to regional Latin American initiatives regarding biomass and the objectives, organization and nature of the initiative are presented

  12. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in plates and cylinders. Volume 2. ORVIRT: a finite element program for energy release rate calculations for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional crack models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. The formulation has been implemented in the virtual-crack-extension program ORVIRT (Oak Ridge VIRTual-Crack-Extension). Program ORVIRT performs energy release rate calculations for both 2- and 3-dimensional nonlinear models of crack configurations in engineering structures. Two applications of the ORVIRT program are described. In the first, semielliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loading

  13. Chemical freeze-out study in proton-proton collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sabita; Mishra, Debadeepti; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Chatterjee, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Particle multiplicities measured at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facilities can be used to understand the chemical freeze-out dynamics. At chemical freeze-out (CFO), inelastic collisions cease and the freeze-out parameters can be determined using measured particle multiplicities within the framework of a statistical model. The statistical model has proven to be quite successful in describing the particle production from elementary p-p and e"+e"- collisions up to heavy-ion collisions. It helps to do a systematic study of the centrality and energy dependence of freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions from lower SPS to higher LHC energies. The new data at LHC along with the RHIC data can be used to do such a systematic study in proton-proton collisions

  14. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 1, Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed an initial investigation of the effects of physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstocks relative to their performance in biomass energy conversion systems. Both biochemical conversion routes (anaerobic digestion and ethanol fermentation) and thermochemical routes (combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification) were included in the study. Related processes including chemical and physical pretreatment to improve digestibility, and size and density modification processes such as milling and pelletizing were also examined. This overview report provides background and discussion of feedstock and conversion relationships, along with recommendations for future research. The recommendations include (1) coordinate production and conversion research programs; (2) quantify the relationship between feedstock properties and conversion priorities; (3) develop a common framework for evaluating and characterizing biomass feedstocks; (4) include conversion effects as part of the criteria for selecting feedstock breeding programs; and (5) continue emphasis on multiple feedstock/conversion options for biomass energy systems. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Melo Menezes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels majorly contributes to the increase in global warming, and it represents 93% of greenhouse gases emissions in the chemical industry. Most of the energy demand in this sector is associated with steam systems, where 1/3 of the energy efficiency opportunities are located in its distribution system. However, most of the literature focuses on the design of new systems. Those that deal with existing systems, not always use simple and available methods. Furthermore, they address energy losses of steam systems only due to thermal insulation, ignoring those due to leakages of traps. Given this context, the purpose of this paper is to determine the economic feasibility of an energy efficiency project for a steam distribution system in a chemical industry, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. First, the energy lost in the steam distribution system through heat insulation and steam traps was estimated by applying thermodynamic principles, and technic consulting, respectively. Then, investments were estimated using commercial prices for new thermal insulation and steam traps. Finally, an economic evaluation of the improvement project was made, through the construction of a cash flow, and calculation of economic indicators: payback time, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR. Economic indicators showed that the project is economically viable. The NPV and IRR reached approximately 5 million reais, and 66% per year, respectively. Additionally, this project also had social and environmental benefits, such as a reduction in greenhouse gases emissions, and increased local water availability.

  16. Click and Release: A Chemical Strategy toward Developing Gasotransmitter Prodrugs by Using an Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Zhou, Cheng; Ji, Kaili; Aghoghovbia, Robert E; Pan, Zhixiang; Chittavong, Vayou; Ke, Bowen; Wang, Binghe

    2016-12-19

    Prodrug strategies have been proven to be a very effective way of addressing delivery problems. Much of the chemistry in prodrug development relies on the ability to mask an appropriate functional group, which can be removed under appropriate conditions. However, developing organic prodrugs of gasotransmitters represent unique challenges. This is especially true with carbon monoxide, which does not have an easy "handle" for bioreversible derivatization. By taking advantage of an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, we have developed a prodrug strategy for preparations of organic CO prodrugs that are stable during synthesis and storage, and yet readily release CO with tunable release rates under near physiological conditions. The effectiveness of the CO prodrug system in delivering a sufficient quantity of CO for possible therapeutic applications has been studied using a cell culture anti-inflammatory assay and a colitis animal model. These studies fully demonstrate the proof of concept, and lay a strong foundation for further medicinal chemistry work in developing organic CO prodrugs. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis and Chemical and Biological Comparison of Nitroxyl and Nitric Oxide Releasing Diazeniumdiolate-based Aspirin Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudhar, Debashree; Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Cheng, Robert Y.; Jain, Sarthak; Shi, Sa; Heinecke, Julie L.; Holland, Ryan J.; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Caceres, Viviane M.; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina C.; Paolocci, Nazareno; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A.; Wink, David A.; Miranda, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    Structural modifications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have successfully reduced the side effect of gastrointestinal ulceration without affecting anti-inflammatory activity, but may increase risk of myocardial infarction with chronic use. That nitroxyl (HNO) reduces platelet aggregation, preconditions against myocardial infarction and enhances contractility led us to synthesize a diazeniumdiolate-based HNO releasing aspirin and to compare it to an NO-releasing analogue. Here, the decomposition mechanisms are described for these compounds. In addition to protection against stomach ulceration, these prodrugs also exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxcity compared to either aspirin or the parent diazeniumdiolate toward non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (A549) but were not appreciably toxic toward endothelial cells (HUVECs). The HNO-NSAID prodrug inhibited cylcooxgenase-2 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and triggered significant sarcomere shortening compared to control on murine ventricular myocytes. Together, these anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplasic and contractile properties suggest the potential of HNO-NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammation, cancer or heart failure. PMID:24102516

  18. Energy transport by energetic electrons released during solar flares. I - Thermal versus nonthermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of energetic electrons through a flaring flux tube is studied in an attempt to determine how the energy of the electrons is deposited in the flux tube. One-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are used in the present investigation. As the energetic electrons propagate into the system, a return current of ambient plasma electrons and some of the energetic electrons is drawn into the energetic electron source. It is found that, as the ambient temperature relative to the ion temperature increases above about 3, the heated return-current electrons can excite ion-sound waves.

  19. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roik, N.V.; Belyakova, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved

  20. Quality in the chemical analysis of biological matrices by fluorescence X-ray by energy dispersive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Evely E. de; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Almeida, Macio E.S.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Hazin, Clovis A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain multielement analytical curves of high analytical rigor to the analysis of biological matrices by the technique of fluorescence x-ray energy dispersive - EDXRF. Calibration curves were constructed from the reference materials IAEA 140, IAEA 155, IAEA V8, V10 to the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA, and SRM1515, SRM 1547, SRM 1570a, SRM 1573a, SEM 1567a, to the National Institute of Standards and Technology - NIST. After energy calibration, all samples were subjected to vacuum to the analyzes by 100 seconds for each group of chemical elements. The voltages used were respectively 15 keV for chemical elements with less than atomic number 22 and 50 keV for the others. After the construction of the curves, the analytical quality was assessed by the analysis of a portion-test of the reference material SRM 2976, also produced by NIST. Based on the number of certified reference materials used for construction of calibration curves in this work, quality analytical protocol was originated with considerable reliability for quantification of chemical elements in biological samples by EDXR

  1. Review of analytical techniques to determine the chemical forms of vapours and aerosols released from overheated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Nichols, A.L.

    1989-12-01

    A comprehensive review has been undertaken of appropriate analytical techniques to monitor and measure the chemical effects that occur in large-scale tests designed to study severe reactor accidents. Various methods have been developed to determine the chemical forms of the vapours, aerosols and deposits generated during and after such integral experiments. Other specific techniques have the long-term potential to provide some of the desired data in greater detail, although considerable efforts are still required to apply these techniques to the study of radioactive debris. Such in-situ and post-test methods of analysis have been also assessed in terms of their applicability to the analysis of samples from the Phebus-FP tests. The recommended in-situ methods of analysis are gamma-ray spectroscopy, potentiometry, mass spectrometry, and Raman/UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapour/aerosol and deposition samples should also be obtained at well-defined time intervals during each experiment for subsequent post-test analysis. No single technique can provide all the necessary chemical data from these samples, and the most appropriate method of analysis involves a complementary combination of autoradiography, AES, IR, MRS, SEMS/EDS, SIMS/LMIS, XPS and XRD

  2. Multifunctional glass fiber/polyamide composites with thermal energy storage/release capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fredi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composite laminates with thermal energy storage (TES capability were prepared by combining a glass fabric, a polyamide 12 (PA12 matrix and two different phase change materials (PCMs, i.e. a paraffinic wax microencapsulated in melamine-formaldehyde shells and a paraffin shape stabilized with carbon nanotubes. The melt flow index of the PA12/PCM blends decreased with the PCM concentration, especially in the systems with shape stabilized wax. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, for the matrices with microcapsules, the values of enthalpy were approximately the 70% of the theoretical values, which was attributed to the fracture of some microcapsules. Nevertheless, most of the energy storage capability was preserved. On the other hand, much lower relative enthalpy values were measured on the composites with shape stabilized wax, due to a considerable paraffin leakage or degradation. The subsequent characterization of the glass fabric laminates highlighted that the fiber and void volume fractions were comparable for all the laminates except for that with the higher amount of shape stabilized wax, where the high viscosity of the matrix led to a low fiber volume fraction and higher void content. The mechanical properties of the laminates were only slightly impaired by PCM addition, while a more sensible drop of the elastic modulus, of the stress at break and of the interlaminar shear strength could be observed in the shape stabilized wax systems.

  3. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilloux, L.

    1998-01-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  4. How to promote energy conservation in China’s chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Long, Houyin

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuel consumption in China’s chemical industry accounted for 19.7% of the total industrial fossil fuel consumption, and the industry has become the second highest energy intensive sector in the country. Therefore, it is extremely urgent and important to study the problems related to fossil fuel consumption in the industry. This paper adopts the factor decomposition and the EG co-integration methods to investigate the influencing factors of fossil energy consumption and measure the saving potential of fossil fuel. The paper concludes that the influencing factors can be divided into positive driving factors (labor productivity effect and sector scale effect) and negative driving factors (energy intensity effect and energy structure effect). Among them, labor productivity and energy intensity are the main factors affecting fossil fuel demand. The largest saving potentials of fossil fuels are predicted to be 23.3 Mtce in 2015 and 70.6 Mtce in 2020 under the middle scenario and 46.8 Mtce in 2015 and 100.5 Mtce in 2020 under the ideal scenario, respectively. Finally, this paper provides some policy implications on fossil fuel conservation. - Highlights: • Labor productivity and energy intensity are crucial driving factors. • The relationship among variables is co-integrated. • The result of the EG co-integration is the same as that of LMDI. • ECM displays the short-term fluctuation of fossil fuel consumption. • Under the scenario analysis, there is a huge energy saving potential

  5. Mechanical energy release and fuel fragmentation in high energy deposition into fuel under a reactivity initiated accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Saito, Shinzo; Ochiai, Masaaki

    1985-01-01

    The fuel fragmentation is one of important subjects to be studied, since it is one of basic processes of molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) and it has not yet been made clear enough. Accordingly, UO 2 fuel fragmentation was studied in the NSRR experiments simulating a reactivity initiated accident (RIA). As results of the experiments, the distribution of the size of fuel fragments was obtained and the mechanism of fuel fragmentation was discussed as described below. It was revealed that the distribution was well displayed in the form of logarithmic Rosin-Rammler's distribution law. It was shown that the conversion ratio from thermal energy to mechanical in the experiment was in inverse propotion to the volume-surface mean diameter defined as a ratio of the total volume of fragments to the total surface. Consequently, it was confirmed that the mean diameter was proper as an index for the degree of the fuel fragmentation. It was also pointed out that the Weber-type hydraulic instability model for fragmentation was consistent with the experimental results. The mechanism of the fuel fragmentation is understood as follows. Cladding tube is ruptured due to the increase in rod pressure when fuel is molten, and then molten fuel spouts through the openings in the form of jet. As a result of molten fuel spouting, fuel is fragmented by the Weber-type of hydraulic instability. The model well explains the effects of experimental parameters as heat deposition, subcooling of cooling water and capsule diameter, on the fuel fragmentation. According to the model, fuel fragments have to be spherical. There were many spherical particles which had hollow and burst crack. This may be due to internal burst during solidification process. The items which should be studied further are also described in the end of this report. (author)

  6. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  7. Generating Converged Accurate Free Energy Surfaces for Chemical Reactions with a Force-Matched Semiempirical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saitta, Antonino Marco; Goldman, Nir

    2018-04-10

    We demonstrate the capability of creating robust density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for chemical reactivity in prebiotic mixtures through force matching to short time scale quantum free energy estimates. Molecular dynamics using density functional theory (DFT) is a highly accurate approach to generate free energy surfaces for chemical reactions, but the extreme computational cost often limits the time scales and range of thermodynamic states that can feasibly be studied. In contrast, DFTB is a semiempirical quantum method that affords up to a thousandfold reduction in cost and can recover DFT-level accuracy. Here, we show that a force-matched DFTB model for aqueous glycine condensation reactions yields free energy surfaces that are consistent with experimental observations of reaction energetics. Convergence analysis reveals that multiple nanoseconds of combined trajectory are needed to reach a steady-fluctuating free energy estimate for glycine condensation. Predictive accuracy of force-matched DFTB is demonstrated by direct comparison to DFT, with the two approaches yielding surfaces with large regions that differ by only a few kcal mol -1 .

  8. Potential of Coproduction of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals from Biobased Renewable Resources. Transition Path 3. Co-production of Energy, Fuels and Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This report shows how in 2030, biobased alternatives can potentially cover up to 30% of the Netherlands' domestic energy and chemicals demand, effectively reducing CO2 emissions. Maximizing the economical potential of biobased alternatives seems the most attractive strategy. The method to compare various routes has been highly simplified and the conclusions of this report are only valid within the limitations of the underlying assumptions. Nevertheless, the Working group WISE BIOMAS of the Platform Biobased Raw Materials feels that the conclusions are valuable for Dutch policy makers and others interested in the use of biobased raw materials. In 2030, biobased alternatives are expected to be sufficiently competitive to fossil-based alternatives, even without subsidies. They are expected to play a significant role in an energy mix comprised of other renewables as well as 'clean' fossil energy sources. Presently, however, the Netherlands needs to step up its stimulation of biobased applications, through substantial investments in R and D programmes, demonstration plants, as well as measures to stimulate implementation. The whole package of tax reductions, local government purchases, etc., as well as direct financial support should amount to approximately 500 million euros per year. The simplified study presented here provides input for more realistic macro-economic scenario analysis taking actual and updated cost-availability relations including second generation biofuels and biochemicals, land use, international trade, etc., into account. Initial discussions with for instance the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (Centraal Plan Bureau or CPB) have taken place, but are not covered in this report. It is urgently suggested to update macro-economic scenarios for securing the best Netherlands' position among the accelerating global development towards biobased resources

  9. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  10. Mixed quantum-classical studies of energy partitioning in unimolecular chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladow, Landon Lowell

    A mixed quantum-classical reaction path Hamiltonian method is utilized to study the dynamics of unimolecular reactions. The method treats motion along the reaction path classically and treats the transverse vibrations quantum mechanically. The theory leads to equations that predict the disposai of the exit-channel potential energy to product translation and vibration. In addition, vibrational state distributions are obtained for the product normal modes. Vibrational excitation results from the curvature of the minimum energy reaction path. The method is applied to six unimolecular reactions: HF elimination from fluoroethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1-difluoroethene, and trifluoromethane; and HCl elimination from chloroethane and acetyl chloride. The minimum energy paths were calculated at either the MP2 or B3LYP level of theory. In all cases, the majority of the vibrational excitation of the products occurs in the HX fragment. The results are compared to experimental data and other theoretical results, where available. The best agreement between the experimental and calculated HX vibrational distributions is found for the halogenated ethanes, and the experimental deduction that the majority of the HX vibrational excitation arises from the potential energy release is supported. It is believed that the excess energy provided in experiments contributes to the poorer agreement between experiment and theory observed for HF elimination from 1,1-difluoroethene and trifluoromethane. An attempt is described to incorporate a treatment of the excess energy into the present method. However, the sign of the curvature coupling elements is then found to affect the dynamics. Overall, the method appears to be an efficient dynamical tool for modeling the disposal of the exit-channel potential energy in unimolecular reactions.

  11. Chemical modifications of polymer films induced by high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Sun Youmei; Liu Changlong; Liu Jie; Jin Yunfan

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) were irradiated at room temperature with ions of 35 MeV/u 40 Ar, 25 MeV/u 84 Kr, 15.1 MeV/u 136 Xe and 11.4 MeV/u 238 U to fluences ranging from 9x10 9 to 5.5x10 12 ions/cm 2 . The radiation-induced chemical changes of the materials were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies. It is found that the absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible range induced by all irradiations follows a linear relationship with fluence. The radiation-induced absorbance normalized to one particle increases slowly with increasing of electronic energy loss below about 8 keV/nm followed by a sharp increase up to about 15 keV/nm above which saturation is reached. FTIR measurements reveal that the materials suffer serious degradation through bond breaking. The absorbance of the typical infrared bands decays exponentially with increase of ion fluence and the bond-disruption cross-section shows a sigmoid variation with electronic energy loss. In PET loss of crystallinity is attributed to the configuration transformation of the ethylene glycol residue from trans into the gauche. Alkyne end groups are induced in all the materials above certain electronic energy loss threshold, which is found to be about 0.8 keV/nm for PS and 0.4 keV/nm for PC. The production cross-section of alkyne end group increases with increasing of electronic energy loss and shows saturation at high electronic energy loss values. It is concluded that not only the physical processes but also the chemical processes of the energy deposition determine the modification of polymer

  12. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  13. Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan H. Mistry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies driven by different combinations of heat, work, and chemical energy. This paper develops a consistent basis for comparing the energy consumption of such technologies using Second Law efficiency. The Second Law efficiency for a chemical separation process is defined in terms of the useful exergy output, which is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of product from a feed stream of a given composition. For a desalination process, this is the minimum least work of separation for producing one kilogram of product water from feed of a given salinity. While definitions in terms of work and heat input have been proposed before, this work generalizes the Second Law efficiency to allow for systems that operate on a combination of energy inputs, including fuel. The generalized equation is then evaluated through a parametric study considering work input, heat inputs at various temperatures, and various chemical fuel inputs. Further, since most modern, large-scale desalination plants operate in cogeneration schemes, a methodology for correctly evaluating Second Law efficiency for the desalination plant based on primary energy inputs is demonstrated. It is shown that, from a strictly energetic point of view and based on currently available technology, cogeneration using electricity to power a reverse osmosis system is energetically superior to thermal systems such as multiple effect distillation and multistage flash distillation, despite the very low grade heat input normally applied in those systems.

  14. Agrice 1994-2000 - Activity report. Agriculture for chemicals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of new energy, chemicals and materials markets for agricultural products calls for an ongoing commitment to significant and stable funding for research. Even more importantly, these new markets also necessitate better coordination between the actors across the field, ranging from multidisciplinary research teams and agro-industrial companies to users in the petrochemicals, chemicals and materials sectors, and agricultural production. The need for this coordination is even greater today, in light of the key role that 'non-food' supply chains play in environmental protection: efforts to mitigate the greenhouse effect, reduction of VOC emissions, product safety and biodegradability, rational farming practices, etc. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE- Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy- was created in France in 1994 by government bodies and eight partners. Today AGRICE includes the following members: the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), professional organisations in oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), AVENTIS, TOTAL FINA ELF, LIMAGRAIN and EDF, the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and Environment. AGRICE was founded for a six-year renewable term, and its management entrusted to ADEME. The group has worked to develop significant collaborative efforts across Europe, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). AGRICE is due to be renewed with a broader base of partners in 2001. This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity (Biofuels vehicles (Ester/Oils, Ethanol/Ether) and non-vehicles (Energy crops, Processes), Biomolecules (Lubricants, Surfactants, Solvents, Other biomolecules), Biomaterials (Biopolymers, Agro-materials)), Financial report 1994

  15. Conversion of chemical energy in an explosive by a magnetohydrodynamic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, E.F.; Ostashev, V.E.; Svetsov, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine different methods for realizing the MHD method for converting chemical energy of a condensed explosive into pulsed electrical energy. It is shown that explosive MHD generators, which are compact sources of powerful pulses of electrical energy, are characterized by their relative simplicity, autonomy and maneuverability of firing and they are capable of operating in the frequency-periodic mode. A number of projects have been proposed for explosive MHD generators in the megajoule range. Practical experience has been gained in creating frequency-periodic action generators as well as autonomous setups using superconducting magnetic systems. The increase in the operational efficiency of an explosive MHD generator is primarily related to increasing the magnetic Reynolds number of the flow, which can be attained, in particular, by using different schemes for accumulating the energy of the explosion. The use of a metallic liner, which expands under the pressure of the detonation products, in an explosive MHD generator is, in the practical sense, apparently hopeless. The general information available on the parameters and properties of explosive MHD generators gives a basis for concluding that this generator is a promising source of powerful energy pulses. In a certain range of parameters, it can be an alternative to the use of conventional high-energy pulse devices

  16. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  17. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  18. The role of chemical free energy and elastic strain in the nucleation of zirconium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Toffolon-Masclet, C.; Almer, J.; Daymond, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this work a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic modelling has been used to study the dissolution and precipitation of zirconium hydride in α-Zr establishing the role of elastic misfit strain and chemical free energy in the α → α + δ phase transformation. The nucleation of zirconium hydride is dominated by the chemical free energy where the chemical driving force for hydride precipitation is proportional to the terminal-solid solubility for precipitation and can be predicted by a function that is analogous to the universal nucleation parameter for the bainite transformation in ferrous alloys. The terminal-solid solubility for precipitation was found to be kinetically limited ⩾287 °C at a cooling rate of 5 °C min −1 or greater. The terminal solubilities were established using an offset method applied to the lattice strain data where a resolution of ∼10 wppm H can be achieved in the 〈c〉-direction. This is aided by the introduction of intra-granular strains in the 〈c〉-direction during cooling as a result of the thermal expansion anisotropy which increases the anisotropy associated with the misfitting H atoms within the α-Zr lattice

  19. A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, Undine; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the association of contaminants with both particulate and dissolved organic matter is critical in determining the fate and bioavailability of chemicals in environmental risk assessment. To date, the association of a contaminant to particulate organic matter is considered in many multimedia transport models, but the effect of dissolved organic matter is typically ignored due to a lack of either reliable models or experimental data. The partition coefficient to dissolved organic carbon (K(DOC)) may be used to estimate the fraction of a contaminant that is associated with dissolved organic matter. Models relating K(DOC) to the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have not been successful for many types of dissolved organic carbon in the environment. Instead, linear solvation energy relationships are proposed to model the association of chemicals with dissolved organic matter. However, more chemically diverse K(DOC) data are needed to produce a more robust model. For humic acid dissolved organic carbon, the linear solvation energy relationship predicts log K(DOC) with a root mean square error of 0.43. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Post-synthesis amine borane functionalization of metal-organic framework and its unusual chemical hydrogen release phenomenon

    KAUST Repository

    Berke, Heinz

    2017-05-11

    We report a novel strategy for post-synthesis amine borane functionalization of MOFs under gas-solid phase transformation utilizing gaseous diborane. The covalently confined amine borane derivative decorated on the framework backbone is stable when preserved at low temperature, but spontaneously liberates soft chemical hydrogen at room temperature leading to the development of an unusual borenium type species (-NH=BH2+) ion-paired with hydroborate anion. Furthermore, the unsaturated amino borane (-NH=BH2) and the -iminodiborane ((--NHB2H5) were detected as final products. A combination of DFT based molecular dynamics simulations and solid state NMR spectroscopy, utilizing isotopically enriched materials, were undertaken to unequivocally elucidate the mechanistic pathways for H2 liberation.

  1. Uranium Chemical and Radiological Risk Assessment for Freshwater Ecosystems Receiving Ore Mining Releases: Principles, Equations and Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Adam, C.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium is an element that has the solely characteristic to behave as significant hazard both from a chemical and radiological point of view. Exclusively of natural occurrence, its distribution into the environment may be influenced by human activities, such as nuclear fuel cycle, military use of depleted uranium, or coal and phosphate fertilizer use, which finally may impact freshwater ecosystems. Until now, the associated environmental impact and risk assessments were conducted separately. We propose here to apply the same methodology to evaluate the ecological risk due to potential chemotoxicity and radiotoxicity of uranium. This methodology is articulated into the classical four steps (EC, 2003: problem formulation, effect and exposure analysis, risk characterisation). The problem formulation dealt both with uranium viewed as a chemical element and as the three isotopes 234, 235 and 238 of uranium and their main daughters. Then, the exposure analysis of non-human species was led on the basis of a common conceptual model of the fluxes occurring in freshwater ecosystems. No-effect values for the ecosystem were derived using the same effect data treatment in parallel. A Species Sensitivity Distribution was fitted: (1) to the ecotoxicity data sets illustrating uranium chemotoxicity and allowing the estimation of a Predicted-No-Effect-Concentration for uranium in water expressed in μg/L; (2) to radiotoxicity effect data as it was done within the ERICA project, allowing the estimation of a Predicted No-Effect-Dose-Rate (in μGy·h -1 ). Two methods were then applied to characterize the risk to the ecosystem: a screening method using the risk quotient approach, involving for the radiological aspect back calculation of the water limiting concentration from the PNEDR for each isotope taken into account and a probabilistic risk assessment. A former uranium ore mining case-study will help in demonstrating the application of the whole methodology

  2. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E; Umeno, Y

    2017-01-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses. (paper)

  3. Fission-product energy release for times following thermal-neutron fission of 235U between 2 and 14000 seconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Emery, J.F.; Love, T.A.; McConnell, J.W.; Northcutt, K.J.; Peelle, R.W.; Weaver, H.

    1977-10-01

    Fission-product decay energy-releases rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of 235 U. Samples of mass 1 to 10 μg were irradiated for 1 to 100 sec by use of the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 seconds. The data were obtained for beta and gamma rays separately as spectral distributions, N(E/sub γ/) vs E/sub γ/ and N(E/sub beta/) vs E/sub β/. For the gamma-ray data the spectra were obtained by using a NaI detector, while for the beta-ray data the spectra were obtained by using an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of modest resolution. These were integrated over E/sub γ/ and E/sub β/ to provide total yield and energy integrals as a function of time after fission. Results are low compared to the present 1973 ANS Decay-heat standard. A complete description of the experimental apparatus and data-reduction techniques is presented. The final integral data are given in tabular and graphical form and are compared with published data. 41 figures, 13 tables

  4. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  5. Abstracts of the 54. Canadian Chemical Engineering Conference : Energy for the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The key energy challenges facing the chemical process industries were addressed at this international conference. Chemical engineering was shown to play a critical role in offering technical solutions to the challenges of climate change and pollution abatement on a global scale. The sessions addressed a variety of issues dealing with heavy oil processing and utilization, natural gas processing, reservoir engineering and biotechnology process systems. The presentations also addressed issues dealing with applied thermodynamics, new technologies, polymer engineering and other fundamental processes, including some used by the pulp and paper industry. The conference featured more than 500 presentations from around the world, including Canada, the United States, Asia and Europe. A total of 84 papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database

  6. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH 4 /gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH 4 /gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Chemical Processes in the Transition to Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucki, S.; Palumbo, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Boulouchos, K.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G.; Siegwolf, R.; Wokaun, A

    2002-01-01

    Chemical science and engineering play a central role in improving the eco- efficiency of energy services, be it by optimizing fossil fuel utilization from the source to the sinks, be it by exploring new ways of replacing fossil fuels with renewable ones. Catalytic fuel processing is required for providing clean and easy to convert inputs from contaminated and/or high molecular weight primary resources into efficient energy conversion systems such as advanced combustion engines and fuel cells. The switch from conventional fossil fuel resources to renewables such as solar or biomass requires new approaches in chemical engineering. Efficiency vs. emissions trade-offs for improving the eco-performance of combustion engines need to be optimized with improved understanding of the complex chemistry taking place in flames. New materials for fuel cells and batteries provide a means of making these devices applicable, thereby drastically cutting down on emissions from energy systems. Chemistry is not only involved in fuel processing and conversion, but it is also important at the end of the pipe, i.e. in catalytic emission control devices, in the treatment of hazardous residues from the incineration of waste materials, and in the complex interactions of air pollutants with the biosphere. (author)

  8. Layer-by-Layer Enabled Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensing and Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Leonardo G.; Soler, Maria A. G.

    2013-06-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) technique is a wet chemical method for the assembly of ultrathin films, with thicknesses up to 100 nm. This method is based on the successive transfer of molecular layers to a solid substrate that is dipped into cationic and anionic solutions in an alternating fashion. The adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions so that many molecular and nanomaterial systems can be engineered under this method. Moreover, it is inexpensive, can be easily performed, and does not demand sophisticated equipment or clean rooms. The most explored use of the LbL technique is to build up molecular devices for chemical sensing and energy conversion. Both applications require ultrathin films where specific elements must be organized with high control of thickness and spatial distribution, preferably in the nanolength and mesolength scales. In chemical sensors, the LbL technique is employed to assemble specific sensoactive materials such as conjugated polymers, enzymes, and immunological elements onto appropriated electrodes. Molecular recognition events are thus transduced by the assembled sensoactive layer. In energy-conversion devices, the LbL technique can be employed to fabricate different device's parts including electrodes, active layers, and auxiliary layers. In both applications, the devices' performance can be fully modulated and improved by simply varying film thickness and molecular architecture. The present review article highlights the main features of the LbL technique and provides a brief description of different (bio)chemical sensors, solar cells, and organic light-emitting diodes enabled by the LbL approach.

  9. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  11. Binding free energy and counterion release for adsorption of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B on a POPG membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Vivcharuk, Victor; Tomberli, Bruno; Gray, C. G.

    2009-09-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interaction of an anionic palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) bilayer with the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin (LFCinB) in a 100 mM NaCl solution at 310 K. The interaction of LFCinB with a POPG bilayer is employed as a model system for studying the details of membrane adsorption selectivity of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Seventy eight 4 ns MD production run trajectories of the equilibrated system, with six restrained orientations of LFCinB at 13 different separations from the POPG membrane, are generated to determine the free energy profile for the peptide as a function of the distance between LFCinB and the membrane surface. To calculate the profile for this relatively large system, a variant of constrained MD and thermodynamic integration is used. A simplified method for relating the free energy profile to the LFCinB-POPG membrane binding constant is employed to predict a free energy of adsorption of -5.4±1.3kcal/mol and a corresponding maximum adsorption binding force of about 58 pN. We analyze the results using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We find the peptide-membrane attraction to be dominated by the entropy increase due to the release of counterions and polarized water from the region between the charged membrane and peptide, as the two approach each other. We contrast these results with those found earlier for adsorption of LFCinB on the mammalianlike palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine membrane.

  12. The quest for greater chemical energy storage in energetic materials: Grounding expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C. Michael; Fajardo, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of modern energetic materials based on organic chemistry has plateaued, with only ˜ 40% improvements realized over the past half century. This fact has stimulated research on alternative chemical energy storage schemes in various U.S. government funded "High Energy Density Materials" (HEDM) programs since the 1950's. These efforts have examined a wide range of phenomena such as free radical stabilization, metallic hydrogen, metastable helium, polynitrogens, extended molecular solids, nanothermites, and others. In spite of the substantial research investments, significant improvements in energetic material performance have not been forthcoming. This paper discusses the lessons learned in the various HEDM programs, the different degrees of freedom in which to store energy in materials, and the fundamental limitations and orders of magnitude of the energies involved. The discussion focuses almost exclusively on the topic of energy density and only mentions in passing other equally important properties of explosives and propellants such as gas generation and reaction rate.

  13. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP content was calculated as nitrogen (N × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD, true organic matter digestibility (TOMD, ME, and partitioning factor (PF values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT. Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum to 9.51% (maize, but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources.

  14. Fission and explosive energy releases of PuO2, PuO2--UO2, UO2, and UO3 assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, J.J.; Hansen, G.E.; Byers, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The critical masses and fission and explosive energy releases of PuO 2 , PuO 2 --UO 2 , UO 2 , and UO 3 assemblies have been calculated. The parameters selected for the model are conservative. They were chosen after review of appropriate plants that have been and are proposed for construction in the future. The resulting data envelopes are intended to include any conceivable set of circumstances that could ultimately lead to a nuclear incident. All energy release analysis was performed for initial fission spikes only: recriticality mechanisms were not considered

  15. Similarity Laws for the Lines of Ideal Free Energy and Chemical Potential in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, E M; Vorob'ev, V S

    2017-09-21

    We have found the curves on the density-temperature plane, along which the values of free energy and chemical potential correspond to ideal gas quantities. At first, we have applied the van der Waals equation to construct them and to derive their equations. Then we have shown that the same lines for real substances (Ar, N 2 , CH 4 , SF 6 , H 2 , H 2 O) and for the model Lennard-Jones system constructed on the basis of the measurements data and calculations are well matched with the derived equations. The validity and deviations from the obtained similarity laws are discussed.

  16. On the topography of sputtered or chemically etched crystals: surface energies minimised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Cope, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sputtering of single or polycrystalline metal surfaces by heavy ions gives rise to the characteristic topographical features of etch pits, ripples, and cones (pyramids). For cones and pyramids, in particular, no completely satisfactory explanation exists as to the origin of the basic geometry. Scanning electron micrographs are shown. It is proposed that for topographical features of both chemical etch and ion beam origin on single crystal surfaces, the presence of facets on cones and pyramids in particular, is due to the minimization of surface energy. (U.K.)

  17. Energy and environment efficiency analysis based on an improved environment DEA cross-model: Case study of complex chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.

  18. The Interconversion of Electrical and Chemical Energy: The Electrolysis of Water and the Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the drawbacks of using a demonstration of the electrolysis of water to illustrate the interconversion between electrical and chemical energy. Illustrates a simple apparatus allowing demonstration of this concept while overcoming these drawbacks. (CW)

  19. Linear solvation energy relationships for toxicity of selected organic chemicals to Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino, Dora R.M.; Hickey, James P.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1988-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, more than 300 contaminants have been identified in fish, other biota, water, and sediment. Current hazard assessment of these chemicals by the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes is based on their toxicity, occurrence in the environment, and source. Although scientists at the Center have tested over 70 chemicals with the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the number of experimental data needed to screen the huge array of chemicals in the Great Lakes exceeds the practical capabilities of conducting bioassays. This limitation can be partly circumvented, however, by using mathematical models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to provide rapid, inexpensive estimates of toxicity. Many properties of chemicals, including toxicity, bioaccumulation and water solubility are well correlated and can be predicted by equations of the generalized linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The equation we used to model solute toxicity is Toxicity = constant + mVI/100 + s (π* + dδ) + bβm + aαm where VI = intrinsic (Van der Waals) molar volume; π* = molecular dipolarity/polarizability; δ = polarizability 'correction term'; βm = solute hydrogen bond acceptor basicity; and αm = solute hydrogen bond donor acidity. The subscript m designates solute monomer values for α and β. We applied the LSER model to 48-h acute toxicity data (measured as immobilization) for six classes of chemicals detected in Great Lakes fish. The following regression was obtained for Daphnia pulex (concentration = μM): log EC50 = 4.86 - 4.35 VI/100; N = 38, r2 = 0.867, sd = 0.403 We also used the LSER modeling approach to analyze to a large published data set of 24-h acute toxicity for Daphnia magna; the following regression resulted, for eight classes of compounds (concentration = mM): log EC50 = 3.88 - 4.52 VI/100 - 1.62 π* + 1.66 βm - 0.916 αm; N = 62, r2 = 0.859, sd = 0.375 In addition we developed computer software that identifies

  20. Solvated electron: criticism of a suggested correlation of chemical potential with optical absorption energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhataziz, M.

    1984-01-01

    A recent theoretical treatment of the absorption spectrum of the solvated electron, e - sub(s), maintains that rigorously μ 0 >= -0.75 Esub(av), which gives empirical relationship, μ 0 >= -(0.93 +- 0.02)Esub(max). For e - sub(s) in a particular solvent at a temperature and pressure, μ 0 , Esub(av) and Esub(max) are standard chemical potential, average energy of the absorption spectrum and the energy at the absorption maximum respectively. The temperature and pressure effects on the absorption spectrum of e - sub(s) in water and liquid ammonia do not support the equality sign in the above cited relationships. The implications of inequality expressed above are discussed for e - sub(s) in water and liquid ammonia. (author)

  1. Flow rate and source reservoir identification from airborne chemical sampling of the uncontrolled Elgin platform gas release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D.; Mobbs, Stephen D.; Wellpott, Axel; Allen, Grant; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Burton, Ralph R.; Camilli, Richard; Coe, Hugh; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Gallagher, Martin; Hopkins, James R.; Lanoiselle, Mathias; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Purvis, Ruth M.; O'Shea, Sebastian; Pyle, John A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.

    2018-03-01

    An uncontrolled gas leak from 25 March to 16 May 2012 led to evacuation of the Total Elgin wellhead and neighbouring drilling and production platforms in the UK North Sea. Initially the atmospheric flow rate of leaking gas and condensate was very poorly known, hampering environmental assessment and well control efforts. Six flights by the UK FAAM chemically instrumented BAe-146 research aircraft were used to quantify the flow rate. The flow rate was calculated by assuming the plume may be modelled by a Gaussian distribution with two different solution methods: Gaussian fitting in the vertical and fitting with a fully mixed layer. When both solution methods were used they compared within 6 % of each other, which was within combined errors. Data from the first flight on 30 March 2012 showed the flow rate to be 1.3 ± 0.2 kg CH4 s-1, decreasing to less than half that by the second flight on 17 April 2012. δ13CCH4 in the gas was found to be -43 ‰, implying that the gas source was unlikely to be from the main high pressure, high temperature Elgin gas field at 5.5 km depth, but more probably from the overlying Hod Formation at 4.2 km depth. This was deemed to be smaller and more manageable than the high pressure Elgin field and hence the response strategy was considerably simpler. The first flight was conducted within 5 days of the blowout and allowed a flow rate estimate within 48 h of sampling, with δ13CCH4 characterization soon thereafter, demonstrating the potential for a rapid-response capability that is widely applicable to future atmospheric emissions of environmental concern. Knowledge of the Elgin flow rate helped inform subsequent decision making. This study shows that leak assessment using appropriately designed airborne plume sampling strategies is well suited for circumstances where direct access is difficult or potentially dangerous. Measurements such as this also permit unbiased regulatory assessment of potential impact, independent of the emitting

  2. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  3. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  4. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  5. The effects of high electronic energy loss on the chemical modification of polyimide

    CERN Document Server

    SunYouMei; Jin Yun Fan; Liu Chang Long; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhu Zhi Yong

    2002-01-01

    In order to observe the role of electronic energy loss (dE/dX) sub e on chemical modification of polyimide (PI), the multi-layer stacks (corresponding to different dE/dX) were irradiated by different swift heavy ions (1.37 GeV Ar sup 4 sup 0 , 1.98 GeV Kr sup 8 sup 4 , 1.755 GeV Xe sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 and 2.636 GeV U sup 2 sup 3 sup 8) under vacuum and room temperature. The chemical changes of modified PI films were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) absorption spectroscopy. The degradation of PI was investigated in the fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5.5x10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 and different electronic energy loss from 0.77 to 11.5 keV/nm. The FTIR results show the absorbance of the typical function group decrease exponentially as a function of fluence. The alkyne end group was found after irradiation and its formation radii were 5.6 and 5.9 nm corresponding to 8.8 and 11.5 keV/nm Xe irradiation respectively. UV/Vis analysis indicates the radiation induced...

  6. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Load-Unload Response Ratio and Accelerating Moment/Energy Release Critical Region Scaling and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X. C.; Mora, P.; Peng, K.; Wang, Y. C.; Weatherley, D.

    The main idea of the Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR) is that when a system is stable, its response to loading corresponds to its response to unloading, whereas when the system is approaching an unstable state, the response to loading and unloading becomes quite different. High LURR values and observations of Accelerating Moment/Energy Release (AMR/AER) prior to large earthquakes have led different research groups to suggest intermediate-term earthquake prediction is possible and imply that the LURR and AMR/AER observations may have a similar physical origin. To study this possibility, we conducted a retrospective examination of several Australian and Chinese earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 7.9, including Australia's deadly Newcastle earthquake and the devastating Tangshan earthquake. Both LURR values and best-fit power-law time-to-failure functions were computed using data within a range of distances from the epicenter. Like the best-fit power-law fits in AMR/AER, the LURR value was optimal using data within a certain epicentral distance implying a critical region for LURR. Furthermore, LURR critical region size scales with mainshock magnitude and is similar to the AMR/AER critical region size. These results suggest a common physical origin for both the AMR/AER and LURR observations. Further research may provide clues that yield an understanding of this mechanism and help lead to a solid foundation for intermediate-term earthquake prediction.

  8. Energy from poultry waste: An Aspen Plus-based approach to the thermo-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalaglio, Gianluca; Coccia, Valentina; Cotana, Franco; Gelosia, Mattia; Nicolini, Andrea; Petrozzi, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    A particular approach to the task of energy conversion of a residual waste material was properly experienced during the implementation of the national funded Enerpoll project. This project is a case study developed in the estate of a poultry farm that is located in a rural area of central Italy (Umbria Region); such a farm was chosen for the research project since it is almost representative of many similar small-sized breeding realties of the Italian regional context. The purpose of the case study was the disposal of a waste material (i.e. poultry manure) and its energy recovery; this task is in agreement with the main objectives of the new Energy Union policy. Considering this background, an innovative gasification plant (300KW thermal power) was chosen and installed for the experimentation. The novelty of the investigated technology is the possibility to achieve the production of thermal energy burning just the produced syngas and not directly the solid residues. This aspect allows to reduce the quantity of nitrogen released in the atmosphere by the exhaust flue gases and conveying it into the solid residues (ashes). A critical aspect of the research program was the optimization of the pretreatment (reduction of the water content) and the dimensional homogenization of the poultry waste before its energy recovery. This physical pretreatment allowed the reduction of the complexity of the matrix to be energy enhanced. Further to the real scale plant monitoring, a complete Aspen Plus v.8.0 model was also elaborated for the prediction of the quality of the produced synthesis gas as a function of both the gasification temperature and the equivalence ratio (ER). The model is an ideal flowchart using as input material just the homogenized and dried material. On the basis of the real monitored thermal power (equal to about 200kW average value in an hour) the model was used for the estimation of the syngas energy content (i.e. LHV) that resulted in the range of 3-5MJ/m 3

  9. Experiments to determine the rate of beta energy release following fission of Pu239 andU235 in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.; Taylor, W.H.; Sweet, D.W.; March, M.R.

    1979-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate of beta energy release from Pu239 and U235 fission fragments over a period of 107 seconds following a 105 second irradiation in the zero-power fast reactor Zebra. Results are compared with predictions using the UKFPDD-1 decay data file and two different sets of fission product yield data. (author)

  10. Binding energies and chemical shifts of least bound core electron excitations in cubic Asub(N)Bsub(8-N) semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechstedt, F.; Enderlein, R.; Wischnewski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Core electron binding energies Esup(B) with respect to the vacuum level and their chemical shifts are calculated for the least bound core levels of cations and anions of cubic Asub(N)Bsub(8-N) semiconductors. Starting from the HF-binding energy of the free atom absolute values of Esup(B) are obtained by adding core level shifts and relaxation energies. Core level shifts are calculated by means of an electrostatic model with ionic and bond charges according to Phillips' bond charge model. For the calculation of relaxation energies the linear dielectric theory of electronic polarization is applied. Valence and core electrons, and diagonal and non-diagonal screening are taken into account. The theoretical results for chemical shifts of binding energies are compared with experimental values from XPS-measurements corrected by work function data. Good agreement is obtained in all cases within the error limit of about one eV. Chemical and atomic trends of core level shifts, relaxation energies, and binding energies are discussed in terms of changes of atomic and solid state parameters. Chemical shifts and relaxation energies are predicted for various ternary Asub(N)Bsub(8-N) compounds. (author)

  11. Controlling the Release of Indomethacin from Glass Solutions Layered with a Rate Controlling Membrane Using Fluid-Bed Processing. Part 1: Surface and Cross-Sectional Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Scurr, David J; Steer, Elisabeth D; Roberts, Clive J; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2017-04-03

    Fluid bed coating has been shown to be a suitable manufacturing technique to formulate poorly soluble drugs in glass solutions. Layering inert carriers with a drug-polymer mixture enables these beads to be immediately filled into capsules, thus avoiding additional, potentially destabilizing, downstream processing. In this study, fluid bed coating is proposed for the production of controlled release dosage forms of glass solutions by applying a second, rate controlling membrane on top of the glass solution. Adding a second coating layer adds to the physical and chemical complexity of the drug delivery system, so a thorough understanding of the physical structure and phase behavior of the different coating layers is needed. This study aimed to investigate the surface and cross-sectional characteristics (employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) of an indomethacin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) glass solution, top-coated with a release rate controlling membrane consisting of either ethyl cellulose or Eudragit RL. The implications of the addition of a pore former (PVP) and the coating medium (ethanol or water) were also considered. In addition, polymer miscibility and the phase analysis of the underlying glass solution were investigated. Significant differences in surface and cross-sectional topography of the different rate controlling membranes or the way they are applied (solution vs dispersion) were observed. These observations can be linked to the polymer miscibility differences. The presence of PVP was observed in all rate controlling membranes, even if it is not part of the coating solution. This could be attributed to residual powder presence in the coating chamber. The distribution of PVP among the sample surfaces depends on the concentration and the rate controlling polymer used. Differences can again be linked to polymer miscibility. Finally, it was shown that the underlying glass solution layer

  12. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  13. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Den

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass

  14. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K.; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  15. Lignocellulosic Biomass Transformations via Greener Oxidative Pretreatment Processes: Access to Energy and Value-Added Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, Walter; Sharma, Virender K; Lee, Mengshan; Nadadur, Govind; Varma, Rajender S

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge. The valorization of lignin and cellulose into energy products or chemical products is contingent on the effectiveness of selective depolymerization of the pretreatment regime which typically involve harsh pyrolytic and solvothermal processes assisted by corrosive acids or alkaline reagents. These unselective methods decompose lignin into many products that may not be energetically or chemically valuable, or even biologically inhibitory. Exploring milder, selective and greener processes, therefore, has become a critical subject of study for the valorization of these materials in the last decade. Efficient alternative activation processes such as microwave- and ultrasound irradiation are being explored as replacements for pyrolysis and hydrothermolysis, while milder options such as advanced oxidative and catalytic processes should be considered as choices to harsher acid and alkaline processes. Herein, we critically abridge the research on chemical oxidative techniques for the pretreatment of lignocellulosics with the explicit aim to rationalize the objectives of the biomass pretreatment step and the

  16. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Energy in Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Özgecan; Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text instruction (CCT) in the context of energy in chemical reactions. The subjects of the study were 60, 10th grade students at a high school, who were in two different classes and taught by the same teacher. One of the classes was randomly selected as the experimental group in which CCT instruction was applied, and the other as the control group in which traditional teaching method was used. The data were obtained through the use of Energy Concept Test (ECT), the Attitude Scale towards Chemistry (ASC) and Science Process Skill Test (SPST). In order to find out the effect of the conceptual change text on students' learning of energy concept, independent sample t-tests, ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) and ANOVA (analysis of variance) were used. Results revealed that there was a statistically significant mean difference between the experimental and control group in terms of students' ECT total mean scores; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control group in terms of students' attitude towards chemistry. These findings suggest that conceptual change text instruction enhances the understanding and achievement.

  17. Fully solar-powered photoelectrochemical conversion for simultaneous energy storage and chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcheng; Tang, Jing; Peng, Zheng; Wang, Yuhang; Jia, Dingsi; Kong, Biao; Elzatahry, Ahmed A; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2014-06-11

    We report the development of a multifunctional, solar-powered photoelectrochemical (PEC)-pseudocapacitive-sensing material system for simultaneous solar energy conversion, electrochemical energy storage, and chemical detection. The TiO2 nanowire/NiO nanoflakes and the Si nanowire/Pt nanoparticle composites are used as photoanodes and photocathodes, respectively. A stable open-circuit voltage of ∼0.45 V and a high pseudocapacitance of up to ∼455 F g(-1) are obtained, which also exhibit a repeating charging-discharging capability. The PEC-pseudocapacitive device is fully solar powered, without the need of any external power supply. Moreover, this TiO2 nanowire/NiO nanoflake composite photoanode exhibits excellent glucose sensitivity and selectivity. Under the sun light illumination, the PEC photocurrent shows a sensitive increase upon different glucose additions. Meanwhile in the dark, the open-circuit voltage of the charged pseudocapacitor also exhibits a corresponding signal over glucose analyte, thus serving as a full solar-powered energy conversion-storage-utilization system.

  18. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  19. A new type of power energy for accelerating chemical reactions: the nature of a microwave-driving force for accelerating chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jicheng; Xu, Wentao; You, Zhimin; Wang, Zhe; Luo, Yushang; Gao, Lingfei; Yin, Cheng; Peng, Renjie; Lan, Lixin

    2016-04-27

    The use of microwave (MW) irradiation to increase the rate of chemical reactions has attracted much attention recently in nearly all fields of chemistry due to substantial enhancements in reaction rates. However, the intrinsic nature of the effects of MW irradiation on chemical reactions remains unclear. Herein, the highly effective conversion of NO and decomposition of H2S via MW catalysis were investigated. The temperature was decreased by several hundred degrees centigrade. Moreover, the apparent activation energy (Ea') decreased substantially under MW irradiation. Importantly, for the first time, a model of the interactions between microwave electromagnetic waves and molecules is proposed to elucidate the intrinsic reason for the reduction in the Ea' under MW irradiation, and a formula for the quantitative estimation of the decrease in the Ea' was determined. MW irradiation energy was partially transformed to reduce the Ea', and MW irradiation is a new type of power energy for speeding up chemical reactions. The effect of MW irradiation on chemical reactions was determined. Our findings challenge both the classical view of MW irradiation as only a heating method and the controversial MW non-thermal effect and open a promising avenue for the development of novel MW catalytic reaction technology.

  20. Single-collision studies of hot atom energy transfer and chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in the collision dynamics of translationally hot atoms, with funding with DOE for the project ''Single-Collision Studies of Hot Atom Energy Transfer and Chemical Reaction,'' Grant Number DE-FG03-85ER13453. The work reported here was done during the period September 9, 1988 through October 31, 1991. During this period this DOE-funded work has been focused on several different efforts: (1) experimental studies of the state-to-state dynamics of the H + RH → H 2 R reactions where RH is CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , or C 3 H 8 , (2) theoretical (quasiclassical trajectory) studies of hot hydrogen atom collision dynamics, (3) the development of photochemical sources of translationally hot molecular free radicals and characterization of the high resolution CARS spectroscopy of molecular free radicals, (4) the implementation of stimulated Raman excitation (SRE) techniques for the preparation of vibrationally state-selected molecular reactants

  1. Molecular Dynamics Study of Thermally Augmented Nanodroplet Motion on Chemical Energy Induced Wettability Gradient Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monojit; Chowdhury, Anamika; Bhusan, Richa; DasGupta, Sunando

    2015-10-20

    Droplet motion on a surface with chemical energy induced wettability gradient has been simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to highlight the underlying physics of molecular movement near the solid-liquid interface including the contact line friction. The simulations mimic experiments in a comprehensive manner wherein microsized droplets are propelled by the surface wettability gradient against forces opposed to motion. The liquid-wall Lennard-Jones interaction parameter and the substrate temperature are varied to explore their effects on the three-phase contact line friction coefficient. The contact line friction is observed to be a strong function of temperature at atomistic scales, confirming their experimentally observed inverse functionality. Additionally, the MD simulation results are successfully compared with those from an analytical model for self-propelled droplet motion on gradient surfaces.

  2. Chemical approaches toward graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Shaomin; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-03-12

    A 'gold rush' has been triggered all over the world for exploiting the possible applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved; one is the preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials with well-defined structures, and the other is the controllable fabrication of these materials into functional devices. This review gives a brief overview of the recent research concerning chemical and thermal approaches toward the production of well-defined graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas, including solar cells, lithium ion secondary batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Overall efficiencies for conversion of solar energy to a chemical fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, J. D.

    A complete and consistent scheme for determining the overall efficiency of a generalized process for the conversion of solar energy into a chemical fuel (e.g. hydrogen) is developed and applied to seven conversion processes: thermal, thermochemical, photovoltaic, photogalvanic, photoelectrolysis, photosynthesis and photochemical conversion. It is demonstrated that the overall efficiency of each of these processes is determined by ten common factors: maximum theoretical efficiency, inherent absorption losses, inherent internal losses, rate limiting effects, reflection losses, transmission losses, coverage losses, system construction requirements, parasitic losses and harvesting and conversion losses. Both state-of-the-art and optimistic values are assigned to each factor for each of the seven conversion processes. State-of-the-art overall efficiencies ranged from 5% for thermal conversion down to essentially zero for thermochemical. Optimistic values in the range of about 10 to 15% are calculated for several of the processes.

  4. Chemical effects of low-energy electron impact on hydrocarbons in the gas phase. II. Propene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derai, R.; Danon, J.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical effects of low-energy (3.5 to 15.0 eV) electron impact on propene were investigated. The setup used for the irradiations has previously been described. Appearance curves for stable products were determined, from which correlations between products and precursors were deduced. In the excitation range, the main precursors are the triplet state at 4.4 eV and various singlet states around 7.0 and 9.0 eV. Above the ionization potential, contribution from superexcited molecules and ions was noted. Superexcited molecules are formed with a much higher cross section than excited molecules. A reaction scheme was proposed to account for the chemical effects associated with excited states and the yields of excited molecules in dissociating states were derived from experimental data. Results concerning the fragmentation of propene excited in singlet states conform to photolysis data. The following new results were obtained: the decomposition of propene excited in the triplet state at 4.4 eV involves mainly C--C bond rupture; the decomposition processes of superexcited and excited molecules are similar. A higher degree of fragmentation is observed in the case of superexcited molecules

  5. The biorefinery concept: Using biomass instead of oil for producing energy and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products. (author)

  6. Low-Energy Electron Scattering Data for Chemical Plasma Treatment of Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marco A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from renewable sources is an important goal for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Many countries are already using few percent of ethanol in the gasoline and few of them, with more aggressive programs, have developed flex fuel engines that can run with any mixture of gasoline and ethanol. An important point is how to produce ethanol in a sustainable way and with which technology? Biomass is a good candidate since it has cellulose and hemicellulose as source of sugars. In order to liberate these sugars for fermentation, it is important to learn how to separate the main components. Chemical routes (acid treatment) and biological routes (enzymatic hydrolysis) are combined and used for these purposes. Atmospheric plasmas can be useful for attacking the biomass in a controlled manner and low-energy electrons may have an important role in the process. Recently we have been studying the interaction of electrons with lignin subunits (phenol, guaiacol, p-coumaryl alcohol), cellulose components, β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1 - 4) linked glucose dimer) and hemicellulose components (β-D-xylose). We also obtained results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1 - 4) linked glucose dimer). Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical–chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production. In my talk I will give a progress report on this matter. We will also discuss microsolvation effects on the electron-phenol scattering process and present our strategy to study molecular dissociation through electronic excitation of low energy triplet states. (author)

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ENERGY VALUE IN THE MEAT OF THE MACEDONIAN AND OHRID TROUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar SAVESKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis and to verify the quality properties of meat of the Macedonian trout (Salmo macedonicus and the Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica, from aquaculture production, bred on a fish farm under controlled conditions. In order to determine the quality of meat of the Macedonian and Ohrid trout, analyses of the chemical composition have been conducted: the amount of proteins, fat, water, minerals, as well as a determination of the energy value of the meat. The analyses have been made on samples from Macedonian and Ohrid trout, with size of consumption between 200g and 300g. By these analyses, it has been confirmed that in the meat of the Macedonian trout, the amount of water is 77.122%, 17.800% proteins, 3.333% fat and 1.667% minerals, whereas in the meat of the Ohrid trout 75.923% water, 16.783% proteins, 5.403% fat and 1.080% minerals. Though the established difference in the amount of water and fat is not significant, the differences determined in the contents of proteins and minerals are significant on a level p>0,05. The energy value of Macedonian trout meat is 435.29 KJ/100gm, i.e. and 498.49 KJ/100gm in the Ohrid trout meat.

  8. How to compute isomerization energies of organic molecules with quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Stefan; Steinmetz, Marc; Korth, Martin

    2007-03-16

    The reaction energies for 34 typical organic isomerizations including oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms are investigated with modern quantum chemical methods that have the perspective of also being applicable to large systems. The experimental reaction enthalpies are corrected for vibrational and thermal effects, and the thus derived "experimental" reaction energies are compared to corresponding theoretical data. A series of standard AO basis sets in combination with second-order perturbation theory (MP2, SCS-MP2), conventional density functionals (e.g., PBE, TPSS, B3-LYP, MPW1K, BMK), and new perturbative functionals (B2-PLYP, mPW2-PLYP) are tested. In three cases, obvious errors of the experimental values could be detected, and accurate coupled-cluster [CCSD(T)] reference values have been used instead. It is found that only triple-zeta quality AO basis sets provide results close enough to the basis set limit and that sets like the popular 6-31G(d) should be avoided in accurate work. Augmentation of small basis sets with diffuse functions has a notable effect in B3-LYP calculations that is attributed to intramolecular basis set superposition error and covers basic deficiencies of the functional. The new methods based on perturbation theory (SCS-MP2, X2-PLYP) are found to be clearly superior to many other approaches; that is, they provide mean absolute deviations of less than 1.2 kcal mol-1 and only a few (computational thermochemistry methods.

  9. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Energy Efficient Catalytic Activation of Hydrogen peroxide for Green Chemical Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Terrence J.; Horwitz, Colin

    2004-11-12

    A new, highly energy efficient approach for using catalytic oxidation chemistry in multiple fields of technology has been pursued. The new catalysts, called TAML® activators, catalyze the reactions of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants for the exceptionally rapid decontamination of noninfectious simulants (B. atrophaeus) of anthrax spores, for the energy efficient decontamination of thiophosphate pesticides, for the facile, low temperature removal of color and organochlorines from pulp and paper mill effluent, for the bleaching of dyes from textile mill effluents, and for the removal of recalcitrant dibenzothiophene compounds from diesel and gasoline fuels. Highlights include the following: 1) A 7-log kill of Bacillus atrophaeus spores has been achieved unambiguously in water under ambient conditions within 15 minutes. 2) The rapid total degradation under ambient conditions of four thiophosphate pesticides and phosphonate degradation intermediates has been achieved on treatment with TAML/peroxide, opening up potential applications of the decontamination system for phosphonate structured chemical warfare agents, for inexpensive, easy to perform degradation of stored and aged pesticide stocks (especially in Africa and Asia), for remediation of polluted sites and water bodies, and for the destruction of chemical warfare agent stockpiles. 3) A mill trial conducted in a Pennsylvanian bleached kraft pulp mill has established that TAML catalyst injected into an alkaline peroxide bleach tower can significantly lower color from the effluent stream promising a new, more cost effective, energy-saving approach for color remediation adding further evidence of the value and diverse engineering capacity of the approach to other field trials conducted on effluent streams as they exit the bleach plant. 4) Dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), including 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, the most recalcitrant sulfur compounds in diesel and gasoline, can be completely removed from model gasoline

  11. Vib--rotational energy distributions and relaxation processes in pulsed HF chemical lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shaul, A.; Kompa, K.L.; Schmailzl, U.

    1976-01-01

    The rate equations governing the temporal evolution of photon densities and level populations in pulsed F+H 2 →HF+H chemical lasers are solved for different initial conditions. The rate equations are solved simultaneously for all relevant vibrational--rotational levels and vibrational--rotational P-branch transitions. Rotational equilibrium is not assumed. Approximate expressions for the detailed state-to-state rate constants corresponding to the various energy transfer processes (V--V, V--R,T, R--R,T) coupling the vib--rotational levels are formulated on the basis of experimental data, approximate theories, and qualitative considerations. The main findings are as follows: At low pressures, R--T transfer cannot compete with the stimulated emission, and the laser output largely reflects the nonequilibrium energy distribution in the pumping reaction. The various transitions reach threshold and decay almost independently and simultaneous lasing on several lines takes place. When a buffer gas is added in excess to the reacting mixture, the enhanced rotational relaxation leads to nearly single-line operation and to the J shift in lasing. Laser efficiency is higher at high inert gas pressures owing to a better extraction of the internal energy from partially inverted populations. V--V exchange enhances lasing from upper vibrational levels but reduces the total pulse intensity. V--R,T processes reduce the efficiency but do not substantially modify the spectral output distribution. The photon yield ranges between 0.4 and 1.4 photons/HF molecule depending on the initial conditions. Comparison with experimental data, when available, is fair

  12. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  13. Modeling the effects of cohesive energy for single particle on the material removal in chemical mechanical polishing at atomic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongguang; Zhao Yongwu; An Wei; Wang Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical model for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) based on interface solid physical and chemical theory in addition to energy equilibrium knowledge. And the effects of oxidation concentration and particle size on the material removal in CMP are investigated. It is shown that the mechanical energy and removal cohesive energy couple with the particle size, and being a cause of the non-linear size-removal rate relation. Furthermore, it also shows a nonlinear dependence of removal rate on removal cohesive energy. The model predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the published experimental data. The current study provides an important starting point for delineating the micro-removal mechanism in the CMP process at atomic scale

  14. Developmental programming: Impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Megan M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5 mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147 d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F 2α , just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  15. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fission fragment yields and total kinetic energy release in neutron-induced fission of235,238U,and239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovesson, F.; Duke, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Manning, B.; Mayorov, D.; Mosby, S.; Schmitt, K.

    2018-03-01

    Different aspects of the nuclear fission process have been studied at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) using various instruments and experimental techniques. Properties of the fragments emitted in fission have been investigated using Frisch-grid ionization chambers, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the SPIDER instrument which employs the 2v-2E method. These instruments and experimental techniques have been used to determine fission product mass yields, the energy dependent total kinetic energy (TKE) release, and anisotropy in neutron-induced fission of U-235, U-238 and Pu-239.

  17. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  18. Metabolic disruption in context: Clinical avenues for synergistic perturbations in energy homeostasis by endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargis, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The global epidemic of metabolic disease is a clear and present danger to both individual and societal health. Understanding the myriad factors contributing to obesity and diabetes is essential for curbing their decades-long expansion. Emerging data implicate environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The phenylsulfamide fungicide and anti-fouling agent tolylfluanid (TF) was recently added to the list of EDCs promoting metabolic dysfunction. Dietary exposure to this novel metabolic disruptor promoted weight gain, increased adiposity, and glucose intolerance as well as systemic and cellular insulin resistance. Interestingly, the increase in body weight and adipose mass was not a consequence of increased food consumption; rather, it may have resulted from disruptions in diurnal patterns of energy intake, raising the possibility that EDCs may promote metabolic dysfunction through alterations in circadian rhythms. While these studies provide further evidence that EDCs may promote the development of obesity and diabetes, many questions remain regarding the clinical factors that modulate patient-specific consequences of EDC exposure, including the impact of genetics, diet, lifestyle, underlying disease, pharmacological treatments, and clinical states of fat redistribution. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of these factors on an individual's susceptibility to environmentally-mediated metabolic disruption. Advances in these areas will be critical for translating EDC science into the clinic to enable physicians to stratify an individual's risk of developing EDC-induced metabolic disease and to provide direction for treating exposed patients.

  19. Predicting Hydride Donor Strength via Quantum Chemical Calculations of Hydride Transfer Activation Free Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alherz, Abdulaziz; Lim, Chern-Hooi; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B

    2018-01-25

    We propose a method to approximate the kinetic properties of hydride donor species by relating the nucleophilicity (N) of a hydride to the activation free energy ΔG ⧧ of its corresponding hydride transfer reaction. N is a kinetic parameter related to the hydride transfer rate constant that quantifies a nucleophilic hydridic species' tendency to donate. Our method estimates N using quantum chemical calculations to compute ΔG ⧧ for hydride transfers from hydride donors to CO 2 in solution. A linear correlation for each class of hydrides is then established between experimentally determined N values and the computationally predicted ΔG ⧧ ; this relationship can then be used to predict nucleophilicity for different hydride donors within each class. This approach is employed to determine N for four different classes of hydride donors: two organic (carbon-based and benzimidazole-based) and two inorganic (boron and silicon) hydride classes. We argue that silicon and boron hydrides are driven by the formation of the more stable Si-O or B-O bond. In contrast, the carbon-based hydrides considered herein are driven by the stability acquired upon rearomatization, a feature making these species of particular interest, because they both exhibit catalytic behavior and can be recycled.

  20. Chemical and mechanical instabilities in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G; Lavagno, A; Pigato, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possible thermodynamic instability in a warm and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from nucleonic matter to resonance-dominated Δ-matter can take place. Such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) and by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the isospin concentration) in asymmetric nuclear matter. Similarly to the liquid-gas phase transition, the nucleonic and the Δ-matter phase have a different isospin density in the mixed phase. In the liquid-gas phase transition, the process of producing a larger neutron excess in the gas phase is referred to as isospin fractionation. A similar effects can occur in the nucleon-Δ matter phase transition due essentially to a Δ − excess in the Δ-matter phase in asymmetric nuclear matter. In this context, we study the hadronic equation of state by means of an effective quantum relativistic mean field model with the inclusion of the full octet of baryons, the Δ-isobar degrees of freedom, and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector mesons. Finally, we will investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where phases with different values of antibaryon-baryon ratios and strangeness content may coexist. Such a physical regime could be in principle investigated in the future high-energy compressed nuclear matter experiments where will make it possible to create compressed baryonic matter with a high net baryon density. (paper)

  1. A Gibbs Energy Minimization Approach for Modeling of Chemical Reactions in a Basic Oxygen Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskopf, Ari; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri

    2017-12-01

    In modern steelmaking, the decarburization of hot metal is converted into steel primarily in converter processes, such as the basic oxygen furnace. The objective of this work was to develop a new mathematical model for top blown steel converter, which accounts for the complex reaction equilibria in the impact zone, also known as the hot spot, as well as the associated mass and heat transport. An in-house computer code of the model has been developed in Matlab. The main assumption of the model is that all reactions take place in a specified reaction zone. The mass transfer between the reaction volume, bulk slag, and metal determine the reaction rates for the species. The thermodynamic equilibrium is calculated using the partitioning of Gibbs energy (PGE) method. The activity model for the liquid metal is the unified interaction parameter model and for the liquid slag the modified quasichemical model (MQM). The MQM was validated by calculating iso-activity lines for the liquid slag components. The PGE method together with the MQM was validated by calculating liquidus lines for solid components. The results were compared with measurements from literature. The full chemical reaction model was validated by comparing the metal and slag compositions to measurements from industrial scale converter. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model was found to compare favorably with the models proposed in the literature. The real-time capability of the proposed model was confirmed in test calculations.

  2. Biogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Methane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90 days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of high-energy chemicals using solar energy heat. Project 8999, final report for the period September 1, 1977--May 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafler, J.R.; Sinnott, J.; Novil, M.; Yudow, B.D.; Rackoff, M.G.

    1978-12-01

    The first phase of a study to identify candidate processes and products suitable for future exploitation using high-temperature solar energy is presented. This phase has been principally analytical, consisting of techno-economic studies, thermodynamic assessments of chemical reactions and processes, and the determination of market potentials for major chemical commodities that use significant amounts of fossil resources today. The objective was to identify energy-intensive processes that would be suitable for the production of chemicals and fuels using solar energy process heat. Of particular importance was the comparison of relative costs and energy requirements for the selected solar product versus costs for the product derived from conventional processing. The assessment methodology used a systems analytical approach to identify processes and products having the greatest potential for solar energy-thermal processing. This approach was used to establish the basis for work to be carried out in subsequent phases of development. It has been the intent of the program to divide the analysis and process identification into the following three distinct areas: (1) process selection, (2) process evaluation, and (3) ranking of processes. Four conventional processes were selected for assessment namely, methanol synthesis, styrene monomer production, vinyl chloride monomer production, and terephthalic acid production.

  4. Understanding Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Gas Phases and Mixing Contributions in the Minimum of Free Energy Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The use of free energy plots to understand the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium has been shown to be of great pedagogical value in materials science. Although chemical equilibrium is also amenable to this kind of analysis, it is not part of the agenda of materials science textbooks. Something similar is found in chemistry branches, where free…

  5. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Márquez Luzardoa; Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically

  6. A Sequential Chemical Extraction and Spectroscopic Assessment of the Potential Bioavailability of Mercury Released From the Inoperative New Idria Mercury Mine, San Benito Co., CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A. D.; Luong, P. N.; Rytuba, J. J.; Brown, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    the silica tests. The possibility of Hg being incorporated in the silica tests of diatoms is surprising, but one of the few known Hg-silicates (Edgarbailyite) was first discovered in the New Idria forming under ambient conditions, thus, a Hg-silicate species is possible. The stability of Hg contained in diatoms is important because it represents a new sink for dissolved Hg in an impacted system that was previously unknown. Freshwater diatoms present in the New Idria drainage system were found to contain significant quantities (30-60%) of Hg in the non-HgS SCE fractions, similar to the New Idria sediments, and are thought to be the major association of Hg in this system. SCE analyses of Hg(II) sorbed to synthetic 2-line and natural ferrihydrite in the laboratory showed that Hg(II) does not bind strongly to either material. The adsorption/incorporation of Hg(II) with the silica tests of diatoms is an important discovery and has major implications for passive remediation strategies for Hg in natural systems. Because the vast majority of Hg contained in sediments downstream of the New Idria site require 1M KOH or harsher chemical treatment for removal, the Hg released from New Idria can be considered to be environmentally stable.

  7. Nanostructured Semiconductor Electrodes for Solar Energy Conversion and Innovations in Undergraduate Chemical Lab Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sudarat

    This dissertation presents the methodology and discussion of preparing nanostructured, high aspect ratio p-type phosphide-based binary and ternary semiconductors via "top-down" anodic etching, a process which creates nanostructures from a large parent entity, and "bottom-up" vapor-liquid-solid growth, a mechanism which builds up small clusters of molecules block-by-block. Such architecture is particularly useful for semiconducting materials with incompatible optical absorption depth and charge carrier diffusion length, as it not only relaxes the requirement for high-grade crystalline materials, but also increases the carrier collection efficiencies for photons with energy greater than or equal to the band gap. The main focus of this dissertation is to obtain nanostructured p-type phosphide semiconductors for photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell applications. Chapter II in the thesis describes a methodology for creating high-aspect ratio p-GaP that function as a photocathode under white light illumination. Gallium phosphide (GaP, band gap: 2.26 eV) is a suitable candidate for solar conversion and energy storage due to its ability to generate large photocurrent and photovoltage to drive fuel-forming reactions. Furthermore, the band edge positions of GaP can provide sufficient kinetics for the reduction of protons and carbon dioxide. The structure is prepared by anodic etching, and the resulting macroporous structures are subsequently doped with Zn by thermally driving in Zn from conformal ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The key finding of this work is a viable doping strategy involving ALD ZnO films for making functioning p-type GaP nanostructures. Chapter III compares the GaP nanowires grown from gold (Au) and tin (Sn) VLS catalysts in a benign solid sublimation growth scheme in terms of crystal structure and photoactivity. Sn is less noble than Au, allowing complete removal of Sn metal catalysts from the nanowires through wet chemical etching which

  8. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  9. Optimizing the Binding Energy of Hydrogen on Nanostructured Carbon Materials through Structure Control and Chemical Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Liu

    2011-02-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) was formed in 2005 to develop materials for hydrogen storage systems to be used in light-duty vehicles. The HSCoE and two related centers of excellence were created as follow-on activities to the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge Solicitation issued in FY 2003. The Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) focuses on developing high-capacity sorbents with the goal to operate at temperatures and pressures approaching ambient and be efficiently and quickly charged in the tank with minimal energy requirements and penalties to the hydrogen fuel infrastructure. The work was directed at overcoming barriers to achieving DOE system goals and identifying pathways to meet the hydrogen storage system targets. To ensure that the development activities were performed as efficiently as possible, the HSCoE formed complementary, focused development clusters based on the following four sorption-based hydrogen storage mechanisms: 1. Physisorption on high specific surface area and nominally single element materials 2. Enhanced H2 binding in Substituted/heterogeneous materials 3. Strong and/or multiple H2 binding from coordinated but electronically unsatruated metal centers 4. Weak Chemisorption/Spillover. As a member of the team, our group at Duke studied the synthesis of various carbon-based materials, including carbon nanotubes and microporous carbon materials with controlled porosity. We worked closely with other team members to study the effect of pore size on the binding energy of hydrogen to the carbon –based materials. Our initial project focus was on the synthesis and purification of small diameter, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-controlled diameters for the study of their hydrogen storage properties as a function of diameters. We developed a chemical vapor deposition method that synthesized gram quantities of carbon nanotubes with

  10. The Rhone-Alpes Observatory of Energy and Greenhouse Gases. Key data for 2012, February 2014 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    Maps, graphs and tables related to greenhouse gas emissions are presented and briefly commented. They illustrate a comparison between the Rhone-Alpes region and France, the European objectives in this region, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy production. They also illustrate an analysis of final energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions per sector (housing, office building, industry, transports, agriculture, and uses of energy). They present the renewable energy production in Rhone-Alpes: production of electricity from renewable sources, production of renewable heat, carbon sinks

  11. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, E.M.; Lukens, W.W.; Fitts, J.P.; Jantzen, C.M.; Tang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiphase ceramic waste form is composed of primarily of nepheline, nosean, and sodalite. • Rhenium is in the 7+ oxidation state and has partitioned to a mixed Re-bearing sodalite phase. • Mechanism of corrosion for the multiphase matrix is similar to other silicate minerals. • A mixed-anion sodalite phases controls Re release in the multiphase waste forms. - Abstract: A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium ( 99 Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO 4 ), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M 8 [Al 6 Si 6 O 24 ]X 2 , where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na 8 [AlSiO 4 ] 6 SO 4 ). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na 8 [Al 6 Si 6 O 24 ](ReO 4 ) 2 ). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99 Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 °C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate

  12. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  13. Carbon dioxide diffuse emission and thermal energy release from hydrothermal systems at Copahue-Caviahue Volcanic Complex (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Cardellini, Carlo; Lamberti, María Clara; Agusto, Mariano; Caselli, Alberto; Liccioli, Caterina; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Caliro, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The north-western sector of Caviahue caldera (Argentina), close to the active volcanic system of Copahue, is characterized by the presence of several hydrothermal sites that host numerous fumarolic emissions, anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2 and hot soils. In March 2014, measurements of soil CO2 fluxes in 5 of these sites (namely, Las Máquinas, Las Maquinitas I, Las Maquinitas II, Anfiteatro, and Termas de Copahue) allowed an estimation that 165 t of deeply derived CO2 is daily released. The gas source is likely related to a relatively shallow geothermal reservoir containing a single vapor phase as also suggested by both the geochemical data from the 3 deep wells drilled in the 1980s and gas geoindicators applied to the fumarolic discharges. Gas equilibria within the H-C-O gas system indicate the presence of a large, probably unique, single phase vapor zone at 200-210 °C feeding the hydrothermal manifestations of Las Máquinas, Las Maquinitas I and II and Termas de Copahue. A natural thermal release of 107 MW was computed by using CO2 as a tracer of the original vapor phase. The magmatic signature of the incondensable fumarolic gases, the wide expanse of the hydrothermal areas and the remarkable high amount of gas and heat released by fluid expulsion seem to be compatible with an active magmatic intrusion beneath this portion of the Caviahue caldera.

  14. 3D finite element analysis of stress distributions and strain energy release rates for adhesive bonded flat composite lap shear joints having pre-existing delaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-02-15

    The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.

  15. Sense of coherence and burnout in the energy and chemicals industry: The moderating role of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet van der Westhuizen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are accommodating four different social generations in the working environment. This poses a challenge for Human Resources departments to manage these diverse age cohorts in the workforce, as they are likely to have different needs, values and variables affecting their wellness. Research purpose: The objective of the present study was to assess whether various age groups differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, and whether age significantly moderates the relationship between sense of coherence and burnout. Motivation for the study: Although the literature review suggests that age groups may differ with regard to their sense of coherence and burnout, the findings seem to be somewhat inconclusive in this regard. There also seems to be a paucity of research examining the interaction effect between sense of coherence, burnout and age. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional quantitative survey approach was used. A nonprobability convenience sample of adults (N = 246 – employed in South Africa by an international integrated energy and chemicals company – participated in the study. Correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to achieve the objectives of the study. Main findings: The results showed that employees between the ages of 51 and 60 years of age experienced higher levels of comprehensibility and lower levels of reduced professional efficacy than their younger counterparts. The relationship between sense of coherence and exhaustion was also stronger for employees between 51 and 60 years old than for younger age categories. Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study can be useful when planning human resource interventions to enhance the well-being of employees from different age groups. Contribution: The results of the study add new insights to the well-being literature by showing that employees’ age is

  16. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Grace G. D.; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid–solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive ...

  17. Energy consumption analysis of Spanish food and drink, textile, chemical and non-metallic mineral products sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Mainar-Toledo, M.D.; Scarpellini, Sabina; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides quantitative information for energy consumption from four different industry sectors based on an energy analysis obtained by means of in-situ energy audits and complementary information. The latter information was taken from Saving Strategy and Energy Efficiency in Spain (Estrategia de Ahorro y Eficiencia Energética en España 2004–2010, E4) documents and the 2009 Industrial Survey of Spain from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE). The results show an estimate of energy consumption for each sector, namely Spanish food, drink and tobacco (9.6%), textile (4.5%), chemical (14.7%), and non-metallic mineral products (24.3%), as well as the degree of inefficiency for each, obtained by means of a stochastic frontier production function model. These results are combined with the energy consumption analysis to identify potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption for all studied sectors. These energy saving opportunities are classified according to thermal or electrical energy consumption and percentage savings of the total energy consumption. -- Highlights: ► This study presents the analysis of four Spanish energy-consuming industrial sectors. ► The four selected sectors account for 33.0% of the total industrial SMEs. ► An audit was carried out in several factories from each analysed industrial sector. ► Stochastic Cobb-Douglas frontiers were used to estimate production frontiers. ► Potential energy saving opportunities around 20.0% of the total energy consumption.

  18. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  19. Chemical gas sensors and the characterization, monitoring and sensor technology needs of the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaans, G.J.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Junk, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development within the Dept. of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility of providing new technologies to aid the environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) activities of the DOE. There is a perception that application and judicious development of chemical sensor technologies could result in large cost savings and reduced risk to the health and safety of ER/WM personnel. A number of potential gas sensor applications which exist within DOE ER/WM operations are described. The capabilities of several chemical sensor technologies and their potential to meet the needs of ER/WM applications in the present or near term future are discussed

  20. Effect of temperature on a free energy and equilibrium constants during dry flue gas desulphurisation chemical reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD dry particles of reagents are inserted (injected in the stream of flue gas, where they bond SO2. As reagents, the most often are used compounds of calcium (CaCO3, CaO or Ca(OH2. Knowledge of free energy and equilibrium constants of chemical reactions during dry FGD is necessary for understanding of influence of flue gas temperature to course of these chemical reactions as well as to SO2 bonding from flue gases.

  1. An approach to the determination of physical-chemical limits of energy consumption for the transition to a stationary state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimen, K.E.

    1975-02-01

    The paper gives a model of energy consumption and a programme for its application. Previous models are mainly criticized on the grounds that new technological developments as well as adjustments due to learning processes of homo sapiens are generally not sufficiently accounted for in these models. The approach of this new model is therefore an attempt at the determination of the physical-chemical limiting values for the capacity of the global HST (homo sapiens - Tellus) system or of individual regions with respect to certain critical factors. These limiting values determined by the physical-chemical system of the earth are independent of human ingenuity and flexibility. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Clinopyroxenes still trapped in diamonds: high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction as a chemical probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Nestola, Fabrizio; Alvaro, Matteo; Wilhelm, Heribert; Kleppe, Annette; Nimis, Paolo; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxenes are mainly Ca-Na-Fe-Mg-silicates constituting a significant portion of the Earth's upper mantle up to 20% of such shell of our planet. They could be found as typical mineral inclusions in diamonds being diopsidic and omphacitic in composition and, together with garnets, cover a key role in providing indications concerning the source rock in which the diamond crystallize. In detail, it is well known that eclogitic diamonds are characterized by clinopyroxenes with omphacitic compositions (about Ca0.5Na0.5Mg0.5Al0.5Si2O6) whereas peridotitic diamonds show clinopyroxenes very rich in the diopside end-member (CaMgSi2O6). In order to get direct chemical composition on the inclusions, and therefore on the diamond origin source, it is obviously necessary to extract them breaking and/or polishing the diamond host. However, a non-destructive investigation of an inclusion still trapped in a diamond is useful and important for different reasons: (1) the inclusions could be under pressure and their crystal structure can be modified if the pressure is released by the extraction; (2) the residual pressure on the inclusion can provide information about the formation pressure of the diamond (e.g. Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein); (3) the morphology and growth relationships of the inclusion with the host diamond can provide indications about its protogenetic vs. syngenetic and/or epigenetic nature; and (4) preservation of the diamond surface growth features can maintain crucial information on late oxidation processes (Fedortchouk et al. 2011). However the available methods to measure the composition of the inclusions implies to destroy the sample. The aim of this work is to obtain chemical information on the inclusions still trapped in their diamond host and therefore to indicate the diamond origin without extracting the inclusions. The work was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction using a new experimental approach by high energy synchrotron

  3. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yong-Z; Zhang, Jian-Y; Zhao, Li-H; Ma, Qiu-G; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-25

    This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

  4. Chemicals-Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Office of Industrial Technologies

    2001-01-01

    This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Chemicals. Information on what works for the Chemicals industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included

  5. Effect of thermal and chemical modifications on the mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations containing corn, cassava and sweet potato starches as filler-binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Vbamiunomhene Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Modification of the experimental starches improved the mechanical and release properties of directly compressed paracetamol tablet formulations. Thus, they can be developed for use as pharmaceutical excipients in specific formulations.

  6. Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR), Accelerating Moment/Energy Release (AM/ER) and State Vector Saltation as Precursors to Failure of Rock Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiang-Chu; Yu, Huai-Zhong; Kukshenko, Victor; Xu, Zhao-Yong; Wu, Zhishen; Li, Min; Peng, Keyin; Elizarov, Surgey; Li, Qi

    2004-12-01

    In order to verify some precursors such as LURR (Load/Unload Response Ratio) and AER (Accelerating Energy Release) before large earthquakes or macro-fracture in heterogeneous brittle media, four acoustic emission experiments involving large rock specimens under tri-axial stress, have been conducted. The specimens were loaded in two ways: monotonous or cycling. The experimental results confirm that LURR and AER are precursors of macro-fracture in brittle media. A new measure called the state vector has been proposed to describe the damage evolution of loaded rock specimens.

  7. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  8. Nano-patterning of perpendicular magnetic recording media by low-energy implantation of chemically reactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gonzalez, M.S.; Briones, F.; Garcia-Martin, J.M.; Montserrat, J.; Vila, L.; Faini, G.; Testa, A.M.; Fiorani, D.; Rohrmann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nano-patterning of perpendicular hard disk media with perpendicular anisotropy, but preserving disk surface planarity, is presented here. Reactive ion implantation is used to locally modify the chemical composition (hence the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy) of the Co/Pd multilayer in irradiated areas. The procedure involves low energy, chemically reactive ion irradiation through a resist mask. Among N, P and As ions, P are shown to be most adequate to obtain optimum bit density and topography flatness for industrial Co/Pd multilayer media. The effect of this ion contributes to isolate perpendicular bits by destroying both anisotropy and magnetic exchange in the irradiated areas. Low ion fluences are effective due to the stabilization of atomic displacement levels by the chemical effect of covalent impurities.

  9. Energy production and storage inorganic chemical strategies for a warming world

    CERN Document Server

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Energy production and storage are central problems for our time. In principle, abundant energy is available from the sun to run the earth in a sustainable way. Solar energy can be directly harnessed by agricultural and photovoltaic means, but the sheer scale of the energy demand poses severe challenges, for example any major competition between biomass production and food production would simply transfer scarcity from energy to food. Indirect use of solar energy in the form of wind looks also promising, especially for those regions not blessed with abundant sunlight. Other modes such as tidal

  10. Research into releasing inorganic phosphate and base from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    1994-01-01

    Research into radiation damage of nucleotide is an important area in radiation biology. In this paper, the yield of inorganic phosphate and base released from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a 30 keV N + ion beam was investigated in several aspects. The effect of particle fluence on yield and the influence of treatment with 0.1 N NaOH was deduced. By analysis, it is known that the alkali treatment not only increases the yield of inorganic phosphate, but also damages and splits the base released from irradiated 5'-dTMP. When the irradiated samples are treated by 0.1 N NaOH immediately, the yield of inorganic phosphate is increased by a factor of 1.7 and the concentration of base decreased to half of the original value. But the yield of inorganic phosphate could be increased by a factor of 2.8 after 40 min of alkali treatment. On the other hand, when 5'dTMP was irradiated by the ion beam, the G(Pi) obtained was above 0.44, higher than with γ-radiation. (Author)

  11. Energy efficiency as an example of cross-discipline collaboration in chemical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hemptinne, J.-C; Ferrasse, J.-H.; Górak, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the round-table discussion that was held during the European Congress of Chemical Engineering (ECCE) in Nice, France, in October 2015 on this topic. The panellists come from different fields of chemical engineering and have thus brought in different perspectives. The objective...... (industrials, mostly market-driven, or academic), or in terms of discipline. The role of professional societies as the European Federation for Chemical Engineers (EFCE) is stressed as a promotor of collaboration between disciplines.Finally, once willingness for collaboration is identified, the final question...

  12. Chemical Potentials of Quarks Extracted from Particle Transverse Momentum Distributions in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hong; Liu, Fu-Hu

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (A-A) and deuteron-nucleus (d-A) collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) energies are investigated by a two-component revised Boltzmann distribution. The calculated results are in agreement with the PHENIX experimental data. It is found that the source temperature increases obviously with increase of the particle mass and incident energy, but it does not show an obvious change with the collision centrality. Then, the values of chemical potentials for up, down, and strange quarks can be obtained from the antiparticle to particle yield ratios in a wide transverse momentum range. The relationship between the chemical potentials of quarks and the transverse momentum with different centralities is investigated, too

  13. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  14. The thermodynamic approach to boron chemical vapour deposition based on a computer minimization of the total Gibbs free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naslain, R.; Thebault, J.; Hagenmuller, P.; Bernard, C.

    1979-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the system is used to study the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of boron from BCl 3 -H 2 or BBr 3 -H 2 mixtures on various types of substrates (at 1000 < T< 1900 K and 1 atm). In this approach it is assumed that states close to equilibrium are reached in the boron CVD apparatus. (Auth.)

  15. Initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds with fast semiconductor switches and energy-releasing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Kardo-Sysoev, A. F.; Zegrya, A. G.; Os'kin, I. A.; Bragin, V. A.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The first findings concerning the initiation of explosive conversions in energy-saturated nanoporous silicon-based compounds via the electrical explosion of a semiconductor bridge are presented. The obtained results indicate that the energy parameters of an explosive conversion depend on the mass of a combustible agent—namely, nanoporous silicon—and the silicon-doping type.

  16. A comparison of chemical and ionization dosimetry for high-energy x-ray and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, J.J.; Boese, H.; Cormack, D.V.; Holloway, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of ferrous sulfate (Fricke) and ionometric methods for determining the absorbed dose in a phantom irradiated with 4-MV x-rays, 25-MV x-rays, or electron beams having various incident energies between 10 and 32 MeV. Both chemical and ionization instruments were calibrated in a 60 Co beam at a point in water where the absorbed dose had been previously determined. The chemical yield measurements were corrected for spatial variations in dose within the volume of the solution and used to obtain a value of the absorbed dose for each of the x-ray and electron beams. The ratios of G-values required for these determinations were taken from ICRU reports 14 and 21. Ionization instrument readings from three types of commercial ionization chambers were used to obtain alternate values of the absorbed dose for each radiation. C lambda and CE values used in determining these ionization values of dose were also taken from the above ICRU reports. For 4-MV x-rays the values of absorbed dose obtained from chemical measurements agreed to within 0.5% with values obtained from ionization measurements; for 25-MV x-rays the chemical values were about 1% higher than the ionization values; for the electron beams the chemical values were 1%-4% below the ionization values. These discrepancies suggest an inconsistency among the recommended G, C lambda, and CE values similar to that which has been noted by other workers

  17. Quantum-kinetic modeling of electron release in low-energy surface collisions of atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbach, Johannes

    2012-09-20

    In this work we present a theoretical description of electron release in the collision of atomic and molecular projectiles with metallic and especially dielectric surfaces. The associated electron yield, the secondary electron emission coefficient, is an important input parameter for numerical simulations of dielectric barrier discharges and other bounded low-temperature gas discharges. The available reference data for emission coefficients is, however, very sparse and often uncertain, especially for molecular projectiles. With the present work we aim to contribute to the filling of these gaps by providing a flexible and easy-to-use model that allows for a convenient calculation of the emission coefficient and related quantities for a wide range of projectile-surface systems and the most dominant reaction channels.

  18. Quantum-kinetic modeling of electron release in low-energy surface collisions of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbach, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical description of electron release in the collision of atomic and molecular projectiles with metallic and especially dielectric surfaces. The associated electron yield, the secondary electron emission coefficient, is an important input parameter for numerical simulations of dielectric barrier discharges and other bounded low-temperature gas discharges. The available reference data for emission coefficients is, however, very sparse and often uncertain, especially for molecular projectiles. With the present work we aim to contribute to the filling of these gaps by providing a flexible and easy-to-use model that allows for a convenient calculation of the emission coefficient and related quantities for a wide range of projectile-surface systems and the most dominant reaction channels.

  19. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  20. Final Report: Safety of Plasma-Facing Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m 2 over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER