WorldWideScience

Sample records for release systemic administration

  1. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Systemic Administration of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-3 Protects the Skeletal Muscle in Porcine Model of Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Aurelia; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Acute limb compartment syndrome, a complication of musculoskeletal trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death. Carbon monoxide, liberated from the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3, has been shown protective in a rat model of compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 in a preclinical large animal model of compartment syndrome, with the ultimate goal of developing a pharmacologic adjunct treatment for compartment syndrome. Animal research study. Basic research laboratory in a hospital setting. Male Yorkshire-Landrace pigs (50-60 kg). Pigs underwent 6 hours of intracompartmental pressure elevation by infusing fluid into the anterior compartment of the right hind limb. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 was administered systemically (2 mg/kg, IV) at fasciotomy, followed by 3-hour reperfusion. Muscle perfusion, inflammation, injury, and apoptosis were assessed in the skeletal muscle. Systemic leukocyte activation was assessed during compartment syndrome and reperfusion. Elevation of hind limb intracompartmental pressure resulted in significant microvascular perfusion deficits (44% ± 1% continuously perfused capillaries in compartment syndrome vs 76% ± 4% in sham; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy increased the number of continuously perfused capillaries (68% ± 3%; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy offered protection against compartment syndrome-induced microvascular perfusion deficit, tissue injury, and systemic leukocyte activation. The data suggest the potential therapeutic application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 to patients at risk of developing compartment syndrome.

  3. Direct and Systemic Administration of a CNS-Permeant Tamoxifen Analog Reduces Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release and Reinforcing Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Colleen; Zestos, Alexander G; Altshuler, Rachel; Sorenson, Roderick J; Guptaroy, Bipasha; Showalter, Hollis D; Kennedy, Robert T; Jutkiewicz, Emily; Gnegy, Margaret E

    2017-09-01

    Amphetamines (AMPHs) are globally abused. With no effective treatment for AMPH addiction to date, there is urgent need for the identification of druggable targets that mediate the reinforcing action of this stimulant class. AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux is modulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Inhibition of PKC reduces AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux and locomotor activity. The only known CNS-permeant PKC inhibitor is the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. In this study, we demonstrate that a tamoxifen analog, 6c, which more potently inhibits PKC than tamoxifen but lacks affinity for the estrogen receptor, reduces AMPH-stimulated increases in extracellular dopamine and reinforcement-related behavior. In rat striatal synaptosomes, 6c was almost fivefold more potent at inhibiting AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux than [ 3 H]dopamine uptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT). The compound did not compete with [ 3 H]WIN 35,428 binding or affect surface DAT levels. Using microdialysis, direct accumbal administration of 1 μM 6c reduced dopamine overflow in freely moving rats. Using LC-MS, we demonstrate that 6c is CNS-permeant. Systemic treatment of rats with 6 mg/kg 6c either simultaneously or 18 h prior to systemic AMPH administration reduced both AMPH-stimulated dopamine overflow and AMPH-induced locomotor effects. Finally, 18 h pretreatment of rats with 6 mg/kg 6c s.c. reduces AMPH-self administration but not food self-administration. These results demonstrate the utility of tamoxifen analogs in reducing AMPH effects on dopamine and reinforcement-related behaviors and suggest a new avenue of development for therapeutics to reduce AMPH abuse.

  4. Ramizol® encapsulation into extended release PLGA micro- and nanoparticle systems for subcutaneous and intramuscular administration: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Leah; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Boulos, Ramiz A; Prestidge, Clive A

    2018-04-11

    Novel antibiotic Ramizol ® is advancing to clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal Clostridium difficile associated disease. Despite this, previous studies have shown a rapid plasma clearance upon intravenous administration and low oral bioavailability indicating pure drug is unsuitable for systemic infection treatment following oral dosing. The current study aims to investigate the development of poly-lactic-(co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles to overcome this limitation and increase the systemic half-life following subcutaneous and intramuscular dosing. The development of new antibiotic treatments will help in combatting the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Ramizol ® was encapsulated into PLGA nano and microparticles using nanoprecipitation and emulsification solvent evaporation techniques. Formulations were analyzed for particle size, loading level and encapsulation efficiency as well as in vitro drug release profiles. Final formulation was advanced to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats. Formulation technique showed major influence on particle size and loading levels with optimal loading of 9.4% and encapsulation efficiency of 92.06%, observed using emulsification solvent evaporation. Differences in formulation technique were also linked with subsequent differences in release profiles. Pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats confirmed extended absorption and enhanced bioavailability following subcutaneous and intramuscular dosing with up to an 8-fold increase in T max and T 1/2 when compared to the oral and IV routes. Subcutaneous and intramuscular dosing of PLGA particles successfully increased systemic half-life and bioavailability of Ramizol ® . This formulation will allow further development of Ramizol ® for systemic infection eradication.

  5. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  6. Pro Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, James

    2009-01-01

    We can all be Linux experts, provided we invest the time in learning the craft of Linux administration. Pro Linux System Administration makes it easy for small to medium--sized businesses to enter the world of zero--cost software running on Linux and covers all the distros you might want to use, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. Authors, and systems infrastructure experts James Turnbull, Peter Lieverdink, and Dennis Matotek take a layered, component--based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure. If

  7. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  8. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  9. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  10. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  11. Chronic treatment with extended release methylphenidate does not alter dopamine systems or increase vulnerability for cocaine self-administration: a study in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kathryn E; Pierre, Peter J; Daunais, James; Bennett, Allyson J; Martelle, Susan; Gage, H Donald; Swanson, James M; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2012-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of stimulant medications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, few studies have addressed their long-term effects on the developing brain or susceptibility to drug use in adolescence. Here, we determined the effects of chronic methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on brain dopamine (DA) systems, developmental milestones, and later vulnerability to substance abuse in juvenile nonhuman primates. Male rhesus monkeys (approximately 30 months old) were treated daily with either a sustained release formulation of MPH or placebo (N=8 per group). Doses were titrated to achieve initial drug blood serum levels within the therapeutic range in children and adjusted throughout the study to maintain target levels. Growth, including measures of crown-rump length and weight, was assessed before and after 1 year of treatment and after 3-5 months washout. In addition, positron emission tomography scans were performed to quantify binding availability of D2/D3 receptors and dopamine transporters (DATs). Distribution volume ratios were calculated to quantify binding of [¹⁸F]fluoroclebopride (DA D2/D3) and [¹⁸F]-(+)-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2β-propanoyl-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane (DAT). Chronic MPH did not differentially alter the course of weight gain or other measures of growth, nor did it influence DAT or D2/D3 receptor availability after 1 year of treatment. However, after washout, the D2/D3 receptor availability of MPH-treated animals did not continue to decline at the same rate as control animals. Acquisition of intravenous cocaine self-administration was examined by first substituting saline for food reinforcement and then cocaine doses (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per injection) in ascending order. Each dose was available for at least five consecutive sessions. The lowest dose of cocaine that maintained response rates significantly higher than saline-contingent rates was operationally defined as acquisition of cocaine reinforcement. There

  12. Effect of acute administration of hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine and serotonin release in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, V; Di Giovanni, G; Di Mascio, M; Esposito, E

    2000-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum has been shown to be an effective antidepressant, although its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, in vivo microdialysis was used to investigate the effects of Hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) release in various areas of brain. Administration of Hypericum perforatum extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a slight, but significant increase of DA outflow both in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. The maximal increase of DA efflux (+19.22+/-1.93%, relative to the control group) in the nucleus accumbens occurred 100 min after administration of Hypericum perforatum. In the striatum, the extract maximally enhanced DA outflow (+24.83+/-7.49 %, relative to the control group) 80 min after administration. Extraneuronal DOPAC levels were not significantly affected by Hypericum perforatum treatment. Moreover, Hypericum perforatum (1 mg/kg, p.o.) did not produce any significant effect on either 5-HT or 5-HIAA efflux in the ventral hippocampus. This study shows for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extract is capable of increasing in vivo DA release.

  13. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  14. RBAC Administration in Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Crampton, J.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the administration of RBAC policies in centralized systems, the problem of the administration of a distributed system has hardly been addressed. We present a formal system for modelling a distributed RBAC system and its administration. We define two basic

  15. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  16. Administrative litigation systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu Săraru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, analyzing the administrative litigation in the comparative law, groups the existing types of administrative litigation into four major systems, namely: a States with administrative jurisdictions who have the State Council on top, administrative body with consultative and judicial role (the French system; b States with administrative jurisdictions completely separated from the active and consultative administrations (the German system; c States with administrative jurisdictions included in the judicial system; d States with no administrative jurisdiction (English system. The administrative contentious systems analyzed have developed in line with historical evolution and legal traditions and have been continually adapted to the realities existing in each state. The manner in which the administrative contentious is regulated in a State reflects the degree of democratization of that country, the extent to which the citizen enjoys legal safeguards to defend himself against abuses by public authorities. The scientific novelty of this article is to capture the latest trends in the evolution of the administrative contentious systems analyzed. This study aims to provide an easy working tool for reforming administrative litigation on comparative law in states with young democracy. In the research we used the comparative method, the historical and the logical method.

  17. TMACS Test Procedure TP007: System administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, P.; Washburn, S.; Seghers, R.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS System Administration functions

  18. Sulfonate-modified phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles as a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system for vaginal administration of protein therapeutics: improved stability, mucin-dependent release and effective intravaginal placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, ChunYan; Huang, ZhiGang; Liu, ZheShuo; Ci, LiQian; Liu, ZhePeng; Liu, Yu; Yan, XueYing; Lu, WeiYue

    Effective interaction between mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and mucin is the basis of effective local placement of drugs to play its therapeutic role after mucosal administration including vaginal use, which especially requires prolonged drug presence for the treatment of gynecological infectious diseases. Our previous report on phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles (PBNPs) demonstrated their strong interaction with mucin and mucin-sensitive release profiles of the model protein therapeutics interferon (IFN) in vitro, but their poor stability and obvious tendency to aggregate over time severely limited future application. In this study, sulfonate-modified PBNPs (PBNP-S) were designed as a stable mucoadhesive drug delivery system where the negative charges conferred by sulfonate groups prevented aggregation of nanoparticles and the phenylboronic acid groups ensured effective interaction with mucin over a wide pH range. Results suggested that PBNP-S were of spherical morphology with narrow size distribution (123.5 nm, polydispersity index 0.050), good stability over a wide pH range and 3-month storage and considerable in vitro mucoadhesion capability at vaginal pH as shown by mucin adsorption determination. IFN could be loaded to PBNP-S by physical adsorption with high encapsulation efficiency and released in a mucin-dependent manner in vitro. In vivo near-infrared fluorescent whole animal imaging and quantitative vaginal lavage followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay of IFN demonstrated that PBNP-S could stay in the vagina and maintain intravaginal IFN level for much longer time than IFN solution (24 hours vs several hours) without obvious histological irritation to vaginal mucosa after vaginal administration to mice. In summary, good stability, easy loading and controllable release of protein therapeutics, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesive properties and local safety of PBNP-S suggested it as a promising nanoscale mucoadhesive drug delivery

  19. Sulfonate-modified phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles as a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system for vaginal administration of protein therapeutics: improved stability, mucin-dependent release and effective intravaginal placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ChunYan Li,1 ZhiGang Huang,2 ZheShuo Liu,1 LiQian Ci,3 ZhePeng Liu,3 Yu Liu,2 XueYing Yan,1 WeiYue Lu2 1School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, 3School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Effective interaction between mucoadhesive drug delivery systems and mucin is the basis of effective local placement of drugs to play its therapeutic role after mucosal administration including vaginal use, which especially requires prolonged drug presence for the treatment of gynecological infectious diseases. Our previous report on phenylboronic acid-rich nanoparticles (PBNPs demonstrated their strong interaction with mucin and mucin-sensitive release profiles of the model protein therapeutics interferon (IFN in vitro, but their poor stability and obvious tendency to aggregate over time severely limited future application. In this study, sulfonate-modified PBNPs (PBNP-S were designed as a stable mucoadhesive drug delivery system where the negative charges conferred by sulfonate groups prevented aggregation of nanoparticles and the phenylboronic acid groups ensured effective interaction with mucin over a wide pH range. Results suggested that PBNP-S were of spherical morphology with narrow size distribution (123.5 nm, polydispersity index 0.050, good stability over a wide pH range and 3-month storage and considerable in vitro mucoadhesion capability at vaginal pH as shown by mucin adsorption determination. IFN could be loaded to PBNP-S by physical adsorption with high encapsulation efficiency and released in a mucin-dependent manner in vitro. In vivo near-infrared fluorescent whole animal imaging and quantitative vaginal lavage followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA assay of

  20. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  1. Expert Systems in Government Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is solving more and more real world problems, but penetration into the complexities of government administration has been minimal. The author suggests that combining expert system technology with conventional procedural computer systems can lead to substantial efficiencies. Business rules can be removed from business-oriented computer systems and stored in a separate but integrated knowledge base, where maintenance will be centralized. Fourteen specific practical appli...

  2. Information in the system of state administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kalytych, G.; Litosh, G.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the approaches to the notions of "information", "state administration system", "administrative information". The article considers the importance of of information for the whole state administration system and reveals the criteria which provide the information with administrative status. Special attention is paid to making of administrative decisions on the level of the sate which are based on effective information management.

  3. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [ 14 C]sucrose, [ 3 H]inulin, and 51 Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [ 3 H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  4. The role of reactive oxygen species in methamphetamine self-administration and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Young; Yang, Chae Ha; Hedges, David M; Kim, Soo Phil; Lee, Jun Yeon; Ekins, Tyler G; Garcia, Brandon T; Kim, Hee Young; Nelson, Ashley C; Kim, Nam Jun; Steffensen, Scott C

    2017-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) markedly increases dopamine (DA) release in the mesolimbic DA system, which plays an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of METH. METH-induced DA release results in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative damage. We have recently reported that ROS are implicated in behavior changes and DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following cocaine administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of ROS in METH-induced locomotor activity, self-administration and enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Systemic administration of a non-specific ROS scavenger, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN; 0, 50 and 75 mg/kg, IP) or a superoxide-selective scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL; 0, 50 and 100 mg/kg, IP), attenuated METH-induced locomotor activity without affecting generalized behavior in METH-naïve rats. PBN and TEMPOL significantly attenuated METH self-administration without affecting food intake. Increased oxidative stress was found in neurons, but not astrocytes, microglia or oligodendrocytes, in the NAc of METH self-administering rats. In addition, TEMPOL significantly decreased METH enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Taken together, these results suggest that enhancement of ROS in the NAc contributes to the reinforcing effect of METH. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Injectable In-Situ Gelling Controlled Release Drug Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Kulwant Singh; S. L. HariKumar

    2012-01-01

    The administration of poorly bioavailable drug through parenteral route is regarded the most efficient for drug delivery. Parenteral delivery provides rapid onset even for the drug with narrow therapeutic window, but to maintain the systemic drug level repeated installation are required which cause the patient discomfort. This can be overcome by designing the drug into a system, which control the drug release even through parenteral delivery, which improve patient compliance as well as pharma...

  6. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  7. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  8. UNIX and Linux system administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nemeth, Evi; Hein, Trent R; Whaley, Ben; Mackin, Dan; Garnett, James; Branca, Fabrizio; Mouat, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Now fully updated for today’s Linux distributions and cloud environments, it details best practices for every facet of system administration, including storage management, network design and administration, web hosting and scale-out, automation, configuration management, performance analysis, virtualization, DNS, security, management of IT service organizations, and much more. For modern system and network administrators, this edition contains indispensable new coverage of cloud deployments, continuous delivery, Docker and other containerization solutions, and much more.

  9. 21 CFR 1316.92 - Petition for expedited release in an administrative forfeiture action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for expedited release shall establish the following: (1) The owner has a valid, good faith interest in..., which would be subject to seizure for administrative forfeiture for a violation of law involving... in the property, which shall be supported by title documentation, bills of sale, contracts, mortgages...

  10. RBAC administration in distributed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Crampton, J.; Etalle, Sandro; Li, N.

    Large and distributed access control systems are increasingly common, for example in health care. In such settings, access control policies may become very complex, thus complicating correct and efficient adminstration of the access control system. Despite being one of the most widely used access

  11. Beer self-administration provokes lateralized nucleus accumbens dopamine release in male heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Dzemidzic, Mario; Tran, Stella M; Soeurt, Christina M; O'Connor, Sean J; Yoder, Karmen K; Kareken, David A

    2015-03-01

    Although striatal dopamine (DA) is important in alcohol abuse, the nature of DA release during actual alcohol drinking is unclear, since drinking includes self-administration of both conditioned flavor stimuli (CS) of the alcoholic beverage and subsequent intoxication, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Here, we used a novel self-administration analog to distinguish nucleus accumbens (NAcc) DA responses specific to the CS and US. Right-handed male heavy drinkers (n = 26) received three positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the D2/D3 radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) and performed a pseudo self-administration task that separately administered a flavor CS of either a habitually consumed beer or the appetitive control Gatorade®, concomitant with the US of ethanol intoxication (0.06 g/dL intravenous (IV) administration) or IV saline. Scan conditions were Gatorade flavor + saline (Gat&Sal), Gatorade flavor + ethanol (Gat&Eth), and beer flavor + ethanol (Beer&Eth). Ethanol (US) reduced RAC binding (inferring DA release) in the left (L) NAcc [Gat&Sal > Gat&Eth]. Beer flavor (CS) increased DA in the right (R) NAcc [Gat&Eth > Beer&Eth]. The combination of beer flavor and ethanol (CS + US), [Gat&Sal > Beer&Eth], induced DA release in bilateral NAcc. Self-reported intoxication during scanning correlated with L NAcc DA release. Relative to saline, infusion of ethanol increased alcoholic drink wanting. Our findings suggest lateralized DA function in the NAcc, with L NAcc DA release most reflecting intoxication, R NAcc DA release most reflecting the flavor CS, and the conjoint CS + US producing a bilateral NAcc response.

  12. Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckiewicz, Robert; Kroculick, Joseph

    Columbia University's major program to distribute its central administrative data processing to its various schools and departments is described. The Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS) will link every department and school within the university via micrcomputers, terminals, and/or minicomputers to the central…

  13. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. System Administrator | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Administers an effective patch management program to mitigate risks by applying ... technologies which can be used to protect the information systems and ... information on IT administration and troubleshooting techniques and skills to IMTD ...

  15. Nasa-wide Standard Administrative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, P.

    1984-01-01

    Factors to be considered in developing agency-wide standard administrative systems for NASA include uniformity of hardware and software; centralization vs. decentralization; risk exposure; and models for software development.

  16. Debian 7 system administration best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollei, Rich

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how to install and administer the Debian Linux distribution.Debian 7: System Administration Best Practices is for users and administrators who are new to Debian, or for seasoned administrators who are switching to Debian from another Linux distribution. A basic knowledge of Linux or UNIX systems is useful, but not strictly required. Since the book is a high level guide, the reader should be willing to go to the referenced material for further details and practical examples.

  17. Python for Unix and Linux system administration

    CERN Document Server

    Gift, Noah

    2007-01-01

    Python is an ideal language for solving problems, especially in Linux and Unix networks. With this pragmatic book, administrators can review various tasks that often occur in the management of these systems, and learn how Python can provide a more efficient and less painful way to handle them. Each chapter in Python for Unix and Linux System Administration presents a particular administrative issue, such as concurrency or data backup, and presents Python solutions through hands-on examples. Once you finish this book, you'll be able to develop your own set of command-line utilities with Pytho

  18. Characterization and optimization of GMO-based gels with long term release for intraarticular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réeff, J; Gaignaux, A; Goole, J; Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F; Jerome, C; Thomassin, J M; De Vriese, C; Amighi, K

    2013-07-15

    Osteoarthritis is characterized by slow degenerative processes in the articular cartilage within synovial joints. It could be interesting to develop a sustained-release formulation that could be effective on both pain/inflammation and restoration of mechanical integrity of the joint. Recently, an injectable system based on glycerol monooleate (GMO), containing clonidine as a model hydrophilic analgesic/anti-inflammatory drug and hyaluronic acid as a viscoelastic scaffold, showed promising potential as a biodegradable and biocompatible preparation to sustain the drug activity. However, drug release from the system is relatively fast (complete within 1 week) and the underlying drug release mechanisms not fully understood. The aims of this study were: (i) to significantly improve this type of local controlled drug delivery system by further sustaining clonidine release, and (ii) to elucidate the underlying mass transport mechanisms. The addition of FDA-approved inactive ingredients such as sodium oleate or purified soybean oil was found to be highly effective. The release rate could be substantially reduced (e.g., 50% release after 10 days), due to the increased hydrophobicity of the systems, resulting in slower and reduced water uptake and reduced drug mobility. Interestingly, Fick's second law of diffusion could be used to quantitatively describe drug release. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Information System for Educational Policy and Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J. C., Jr.

    Educational Information System (EIS) is a proposed computer-based data processing system to help schools solve current educational problems more efficiently. The system would allow for more effective administrative operations in student scheduling, financial accounting, and long range planning. It would also assist school trustees and others in…

  20. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  1. Drug delivery systems with modified release for systemic and biophase bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucuta, Sorin E

    2012-11-01

    This review describes the most important new generations of pharmaceutical systems: medicines with extended release, controlled release pharmaceutical systems, pharmaceutical systems for the targeted delivery of drug substances. The latest advances and approaches for delivering small molecular weight drugs and other biologically active agents such as proteins and nucleic acids require novel delivery technologies, the success of a drug being many times dependent on the delivery method. All these dosage forms are qualitatively superior to medicines with immediate release, in that they ensure optimal drug concentrations depending on specific demands of different disease particularities of the body. Drug delivery of these pharmaceutical formulations has the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety, as well as patient convenience and compliance. This paper describes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and technological principles in the design of drug delivery systems with modified release as well as the formulation criteria of prolonged and controlled release drug delivery systems. The paper presents pharmaceutical prolonged and controlled release dosage forms intended for different routes of administration: oral, ocular, transdermal, parenteral, pulmonary, mucoadhesive, but also orally fast dissolving tablets, gastroretentive drug delivery systems, colon-specific drug delivery systems, pulsatile drug delivery systems and carrier or ligand mediated transport for site specific or receptor drug targeting. Specific technologies are given on the dosage forms with modified release as well as examples of marketed products, and current research in these areas.

  2. CLARA: an integrated clinical research administration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jiang; Xie, Mengjun; Hogan, William; Hutchins, Laura; Topaloglu, Umit; Lane, Cheryl; Holland, Jennifer; Wells, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Administration of human subject research is complex, involving not only the institutional review board but also many other regulatory and compliance entities within a research enterprise. Its efficiency has a direct and substantial impact on the conduct and management of clinical research. In this paper, we report on the Clinical Research Administration (CLARA) platform developed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. CLARA is a comprehensive web-based system that can streamline research administrative tasks such as submissions, reviews, and approval processes for both investigators and different review committees on a single integrated platform. CLARA not only helps investigators to meet regulatory requirements but also provides tools for managing other clinical research activities including budgeting, contracting, and participant schedule planning. PMID:24778201

  3. ATLAS TDAQ system administration: Master of Puppets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)727357; The ATLAS collaboration; Ballestrero, Sergio; Brasolin, Franco; Fazio, Daniel; Gament, Costin-Eugen; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Within the ATLAS detector, the Trigger and Data Acquisition system is responsible for the online processing of data streamed from the detector during collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The online farm is comprised of ∼4000 servers processing the data read out from ∼100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. The configurtion of these servers is not an easy task, especially since the detector itself is made up of multiple different sub-detectors, each with their own particular requirements. The previous method of configuring these servers, using Quattor and a hierarchical scripts system was cumbersome and restrictive. A better, unified system was therefore required to simplify the tasks of the TDAQ Systems Administrators, for both the local and net-booted systems, and to be able to fulfil the requirements of TDAQ, Detector Control Systems and the sub-detectors groups. Various configuration management systems were evaluated, though in the end, Puppet was chosen as the applic...

  4. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zaman; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ejaz; Rai Muhammad Sarfraz; Hafeez ullah Khan; Fazal Rehman Sajid; Muhammad Shafiq ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes dif...

  5. REVERSIBLE VENTILATION SYSTEM FOR ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Yu. Kravchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives To consider the possibility of applying the principle of reversing air flows for a centralised ventilation system; to develop a specific scheme for air exchange reversible ventilation, which will take into account the peculiarities of the microclimate of administrative buildings; to select the type of filling of the air-permeable element and justify this choice; to determine the conditions for changing the direction of air movement in the ventilation system and the area of its application; to form a list of equipment necessary for the operation of such a system; to consider the influence of supply and exhaust devices on the heat and humidity regime of claddings. Methods  To achieve this goal, the published thematic material was reviewed and a patent search carried out using Russian and European databases. Data on mathematical modelling of filtration in porous media and experimental results were used. A method for ventilating rooms in administrative building using the reversal of movement of supply and exhaust air streams along the same channels was applied. Results  Schemas for reversible ventilation systems are presented and their modes of operation considered. It is established that the idea of reversing ventilation flows has not yet been applied in the development of centralised ventilation systems. Based on these published materials, it was concluded that the proposed design of supply and exhaust devices can be used in practice. An original air exchange scheme for the ventilation of administrative buildings and design of supply and exhaust devices for this system are proposed. The conditions for changing the operating modes of the system and the scope of its application are determined. Conclusion The use of the proposed ventilation system allows normative air exchange to be provided without using a supply unit during the cold season. This application of airflow reversal allows the potential of natural forces to be used

  6. Further human evidence for striatal dopamine release induced by administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): selectivity to limbic striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Mehta, Mitul A; van Berckel, Bart N M; Howes, Oliver D; Kahn, René S; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-08-01

    Elevated dopamine function is thought to play a key role in both the rewarding effects of addictive drugs and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates that cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. However, human neurochemical imaging studies that examined the impact of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, on striatal dopamine release have provided inconsistent results. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of a THC challenge on human striatal dopamine release in a large sample of healthy participants. We combined human neurochemical imaging data from two previous studies that used [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) (n = 7 and n = 13, respectively) to examine the effect of THC on striatal dopamine neurotransmission in humans. PET images were re-analysed to overcome differences in PET data analysis. THC administration induced a significant reduction in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the limbic striatum (-3.65 %, from 2.39 ± 0.26 to 2.30 ± 0.23, p = 0.023). This is consistent with increased dopamine levels in this region. No significant differences between THC and placebo were found in other striatal subdivisions. In the largest data set of healthy participants so far, we provide evidence for a modest increase in human striatal dopamine transmission after administration of THC compared to other drugs of abuse. This finding suggests limited involvement of the endocannabinoid system in regulating human striatal dopamine release and thereby challenges the hypothesis that an increase in striatal dopamine levels after cannabis use is the primary biological mechanism underlying the associated higher risk of schizophrenia.

  7. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  8. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods.

  9. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA’s first official notification to a pharmaceutical company that the FDA has discovered a product or activity in violation of the FDCA. This study analyzed trends in the pharmaceutical-related regulatory letters released by the FDA during the period 1997–2011 and assessed differences in the average number and type of regulatory letters released during the last four federal administrations. Methods Data derived from the FDA webpage. Information about the FDA office releasing the letter, date, company, and drug-related violation was collected. Regulatory letters were classified by federal administration. Descriptive statistics were performed for the analysis. Results Between 1997 and 2011 the FDA released 2,467 regulatory letters related to pharmaceuticals. FDA headquarters offices released 50.6% and district offices 49.4% of the regulatory letters. The Office of Prescription Drug Promotion released the largest number of regulatory letters (850; 34.5% of the total, followed by the Office of Scientific Investigations (131; 5.3%, and the Office of Compliance (105; 4.3%. During the 2nd Clinton Administration (1997–2000 the average number of regulatory letters per year was 242.8 ± 45.6, during the Bush Administration (2001–2008 it was 120.4 ± 33.7, and during the first three years of the Obama administration (2009–2011 it was 177.7.0 ± 17.0. The average number of regulatory letters released by the Office of Prescription Drug Promotion also varied by

  10. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diane; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Montagne, Michael

    2013-01-22

    The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation) to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA's first official notification to a pharmaceutical company that the FDA has discovered a product or activity in violation of the FDCA.This study analyzed trends in the pharmaceutical-related regulatory letters released by the FDA during the period 1997-2011 and assessed differences in the average number and type of regulatory letters released during the last four federal administrations. Data derived from the FDA webpage. Information about the FDA office releasing the letter, date, company, and drug-related violation was collected. Regulatory letters were classified by federal administration. Descriptive statistics were performed for the analysis. Between 1997 and 2011 the FDA released 2,467 regulatory letters related to pharmaceuticals. FDA headquarters offices released 50.6% and district offices 49.4% of the regulatory letters. The Office of Prescription Drug Promotion released the largest number of regulatory letters (850; 34.5% of the total), followed by the Office of Scientific Investigations (131; 5.3%), and the Office of Compliance (105; 4.3%). During the 2nd Clinton Administration (1997-2000) the average number of regulatory letters per year was 242.8 ± 45.6, during the Bush Administration (2001-2008) it was 120.4 ± 33.7, and during the first three years of the Obama administration (2009-2011) it was 177.7.0 ± 17.0. The average number of regulatory letters released by the Office of Prescription Drug Promotion also varied by administration: Clinton (122.3 ± 36.4), Bush (29.5

  11. MACEDONIAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUDICIAL SYSTEM FOR SOLVING ADMINISTRATIVE DISPUTES COMPARABLE TO EUROPEAN SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Eftimova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the legal system, through history until today mostly depends on law and policy which is conducted by the country. In European countries, there is position for historical and cultural conceptions for administrative judicature, differences and similarity that leave mark for solving administrative disputes. The obligation – an internal judicial reform to be established in legal system, is conducted by each of the countries after the breaking down and division of Social Federative Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY due to following the European law for constitution of legitimacy and constitutionality of acts as well as implementing of independent administrative judicature. Analyze of the current condition regarding the independency and objectiveness of the judicature is necessary in our country and it is important to be seen how the conditions for working of the administrative judicature can be improved.

  12. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Megdi, E-mail: megdi.eltayeb@sustech.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Stride, Eleanor, E-mail: eleanor.stride@eng.ox.ac.uk [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Harker, Anthony, E-mail: a.harker@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70 nm at the rate of 1.37 × 10{sup 9} nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈ 21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈ 70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. - Highlights: • Electrohydrodynamic spraying is used to produce lipid-coated nanoparticles. • A new model is proposed for the release rates of active components from nanoparticles. • The technique has potential applications in food science and medicine. • Electrohydrodynamic processing controlled release lipid nanoparticles.

  13. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, Marcelo Bessa

    2009-01-01

    The current environmental administration considers the productive activity as an environmental system, defined as a group of processes, interactions, parameters and factors involved in the production. This mastering dissertation evaluated the release of the liquid radioactive effluents at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), under a systemic environmental study. The study evaluated the source term at IPEN in the period from 2004 to 2008, making use of gamma-ray and alpha spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis, liquid phase scintillation and atomic absorption spectrometry. The employed methodologies were verified using samples from the Intercomparison National Program - PNI/IRD and Reference Materials. The facilities that contributed the most in these releases were the Radiopharmaceutical Center (CR) and the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) with an average of 11,4% and 87,4%, respectively, relative to the present radioactive activity. The sewer system releases were within the radioactive protection regulations, showing the effectiveness of IPEN's Radioactive Effluents Monitoring Program. The concentration of the stable elements Ag, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined in the liquid effluent in ali the samples from the storage tanks TR1 and CR in the period from 2004 to 2008 and in some of the samples of other IPEN's facilities in the period from 2004 to 2007. Among the analyzed effluents, two samples were higher than the stable elements discharge standards established in the state of Sao Paulo, one sample was higher than the required value of the element cadmium and the other higher than required value of the element zinco The storage tank TR1 discharge flow was estimated in 10,9 ± 0,9 m3 h -1 . The dilution factor at discharge point E1 was estimated using a radiotracers the isotopes 3 H, 137 CS, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn, which are commonly released into IPEN's sewer system. The executed radiotracer study was carried out

  14. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  15. Dual-controlled release system of drugs for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Controlled release systems have been noted to allow drugs to enhance their ability for bone regeneration. To this end, various biomaterials have been used as the release carriers of drugs, such as low-molecular-weight drugs, growth factors, and others. The drugs are released from the release carriers in a controlled fashion to maintain their actions for a long time period. Most research has been focused on the controlled release of single drugs to demonstrate the therapeutic feasibility. Controlled release of two combined drugs, so-called dual release systems, are promising and important for tissue regeneration. This is because the tissue regeneration process of bone formation is generally achieved by multiple bioactive molecules, which are produced from cells by other molecules. If two types of bioactive molecules, (i.e., drugs), are supplied in an appropriate fashion, the regeneration process of living bodies will be efficiently promoted. This review focuses on the bone regeneration induced by dual-controlled release of drugs. In this paper, various dual-controlled release systems of drugs aiming at bone regeneration are overviewed explaining the type of drugs and their release materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethanol and phencyclidine interact with respect to nucleus accumbens dopamine release: differential effects of administration order and pretreatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Pickering

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunction is a common symptom among alcohol-dependent individuals. Phencyclidine (PCP injection induces dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex of animals but little is known about how PCP affects the response to ethanol. Using the in vivo microdialysis technique in male Wistar rats, we investigated how systemic injection of 5 mg/kg PCP would affect the dopamine release induced by local infusion of 300 mM ethanol into the nucleus accumbens. PCP given 60 min before ethanol entirely blocked ethanol-induced dopamine release. However, when ethanol was administered 60 min before PCP, both drugs induced dopamine release and PCP’s effect was potentiated by ethanol (180% increase vs 150%. To test the role of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in ethanol reinforcement, animals were pre-treated for 5 days with 2.58 mg/kg PCP according to previously used ‘PFC hypofunction protocols’. This, however, did not change the relative response to PCP or ethanol compared to saline-treated controls. qPCR illustrated that this PCP dose did not significantly change expression of glucose transporters Glut1 (SLC2A1 or Glut3 (SLC2A3, monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 (SLC16A7, glutamate transporters GLT-1 (SLC1A2 or GLAST (SLC1A3, the immediate early gene Arc (Arg3.1 or GABAergic neuron markers GAT-1 (SLC6A1 and parvalbumin. Therefore, we concluded that PCP at a dose of 2.58 mg/kg for 5 days did not induce hypofunction in Wistar rats. However, PCP and ethanol do have overlapping mechanisms of action and these drugs differentially affect mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission depending on the order of administration.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELEASE RATE OF A HIGHLY SOLUBLE DRUG FROM A PROGRAMMED RELEASE MEGALOPOROUS SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEEN, C; MENGER, NR; LERK, CF

    The present study reports on the successful incorporation of a highly soluble drug, procaine HCl, in a programmed-release megaloporous system. This solid two-phase system is composed of housing phase matrix granules (HMG), controlling liquid penetration into the system, and of restraining phase

  18. PET Study in a Patient with Spinocerebellar Degeneration before and after Long-Term Administration of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tanji

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the chronic effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH in a patient with spinocerebellar degeneration by measuring cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRG1c using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG and positron emission tomography (PET. A 56-year-old female, who had suffered from progressive ataxia for 2 years, was treated by intravenous administration of 2 mg TRH for 3 weeks, and CMRG1c of the brain was measured before and after treatment. CMRG1c was markedly decreased in the cerebellum and there was no significant difference before and after the treatment, i.e. mean CMRG1c values were 4.92 and 4.90 mg/100 g/min, and the ratios of the cerebellum versus the frontal cortex were 0.50 and 0.51, respectively. The degree of disequilibrium of her body examined with stabilography became better by the 19th day and further improved by the 26th day after the start of TRH treatment. Based on the present study we conclude that long-term administration of TRH did not improve CMRG1c in the cerebellum, but evidently improved the sway of gravity center by stabilography. We speculate that the chronic effect of TRH was not necessarily due to an improvement of cerebellar function, because TRH receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system.

  19. System administration of ATLAS TDAQ computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel-Ur-Rehman, A.; Bujor, F.; Benes, J.; Caramarcu, C.; Dobson, M.; Dumitrescu, A.; Dumitru, I.; Leahu, M.; Valsan, L.; Oreshkin, A.; Popov, D.; Unel, G.; Zaytsev, A.

    2010-04-01

    This contribution gives a thorough overview of the ATLAS TDAQ SysAdmin group activities which deals with administration of the TDAQ computing environment supporting High Level Trigger, Event Filter and other subsystems of the ATLAS detector operating on LHC collider at CERN. The current installation consists of approximately 1500 netbooted nodes managed by more than 60 dedicated servers, about 40 multi-screen user interface machines installed in the control rooms and various hardware and service monitoring machines as well. In the final configuration, the online computer farm will be capable of hosting tens of thousands applications running simultaneously. The software distribution requirements are matched by the two level NFS based solution. Hardware and network monitoring systems of ATLAS TDAQ are based on NAGIOS and MySQL cluster behind it for accounting and storing the monitoring data collected, IPMI tools, CERN LANDB and the dedicated tools developed by the group, e.g. ConfdbUI. The user management schema deployed in TDAQ environment is founded on the authentication and role management system based on LDAP. External access to the ATLAS online computing facilities is provided by means of the gateways supplied with an accounting system as well. Current activities of the group include deployment of the centralized storage system, testing and validating hardware solutions for future use within the ATLAS TDAQ environment including new multi-core blade servers, developing GUI tools for user authentication and roles management, testing and validating 64-bit OS, and upgrading the existing TDAQ hardware components, authentication servers and the gateways.

  20. Twice-weekly administration of kisspeptin-54 for 8 weeks stimulates release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, C N; Nijher, G M K; Abbara, A; Murphy, K G; Lim, A; Patel, D; Mehta, A; Todd, C; Donaldson, M; Trew, G H; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Dhillo, W S

    2010-12-01

    Kisspeptin is a novel therapeutic target for infertility. A single kisspeptin-54 (KP-54) injection acutely stimulates the release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), a commonly occurring condition characterized by absence of menstruation; however, twice-daily administration of KP-54 results in tachyphylaxis. We determined the time course of desensitization to twice-daily KP-54 injections, compared the effects of twice-daily and twice-weekly administration regimens of KP-54, and studied the effects of long-term twice-weekly administration of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA. When KP-54 was administered twice daily, responsiveness to luteinizing hormone (LH) diminished gradually, whereas responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was nearly abolished by day 2. Twice-weekly KP-54 administration resulted in only partial desensitization, in contrast to the complete tolerance achieved with twice-daily administration. Women with HA who were treated with twice-weekly KP-54 injections had significantly elevated levels of reproductive hormones after 8 weeks as compared with treatment with saline. No adverse effects were observed. This study provides novel pharmacological data on the effects of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA.

  1. Controlled release system for ametryn using polymer microspheres: Preparation, characterization and release kinetics in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson do Espirito Santo; Ferreira Silva de Melo, Nathalie; Porto, Raquel Martins; Feitosa, Leandro Oliveira; Tonello, Paulo Sergio; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a modified release system for the herbicide ametryn by encapsulating the active substance in biodegradable polymer microparticles produced using the polymers poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV), in order to both improve the herbicidal action and reduce environmental toxicity. PHB or PHBV microparticles containing ametryn were prepared and the efficiencies of herbicide association and loading were evaluated, presenting similar values of approximately 40%. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the average sizes of the PHB and PHBV microparticles were 5.92 ± 0.74 μm and 5.63 ± 0.68 μm, respectively. The ametryn release profile was modified when it was encapsulated in the microparticles, with slower and more sustained release compared to the release profile of pure ametryn. When ametryn was associated with the PHB and PHBV microparticles, the amount of herbicide released in the same period of time was significantly reduced, declining to 75% and 87%, respectively. For both types of microparticle (PHB and PHBV) the release of ametryn was by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport (governed by diffusion and relaxation of the polymer chains), which did not follow Fick's laws of diffusion. The results presented in this paper are promising, in view of the successful encapsulation of ametryn in PHB or PHBV polymer microparticles, and indications that this system may help reduce the impacts caused by the herbicide, making it an environmentally safer alternative.

  2. Neonatal finasteride administration decreases dopamine release in nucleus accumbens after alcohol and food presentation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous levels of the neurosteroid (NS) allopregnanolone (AlloP) during neonatal stages are crucial for the correct development of the central nervous system (CNS). In a recent work we reported that the neonatal administration of AlloP or finasteride (Finas), an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase needed for AlloP synthesis, altered the voluntary consumption of ethanol and the ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) levels in adulthood, suggesting that neonatal NS manipulations can increase alcohol abuse vulnerability in adulthood. Moreover, other authors have associated neonatal NS alterations with diverse dopaminergic (DAergic) alterations. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP alter the DAergic response in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during alcohol intake in rats. We administered AlloP or Finas from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND9. At PND98, we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 12 days. On the last day of consumption, we measured the DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in NAcc in response to ethanol intake. The samples were obtained by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, and DA and DOPAC levels were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). The results revealed that neonatal Finas increased ethanol consumption in some days of the consumption phase, and decreased the DA release in the NAcc in response to solutions (ethanol+glucose) and food presentation. Taken together, these results suggest that neonatal NS alterations can affect alcohol rewarding properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  4. Acquisition of MDMA self-administration: pharmacokinetic factors and MDMA-induced serotonin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Sarah; Bird, Judith; Colussi-Mas, Joyce; Mueller, Melanie; Ricaurte, George; Schenk, Susan

    2014-09-01

    The current study aimed to elucidate the role of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and neurotransmitter efflux in explaining variability in (±) 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) self-administration in rats. PK profiles of MDMA and its major metabolites were determined after the administration of 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (iv) prior to, and following, the acquisition of MDMA self-administration. Synaptic levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens were measured following administration of MDMA (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, iv) using in vivo microdialysis and compared for rats that acquired or failed to acquire MDMA self-administration. Effects of the 5HT neurotoxin, 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT), on the acquisition of MDMA and cocaine self-administration were also determined. In keeping with previous findings, approximately 50% of rats failed to meet a criterion for acquisition of MDMA self-administration. The PK profiles of MDMA and its metabolites did not differ between rats that acquired or failed to acquire MDMA self-administration. MDMA produced more overflow of 5HT than DA. The MDMA-induced 5HT overflow was lower in rats that acquired MDMA self-administration compared with those that did not acquire self-administration. In contrast, MDMA-induced DA overflow was comparable for the two groups. Prior 5,7-DHT lesions reduced tissue levels of 5HT and markedly increased the percentage of rats that acquired MDMA self-administration and also decreased the latency to acquisition of cocaine self-administration. These data suggest that 5HT limits the initial sensitivity to the positively reinforcing effects of MDMA and delays the acquisition of reliable self-administration. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. 21 CFR 203.34 - Policies and procedures; administrative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution security and audit system, including conducting random and for-cause audits of sales... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policies and procedures; administrative systems...; administrative systems. Each manufacturer or authorized distributor of record that distributes drug samples shall...

  6. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  7. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  8. A multifunctional multimaterial system for on-demand protein release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncaboylu, Deniz Ceylan; Friess, Fabian; Wischke, Christian; Lendlein, Andreas

    2018-06-15

    In order to provide best control of the regeneration process for each individual patient, the release of protein drugs administered during surgery may need to be timely adapted and/or delayed according to the progress of healing/regeneration. This study aims to establish a multifunctional implant system for a local on-demand release, which is applicable for various types of proteins. It was hypothesized that a tubular multimaterial container kit, which hosts the protein of interest as a solution or gel formulation, would enable on-demand release if equipped with the capacity of diameter reduction upon external stimulation. Using devices from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) networks, it could be demonstrated that a shape-memory effect activated by heat or NIR light enabled on-demand tube shrinkage. The decrease of diameter of these shape-memory tubes (SMT) allowed expelling the payload as demonstrated for several proteins including SDF-1α, a therapeutically relevant chemotactic protein, to achieve e.g. continuous release with a triggered add-on dosing (open tube) or an on-demand onset of bolus or sustained release (sealed tube). Considering the clinical relevance of protein factors in (stem) cell attraction to lesions and the progress in monitoring biomarkers in body fluids, such on-demand release systems may be further explored e.g. in heart, nerve, or bone regeneration in the future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Formulation and In Vitro Release Kinetics of Mucoadhesive Blend Gels Containing Matrine for Buccal Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Yan, Jun; Yu, Shuying; Wang, Pingping

    2018-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic factor of severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). No vaccine or specific treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. Hence, we developed a buccal mucoadhesive gel containing matrine to protect against HFMD. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared by Carbopol 974P and were combined with Carbopol 971P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), or hydroxypropylmethy cellulose (HPMC K100M). The formulations were characterized in terms of tensile testing and continuous flow techniques for mucoadhesion. The rheological studies and in vitro drug release characteristics were also investigated. The results showed that combinations of two polymers significantly improved mucoadhesion, especially Carbopol 974P blended with HPMC. Carbopol 974P to HPMC blend ratios of 1:1 and 2:1 induced better mucoadhesion in the tensile test and continuous flow method, respectively. The most sustained release was obtained at a Carbopol 974P to HPMC ratio of 2.5:1. A predominantly non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism was obtained. The gel containing 2.5% Carbopol 974P combined with 1% HPMC showed good mucoadhesion properties and sustained drug release.

  10. Release Early, Release Often: Predicting Change in Versioned Knowledge Organization Systems on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe; Schlobach, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Semantic Web is built on top of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) (vocabularies, ontologies, concept schemes) that provide a structured, interoperable and distributed access to Linked Data on the Web. The maintenance of these KOS over time has produced a number of KOS version chains: subsequent unique version identifiers to unique states of a KOS. However, the release of new KOS versions pose challenges to both KOS publishers and users. For publishers, updating a KOS is a knowledge int...

  11. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  12. System administrator`s guide to CDPS. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, B.T.; Portwood, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    The System Administrator`s Guide to CDPS is intended for those responsible for setting up and maintaining the hardware and software of a Common Mapping Standard (CMS) Date Production System (CDPS) installation. This guide assists the system administrator in performing typical administrative functions. It is not intended to replace the Ultrix Documentation Set that should be available for a DCPS installation. The Ultrix Documentation Set will be required to provide details on referenced Ultrix commands as well as procedures for performing Ultrix maintenance functions. There are six major sections in this guide. Section 1 introduces the system administrator to CDPS and describes the assumptions that are made by this guide. Section 2 describes the CDPS platform configuration. Section 3 describes the platform preparation that is required to install the CDPS software. Section 4 describes the CPS software and its installation procedures. Section 5 describes the CDS software and its installation procedures. Section 6 describes various operation and maintenance procedures. Four appendices are also provided. Appendix A contains a list of used acronyms. Appendix B provides a terse description of common Ultrix commands that are used in administrative functions. Appendix C provides sample CPS and CDS configuration files. Appendix D provides a required list and a recommended list of Ultrix software subsets for installation on a CDPS platform.

  13. Non-Pyrotechnic Latch and Release System for Aerospace and Other Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — American remote Vision Company (ARVC) will continue to research and develop a new non-pryotechnic latch and release sytem for use in servicing and flight release...

  14. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  15. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability Site Workstation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.T.; Sumikawa, D.A.; Foster, C.S.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is a centralized emergency response service that assesses the consequences that may result from an atmospheric release of toxic material. ARAC was developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense (DOD) and responds principally to radiological accidents. ARAC provides radiological health and safety guidance to decision makers in the form of computer-generated estimates of the effects of an actual, or potential release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Upon receipt of the release scenario, the ARAC assessment staff extracts meteorological, topographic, and geographic data from resident world-wide databases for use in complex, three-dimensional transport and diffusion models. These dispersion models generate air concentration (or dose) and ground deposition contour plots showing estimates of the contamination patterns produced as the toxic material is carried by the prevailing winds. To facilitate the ARAC response to a release from specific DOE and DOD sites and to provide these sites with a local emergency response tool, a remote Site Workstation System (SWS) is being placed at various ARAC-supported facilities across the country.. This SWS replaces the existing antiquated ARAC Site System now installed at many of these sites. The new system gives users access to complex atmospheric dispersion models that may be run either by the ARAC staff at LLNL, or (in a later phase of the system) by site personnel using the computational resources of the SWS. Supporting this primary function are a variety of SWS-resident supplemental capabilities that include meteorological data acquisition, manipulation of release-specific databases, computer-based communications, and the use of a simpler Gaussian trajectory puff model that is based on Environmental Protection Agency's INPUFF code

  16. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Treese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected intact, but had to be air-dried, and the columns repacked when soil shrinkage caused bypassing of water along the walls of the column. The undisturbed soil was collected and used intact, with no repacking. The disturbed soil showed elevated releases of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the undisturbed soil for approximately 0.4 and 0.8 m of runoff loading, respectively. For the undisturbed soil, the nitrogen release was delayed, indicating that the soil disturbance accelerated the release of nitrogen into a very short time period. Leaving the soil undisturbed resulted in lower but still elevated effluent nitrogen concentrations over a longer period of time. For phosphorus, these results confirm prior research which demonstrated that the soil, if shown to be phosphorus-deficient during fertility testing, can remove phosphorus from runoff even when disturbed.

  17. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...

  18. 5 CFR 930.205 - Administrative law judge pay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such adjustments take effect on the 1st day of the first pay period... basic pay that equals or exceeds the applicant's highest previous Federal rate of basic pay, not to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930...

  19. Administrative Information Systems Design Beautiful Restaurant Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Risman Risman; Drs. Soetirto Sadikin. M.A

    1999-01-01

    Satisfactory service is the key to business done wonderful tourist restaurants. One ofthe restaurant management efforts to meet these demands is to build informationsystems that can handle sales, handling of inventory until the purchase of rawmaterials, so the restaurant will be increasing productivity.To meet these needs, the author conducted the analysis and design of administrativeinformation system that handles its restaurant sales, purchasing, accounts payable andinventory handling. The ...

  20. System Administration Support/SWORDS G2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dito, Scott Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) rocket is a dedicated small satellite launcher that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow soldiers in the field to put payloads of up to 25kg into orbit from the field. The SWORDSG2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the SWORDS rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. In addition, observation of the current cryogenic fluid delivery system in the Kennedy Space Center Cry Lab has allowed me to gain valuable experience of fluid systems and propelant delivery that is valuable to our team when developing amd modeling our own system.The ultimate goal of having a test-ready application to show to the heads of the project, and demonstrating G2's capabilities, by late 2014 will require hard work and intense study and understanding of not only the programming aspect but also the physical phenomena we want to model, observe, and control.

  1. Textile slow-release systems with medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Breteler, M.R.; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2002-01-01

    In the development of medical drug delivery systems, attention has been increasingly focused on slow- or controlled delivery systems in order to achieve an optimal therapeutic effect. Since the administration of drugs often requires a defined or minimum effective dosage in the human body, more

  2. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... safety properties. This model accommodates sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. To verify the safety of an interlocking system, first a domain-specific description of interlocking configuration data is constructed and validated. Then the generic model and safety...

  3. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, John C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burnett, Robert A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Carter, Richard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Downing, Timothy R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Homer, Brian J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Holter, Nancy A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Daniel M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Ranata L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Sharon M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Loveall, Robert M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ramos Jr., Juan (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schulze, Stacy A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Sivaraman, Chitra (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stoops, Lamar R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wood, Blanche M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information on FEMIS System Administrator activities as well as the utilities that are included with FEMIS.

  4. Multicompartment Drug Release System for Dynamic Modulation of Tissue Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron H; Mahal, Rajwant S; Udell, Jillian; Wu, Michelle; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-10-01

    Pharmacological modulation of responses to injury is complicated by the need to deliver multiple drugs with spatiotemporal resolution. Here, a novel controlled delivery system containing three separate compartments with each releasing its contents over different timescales is fabricated. Core-shell electrospun fibers create two of the compartments in the system, while electrosprayed spheres create the third. Utility is demonstrated by targeting the foreign body response to implants because it is a dynamic process resulting in implant failure. Sequential delivery of a drug targeting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and an antifibrotic is characterized in in vitro experiments. Specifically, macrophage fusion and p65 nuclear translocation in the presence of releasate or with macrophages cultured on the surfaces of the constructs are evaluated. In addition, releasate from pirfenidone scaffolds is shown to reduce transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced pSMAD3 nuclear localization in fibroblasts. In vivo, drug eluting constructs successfully mitigate macrophage fusion at one week and fibrotic encapsulation in a dose-dependent manner at four weeks, demonstrating effective release of both drugs over different timescales. Future studies can employ this system to improve and prolong implant lifetimes, or load it with other drugs to modulate other dynamic processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Administrative law risks of the governmental and municipal procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyuzhikov Sergey, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the administrative law risks of the Russian system of public procurement. The authors analyze the foregoing risks in the view of the correlation of risk situations, risk actions (omission and administrative law prohibitions. The authors are considering problems of the subject and some other characteristics essential to the administrative offenses in terms of the most systemic risk in this sphere – an information risk. The materials on law practice open to general use generated in more than 25 entities of the Russian Federation were used in the paper while preparing.

  6. Controlled release systems containing solid dispersions: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Park, Jun Bom; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2011-10-01

    In addition to a number of highly soluble drugs, most new chemical entities under development are poorly water-soluble drugs generally characterized by an insufficient dissolution rate and a small absorption window, leading to the low bioavailability. Controlled-release (CR) formulations have several potential advantages over conventional dosage forms, such as providing a uniform and prolonged therapeutic effect to improve patient compliance, reducing the frequency of dosing, minimizing the number of side effects, and reducing the strength of the required dose while increasing the effectiveness of the drug. Solid dispersions (SD) can be used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and to sustain the drug release by choosing an appropriate carrier. Thus, a CR-SD comprises both functions of SD and CR for poorly water-soluble drugs. Such CR dosage forms containing SD provide an immediately available dose for an immediate action followed by a gradual and continuous release of subsequent doses to maintain the plasma concentration of poorly water-soluble drugs over an extended period of time. This review aims to summarize all currently known aspects of controlled release systems containing solid dispersions, focusing on the preparation methods, mechanisms of action and characterization of physicochemical properties of the system.

  7. An Injectable System for Local and Sustained Release of Antimicrobial Agents in the Periodontal Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Laura; Cappelluti, Martino Alfredo; Ricotti, Leonardo; Lenardi, Cristina; Gerges, Irini

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis treatments usually require local administration of antimicrobial drugs with the aim to reduce the bacterial load inside the periodontal pocket. Effective pharmaceutical treatments may require sustained local drug release for several days in the site of interest. Currently available solutions are still not able to fulfill the clinical need for high-quality treatments, mainly in terms of release profiles and patients' comfort. This work aims to fill this gap through the development of an in situ gelling system, capable to achieve controlled and sustained release of antimicrobial agents for medium-to-long-term treatments. The system is composed of micrometer-sized β-cyclodextrin-based hydrogel (bCD-Jef-MPs), featured by a strong hydrophilic character, suspended in a synthetic block-co-polymer solution (Poloxamer 407), which is capable to undergo rapid thermally induced sol-gel phase transition at body temperature. The chemical structure of bCD-Jef-MPs was confirmed by cross-correlating data from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, swelling test, and degradation kinetics. The thermally induced sol-gel phase transition is demonstrated by rheometric tests. The effectiveness of the described system to achieve sustained release of antimicrobial agents is demonstrated in vitro, using chlorhexidine digluconate as a drug model. The results achieved in this work disclose the potential of the mentioned system in effectively treating periodontitis lesions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Local drug delivery - the early Berlin experience: single drug administration versus sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Ulrich; Scheller, Bruno; Rutsch, Wolfgang; Laule, Michael; Stangl, Verena

    2011-05-01

    Our initial investigations into restenosis inhibition by local drug delivery were prompted by reports on an improved outcome of coronary interventions, including a lower rate of target lesion revascularisation, when the intervention was performed with an ionic instead of non-ionic contrast medium. Although this was not confirmed in an animal study, the short exposure of the vessel wall to paclitaxel dissolved in contrast agent or coated on balloons proved to be efficacious. A study comparing three methods of local drug delivery to the coronary artery in pigs indicated the following order of efficacy in inhibiting neointimal proliferation: paclitaxel-coated balloons > sirolimus-eluting stents, sustained drug release > paclitaxel in contrast medium. Cell culture experiments confirmed that cell proliferation can be inhibited by very short exposure to the drug. Shorter exposure times require higher drug concentrations. Effective paclitaxel concentrations in porcine arteries are achieved when the drug is dissolved in contrast medium or coated on balloons. Paclitaxel is an exceptional drug in that it stays in the treated tissue for a long time. This may explain the long-lasting efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons, but does not disprove the hypothesis that the agent blocks a process initiating long-lasting excessive neointimal proliferation, which occurs early after vessel injury.

  9. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  10. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles as a New Delivery System for Sustained 5-Fluorouracil Release: Characterization and Evaluation of Drug Release Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. El-Kady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles were synthesized and tested for the first time as a new delivery system for sustained 5-fluorouracil (5-FU release. They were characterized by TEM, DTA, TGA, and FT-IR. The porosity % and specific surface area of glass nanoparticles were 85.59% and 378.36 m2/g, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity evaluation confirmed that bioactive glass disks prepared from these nanoparticles could induce hydroxyapatite layer over their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The in vitro drug release experiment indicated that glass nanoparticles could serve as long-term local delivery vehicles for sustained 5-FU release. The release profile of 5-FU showed an initial fast release stage followed by a second stage of slower release. The initial burst release of 5-FU in the first day was about 23% (28.92 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU, while the final cumulative percentage of the 5-FU released after 32 days was about 45.6% (57.31 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU. The application of different mathematical models indicated that 5-FU was released by diffusion controlled mechanism and suggested that its release rate was dependent on glass particles dissolution, changes of surface area as well as diameter of glass particles, and concentration of loaded drug.

  11. Isoguvacine binding, uptake, and release: relation to the GABA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W F; Snodgrass, S R

    1983-06-01

    Isoguvacine (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid) is a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist with limited conformational flexibility. In these studies we investigated the binding, uptake, and release of (3H) isoguvacine by use of tissue preparations of rat CNS, comparing the results with similar studies of (3H)GABA. The results from these investigations indicate that isoguvacine binds to membrane preparations of rat forebrain with pharmacological characteristics similar to the post-synaptic GABA recognition site; that it is transported into synaptosomal preparations by an uptake system similar to the high-affinity GABA uptake system; and that recently accumulated isoguvacine is released in a Ca2+-dependent manner and by heteroexchange with external GABA. The ability of isoguvacine and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to decrease the K+-stimulated Ca2+-dependent release process was also investigated. The results indicate that isoguvacine interactions have many of the biochemical features of GABA synaptic function, isoguvacine being, however, less potent than GABA.

  12. Postnatal Administration of Allopregnanolone Modifies Glutamate Release but Not BDNF Content in Striatum Samples of Rats Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Yunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption during pregnancy may induce profound changes in fetal CNS development. We postulate that some of the effects of ethanol on striatal glutamatergic transmission and neurotrophin expression could be modulated by allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid modulator of GABAA receptor activity. We describe the acute pharmacological effect of allopregnanolone (65 μg/kg, s.c. administered to juvenile male rats (day 21 of age on the corticostriatal glutamatergic pathway, in both control and prenatally ethanol-exposed rats (two ip injections of 2.9 g/kg in 24% v/v saline solution on gestational day 8. Prenatal ethanol administration decreased the K+-induced release of glutamate regarding the control group. Interestingly, this effect was reverted by allopregnanolone. Regarding BDNF, allopregnanolone decreases the content of this neurotrophic factor in the striatum of control groups. However, both ethanol alone and ethanol plus allopregnanolone treated animals did not show any change regarding control values. We suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure may produce an alteration of GABAA receptors which blocks the GABA agonist-like effect of allopregnanolone on rapid glutamate release, thus disturbing normal neural transmission. Furthermore, the reciprocal interactions found between GABAergic neurosteroids and BDNF could underlie mechanisms operating during the neuronal plasticity of fetal development.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of a Sustained-release Formulation of Meloxicam After Subcutaneous Administration to Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Court, Michael H; Zhu, Zhaohui; Summa, Noémie; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2017-09-01

    Meloxicam has been shown to have a safe and favorable pharmacodynamic profile with individual variability in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). In the current study, we determined the pharmacokinetics of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Twelve healthy adult parrots, 6 males and 6 females, were used in the study. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after a single dose of the sustained-release meloxicam formulation (3 mg/kg SC). Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma concentrations reached a mean C max of 23.4 μg/mL (range, 14.7-46.0 μg/mL) at 1.8 hours (range, 0.5-6 hours), with a terminal half-life of 7.4 hours (range, 1.4-40.9 hours). Individual variation was noticeable, such that some parrots (4 of 12 birds) had very low plasma meloxicam concentrations, similar to the high variability reported in a previous pharmacokinetic study of the standard meloxicam formulation in the same group of birds. Two birds developed small self-resolving scabs at the injection site. On the basis of these results, the sustained-release meloxicam formulation could be administered every 12 to 96 hours in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots to manage pain. Because of these highly variable results, the use of this formulation in this species cannot be recommended until further pharmacokinetic, safety, and pharmacogenomic evaluations are performed to establish accurate dosing recommendations and to understand the high pharmacokinetic variability.

  14. Comparison of scientific and administrative database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics found to be different for scientific and administrative data bases are identified and some of the corresponding generic requirements for data base management systems (DBMS) are discussed. The requirements discussed are especially stringent for either the scientific or administrative data bases. For some, no commercial DBMS is fully satisfactory, and the data base designer must invent a suitable approach. For others, commercial systems are available with elegant solutions, and a wrong choice would mean an expensive work-around to provide the missing features. It is concluded that selection of a DBMS must be based on the requirements for the information system. There is no unique distinction between scientific and administrative data bases or DBMS. The distinction comes from the logical structure of the data, and understanding the data and their relationships is the key to defining the requirements and selecting an appropriate DBMS for a given set of applications.

  15. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC's position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF 6 release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring)

  16. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    New solutions in land administration are required that can deliver security of tenure for all, are affordable and can be quickly developed and incrementally improved over time. The Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) approach to land administration has emerged to meet these simple, but challenging requirements...... administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased...... of formality, legality and technical accuracy. Such flexibility also relates to the recordation that should be organised at various levels rather than through one central register. The land administration system can then be upgraded and incrementally improved over time in response to social and legal needs...

  17. Oral contraceptive therapy for polycystic ovary disease after chronic gonadotropin-releasing agonist administration. Predictors of continued ovarian suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind-Hirsch, K E; Anania, C; Malinak, R

    1996-09-01

    To study the beneficial effects of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) administration in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twenty-three hyperandrogenic women (aged 15-39) were randomized into two groups; GnRH-a (depot every 28 days) for six months or combination therapy (GnRH-a plus OC "addback") for six months. Following six months of treatment with either therapy, all patients received OC therapy for at least six months. The hormonal state was evaluated at three-month intervals. Hormone levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) and free T remained suppressed within the normal range in 11 of 17 patients (65%) during the six months of OC only therapy, while the other six patients showed "escape" from suppression, with the LH, T and free T concentrations rising to pre-GnRH-a treatment levels. Use of OC addback therapy did not potentiate the long-acting therapeutic effect of GnRH-a pretreatment; three of six patients in the escape group were pretreated with combination therapy and three with GnRH-a only. In the majority of women with PCOD, OC therapy following GnRH-a administration was effective in maintaining ovarian androgen suppression. Failure to maintain ovarian suppression in this patient population was associated with higher elevations of baseline free T concentrations.

  18. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  19. Behavioral and physiological responses to central administration of corticotropin-releasing factor in the bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K; Grober, Matthew S

    2012-07-16

    Central manipulation of neuromodulators is critical to establishing causal links between brain function and behavioral output. The absence of a rigorous method of evaluating intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection efficacy in small model organisms is one reason why peripheral administration of neuroactive substances is more common. We use the bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli), a small, highly social fish, to 1) validate our method of i.c.v. injection by testing the hypothesis that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) elevates ventilation rate (VR) and 2) propose a novel bioassay using basal physiology and behavior during recovery from anesthesia/i.c.v. administration to assess injection efficacy, neuromodulator activity, and procedural confounds. Central CRF administration significantly increased ventilation rate, demonstrating successful delivery of CRF to the brain. There were no significant differences in cortisol among treatments. The injection procedure did, however, decouple the temporal relationship between the initiation of ventilation and time to regain equilibrium present in control fish. Importantly, neither i.c.v. vehicle nor CRF injection affected the initiation of ventilation, disrupted the stereotyped recovery pattern following anesthesia, or initiated an endocrine stress response. Taken together, we suggest that 1) i.c.v. injection can be effectively used to manipulate central levels of CRF in L. dalli and 2) physiological and behavioral recovery from anesthesia may be used to evaluate injection/technique efficacy. We will use these data in future studies as a measure of effective CRF delivery, to allow for appropriate recovery from i.c.v. injection, and to better evaluate independent effects of CRF on social and/or sexual behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of controlled drug release systems based on thiolated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Scholler, S; Biebel, R G

    2000-05-03

    The purpose of the present study was to generate mucoadhesive matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers. Mediated by a carbodiimide, L-cysteine was thereby covalently linked to polycarbophil (PCP) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The resulting thiolated polymers displayed 100+/-8 and 1280+/-84 micromol thiol groups per gram, respectively (means+/-S.D.; n=6-8). In aqueous solutions these modified polymers were capable of forming inter- and/or intramolecular disulfide bonds. The velocity of this process augmented with increase of the polymer- and decrease of the proton-concentration. The oxidation proceeded more rapidly within thiolated PCP than within thiolated CMC. Due to the formation of disulfide bonds within thiol-containing polymers, the stability of matrix-tablets based on such polymers could be strongly improved. Whereas tablets based on the corresponding unmodified polymer disintegrated within 2 h, the swollen carrier matrix of thiolated CMC and PCP remained stable for 6.2 h (mean, n=4) and more than 48 h, respectively. Release studies of the model drug rifampicin demonstrated that a controlled release can be provided by thiolated polymer tablets. The combination of high stability, controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties renders matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers useful as novel drug delivery systems.

  1. Decision support system for containment and release management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, B [Twente Univ., Enschede (Netherlands). Computer Science Dept.

    1995-09-01

    The Containment and Release Management project was carried out within the Reinforced Concerted Action Programme for Accident Management Support and partly financed by the European Union. In this report a prototype of an accident management support system is presented. The support system integrates several concepts from accident management research, like safety objective trees, severe accident phenomena, calculation models and an emergency response data system. These concepts are provided by the prototype in such a way that the decision making process of accident management is supported. The prototype application is demonstrated by process data taken from a severe accident scenario for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that was simulated with the thermohydraulic computer program MAAP. The prototype was derived from a decision support framework based on a decision theory. For established and innovative concepts from accident management research it is pointed out in which way these concepts can support accident management and how these concepts can be integrated. This approach is generic in two ways; it applies to both pressurized and boiling water reactors and it applies to both in vessel management and containment and release management. The prototype application was developed in Multimedia Toolbox 3.0 and requires at least a 386 PC with 4 MB memory, 6 MB free disk space and MS Windows 3.1. (orig.).

  2. Decision support system for containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhuis, B.

    1995-09-01

    The Containment and Release Management project was carried out within the Reinforced Concerted Action Programme for Accident Management Support and partly financed by the European Union. In this report a prototype of an accident management support system is presented. The support system integrates several concepts from accident management research, like safety objective trees, severe accident phenomena, calculation models and an emergency response data system. These concepts are provided by the prototype in such a way that the decision making process of accident management is supported. The prototype application is demonstrated by process data taken from a severe accident scenario for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that was simulated with the thermohydraulic computer program MAAP. The prototype was derived from a decision support framework based on a decision theory. For established and innovative concepts from accident management research it is pointed out in which way these concepts can support accident management and how these concepts can be integrated. This approach is generic in two ways; it applies to both pressurized and boiling water reactors and it applies to both in vessel management and containment and release management. The prototype application was developed in Multimedia Toolbox 3.0 and requires at least a 386 PC with 4 MB memory, 6 MB free disk space and MS Windows 3.1. (orig.)

  3. Contact lenses as drug controlled release systems: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prior Filipe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Topically applied therapy is the most common way to treat ocular diseases, however given the anatomical and physiological constraints of the eye, frequent dosing is required with possible repercussions in terms of patient compliance. Beyond refractive error correction, contact lenses (CLs have, in the last few decades emerged as a potential ophthalmic drug controlled release system (DCRS. Extensive research is underway to understand how to best modify CLs to increase residence time and bioavailability of drugs within therapeutic levels on the ocular surface.These devices may simultaneously correct ametropia and have a role in managing ophthalmic disorders that can hinder CL wear such as dry eye, glaucoma, ocular allergy and cornea infection and injury. In this narrative review the authors explain how the ocular surface structures determine drug diffusion in the eye and summarize the strategies to enhance drug residence time and bioavailability. They synthesize findings and clinical applications of drug soaked CLs as DCRS combined with delivery diffusion barriers, incorporation of functional monomers, ion related controlled release, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles and layering. The authors draw conclusions about the impact of these novel ophthalmic agents delivery systems in improving drug transport in the target tissue and patient compliance, in reducing systemic absorption and undesired side effects, and discuss future perspectives.

  4. Security administration plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.

    1998-09-29

    This document encompasses and standardizes the integrated approach for security within the PP and Ps applications, It also identifies the security tools and methods to be used. The Security Administration Plan becomes effective as of this document`s acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts and, as a ``living document`` will support the operations and maintenance of the system.

  5. Payee's Guide for the Grant Administration and Payment System (GAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Chief Financial and Chief Information Officer.

    Information that payees need for program operation, as well as guidelines for grants and contracts paid through the Grant Administration and Payment System (GAPS), is provided in this guide. The guide is intended to help users understand their responsibilities in expediting payments, in completing forms and reports, and in controlling federal cash…

  6. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles for a new drug delivery system to control quercetin releasing for cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, A. C. H.; Santiago, V. R.; Mazzetto, S. E.; Denardin, J. C.; Lavín, R.; Mele, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, M. E. N. P.; Vieira, Icaro G. P.; Gonçalves, Tamara; Ricardo, N. M. P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin belongs to the chemical class of flavonoids and can be found in many common foods, such as apples, nuts, berries, etc. It has been demonstrated that quercetin has a wide array of biological effects that are considered beneficial to health treatment, mainly as anticancer. However, therapeutic applications of quercetin have been restricted to oral administration due to its sparing solubility in water and instability in physiological medium. A drug delivery methodology was proposed in this work to study a new quercetin release system in the form of magnetite–quercetin–copolymer (MQC). These materials were characterized through XRD, TEM, IR, and Thermal analysis. In addition, the magnetization curves and quercetin releasing experiments were performed. It was observed a nanoparticle average diameter of 11.5 and 32.5 nm at Fe 3 O 4 and MQC, respectively. The presence of magnetic nanoparticles in this system offers the promise of targeting specific organs within the body. These results indicate the great potential for future applications of the MQC to be used as a new quercetin release system.

  8. Biodiversity information system of the national parks administration of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Lizarraga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Biodiversity Information System (BIS of the National Parks Administration of Argentina (NPA was launched in 2002, with the support of the Global Environmental Fund (GEF through the Biodiversity Conservation Project in Argentina. The BIS consists of a set of thematic databases and Geographic Information System (GIS set to support management decisions, and to provide information to the general public on the national protected areas of Argentina. Currently, the BIS-NPA progr...

  9. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  10. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  11. Design and operation of the 30-MJ superconducting magnetic-storage system on the Bonneville Power Administration bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.; Barron, M.H.; Boenig, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic-energy-storage (SMES) unit is suitable for power-system stabilization because it can provide positive damping by absorbing or releasing energy with a relatively fast response time, 10 ms. In the fall of 1982, an SMES unit was installed at the Tacoma Substation of the Bonneville Power Administration as an experiment in monitoring, predicting and improving system stability. This paper reports principally on the system testing

  12. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  13. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for [6-D-tryptophan]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 μg of the peptide, serum [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of [D-Trp 6 ]LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection

  14. Alginate Microencapsulation for Oral Immunisation of Finfish: Release Characteristics, Ex Vivo Intestinal Uptake and In Vivo Administration in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bikramjit; Nowak, Barbara F; Bridle, Andrew R

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility of alginate microcapsules manufactured using a low-impact technology and reagents to protect orally delivered immunogens for use as immunoprophylactics for fish. Physical characteristics and protein release kinetics of the microcapsules were examined at different pH and temperature levels using a microencapsulated model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Impact of the microencapsulation process on contents was determined by analysing change in bioactivity of microencapsulated lysozyme. Feasibility of the method for oral immunoprophylaxis of finfish was assessed using FITC-labelled microcapsules. These were applied to distal intestinal explants of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to investigate uptake ex vivo. Systemic distribution of microcapsules was investigated by oral administration of FITC-labelled microcapsules to Atlantic salmon fry by incorporating into feed. The microcapsules produced were structurally robust and retained surface integrity, with a modal size distribution of 250-750 nm and a tendency to aggregate. Entrapment efficiency of microencapsulation was 51.2 % for BSA and 43.2 % in the case of lysozyme. Microcapsules demonstrated controlled release of protein, which increased with increasing pH or temperature, and the process had no significant negative effect on bioactivity of lysozyme. Uptake of fluorescent-labelled microcapsules was clearly demonstrated by intestinal explants over a 24-h period. Evidence of microcapsules was found in the intestine, spleen, kidney and liver of fry following oral administration. Amenability of the microcapsules to intestinal uptake and distribution reinforced the strong potential for use of this microencapsulation method in oral immunoprophylaxis of finfish using sensitive immunogenic substances.

  15. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  16. Intramuscular administration of paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable microsuspension induces a subclinical inflammatory reaction modulating the pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; Vynckier, An; De Meulder, Marc; Sterkens, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-07-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the intricate nature of the drug release and absorption following intramuscular (i.m.) injection of sustained-release prodrug nanocrystals/microcrystals. A paliperidone palmitate (PPP) long-acting suspension was characterized with regard to particle size (Dv,50 = 1.09 μm) and morphology prior to i.m. injection in rats. The local disposition was rigorously investigated by means of (immuno)histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy while the concurrent multiphasic pharmacokinetics was linked to the microanatomy. A transient (24 h) trauma-induced inflammation promptly evolved into a subclinical but chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction initiated by the presence of solid material. The dense inflammatory envelope (CD68(+) macrophages) led to particle agglomeration with subsequent drop in dissolution rate beyond 24 h postinjection. This was associated with a decrease in apparent paliperidone (PP) absorption (near-zero order) until 96 h and a delayed time of occurrence of observed maximum drug plasma concentration (168 h). The infiltrating macrophages phagocytosed large fractions of the depot, thereby influencing the (pro)drug release. Radial angiogenesis (CD31(+)) was observed throughout the inflammatory rim from 72 h onwards and presumably contributed to the sustained systemic PP concentrations by maintaining a sufficient absorptive capacity. No solid-state transitions of the retrieved formulation were recorded with X-ray diffraction analysis. In summary, the initial formulation-driven prodrug (PPP) dissolution and drug (PP) absorption were followed by a complex phase determined by the relative contribution of formulation factors and dynamic physiological variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Building Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Bell, Keith; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Arguably sound land governance is the key to achieve sustainable development and to support the global agenda set by adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The operational component of land governance is the country specific land administration systems dealing with the four key...... functions of land tenure, land value, land, and land development. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a land parcel framework to operate. Building such a land parcel framework – showing the way land is divided into parcels and plots for specific use and possession...... no. 60 on “Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration”. It is argued that the land parcel framework should be developed using a flexible and fit-for-purpose approach rather than being guided by costly field survey procedures or over-engineered technology solutions. When considering the resources...

  18. Formulation, release characteristics, and bioavailability study of gastroretentive floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Teaima, Mahmoud H; Abd El-Monem, Rehab A; El Nabarawy, Nagla A; Gaber, Dalia A

    2017-01-01

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract until all drug is released at the desired rate is one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery systems. This study was designed to develop a controlled-release floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl (MbH) and evaluate different excipients for their floating behavior and in vitro controlled-release profiles. Oral pharmacokinetics of the optimum matrix tablet, raft system formula, and marketed Duspatalin ® 200 mg retard as reference were studied in beagle dogs. The optimized tablet formula (FT-10) and raft system formula (FRS-11) were found to float within 34±5 sec and 15±7 sec, respectively, and both remain buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid. FT-10 (Compritol/HPMC K100M 1:1) showed the slowest drug release among all prepared tablet formulations, releasing about 80.2% of MbH over 8 h. In contrast, FRS-11 (Sodium alginate 3%/HPMC K100M 1%/Precirol 2%) had the greatest retardation, providing sustained release of 82.1% within 8 h. Compared with the marketed MbH product, the C max of FT-10 was almost the same, while FRS-11 maximum concentration was higher. The t max was 3.33, 2.167, and 3.0 h for marketed MbH product, FT-10, and FRS-11, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment showed that the relative bioavailability of the MbH was 104.76 and 116.01% after oral administration of FT-10 and FRS-11, respectively, compared to marketed product. These results demonstrated that both controlled-released floating matrix tablet and raft system would be promising gastroretentive delivery systems for prolonging drug action.

  19. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    The administration of a large computer infrastructure is a great challenge in many aspects and requires experts in various domains to be successful. One criterion to which the users of a data center are directly exposed is the availability of the infrastructure. A high availability comes at the cost of constant and performant monitoring solutions as well as experts ready to diagnose and solve the problems. It is unfortunately not always possible to have an expert team constantly on site. This work presents a tool which is meant to support system administrators in their tasks by diagnosing problems, offering recovery solutions, and acting as a history and knowledge database. We will first detail what large data centers are composed of and what are the various competences that are required in order to successfully administrate them. This will lead us to consider the problems that are traditionally encountered by the administrators. Those problems are at the source of this project, and we will define our goals f...

  20. Artificial Intelligence in the service of system administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way  Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with a "object oriented paradigm" architecture should increase a lot our learning speed, and highlight relations between probl...

  1. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  2. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR VENTILATION SYSTEM FILTRATION FAILURE LEADING TO AN UNFILTERED RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2005-01-06

    This document analyzed three scenarios involving failures of HEPA filtration systems leading to releases from liquid waste tanks. The scenarios are failure due to high temperature (fire), overpressure (filter blowout), and unfiltered release due to filter failure, improper installation. etc.

  3. Chitosan nanoparticles as a modified diclofenac drug release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Junior, Anivaldo Pereira; Tavares, Eraldo José Madureira; Alves, Taís Vanessa Gabbay; de Moura, Márcia Regina; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira; Silva Júnior, José Otávio Carréra; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated a modified nanostructured release system employing diclofenac as a drug model. Biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with chitosan concentrations between 0.5 and 0.8% ( w/ v) by template polymerization method using methacrylic acid in aqueous solution. Chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) (CS-PMAA) nanoparticles showed uniform size around 50-100 nm, homogeneous morphology, and spherical shape. Raw material and chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confirming the interaction between chitosan and methacrylic acid during nanoparticles preparation. Diclofenac sorption on the chitosan nanoparticles surface was achieved by incubation in water/ethanol (1:1) drug solution in concentrations of 0.5 and 0.8 mg/mL. The diclofenac amount sorbed per gram of CS-PMAA nanoparticles, when in a 0.5 mg/mL sodium diclofenac solution, was as follows: 12.93, 15, 20.87, and 29.63 mg/g for CS-PMAA nanoparticles 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8% ( w/ v), respectively. When a 0.8 mg/mL sodium diclofenac solution was used, higher sorption efficiencies were obtained: For CS-PMAA nanoparticles with chitosan concentrations of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8% ( w/ v), the sorption efficiencies were 33.39, 49.58, 55.23, and 67.2 mg/g, respectively. Diclofenac sorption kinetics followed a second-order kinetics. Drug release from nanoparticles occurred in a period of up to 48 h and obeyed Korsmeyer-Peppas model, which was characterized mainly by Fickian diffusion transport. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Effects of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at artificial insemination on conception rates in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Morton, J M; Norman, S T

    2014-01-10

    A controlled trial investigating the effect on conception of administration of 250 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows in seasonal or split calving herds was conducted. Time of detection of estrus, body condition, extent of estrous expression, treatment, breed, age and milk production from the most recent herd test of the current lactation was recorded. Cows were tested for pregnancy with fetal aging between 35 and 135 days after AI. Sixteen herds provided 2344 spring-calved cows and 3007 inseminations. Logistic regression adjusting for clustering at herd level was used to examine the effect of treatment for first (2344) and second (579) inseminations separately. For first AI, treatment significantly improved conception rate in cows with milk protein concentrations of 3.75% or greater and for cows with milk protein concentrations between 3.00% and 3.50% and less than 40 days calved; increased conception rate from 41.2% to 53.4%. Treatment reduced conception rates in cows with milk protein concentrations of 2.75% or less. Treating only cows identified as responding positively to treatment (11% of all study cows) was estimated to increase first service conception rate in herds from 48.1% to 49.4%. There was no significant effect of treatment on conception to second AI, nor any significant interactions. These findings indicate that GnRH at AI should be limited to the sub-group cows most likely to respond. The positive effect of GnRH at AI may be mediated through improved oocyte maturation and/or improved luteal function, rather than by reducing AI-to-ovulation intervals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Blends of PHB/PEG: obtention of matrices for use as controlled drug release systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catoni, S.E.M.; Gomes, C.A.T.; Trindade, K.N.S.; Schneider, A.L.S.; Pezzin, A.P.T.; Soldi, V.

    2010-01-01

    Different materials have been used in the development of micro-and nanostructured systems for drug release. In general, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) matrixes have high crystallinity degree, justifying its slow degradation. This feature makes the attack of enzymes more difficult. Thus, the surface modification with hydrophilic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been investigated in order to obtain particles which are not recognized and captured by phagocytic cells after in vivo administration, staying for a longer in the systemic circulation. In this work, PHB/PEG films were prepared by casting in different proportions and characterized by XRD, DSC, SEM, GPC and TGA. The films presented high crystallinity degree and showed uniformity, except the 50/50 composition which showed the presence of two phases. The results revealed that increasing percentage of PEG, the Tm of PHB was decreased, the thermal stability was dramatically decreased and molecular weight of the samples was lower. (author)

  6. The Architecture and Administration of the ATLAS Online Computing System

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, M; Ertorer, E; Garitaonandia, H; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Malciu, I M; Panikashvili, E; Topurov, A; Ünel, G; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    The needs of ATLAS experiment at the upcoming LHC accelerator, CERN, in terms of data transmission rates and processing power require a large cluster of computers (of the order of thousands) administrated and exploited in a coherent and optimal manner. Requirements like stability, robustness and fast recovery in case of failure impose a server-client system architecture with servers distributed in a tree like structure and clients booted from the network. For security reasons, the system should be accessible only through an application gateway and, also to ensure the autonomy of the system, the network services should be provided internally by dedicated machines in synchronization with CERN IT department's central services. The paper describes a small scale implementation of the system architecture that fits the given requirements and constraints. Emphasis will be put on the mechanisms and tools used to net boot the clients via the "Boot With Me" project and to synchronize information within the cluster via t...

  7. Administrative compensation for medical injuries: lessons from three foreign systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Kachalia, Allen; Studdert, David M

    2011-07-01

    The United States requires patients injured by medical negligence to seek compensation through lawsuits, an approach that has drawbacks related to fairness, cost, and impact on medical care. Several countries, including New Zealand, Sweden, and Denmark, have replaced litigation with administrative compensation systems for patients who experience an avoidable medical injury. Sometimes called "no-fault" systems, such schemes enable patients to file claims for compensation without using an attorney. A governmental or private adjudicating organization uses neutral medical experts to evaluate claims of injury and does not require patients to prove that health care providers were negligent in order to receive compensation. Information from claims is used to analyze opportunities for patient safety improvement. The systems have successfully limited liability costs while improving injured patients' access to compensation. American policymakers may find many of the elements of these countries' systems to be transferable to demonstration projects in the U.S.

  8. Computerized control system for administration of the radioisotope use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago, Tsutomu; Ito, Shin; Isozumi, Yasuhito; Kurihara, Norio

    1986-01-01

    An on-line computer system for administration of the radioisotope use has been developed. This system consists of a multi-job type host computer and two sets of personal computers with identification card-readers. The personal computers are employed as terminal devices for radioisotope users. By the use of an identification card, entrance and leaving times are recorded automatically. Furthermore, an easy operation of the personal computer permits users to access to the information of their resistered radioisotopes, such as nuclides, chemical forms, updated activities, storage locations, and history of usage. A recording sheet on which those data are printed is provided from the personal computer. After the use of radioisotopes, users can record their data on the recording sheets. These records are used as the input data to this system to update the data of the used radioisotopes. Owing to the concise format of the recording sheet and various sorting programs developed in present work, this system enables us to grasp the exact flow of the radioisotopes from purchase to disposal. Out-put data from high-speed kanji printer can provide many important books which are legally requested to be kept for administration of the radioisotope use. (author)

  9. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  10. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haen, C; Barra, V; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  11. Information system for administrating and distributing color images through internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The information system for administrating and distributing color images through the Internet ensures the consistent replication of color images, their storage - in an on-line data base - and predictable distribution, by means of a digitally distributed flow, based on Windows platform and POD (Print On Demand technology. The consistent replication of color images inde-pendently from the parameters of the processing equipment and from the features of the programs composing the technological flow, is ensured by the standard color management sys-tem defined by ICC (International Color Consortium, which is integrated by the Windows operation system and by the POD technology. The latter minimize the noticeable differences between the colors captured, displayed or printed by various replication equipments and/or edited by various graphical applications. The system integrated web application ensures the uploading of the color images in an on-line database and their administration and distribution among the users via the Internet. For the preservation of the data expressed by the color im-ages during their transfer along a digitally distributed flow, the software application includes an original tool ensuring the accurate replication of colors on computer displays or when printing them by means of various color printers or presses. For development and use, this application employs a hardware platform based on PC support and a competitive software platform, based on: the Windows operation system, the .NET. Development medium and the C# programming language. This information system is beneficial for creators and users of color images, the success of the printed or on-line (Internet publications depending on the sizeable, predictable and accurate replication of colors employed for the visual expression of information in every activity fields of the modern society. The herein introduced information system enables all interested persons to access the

  12. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  13. Monoterpenes released from fruit, plant, and vegetable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

    2014-09-29

    To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  14. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  15. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each.

  16. 77 FR 11355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...D published an initial proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS... the definition and administration of contractor business systems as follows: A. Contractor business..., 245, and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems...

  17. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  18. Alginate-Chitosan Particulate System for Sustained Release of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    1School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2Division of ... Both calcium alginate beads and the beads treated with chitosan failed to release ..... also found to fit the classical power law.

  19. Intra-peritoneal administration of interleukin-1 beta induces impaired insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L; Helqvist, S; Pociot, F

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a stimulatory effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on insulin and glucagon release from the perfused rat pancreas, accompanied by selective lysis of 20% of beta-cells as assessed by electronmicroscopy. However, we have not observed an inhibitory action of IL-1...... beta on insulin release from the perfused pancreas as shown for isolated islets. To test whether periodical exposure of the endocrine pancreas to circulating IL-1 beta in vivo affects insulin release from the intact perfused pancreas, rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 4...

  20. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: evolution and re-design

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Lee, Christopher Jon; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of $\\sim 3000$ servers, processing the data readout from $\\sim 100$ million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. The OS version has been upgraded to SLC6; for the largest part of the farm, which is composed by net booted nodes, this required a completely new design of the net booting system. In parallel, the migration to Puppet of the Configuration Management systems has been completed for both net booted and local booted hosts; the Post-Boot Scripts system and...

  1. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in mice was studied with immunofluorescence in combination with lesions of the olfactory bulb and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which was administered intravascularly, intranasally or into the subarachnoid space. GnRH-positive neurons were located in the two major branches forming the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, within the fascicles of the nervus terminalis throughout its extent, in a conspicuous band which connects the ventral neck of the caudal olfactory bulb with the accessory olfactory bulb and in the nasal mucosa. GnRH-positive fibers were seen in all areas in which neurons were found, i.e. in the rostral septum, the ganglion and nervus terminalis and in the nasal subepithelium. In addition, a broad bundle of fibers was observed to surround the entire caudal olfactory bulb, connecting the rostral sulcus rhinalis with the ventrocaudal olfactory bulb. Fibers were seen in close association with the main and accessory olfactory bulb, with the fila olfactoria and with the nasal mucosa. Throughout the olfactory bulb and the nasal epithelium, an association of GnRH fibers with blood vessels was apparent. Intravascular and intranasal injection of HRP resulted in labeling of certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, the ganglion terminale, the nervus terminalis, the caudal ventrodorsal connection and in the accessory olfactory bulb. After placement of HRP into the subarachnoid space dorsal to the accessory olfactory bulb, about 50% of the GnRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and in the ventrodorsal connection were labeled with HRP. Also, a few GnRH neurons in the rostral septum, the ganglion terminale and in the fascicles of the nervus terminalis had taken up the enzyme. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale resulted in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. Lesions rostral

  2. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da; Boyd, Ben J; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Thermoresponsive, particle-loaded, Poloxamer 407 (P407)-Pluronic-R® (25R4) or chitosan-methyl cellulose (MC) formulations were developed as single-dose, sustained release vaccines. The sol-gels, loaded either with a particulate vaccine (cubosomes) or soluble antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvants (Quil A and monophosphoryl lipid A), were free-flowing liquids at room temperature and formed stable gels at physiological temperatures. Rheological results showed that both systems meet the criteria of being thermoresponsive gels. The P407-25R4 sol-gels did not significantly sustain the release of antigen in vivo while the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that while cubosomes were stable in chitosan-MC gels they were not stable in P407-25R4 formulations. The reason for the mixed response to cubosome-loaded vehicles requires more investigation, however it appears that the cubosomes did not facilitate synchronous vaccine release and may in fact retard release, reducing efficacy in some cases. From these results, chitosan-MC sol-gels show potential as sustained release vaccine delivery systems, as compared to the P407-25R4 system that had a limited ability to sustain antigen release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of the public administration system of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Vyacheslavovich Romin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During research found that state regulation of higher education establishments activity is a special branch of the state, during which its authorities with the help of planning, organizing, monitoring is carried out the current regulation of the activities of higher education establishments, provide organization (integrationof the total interaction of students and teachers. Proposed to allocate the financial strategy of higher educational establishments as a major in strategic management of the higher education system. In this regard, it argued that the integration capacity of the university to the regional reproductive system will optimize government funding of higher educational establishments. Also, it helps to determine the main directions of further economic and financial development of the higher education system, prioritizing the development of already existing educational and training facilities in different regions of the state, the provision of appropriate state support for higher education establishments, which training necessary specialists for the state’s economy. The improvement the public administration system of a high school should be carried out through the formation of a coordination mechanism for higher education establishments. The introduction of this mechanism will provide an opportunity to identify the main activities of the higher education establishments adapt to the operating conditions of the region, based on the trends in the development of higher education, and to provide the basic needs of the labor market in the relevant specialists.

  4. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; pcaffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of an advanced clinical and administrative hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegoda, P R; Dyro, J F

    1986-01-01

    Over the last six years since University Hospital opened, the University Hospital Information System (UHIS) has continued to evolve to what is today an advanced administrative and clinical information system. At University Hospital UHIS is the way of conducting business. A wide range of patient care applications are operational including Patient Registration, ADT for Inpatient/Outpatient/Emergency Room visits, Advanced Order Entry/Result Reporting, Medical Records, Lab Automated Data Acquisition/Quality Control, Pharmacy, Radiology, Dietary, Respiratory Therapy, ECG, EEG, Cardiology, Physical/Occupational Therapy and Nursing. These systems and numerous financial systems have been installed in a highly tuned, efficient computer system. All applications are real-time, on-line, and data base oriented. Each system is provided with multiple data security levels, forward file recovery, and dynamic transaction backout of in-flight tasks. Sensitive medical information is safeguarded by job function passwords, identification codes, need-to-know master screens and terminal keylocks. University Hospital has an IBM 3083 CPU with five 3380 disk drives, four dual density tape drives, and a 3705 network controller. The network of 300 terminals and 100 printers is connected to the computer center by an RF broadband cable. The software is configured around the IBM/MVS operating system using CICS as the telecommunication monitor, IMS as the data base management system and PCS/ADS as the application enabling tool. The most extensive clinical system added to UHIS is the Physiological Monitoring/Patient Data Management System with serves 92 critical care beds. In keeping with the Hospital's philosophy of integrated computing, the PMS/PDMS with its network of minicomputers was linked to the UHIS system. In a pilot program, remote access to UHIS through the IBM personal computer has been implemented in several physician offices in the local community, further extending the communications

  6. Irinotecan-encapsulated double-reverse thermosensitive nanocarrier system for rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Fakhar Ud; Choi, Ju Yeon; Kim, Dong Wuk; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Shik; Thapa, Raj Kumar; Ku, Sae Kwang; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-11-01

    Intravenously administered for the treatment of rectum cancer, irinotecan produces severe side effects due to very high plasma concentrations. A novel irinotecan-encapsulated double reverse thermosensitive nanocarrier system (DRTN) for rectal administration was developed as an alternative. The DRTN was fabricated by dispersing the thermosensitive irinotecan-encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) in the thermosensitive poloxamer solution. Its gel properties, pharmacokinetics, morphology, anticancer activity and immunohistopathology were assessed after its rectal administration to rats and tumor-bearing mice. In the DRTN, the solid form of the SLN and the liquid form of the poloxamer solution persisted at 25 °C; the former melted to liquid, and the latter altered to gel at 36.5 °C. The DRTN was easily administered to the anus, gelling rapidly and strongly after rectal administration. Compared to the conventional hydrogel and intravenously administered solution, it retarded dissolution and initial plasma concentration. The DRTN gave sustained release and nearly constant plasma concentrations of irinotecan at 1-3 h in rats, resulting in improved anticancer activity. It induced no damage to the rat rectum and no body weight loss in tumor-bearing mice. Thus, this irinotecan-encapsulated DRTN associated with a reduced burst effect, lack of toxicity and excellent antitumor efficacy would be strongly recommended as a rectal pharmaceutical product alternative to commercial intravenous injection in the treatment of rectum and colon cancer.

  7. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  8. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Decision Support System to Choose Optimal Release Cycle Length in Incremental Software Development Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Suman, Avnish Chandra; Mishra, Saraswati; Anand, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years it has been seen that many software vendors have started delivering projects incrementally with very short release cycles. Best examples of success of this approach has been Ubuntu Operating system that has a 6 months release cycle and popular web browsers such as Google Chrome, Opera, Mozilla Firefox. However there is very little knowledge available to the project managers to validate the chosen release cycle length. We propose a decision support system that...

  10. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. 91 This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login, privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment.

  11. Formulation of Dipyridamole Sustained Release Tablet Using Floating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mauilida Valentina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dipyridamole is a drug for prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complication of heart valve replacement and long term therapy of angina pectoris will be well absorbed in stomach. To maintain therapeutic plasma concentration in long time and to increase bioavalaibility is needed a sustained release dosage form having the long residence time in the stomach. The objective of this research was to make floating sustained release tablet of dipyridamole conforming to the requirement that was set up by dipyridamol therapeutic concentration. Tablets were made by wet granulation method using aquadest as a liquid binder, HPMC K4M, Ac-di-sol, Avicel PH 102, talk, and Mg stearat. Dissolution assay was carried out using type 2 release tester at rotation speed of 50 rpm in medium 900 mL HCl 0.1 N at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 8 hours. The formulation containing of 50 mg dipirydamole, HPMC K4M (30%, Ac-di-sol (20%, Avicel PH 102 (37%, talk (2%, and Mg stearat (1% released 59.61 ± 6.73% and 89.34 ± 5.87% of dipyridamole respectively after 4 and 8 hours that conformed to the requirement.

  12. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration. I. Penetration rate and release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, H; Taguchi, H; Iida, K; Danjo, K

    2001-12-13

    We examined the penetration rate of lidocaine (LC) through excised oral mucosa from hamster cheek pouch and the in vitro release rate of LC from film dosage forms with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base. Addition of glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to the HPC films increased the LC release rate almost GL-content-dependently, while an optimum GL content was observed for the LC penetration rate. No LC penetration was observed from an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.4) of LC, suggesting only unionized LC can substantially penetrate through the mucosa. A significant relationship between the penetration rate of LC and the release rate of unionized LC was found, suggesting that the in vitro dissolution study is a useful tool to predict the penetration rate taking the unionized drug fraction into consideration.

  13. Mechanistic modelling of drug release from polymer-coated and swelling and dissolving polymer matrix systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunisto, Erik; Marucci, Mariagrazia; Borgquist, Per; Axelsson, Anders

    2011-10-10

    The time required for the design of a new delivery device can be sensibly reduced if the release mechanism is understood and an appropriate mathematical model is used to characterize the system. Once all the model parameters are obtained, in silico experiments can be performed, to provide estimates of the release from devices with different geometries and compositions. In this review coated and matrix systems are considered. For coated formulations, models describing the diffusional drug release, the osmotic pumping drug release, and the lag phase of pellets undergoing cracking in the coating due to the build-up of a hydrostatic pressure are reviewed. For matrix systems, models describing pure polymer dissolution, diffusion in the polymer and drug release from swelling and eroding polymer matrix formulations are reviewed. Importantly, the experiments used to characterize the processes occurring during the release and to validate the models are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ...; Business Systems-- Definition and Administration; Interim Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 96...-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration... an initial proposed rule for Business Systems-- Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038...

  15. Effect of long-term administration of an analog of growth hormone-releasing factor on the GH response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karashima, T; Olsen, D; Schally, A V

    1987-06-22

    The effect of the repeated or continuous administration of an analog of GH releasing factor (GH-RF), D-Tyr-1, D-Ala-2, Nle-27, GH-RF(1-29)-NH2 (DBO-29), on the subsequent response to this peptide was investigated in pentobarbital-anesthetized male rats. A sc administration of this analog induced a greater and more prolonged GH release than doses 10 times larger of GH-RF(1-29). The GH increase after sc injection of 10 micrograms/kg bw of the analog was greater than that induced by iv administration of 2 micrograms/kg bw of GH-RF(1-44). Pretreatment with 10 micrograms/kg bw of the analog did not affect the pituitary response to a strong stimulus (20 micrograms/kg bw) of GH-RF(1-44), 24 h later. Pretreatment with the analog in doses of 10 micrograms/kg bw, sc twice a day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks, significantly diminished the GH release in response to a sc injection of the analog (10 micrograms/kg bw), as compared to vehicle-pretreated controls (P less than 0.01). On the other hand, a continuous sc administration of 0.4 micrograms/h of the analog to intact rats for 7 days did not result in a decrease in GH response to a sc injection of the analog (10 micrograms/kg bw). Since the rats injected repeatedly with the analog for 4 weeks still showed a marked, although somewhat reduced response, analogs of this type may be useful clinically.

  16. Liquid crystalline systems for transdermal delivery of celecoxib: in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estracanholli, Eder André; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Cintra, Ana Beatriz; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water could be a promising approach for the delivery of celecoxib (CXB) to the skin because these systems can sustain drug release, improve drug penetration into the skin layers and minimize side effects. This study evaluated the potential of these systems for the delivery of CXB into the skin based on in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies. The amount of CXB that permeated into and/or was retained in the skin was assayed using an HPLC method. Polarizing light microscopy studies showed that liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water were formed in the presence of CXB, without any changes in the mesophases. The liquid crystalline systems decreased drug release when compared to control solution. Drug release was independent of the initial water content of the systems and CXB was released from cubic phase systems, irrespective of the initial water content. The systems released the CXB following zero-order release kinetics. In vitro drug permeation studies showed that cubic phase systems allowed drug permeation and retention in the skin layers. Cubic phase systems of monoolein/water may be promising vehicles for the delivery of CXB in/through the skin because it improved CXB skin permeation compared with the control solution.

  17. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  18. Synaptosomal uptake and release of dopamine and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine in the nucleus accumbens in vitro following in vivo administration of lysergic acid diethylamide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetey, L.; Quiring, K.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake and the depolarisation-induced release of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were investigated after systemic application of LSD on synaptosomes of the nucleus accumbens of rats. For the release experiments synaptosomes were prelabelled with [ 14 C]-DA and [ 3 H]-5-HT, respectively, and superfused with physiological and potassium-enriched (50 mM) solutions. Low doses of LSD (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg i.p.) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the DA release and an increase of the DA uptake, respectively. LSD inhibited both the release and the uptake of 5-HT significantly. The results are discussed with respect to a reliable characterization of the in vivo induced effects of LSD on the isolated synaptosomes. (author)

  19. High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch matrices: development and characterization of tramadol hydrochloride sustained-release tablets for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol.

  20. The emergence of global administrative systems: the case of sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “global” dimension of sport is, in the first instance, regulatory, and it embraces the whole complex of norms produced and implemented by regulatory sporting regimes at the international and domestic levels. These rules include not only private norms set by the International Olympic Committee (IOC and by International Federations (IFs but also “hybrid” public-private norms approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and international law (such as the UNESCO Convention Against Doping in Sport. Sports law, therefore, is highly heterogeneous, and, above all, it is not simply transnational, but actually “global”. This law represents an autonomous global legal system, which displays distinctive features such as the presence of some separation of powers (in particular quasi-judicial, with the strategic role played by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and the development of relevant procedural principles (e.g. fairness and due process; and these principles operate both in rulemaking procedures (e.g. the adoption of the WADA Code and in adjudicatory ones (e.g. for disciplinary measures. Finally, this global legal system is made up with several international regulatory regimes, both private – such as the Olympic movement – and hybrid public and private – such as the world anti-doping regime. The paper will deal in particular with this latter issue. The analysis will focus on the global administrative dimensions of sports regimes, together with their inter-institutional relationships and its legal implications for the public and private interaction.

  1. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  2. Design of security scheme of the radiotherapy planning administration system based on the hospital information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yongzhi; Zhao Jinzao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To design a security scheme of radiotherapy planning administration system. Methods: Power Builder 9i language was used to program the system through the model of client-server machine. Oracle 9i was used as the database server. Results In this system, user registration management, user login management, application-level functions of control, database access control, and audit trail were designed to provide system security. Conclusions: As a prototype for the security analysis and protection of this scheme provides security of the system, application system, important data and message, which ensures the system work normally. (authors)

  3. Radiation crosslinked hydrogels as sustained release drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekala, W.; Rosiak, J.; Rucinska-Rybus, A.; Burczak, K.; Galant, S.; Czolczynska, T.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation methods have been used for: i/modification of vascular prostheses, ii/ obtaining burn dressing materials enabling controlled drug release, iii/ the preparation of polymer ocular insert discs. The surface of polyester vascular prostheses, has been modified by deposition of acrylamide and inducing its polymerization in the solid state by γ-radiation. As a result of this treatment, tightness of the prosthesis walls and its surface hydrophilicity have been improved. Toxicological examinations and blood hemolysis studies of modified prostheses showed its good biocompatibility. Various burn dressings have been prepared and the most promising of all investigated turned to be composition consisting of a cotton gauze base and an active polyacrylamide hydrogel layer with addition of glycerin and immobilized Provital/protein preparation/. Preliminary clinical evaluations of this particular dressing showed that the process of burn healing is indeed fast and fully satisfactory. Ocular insert discs made of polymer and containing pilocarpin hydrochloride which is released at controlled rate have been prepared. It has been found that high hydrophilicity and good swelling properties of the ocular insert discs made possible to incorporate pilocarpin hydrochloride into hydrogel matrix. This work has been carried out under IAEA research contract RB 3379/R-1 POL. (author)

  4. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0066] Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System (OIS) Development Planning; Request for Comment...) to provide independent advice and recommendations on plans and activities to create an occupational...

  5. Effect of a new drug releasing system on microencapsulated islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Binjie; Gao, Qingkun; Liu, Rui; Ren, Ming; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Zaixing; Zhou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop a novel release system for grafted islets. Materials and methods: A graphene oxide-FTY720 release system was constructed to test the drug loading and releasing capacity. The recipient rats were divided into four groups as following: Experiment group A (EG A) and B (EG B); Control group A (CG A) and B (CG B). In each group, (2000±100) IEQ microencapsulated islets were implanted into the abdominal cavity of the recipients with oral FTY720, local graphene oxide-FTY720 injection, without immunosuppressants, and with graphene oxide-saturated solution respectively. We detected the immunological data, the blood glucose level, and pericapsular overgrowth to show the transplantation effect. Results: 31% of adsorptive FTY720 was released within 6 h, and 82% of FTY720 was released within 48 h. From day 5 to 8, the amount of PBL in EG B was significantly less than those in EG A (PGraphene oxide-FTY720 complex showed a drug releasing effect. Local application of graphene-FTY720 releasing system could decrease the amount of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the percentage of CD3 and CD8 T lymphocytes in blood for longer time than oral drug application. This releasing system could achieve a better blood glucose control. PMID:26722425

  6. Measurement of semiochemical release rates with a dedicated environmental control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heping Zhu; Harold W. Thistle; Christopher M. Ranger; Hongping Zhou; Brian L. Strom

    2015-01-01

    Insect semiochemical dispensers are commonly deployed under variable environmental conditions over a specified period. Predictions of their longevity are hampered by a lack of methods to accurately monitor and predict how primary variables affect semiochemical release rate. A system was constructed to precisely determine semiochemical release rates under...

  7. Calculation notes in support of ammonia releases from waste tank ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojdac, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    Ammonia is generated in waste tanks via the degradation of nitrogen compounds. The ammonia is released from the liquids by a mechanism which is dependent on temperature, pH, ionic strength and ammonia concentration. The release of ammonia to the environment occurs via diffusion of ammonia through a stagnant air mass and into the ventilation system

  8. Development and evaluation of a biocide release system for prolonged antifungal activity in finishing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eversdijk, J.; Erich, S.J.F.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Adan, O.C.G.; Bolle, de M.; Meyer, de K.; Bylemans, D.; Bekker, M.; Cate, ten A.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of modified nano-clay particles as a controlled release system for biocides from building materials. Different (model) biocides were incorporated in a biocide/nano-clay composite and subsequently the release of the biocides was monitored under different environmental

  9. Regulation of somatostatin release in the nervous system of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.

    1979-08-01

    This thesis represents the work done to study the release of somatostatin from the rat central nervous system in vitro, providing some evidence for a physiological role for somatostatin. Somatostatin was measured by a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay devoloped in the laboratory. Chapter 2 reviews the literature on hypothalamic peptides and control of an anterior pituitary function, somatostatin, other central nervous system peptides and neurosecretion. Chapter 3 describes the central nervous system tissue dissection technique, the radioimmunoassay for somatostatin and the tissue levels of somatostatin immunoreactivity in different areas of the central nervous system. Chapter 4 deals with the release of immunoreactive somatostatin from incubated rat hypothalamus in vitro and the influence of other hormones and neuropeptides on this release. Chapter 5 describes the preparation of isolated nerve endings (synaptosomes) from four different areas of rat brain, the localisation of somatostatin to the synaptosome fraction of brain homogenates and the release of somatostatin from these synaptosomes. Chapter 6 deals with the release of somatostatin from incubated rat spinal cord in vitro. Chapter 7 presents the results of the characterisation of released immunoreactive material, the technique utilised being serial dilution of immunoreactive material and comparison to the standard curve, Sephadex gel chromatography, affinity chromatography, and the effect of released immunoreactive somatostatin on growth hormone release from perifused hemipituitaries in vitro, i.e. biological activity. Chapter 8 provides a summary of the main conclusions reached in this study and is followed by the Appendix describing chemical and biochemical methods, histological techniques, and statistical methods

  10. Crushed tablets: does the administration of food vehicles and thickened fluids to aid medication swallowing alter drug release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Yady J; Lee, Danielle J; Islam, Faiza; Nissen, Lisa M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of co-administered vehicles on in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric fluid of crushed immediate release tablets as an indicator for potential drug bioavailability compromise. Release and dissolution of crushed amlodipine, atenolol, carbamazepine and warfarin tablets were tested with six foods and drinks that are frequently used in the clinical setting as mixers for crushed medications (water, orange juice, honey, yoghurt, strawberry jam and water thickened with Easythick powder) in comparison to whole tablets. Five commercial thickening agents (Easythick Advanced, Janbak F, Karicare, Nutilis, Viscaid) at three thickness levels were tested for their effect on the dissolution of crushed atenolol tablets. Atenolol dissolution was unaffected by mixing crushed tablets with thin fluids or food mixers in comparison to whole tablets or crushed tablets in water, but amlodipine was delayed by mixing with jam. Mixing crushed warfarin and carbamazepine tablets with honey, jam or yoghurt caused them to resemble the slow dissolution of whole tablets rather than the faster dissolution of crushed tablets in water or orange juice. Crushing and mixing any of the four medications with thickened water caused a significant delay in dissolution. When tested with atenolol, all types of thickening agents at the greatest thickness significantly restricted dissolution, and products that are primarily based on xanthan gum also delayed dissolution at the intermediate thickness level. Dissolution testing, while simplistic, is a widely used and accepted method for comparing drug release from different formulations as an indicator for in vivo bioavailability. Thickened fluids have the potential to retard drug dissolution when used at the thickest levels. These findings highlight potential clinical implications of the addition of these agents to medications for the purpose of dose delivery and indicate that further investigation of thickened fluids and their

  11. Interchangeability and comparative effectiveness between generic and brand montelukast immediate release tablets after a single oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Mousa, Ayman; Ghazal, Nadia; Bustami, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist. The release of leukotrienes causes narrowing and constricting in the respiratory airways. Blocking the action of these leukotrienes, montelukast can be used for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interchangeability and comparative effectiveness between a generic and a brand montelukast 10 mg immediate release tablets (Broncast(®) and Singulair(®), respectively) after a single oral dose among Arab Mediterranean volunteers. An open-label, randomized two-period crossover bioequivalence design was conducted in 31 healthy male volunteers with a 1 week washout between each study period and under fasting conditions. The plasma drug concentration was assessed by using a previously validated LC MS/MS method. The ratio between the generic and brand of geometric least squares means was reported for both generic and brand products. Moreover, an in vitro dissolution study was conducted on generic and brand tablets using three different pH media, and similarity and non-similarity factors (f2 and f1) were calculated. The used bioanalytical method was found to be linear within the range 6.098-365.855 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient was close to 0.999 during the course of the study validation. Statistical comparison of the main pharmacokinetic parameters showed the inexistence of any significant difference between generic and the brand. The point estimates (ratios of geometric means) were 111.939, 111.711, and 112.169 % for AUC0-24, AUC0-∞, and Cmax, respectively. The 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) were within the pre-defined limits of 80.00-125.00 % as specified by the FDA and EMA for bioequivalence studies. F2 and f1 were higher than 50 and lower than 15, respectively in all selected pH media. Broncast(®) immediate release film coated tablets (10 mg/tablet) are bioequivalent to Singulair(®) immediate release film coated tablets (10 mg/tablet), with a

  12. Bioavailability of oxycodone after administration of a new prolonged-release once-daily tablet formulation in healthy subjects, in comparison to an established twice-daily tablet
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidel, Bernhard; Maritz, Martina A; Gschwind, Yves J; Steigerwald, Kerstin; Guth, Volker; Kovacs, Peter; Rey, Helene

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate and to compare the bioavailability, the influence of food intake on the bioavailability, and the safety and tolerability of a newly-developed oxycodone once-daily (OOD) prolonged-release tablet with an established oxycodone twice-daily (OTD) prolonged-release tablet after single-dose administration under fasting or fed conditions as well as after multiple-dose administration. Three single-center, open-label, randomized, balanced, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover studies were conducted. In each study, 36 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive 10 mg oxycodone daily as OOD (oxycodone HCL 10-mg PR tablets XL (Develco Pharma Schweiz AG, Pratteln, Switzerland); administration of 1 tablet in the morning) or as OTD (reference formulation: oxygesic 5-mg tablets (Mundipharma GmbH, Limburg an der Lahn, Germany); administration of 1 tablet in the morning and 1 tablet in the evening). Tablets were administered once daily or twice daily under fasting conditions (study 1) or under fed conditions (study 2) as well as after multiple-dose administration (study 3). A sufficient number of blood samples were taken for describing plasma profiles and for calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Safety and tolerability were monitored and assessed in all three studies. Plasma profiles of OOD reveal sustained concentrations of oxycodone over the complete dosing interval of 24 hours. In comparison to the OTD reference formulation, the OOD test formulation showed a slightly slower increase of concentrations within the absorption phase and similar plasma concentrations at the maximum and at the end of the dosing interval (24 hours). Extent of bioavailability (AUC), maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), and plasma concentrations at the end of the dosing interval (Cτ,ss,24h) of OOD could be classified as comparable to OTD considering 90% confidence intervals (CIs) and acceptance limits of 80

  13. Flavour release of aldehydes and diacetyl in oil/water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bredie, W. L. P.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    from the pure oil. The release over time for diacetyl and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal showed a linear relationship in all systems. The other compounds followed an exponential relationship between the time and the fraction released in the aqueous systems. It was demonstrated that the release of the volatile...... compounds was dependent on the chain length, the degree of unsaturation as well as the characteristics of the model system. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The concentration- and time-dependent release of three C-6-aldehydes, six C-9-aldehydes and diacetyl was studied in model systems. The systems were water, rapeseed oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Dynamic headspace sampling was used to collect the volatile compounds. In the concentration...

  14. Drug release control and system understanding of sucrose esters matrix tablets by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansanroj, Krisanin; Petrović, Jelena; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-10-09

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied for system understanding and prediction of drug release properties from direct compacted matrix tablets using sucrose esters (SEs) as matrix-forming agents for controlled release of a highly water soluble drug, metoprolol tartrate. Complexity of the system was presented through the effects of SE concentration and tablet porosity at various hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of SEs ranging from 0 to 16. Both effects contributed to release behaviors especially in the system containing hydrophilic SEs where swelling phenomena occurred. A self-organizing map neural network (SOM) was applied for visualizing interrelation among the variables and multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPs) were employed to generalize the system and predict the drug release properties based on HLB value and concentration of SEs and tablet properties, i.e., tablet porosity, volume and tensile strength. Accurate prediction was obtained after systematically optimizing network performance based on learning algorithm of MLP. Drug release was mainly attributed to the effects of SEs, tablet volume and tensile strength in multi-dimensional interrelation whereas tablet porosity gave a small impact. Ability of system generalization and accurate prediction of the drug release properties proves the validity of SOM and MLPs for the formulation modeling of direct compacted matrix tablets containing controlled release agents of different material properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [The enantioselective pharmacokinetic study of desvenlafaxine sustained release tablet in Chinese healthy male volunteers after oral administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-xia; Du, Jiang-bo; Zhang, Yi-fan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Zhong, Da-fang

    2015-04-01

    A chiral LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of desvenlafaxine (DVS) enantiomers in human plasma was developed and applied to a pharmacokinetic study on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers. d6-Desvenlafaxine was used as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on the Astec Chirobiotic V chiral column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm). The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.500-150 ng x mL(-1) for both enantiomers (r2 > 0.99). The method was successfully applied to a stereoselective pharmacokinetic study of 100 mg desvenlafaxine sustained release tablets on 12 Chinese healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to both enantiomers in Chinese healthy volunteers. The AUC(0-t), and C(max) of the two enantiomers were about 1.5 times higher than those of blacks and whites reported in the literature.

  16. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social......, environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations...

  17. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique: Manuscript Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarqui, Leal Ruben; Perez, Rene Cano; Klad, Roberto Angulo; Lopez, Jose L. Zavale; Parker, Andrew; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse. Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software). The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata) and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p < 0.001) for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p < 0.001), especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha). We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km"2 for tsetse flies up to 600 000 flies/km"2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  18. The smart aerial release machine, a universal system for applying the sterile insect technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Leal Mubarqui

    Full Text Available Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software. The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001 for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001, especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha. We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide.

  19. Systemic administration of erythropoietin inhibits retinopathy in RCS rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyong Shen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rats develop vasculopathy as photoreceptors degenerate. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of erythropoietin (EPO on retinopathy in RCS rats. METHODS: Fluorescein angiography was used to monitor retinal vascular changes over time. Changes in retinal glia and vasculature were studied by immunostaining. To study the effects of EPO on retinal pathology, EPO (5000 IU/kg was injected intraperitoneally in 14 week old normal and RCS rats twice a week for 4 weeks. Changes in the retinal vasculature, glia and microglia, photoreceptor apoptosis, differential expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, pro-neurotrophin 3 (pro-NT3, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, the production of CD34(+ cells and mobilization of CD34(+/VEGF-R2(+ cells as well as recruitment of CD34(+ cells into the retina were examined after EPO treatment. RESULTS: RCS rats developed progressive capillary dropout and subretinal neovascularization which were accompanied by retinal gliosis. Systemic administration of EPO stabilized the retinal vasculature and inhibited the development of focal vascular lesions. Further studies showed that EPO modulated retinal gliosis, attenuated photoreceptor apoptosis and p75NTR and pro-NT3 upregulation, promoted the infiltration of ramified microglia and stimulated VEGF-A expression but had little effect on TNFα and PEDF expression. EPO stimulated the production of red and white blood cells and CD34(+ cells along with effective mobilization of CD34(+/VEGF-R2(+ cells. Immunofluorescence study demonstrated that EPO enhanced the recruitment of CD34+ cells into the retina. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EPO has therapeutic potentials in treatment of neuronal and vascular pathology in retinal disease. The protective effects of EPO on photoreceptors and the retinal vasculature may involve multiple

  20. A Phase 1 Pharmacokinetic Study of Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release Capsules Following Oral Administration with Orange Juice, Water, or Omeprazole in Cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Danielle; Holt, Robert J; Confer, Nils F; Checani, Gregg C; Obaidi, Mohammad; Xie, Yuli; Brannagan, Meg

    2018-02-01

    Cystinosis is a rare, metabolic, autosomal recessive, genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an accumulation of cystine in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine bitartrate (CB) is a cystine-depleting aminothiol agent approved in the United States and Europe in immediate-release and delayed-release (DR) formulations for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. It is recommended that CBDR be administered with fruit juice (except grapefruit juice) for maximum absorption. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that inhibits gastric acid secretion and, theoretically, may cause the premature release of cysteamine by increasing intragastric pH, thereby affecting the PK of CBDR. This open-label, three-period, randomized study in healthy adult subjects was designed primarily to compare the pharmacokinetics of CBDR capsules after a single oral dose administered with orange juice, water, or multiple oral doses of omeprazole with water at steady state. A total of 32 subjects were randomly assigned to receive study agents in one of two treatment sequences. All subjects completed the study and baseline characteristics of the overall population and the two treatment sequence populations were similar. Peak mean plasma cysteamine concentrations following co-administration of CBDR capsules with orange juice (1892 ng/mL) were higher compared with co-administration with water (1663 ng/mL) or omeprazole 20 mg and water (1712 ng/mL). Mean time to peak plasma concentration was shorter with omeprazole co-administration (2.5 h) compared with orange juice (3.5 h) or water (3.0 h). Statistical comparisons between treatment groups indicated that exposure as assessed by AUC 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max were all within the 80-125% bioequivalence ranges for all comparisons. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate DR capsules are not significantly impacted by co-administration with orange juice

  1. Time Span of Discretion and Administrative Work in School Systems: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Derek J.; Morfitt, Grace

    This paper presents findings of a study that utilized Elliott Jaques' theories of organizational depth structure and time span of discretion in administrative work to examine administrators' responsibilities in two Ontario (Canada) school systems. The theory predicts that the time-span of discretion associated with the administrative tasks will…

  2. Comparative study of kanamycin sulphate microparticles and nanoparticles for intramuscular administration: preparation in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sanaul; Devi, V Kusum; Pai, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h) and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose-related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4. The in vivo pharmacokinetic test in Wistar rats showed that the AUC 0-∞ of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs (280.58 μg/mL*min) was about 1.62-fold higher than that of KS PLGA-TPGS MPs (172.30 μg/mL*min). Further, in vivo protein-binding assay ascribed 1.20-fold increase in the uptake of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs through the alveolar macrophage (AM). The studies, therefore, could provide another useful tool for successful development of KS MPs and NPs.

  3. Development of Effective Academic Affairs Administration System in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnoi, Niratchakorn; Srisa-ard, Boonchom; Sri-ampai, Anan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) study current situations and problems of academic affairs administration system in Primary Schools. 2) develop an effective academic affairs administration system, and 3) evaluate the implementation of the developed system in the primary school, Thailand. Research and Development (R&D) was employed which consisted of…

  4. Prerequisites for Systems Analysts: Analytic and Management Demands of a New Approach to Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammentorp, William

    There is much to be gained by using systems analysis in educational administration. Most administrators, presently relying on classical statistical techniques restricted to problems having few variables, should be trained to use more sophisticated tools such as systems analysis. The systems analyst, interested in the basic processes of a group or…

  5. Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic β-TCP drug delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.

  6. A space release/deployment system actuated by shape memory wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnito, Marino; Vetrella and, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, the design of an innovative hold down/release and deployment device actuated by shape memory wires, to be used for the first time for the S MA RT microsatellite solar wings is shown. The release and deployment mechanisms are actuated by a Shape Memory wire (Nitinol), which allows a complete symmetrical and synchronous release, in a very short time, of the four wings in pairs. The hold down kinematic mechanism is preloaded to avoid vibration nonlinearities and unwanted deployment at launch. The deployment mechanism is a simple pulley system. The stiffness of the deployed panel-hinge system needs to be dimensioned in order to meet the on-orbit requirement for attitude control. One-way roller clutches are used to keep the panel at the desired angle during the mission. An ad hoc software has been developed to simulate both the release and deployment operations, coupling the SMA wire behavior with the system mechanics.

  7. Data model for the collaboration between land administration systems and agricultural land parcel identification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling the modified drug release from curved shape drug delivery systems - Dome Matrix®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavo, D; Barba, A A; d'Amore, M; De Piano, R; Lamberti, G; Rossi, A; Colombo, P

    2017-12-01

    The controlled drug release from hydrogel-based drug delivery systems is a topic of large interest for research in pharmacology. The mathematical modeling of the behavior of these systems is a tool of emerging relevance, since the simulations can be of use in the design of novel systems, in particular for complex shaped tablets. In this work a model, previously developed, was applied to complex-shaped oral drug delivery systems based on hydrogels (Dome Matrix®). Furthermore, the model was successfully adopted in the description of drug release from partially accessible Dome Matrix® systems (systems with some surfaces coated). In these simulations, the erosion rate was used asa fitting parameter, and its dependence upon the surface area/volume ratio and upon the local fluid dynamics was discussed. The model parameters were determined by comparison with the drug release profile from a cylindrical tablet, then the model was successfully used for the prediction of the drug release from a Dome Matrix® system, for simple module configuration and for module assembled (void and piled) configurations. It was also demonstrated that, given the same initial S/V ratio, the drug release is independent upon the shape of the tablets but it is only influenced by the S/V evolution. The model reveals itself able to describe the observed phenomena, and thus it can be of use for the design of oral drug delivery systems, even if complex shaped. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  10. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  11. Development of modified-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate by biphasic quick/slow delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N H; Murthy, P N

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium starch glycolate acts as a superdisintegrant in immediate-release part and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose as a release retarding agent in extended-release core. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Both the core and the coat contained the drug. The pre-compression blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, and compressibility index. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation test, friability, and in vitro release studies. No interaction was observed between zolpidem tartrate and excipients from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results of all the formulations prepared were compared with reference product Stilnoct®. Optimized formulations showed release patterns that match the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines for zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets. The mechanism of drug release was studied using different mathematical models, and the optimized formulation has shown Fickian diffusion. Accelerated stability studies were performed on the optimized formulation.

  12. A novel and alternative approach to controlled release drug delivery system based on solid dispersion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Giri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid dispersion method was originally used to improve the dissolution properties and the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs by dispersing them into water soluble carriers. In addition to the above, dissolution retardation through solid dispersion technique using water insoluble and water swellable polymer for the development of controlled release dosage forms has become a field of interest in recent years. Development of controlled release solid dispersion has a great advantage for bypassing the risk of a burst release of drug; since the structure of the solid dispersion is monolithic where drug molecules homogeneously disperse. Despite the remarkable potential and extensive research being conducted on controlled release solid dispersion system, commercialization and large scale production are limited. The author expects that recent technological advances may overcome the existing limitations and facilitate the commercial utilization of the techniques for manufacture of controlled release solid dispersions. This article begins with an overview of the different carriers being used for the preparation of controlled release solid dispersion and also different techniques being used for the purpose. Kinetics of drug release from these controlled release solid dispersions and the relevant mathematical modeling have also been reviewed in this manuscript.

  13. Controlled release of glaucocalyxin - a self-nanoemulsifying system from osmotic pump tablets with enhanced bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanfei, Miao; Guoguang, Chen; Lili, Ren; Pingkai, Ouyang

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new formulation to enhance the bioavailability simultaneously with controlled release of glaucocalyxin A (GLA). In this study, controlled release of GLA was achieved by the osmotic release strategy taking advantage of the bioavailability enhancing capacity of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). The formulation of GLA-SNEDDS was selected by the solubility and pseudoternary-phase diagrams studies. The prepared GLA-SNEDDS formulations were characterized for self-emulsification time, effect of pH and robustness to dilution, droplet size analysis and zeta potential. The optimized GLA-SNEDDS were used to prepare GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet via direct powder compression method. The effect of formulation variables on the release characteristic was investigated. GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablets were administered to beagle dogs and their pharmacokinetics were compared to GLA and GLA-SNEDDS as a control. In vitro drug release studies indicated that the GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet showed sustained release profiles with 90% released within 12 h. Pharmacokinetic study showed steady blood GLA with prolonged T max and mean residence time (MRT), and enhanced bioavailability for GLA-SNEDDS osmotic pump tablet. It was concluded that simultaneous controlling on GLA release and enhanced bioavailability had been achieved by a combination of osmotic pump tablet and SNEDDS.

  14. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF ARSENIC FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  15. THE ACCUMULATION AND RELEASE OF CONTAMINANTS FROM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. Iron based treatment technologies including iron removal and iron coagulation are effective at reducing arsenic in water because iron surfaces have a stron...

  16. Journal Bearing Analysis Suite Released for Planetary Gear System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, David E.; Clark, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary gear systems are an efficient means of achieving high reduction ratios with minimum space and weight. They are used in helicopter, aerospace, automobile, and many industrial applications. High-speed planetary gear systems will have significant dynamic loading and high heat generation. Hence, they need jet lubrication and associated cooling systems. For units operating in critical applications that necessitate high reliability and long life, that have very large torque loading, and that have downtime costs that are significantly greater than the initial cost, hydrodynamic journal bearings are a must. Computational and analytical tools are needed for sufficiently accurate modeling to facilitate optimal design of these systems. Sufficient physics is needed in the model to facilitate parametric studies of design conditions that enable optimal designs. The first transient journal bearing code to implement the Jacobsson-Floberg-Olsson boundary conditions, using a mass-conserving algorithm devised by Professor Emeritus Harold Elrod of Columbia University, was written by David E. Brewe of the U.S. Army at the NASA Lewis Research Center1 in 1983. Since then, new features and improved modifications have been built into the code by several contributors supported through Army and NASA funding via cooperative agreements with the University of Toledo (Professor Ted Keith, Jr., and Dr. Desikakary Vijayaraghavan) and National Research Council Programs (Dr. Vijayaraghavan). All this was conducted with the close consultation of Professor Elrod and the project management of David Brewe.

  17. A novel fluoride anion modified gelatin nanogel system for ultrasound-triggered drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daocheng; Wan, Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    Controlled drug release, especially tumor-targeted drug release, remains a great challenge. Here, we prepare a novel fluoride anion-modified gelatin nanogel system and investigate its characteristics of ultrasound-triggered drug release. Adriamycin gelatin nanogel modified with fluoride anion (ADM-GNMF) was prepared by a modified co-precipitation method with fluoride anion and sodium sulfate. The loading and encapsulation efficiency of the anti-neoplastic agent adriamycin (ADM) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The size and shape of ADM-GNMF were determined by electron microscopy and photo-correlation spectroscopy. The size distribution and drug release efficiency of ADM-GNMF, before and after sonication, were measured by two designed measuring devices that consisted of either a submicron particle size analyzer and an ultrasound generator as well as an ultrasound generator, automatic sampler, and HPLC. The ADM-GNMF was stable in solution with an average diameter of 46+/-12 nm; the encapsulation and loading efficiency of adriamycin were 87.2% and 6.38%, respectively. The ultrasound-triggered drug release and size change were most efficient at a frequency of 20 kHz, power density of 0.4w/cm2, and a 1~2 min duration. Under this ultrasound-triggered condition, 51.5% of drug in ADM-GNMF was released within 1~2 min, while the size of ADM-GNMF changed from 46 +/- 12 nm to 1212 +/- 35 nm within 1~2 min of sonication and restored to its previous size in 2~3 min after the ultrasound stopped. In contrast, 8.2% of drug in ADM-GNMF was released within 2~3 min without sonication, and only negligible size changes were found. The ADM-GNMF system efficiently released the encompassed drug in response to ultrasound, offering a novel and promising controlled drug release system for targeted therapy for cancer or other diseases.

  18. A Comparative Study on the Lot Release Systems for Vaccines as of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kentaro; Naito, Seishiro; Ochiai, Masaki; Konda, Toshifumi; Kato, Atsushi

    2017-09-25

    Many countries have already established their own vaccine lot release system that is designed for each country's situation: while the World Health Organization promotes for the convergence of these regulatory systems so that vaccines of assured quality are provided globally. We conducted a questionnaire-based investigation of the lot release systems for vaccines in 7 countries and 2 regions. We found that a review of the summary protocol by the National Regulatory Authorities was commonly applied for the independent lot release of vaccines, however, we also noted some diversity between countries, especially in regard to the testing policy. Some countries and regions, including Japan, regularly tested every lot of vaccines, whereas the frequency of these tests was reduced in other countries and regions as determined based on the risk assessment of these products. Test items selected for the lot release varied among the countries or regions investigated, although there was a tendency to prioritize the potency tests. An understanding of the lot release policy may contribute to improving and harmonizing the lot release system globally in the future.

  19. Shroud cutting techniques and collection systems for secondary radioactivity release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Uetake, N.; Shimura, T.; Omote, T.; Adachi, H.; Murakami, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Gotoh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of in-core shroud has been conducted as part of the preventive maintenance program in Tsuruga-1. The EDM (electric discharged machining) and plasma cutting methods were applied to in-core shroud cutting and secondary cutting in the DSP (dryer/separator pool), respectively. The cutting systems were improved in order to decrease radioactive secondary products. 1) Fundamental EDM cutting tests: fundamental EDM cutting tests were carried out in order to study secondary products. It could be presumed that volatile Co-carbonyl compound was generated by using a carbon electrode. The Ag/W electrode was effective as EDM electrode for in-core shroud cutting to prevent generation of Co-carbonyl compound and to decrease the total amount of secondary products. 2) In-core shroud cutting in RPV (reactor pressure vessel): EDM cutting system with the Ag/W electrode and collection system could keep a good environment during in-core shroud cutting in Tsuruga-1. Activity concentration was lower value than limitation of mask charge level, 4E-6 Bq/cm 3 , even near the water surface. 3) Secondary plasma cutting in DSP: the secondary cutting work was successful in the point of reduction of working period and radiation exposure. The amount of radiation exposure was reduced to 60% of the planned value, because of adequate decontamination of the working environment and reduction of number of torch maintenance tasks by improvements of the underwater cutting device

  20. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  1. Introduction to CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk investigation system for assessing atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Murphy, B.D.

    1985-08-01

    The CRRIS is a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System consisting of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may also be used alone for various assessment applications. Radionuclides are handled by the CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that grow in during environmental transport. The CRRIS is not designed to simulate short-term effects. 51 refs

  2. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  3. Radionuclide therapy: regional and systemic routes of administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal sequencing and integration of radiopharmaceutical therapy with respect to the multiple and competing therapeutic modalities is examined. It is estimated that the central goal of therapeutic nuclear medicine is to increase radiopharmaceutical delivery to tumour targets while sparing sensitive normal tissues. Among the factors to be considered in the choice of therapeutic radionuclides are: the decay mode, gamma-ray yield, half-lives and chemical reactivity. Several routes of administration are discussed and a number of manipulations which may be used to further improve radioparmaceutical delivery are outlined. The difficulty to perform accurate radiation dosimetry is also briefly examined. 14 refs., 1 tab

  4. Application of mathematical modeling in sustained release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    This review, presenting as starting point the concept of the mathematical modeling, is aimed at the physical and mathematical description of the most important mechanisms regulating drug delivery from matrix systems. The precise knowledge of the delivery mechanisms allows us to set up powerful mathematical models which, in turn, are essential for the design and optimization of appropriate drug delivery systems. The fundamental mechanisms for drug delivery from matrices are represented by drug diffusion, matrix swelling, matrix erosion, drug dissolution with possible recrystallization (e.g., as in the case of amorphous and nanocrystalline drugs), initial drug distribution inside the matrix, matrix geometry, matrix size distribution (in the case of spherical matrices of different diameter) and osmotic pressure. Depending on matrix characteristics, the above-reported variables may play a different role in drug delivery; thus the mathematical model needs to be built solely on the most relevant mechanisms of the particular matrix considered. Despite the somewhat diffident behavior of the industrial world, in the light of the most recent findings, we believe that mathematical modeling may have a tremendous potential impact in the pharmaceutical field. We do believe that mathematical modeling will be more and more important in the future especially in the light of the rapid advent of personalized medicine, a novel therapeutic approach intended to treat each single patient instead of the 'average' patient.

  5. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)

  6. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R 2  > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe 3 O 4 ) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO 3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe 3 O 4 . The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 content under higher sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apoplexy of a pituitary macroadenoma with reversible third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of hypothalamic releasing hormones: MR features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, Michaela; Clodi, Martin; Kotzmann, Harald; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Schima, Wolfgang; Reitner, Andreas; Czech, Thomas; Luger, Anton

    2000-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in patients with pituitary macroadenomas can occur either spontaneously or following various interventions. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who developed third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of the four hypothalamic releasing hormones for routine preoperative testing of pituitary function. The MR examination showed interval tumor growth with impression of the floor of the third ventricle. There were also changes in signal intensity characteristics of the mass, suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. A transsphenoidal surgery with subtotal resection of the pituitary adenoma was performed. Microscopical examination revealed large areas of necrosis and blood surrounded by adenomatous tissue. Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies completely resolved within 4 months. We conclude that MR imaging is useful in the demonstration of pituitary apoplexy following preoperative stimulation tests, but we suggest that these tests should be abandoned in patients with pituitary macroadenomas

  8. Apoplexy of a pituitary macroadenoma with reversible third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of hypothalamic releasing hormones: MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedl, Michaela E-mail: michaela.riedl@akh-wien.ac.at; Clodi, Martin; Kotzmann, Harald; Hainfellner, Johann A.; Schima, Wolfgang; Reitner, Andreas; Czech, Thomas; Luger, Anton

    2000-10-01

    Pituitary apoplexy in patients with pituitary macroadenomas can occur either spontaneously or following various interventions. We present a case of a 71-year-old woman who developed third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following administration of the four hypothalamic releasing hormones for routine preoperative testing of pituitary function. The MR examination showed interval tumor growth with impression of the floor of the third ventricle. There were also changes in signal intensity characteristics of the mass, suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. A transsphenoidal surgery with subtotal resection of the pituitary adenoma was performed. Microscopical examination revealed large areas of necrosis and blood surrounded by adenomatous tissue. Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies completely resolved within 4 months. We conclude that MR imaging is useful in the demonstration of pituitary apoplexy following preoperative stimulation tests, but we suggest that these tests should be abandoned in patients with pituitary macroadenomas.

  9. Transfer of accidentally released radionuclides in agricultural systems (TARRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Maubert, Colle; Rauret, G.; Grandison, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this project is to contribute to the reliability of radiological assessment methods and establish a scientific base for the design of post-accident countermeasures. Three main aspects are considered in this project: A simulated accidental source term is used and the behaviour of aerosol deposits containing Sr, Cs and Ag isotopes are followed in some European soil-crop systems; the modification of radionuclide transfer rates through the food chain by well established food processing techniques is studied for Sr, Cs, Co and Ru; the project includes a study on the specific mediterranean diet and transfer data that are compared with currently used generic parameters. Seven contributions of the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 11 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Effective Leadership Behaviors for Child Care Administrators: Seeking Quality Measurement System Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Among quality measurement systems, there is no clear description of how administrators are expected to move through the process. This is not necessarily a fault of the systems; it is not their intention to script a program's process. Yes, there are many tasks that are logically the administrator's responsibility--important things that must get…

  11. US Food and Drug Administration's Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy for extended-release and long-acting opioids: pros and cons, and a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Craig, David; Giarratano, Antonello

    2012-12-24

    Prescriptions for opioid analgesics to manage moderate-to-severe chronic non-cancer pain have increased markedly over the last decade. An unintentional consequence of greater prescription opioid utilization has been the parallel increase in misuse, abuse and overdose, which are serious risks associated with all opioid analgesics. In response to disturbing rises in prescription opioid abuse, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed the implementation of aggressive Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). While REMS could dramatically change the development, release, marketing and prescription of extended-release opioids, questions remain on how these programmes may influence prescribing practices, patient safety and ultimately patient access to these agents. The extent of the availability and misuse of prescription opioids in Europe is difficult to assess from the data currently available, due in large part to the considerable differences in prescribing patterns and regulations between countries. Balancing the availability of prescription opioids for those patients who have pain, while discouraging illicit use, is a complex challenge and requires effective efforts on many levels, particularly in Europe where policies are quite different between countries.

  12. Ammonium release from a blanket peatland into headwater stream systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, S.M.; Evans, M.G.; Agnew, C.T.; Allott, T.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrochemical sampling of South Pennine (UK) headwater streams draining eroded upland peatlands demonstrates these systems are nitrogen saturated, with significant leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particularly ammonium, during both stormflow and baseflow conditions. DIN leaching at sub-catchment scale is controlled by geomorphological context; in catchments with low gully densities ammonium leaching dominates whereas highly gullied catchments leach ammonium and nitrate since lower water tables and increased aeration encourages nitrification. Stormflow flux calculations indicate that: approximately equivalent amounts of nitrate are deposited and exported; ammonium export significantly exceeds atmospheric inputs. This suggests two ammonium sources: high atmospheric loadings; and mineralisation of organic nitrogen stored in peat. Downstream trends indicate rapid transformation of leached ammonium into nitrate. It is important that low-order headwater streams are adequately considered when assessing impacts of atmospheric loads on the hydrochemistry of stream networks, especially with respect to erosion, climate change and reduced precipitation. - Highlights: ► Headwaters draining eroded South Pennine (UK) peatlands are nitrogen saturated. ► Ammonium and nitrate leaching arises from aeration due to lower water tables. ► Nitrate deposition equals export during storms; ammonium export exceeds input. ► Ammonia input from high atmospheric loading and mineralisation of organic nitrogen. ► Downstream nitrogen trends indicate rapid transformation of ammonium into nitrate. - Inorganic nitrogen leaching from South Pennine peatlands is dominated by ammonium that is rapidly transformed within-streams to nitrate.

  13. A New Drug Release Method in Early Development of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro drug release tests are a widely used tool to measure the variance between transdermal product performances and required by many authorities. However, the result cannot provide a good estimation of the in vivo drug release. In the present work, a new method for measuring drug release from patches has been explored and compared with the conventional USP apparatus 2 and 5 methods. Durogesic patches, here used as a model patch, were placed on synthetic skin simulator and three moisture levels (29, 57, 198 μL cm−2 were evaluated. The synthetic skin simulators were collected after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours and extracted with pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution. The drug concentrations in the extractions were measured by isocratic reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results showed that, with the increasing moisture level on the synthetic skin simulator, the drug release rate increased. In comparison with the conventional USP method, the drug release results performed by the new method were in more correlation to the release rate claimed in the product label. This new method could help to differentiate the drug release rates among assorted formulations of transdermal drug delivery systems in the early stage of development.

  14. Duplicate Recording of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    ... in more than one of the system's data bases. We also evaluated whether the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services system had adequate controls to detect and prevent duplicate contract payments, and whether database errors...

  15. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Finance and Accounting Service planned to replace the payment and entitlement function performed by the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services system with a new or modified system...

  16. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Ribeiro Franca

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM. Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a

  17. Differential effects of stress and amphetamine administration on Fos-like protein expression in corticotropin releasing factor-neurons of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotllant, David; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) appears to be critical for the control of important aspects of the behavioral and physiological response to stressors and drugs of abuse. However, the extent to which the different brain CRF neuronal populations are similarly activated after stress and drug administration is not known. We then studied, using double immunohistochemistry for CRF and Fos protein, stress and amphetamine-induced activation of CRF neurons in cortex, central amygdala (CeA), medial parvocellular dorsal, and submagnocellular parvocellular regions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNmpd and PVNsm, respectively) and Barrington nucleus (Bar). Neither exposure to a novel environment (hole-board, HB) nor immobilization (IMO) increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the CeA, but they did to the same extent in cortical regions. In other regions only IMO increased FLI. HB and IMO both failed to activate CRF+ neurons in cortical areas, but after IMO, some neurons expressing FLI in the PVNsm and most of them in the PVNmpd and Bar were CRF+. Amphetamine administration increased FLI in cortical areas and CeA (with some CRF+ neurons expressing FLI), whereas the number of CRF+ neurons increased only in the PVNsm, in contrast to the effects of IMO. The present results indicate that stress and amphetamine elicited a distinct pattern of brain Fos-like protein expression and differentially activated some of the brain CRF neuronal populations, despite similar levels of overall FLI in the case of IMO and amphetamine.

  18. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Martin, T.J.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Stoops, L.R.; Tzemos, S.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  19. Monitoring and diagnostic system of fission product transport and release in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, H.; Kondo, S.; Togo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A monitoring and diagnostic system (MADS) of fission product (FP) transport and release in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed and the conceptual design for MADS is studied. A MADS can be described in the most general way as a computer-based information processing system which takes in plant data, processes it and displays the results to the NPP's operating crew. A major concern for MADS is, however, not to evaluate general plant dynamics, but to monitor the distribution of whole radioactive materials such as FP, and to diagnose the plant state in the view of FP transport during the NPP's lifetime. Several functions demanded of MADS are: (a) during normal operation, to certify the fuel integrity and the effectiveness of the purification systems, (b) in an unusual event, to identify the event and to monitor the amount of FP release with accuracy, and (c) in case of a rare occurrence, to estimate the maximum potential release

  20. [The nurse's administrative point of view in the hospitalar macro system: a reflexive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fábia Maria; Soares, Enedina

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the nurses' administration points of view concerning managing activities in the hospital macro-system, based on the Administration Contingent Theory A group of 9 nurses responsible for the administration of nursing services at 6 reference hospitals in Fortaleza/Ceara, participated of the study. Data were assessed by means of free interview techniques, from August to December 2001. The results suggest that the administrative approach focused the development of Leadership and Control activities. The interview outcomes reveal that nursing administration in a Hospital Macro-system was not perceived as an easy task, but feasible nevertheless. The greatest difficulty seemed to be due to a poor reflexive practice about the nurse's administrative attributions.

  1. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: an overview and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    LEE, CJ; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, AC; DARLEA, GL; KOROL, A; SCANNICCHIO, DA; TWOMEY, M; VALSAN, ML

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The system processes the direct data readout from ~100 million channels on the detector through three trigger levels, selecting interesting events for analysis with a factor of 10^7 reduction on the data rate with a latency of less than a few seconds. Most of the functionality is implemented on ~3000 servers composing the online farm. Due to the critical functionality of the system a sophisticated computing environment is maintained, covering the online farm and ATLAS control rooms, as well as a number of development and testing labs. The specificity of the system required the development of dedicated applications (e.g. ConfDB, BWM) for system configuration and maintenance; in parallel other Open Source tools (Puppet and Quattor) are used to centrally configure the operating systems. The health monitoring of the TDAQ system h...

  2. Professional performance evaluation within the Romanian administrative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MANOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis, manifested in the entire world, highlights the need for sustained involvement of the local and regional authorities in each country, in conceiving and implementing Community policies (which already exist at European level having an essential role in implementing the economic plans achievement. This view was shared by all European Union Member States, of which Romania is part, since 2007. Therefore, the economic crisis which is reflected in the Romanian society today, requires prompt and sustained intervention by the authorities in the execution of the economic recovery plan, implying the community strategies, due to sharply budgetary expenses cut, which is found in all European countries. In order to achieve this major objective, the Romanian authorities should have qualified and properly motivated personnel through an adequate remuneration, according to the training, skills, responsibilities and especially individual performance obtained at each position, as it happens in most developed countries of the European Union. In this context, this study approaches the issues related to the performance evaluation of the public sector’s employees. Considering the fact that strengthening and developing the human resources segment is a strategic goal of the Romanian administration for the period 2008 - 2013, which will lead to modernizing it and making it more efficient (at both central and local level, the personnel performance evaluation, at the organizational level represents a fundamental activity from the human resources’ management perspective.

  3. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  4. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  5. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  6. Evaluation of Ethiopian Tax Administration System: emphasis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , assessed the culture of voluntary compliance, looked at how taxpayers perceive service delivery by the revenue authority, and evaluated the fairness perception of the Ethiopian tax system. Data for the study were gathered primarily through ...

  7. Low-temperature heating systems and public administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, H

    1981-06-01

    The even temperature distribution and comfortable climate in rooms heated by low-temperature heating systems is mostly due to one of the preconditions of this type of heating system namely, efficient thermal insulation of the rooms. Thermal insulation is already required as part of the pertinent legal regulations but it is also in the interest of the builder-owner as it will, in the long run, greatly reduce the heating cost.

  8. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  9. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: an overview and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    LEE, CJ; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, AC; DARLEA, G-L; KOROL, A; SCANNICCHIO, DA; TWOMEY, M; VALSAN, ML

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The system processes the direct data readout from ~100 million channels on the detector through multiple trigger levels, selecting interesting events for analysis with a factor of $10^{7}$ reduction on the data rate with a latency of less than a few seconds. Most of the functionality is implemented on ~3000 servers composing the online farm. Due to the critical functionality of the system a sophisticated computing environment is maintained, covering the online farm and ATLAS control rooms, as well as a number of development and testing labs. The specificity of the system required the development of dedicated applications (e.g. ConfDB, BWM) for system configuration and maintenance; in parallel other Open Source tools (Puppet and Quattor) are used to centrally configure the operating systems. The health monitoring of the TDAQ s...

  10. An experimental system for release simulation of internal stores in a supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic parameters obtained from separation experiments of internal stores in a wind tunnel are significant in aircraft designs. Accurate wind tunnel tests can help to improve the release stability of the stores and in-flight safety of the aircrafts in supersonic environments. A simulative system for free drop experiments of internal stores based on a practical project is provided in this paper. The system contains a store release mechanism, a control system and an attitude measurement system. The release mechanism adopts a six-bar linkage driven by a cylinder, which ensures the release stability. The structure and initial aerodynamic parameters of the stores are also designed and adjusted. A high speed vision measurement system for high speed rolling targets is utilized to measure the pose parameters of the internal store models and an optimizing method for the coordinates of markers is presented based on a priori model. The experimental results show excellent repeatability of the system, and indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.13 mm, and the attitude measurement precision for pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.126°, satisfying the requirements of practical wind tunnel tests. A separation experiment for the internal stores is also conducted in the FL-3 wind tunnel of China Aerodynamics Research Institute.

  11. Construction of a controlled-release delivery system for pesticides using biodegradable PLA-based microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoxia; Wang, Yan; Yang, Fei; Wang, Xing; Shen, Hong; Cui, Haixin; Wu, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    Conventional pesticides usually need to be used in more than recommended dosages due to their loss and degradation, which results in a large waste of resources and serious environmental pollution. Encapsulation of pesticides in biodegradable carriers is a feasible approach to develop environment-friendly and efficient controlled-release delivery system. In this work, we fabricated three kinds of polylactic acid (PLA) carriers including microspheres, microcapsules, and porous microcapsules for controlled delivery of Lambda-Cyhalothrin (LC) via premix membrane emulsification (PME). The microcapsule delivery system had better water dispersion than the other two systems. Various microcapsules with a high LC contents as much as 40% and tunable sizes from 0.68 to 4.6μm were constructed by manipulating the process parameters. Compared with LC technical and commercial microcapsule formulation, the microcapsule systems showed a significantly sustained release of LC for a longer period. The LC release triggered by LC diffusion and matrix degradation could be optimally regulated by tuning LC contents and particle sizes of the microcapsules. This multi-regulated release capability is of great significance to achieve the precisely controlled release of pesticides. A preliminary bioassay against plutella xylostella revealed that 0.68μm LC-loaded microcapsules with good UV and thermal stability exhibited an activity similar to a commercial microcapsule formulation. These results demonstrated such an aqueous microcapsule delivery system had a great potential to be further explored for developing an effective and environmentally friendly pesticide-release formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Breeding system and bumblebee drone pollination of an explosively pollen-releasing plant, Meliosma tenuis (Sabiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Sato, A A; Kato, M

    2018-05-01

    Explosive pollen release is a mechanism used by some angiosperms that serves to attach pollen to a pollinator's body. It is usually adopted by species with zygomorphic tubular flowers and pollinated by birds and bees. The tree genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae, Proteales) has unique disc-like flowers that are externally actinomorphic, but internally zygomorphic, and release pollen explosively. To elucidate the adaptive significance of explosive pollen release, we observed flowering behaviour, the breeding system and pollinator visits to flowers of the Japanese species Meliosma tenuis in a temperate forest. Flowers bloomed in June and were nectariferous and protandrous. Explosive pollen release was triggered by slight tactile stimuli to anther filaments or staminodes in male-stage flowers. Because pollen cannot come into contact with the pistils enclosed by staminodes, M. tenuis is functionally protandrous. Artificial pollination treatments revealed that M. tenuis is allogamous. The dominant flower visitors were nectar-seeking drones of the bumblebee species Bombus ardens (Apidae). The drones' behaviour, pollen attachment on their bodies and fruit set of visit-restricted flowers suggest that they are the only agent triggering the explosive pollen release mechanism, and are the main pollinator of M. tenuis. The finding that bumblebee workers rarely visit these flowers suggests that the explosive pollen release has another function, namely to discourage pollen-harvesting bumblebee workers. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  14. [Construction of multiple drug release system based on components of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Jia, Xiaobin; Yu, Danhong; Zhang, Zhenhai; Sun, E

    2012-08-01

    With the development of the modernization drive of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, new-type TCM dosage forms research have become a hot spot in the field. Because of complexity of TCM components as well as uncertainty of material base, there is still not a scientific system for modern TCM dosage forms so far. Modern TCM preparations inevitably take the nature of the multi-component and the general function characteristics of multi-link and multi-target into account. The author suggests building a multiple drug release system for TCM using diverse preparation techniques and drug release methods at levels on the basis the nature and function characteristics of TCM components. This essay expounds elaborates the ideas to build the multiple traditional Chinese medicine release system, theoretical basis, preparation techniques and assessment system, current problems and solutions, in order to build a multiple TCM release system with a view of enhancing the bioavailability of TCM components and provide a new form for TCM preparations.

  15. Combining two technologies: multifunctional polymers and self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for oral insulin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Dünnhaupt, Sarah; Barthelmes, Jan; Perera, Glen; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on thiolated chitosan for oral insulin administration. The preparations were characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, stability and drug release. Serum insulin concentrations were determined after oral administration of all formulations. Insulin SNEDDS formulation was served as control. The optimized SNEDDS consists of 65% (w/w) miglyol 840, 25% (w/w) cremophor EL, 10% (w/w) co-solvents (a mixture of DMSO and glycerol). The formulations in the presence or absence of insulin (5mg/mL) were spherical with the size range between 80 and 160 nm. Entrapment efficiency of insulin increased significantly when the thiolated chitosan was employed (95.14±2.96%), in comparison to the insulin SNEDDS (80.38±1.22%). After 30 min, the in vitro release profile of insulin from the nanoemulsions was markedly increased compared to the control. In vivo results showed that insulin/thiolated chitosan SNEDDS displayed a significant increase in serum insulin (p-value=0.02) compared to oral insulin solution. A new strategy to combine SNEDDS and thiolated chitosan described in the study would therefore be a promising and innovative approach to improve oral bioavailability of insulin. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide, version 1.4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J. [and others

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication, data distribution, and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment. The UNIX server provides an Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) services, ARC/INFO GIS (optional) capabilities, and basic file management services. PNNL developed utilities that reside on the server include the Notification Service, the Command Service that executes the evacuation model, and AutoRecovery. To operate FEMIS, the Application Software must have access to a site specific FEMIS emergency management database. Data that pertains to an individual EOC`s jurisdiction is stored on the EOC`s local server. Information that needs to be accessible to all EOCs is automatically distributed by the FEMIS

  17. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haen, C; Barra, V; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on the Online system, which includes a very large and heterogeneous computing cluster. Ensuring the proper behavior of the different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small operator team and is a 24/7 task. At CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with steadily improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on Reinforcement Learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the submission at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present an implementation with improved algorithms and manipulation tools, and report on the experience gained with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  18. Mitigation of strontium and ruthenium release in the CANDU primary heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J

    1998-03-01

    In certain severe accident scenarios, low-volatility fission products can appear to contribute significantly to dose, if treated with undue conservatism. Hence a survey was performed, to see if factors that may mitigate release of strontium and ruthenium could be incorporated into safety analyses, to cover parameters such as location in the fuel matrix under normal operating conditions, release from fuel, transport and deposition in the primary heat transport system and chemistry. In addition chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to investigate the volatility of strontium and ruthenium in the presence of uranium and important fission products. Strontium is very soluble in the U0{sub 2} fuel, up to 12 atom %, and hence release is improbable, particularly under oxidizing conditions until volatilization of the fuel matrix itself occurs. Ruthenium, however, can be released at low temperatures, but only under oxidizing conditions. These may occur during a fuel-handling accident or as a result of an end-fitting failure. Under these conditions, the primary heat transport system cannot be credited for retention. The volatile form of ruthenium, RuO{sub 4}(g), is thermally unstable above 381 K and decomposes to RuO{sub 2}(s) and O{sub 2}(g) upon contact with surfaces, a factor that is likely to minimize the release of ruthenium into the environment. (author)

  19. Mitigation of strontium and ruthenium release in the CANDU primary heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.

    1998-03-01

    In certain severe accident scenarios, low-volatility fission products can appear to contribute significantly to dose, if treated with undue conservatism. Hence a survey was performed, to see if factors that may mitigate release of strontium and ruthenium could be incorporated into safety analyses, to cover parameters such as location in the fuel matrix under normal operating conditions, release from fuel, transport and deposition in the primary heat transport system and chemistry. In addition chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to investigate the volatility of strontium and ruthenium in the presence of uranium and important fission products. Strontium is very soluble in the U0 2 fuel, up to 12 atom %, and hence release is improbable, particularly under oxidizing conditions until volatilization of the fuel matrix itself occurs. Ruthenium, however, can be released at low temperatures, but only under oxidizing conditions. These may occur during a fuel-handling accident or as a result of an end-fitting failure. Under these conditions, the primary heat transport system cannot be credited for retention. The volatile form of ruthenium, RuO 4 (g), is thermally unstable above 381 K and decomposes to RuO 2 (s) and O 2 (g) upon contact with surfaces, a factor that is likely to minimize the release of ruthenium into the environment. (author)

  20. Development of membranes containing a controlled drug release system for ophthalmological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinão, Sílvia Raquel das Neves

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of drug administration strongly depends on attainment of an effective drug concentration in the area to be treated, for a sufficient period of time. Nowadays, the most used drug administration method for many eye diseases is delivery through eye drops, although it is very inefficient and can lead to negative side effects. The use of soft contact lenses as drug delivery systems appeared as a promising alternative, due to the prolonged contact with the eye surface, high degree...

  1. The effect of age on systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veering, B.T.; Burm, A.G.; Vletter, A.A.; van den Hoeven, R.A.; Spierdijk, J. (Leiden Univ. Hospital (Netherlands))

    1991-02-01

    In order to evaluate the role of the pharmacokinetics of the age-related changes in the clinical profile of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, we studied the influence of age on the systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration in 20 male patients (22-81 yr), ASA Physical Status 1 or 2, by a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of 3 ml 0.5% bupivacaine in 8% glucose, a deuterium-labeled analog (13.4 mg) was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of unlabeled and deuterium-labeled bupivacaine were determined with a combination of gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. Biexponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labeled bupivacaine. The systemic absorption was evaluated by means of deconvolution. Mono- and biexponential functions were fitted to the data of fraction absorbed versus time. The maximal height of analgesia and the duration of analgesia at T12 increased with age (r = 0.715, P less than 0.001; r = 0.640, P less than 0.01, respectively). In 18 patients the systemic absorption of bupivacaine was best described by a biexponential equation. The half-life of the slow systemic absorption process (r = -0.478; P less than 0.05) and the mean absorption time (r = -0.551; P less than 0.02) decreased with age. The total plasma clearance decreased with age (r = -0.650, P less than 0.002), whereas the mean residence time and terminal half-life increased with age (r = 0.597, P less than 0.01; r = 0.503, P less than 0.05).

  2. The effect of age on systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veering, B.T.; Burm, A.G.; Vletter, A.A.; van den Hoeven, R.A.; Spierdijk, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of the pharmacokinetics of the age-related changes in the clinical profile of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, we studied the influence of age on the systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration in 20 male patients (22-81 yr), ASA Physical Status 1 or 2, by a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of 3 ml 0.5% bupivacaine in 8% glucose, a deuterium-labeled analog (13.4 mg) was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of unlabeled and deuterium-labeled bupivacaine were determined with a combination of gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. Biexponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labeled bupivacaine. The systemic absorption was evaluated by means of deconvolution. Mono- and biexponential functions were fitted to the data of fraction absorbed versus time. The maximal height of analgesia and the duration of analgesia at T12 increased with age (r = 0.715, P less than 0.001; r = 0.640, P less than 0.01, respectively). In 18 patients the systemic absorption of bupivacaine was best described by a biexponential equation. The half-life of the slow systemic absorption process (r = -0.478; P less than 0.05) and the mean absorption time (r = -0.551; P less than 0.02) decreased with age. The total plasma clearance decreased with age (r = -0.650, P less than 0.002), whereas the mean residence time and terminal half-life increased with age (r = 0.597, P less than 0.01; r = 0.503, P less than 0.05)

  3. Consequences of the release of chemical pollutants on the transfers of radiioactive products in aquatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing rate of industrial activities, aquatic systems undergo, more and more frequently, the accumulation of chemical and radioactive wastes released separatly or associated in the same discharge. An attempt is made to evaluate the consequence of the association of pollutants on the transfers of neutron activation radionuclides. Emphasis is given to heavy metal pollution and complexing agents [fr

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamsulosin in its Modified-Release and Oral Controlled Absorption System Formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco-Salinas, Gabriela; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Michel, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Tamsulosin is an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms that are suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is mostly used in a modified-release (M R) Formulation. but an oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) and a 'without-water' tablet

  5. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: A general theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or

  6. Synthesis of hydrogels of alginate for system controlled release of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marlon de F.; Rodriguez, Ruben J.S.; Silva, Ester C.C. da; Barreto, Gabriela N.S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical modifications of natural polymers like alginate, has allowed the development of new formulations for controlled release systems. In this work we report the synthesis of a derivative of the amidic alginate with alkyl chain. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of slow-release systems in CD40 agonistic antibody immunotherapy of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Marieke F.; Cordfunke, Robert A.; Sluijter, Marjolein; Van Steenbergen, Mies J.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hennink, Wim E.; Melief, Cornelis J M

    2014-01-01

    Slow-release delivery has great potential for specifically targeting immune-modulating agents into the tumor-draining area. In prior work we showed that local treatment of slowly delivered anti-CD40 antibody induced robust anti-tumor CD8+ T cell responses without systemic toxicity. We now report on

  8. Optimal integration and test plans for software releases of lithographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumen, R.; Jong, de I.S.M.; Mortel - Fronczak, van de J.M.; Rooda, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a method to determine the optimal integration and test plan for embedded systems software releases. The method consists of four steps: 1)describe the integration and test problem in an integration and test model which is introduced in this paper, 2) determine possible test

  9. Timing of insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Pahh; Geomini, Pmaj; Herman, M C; Veersema, S; Bongers, M Y

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess whether patient-perceived pain during the insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) depends on the timing during the menstrual cycle. DESIGN: A stratified two-armed non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large

  10. LHCb: Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    Haen, C; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    The backbone of the LHCb experiment is the Online system, which is a very large and heterogeneous computing center. Making sure of the proper behavior of the many different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small expert-operator team and is a 24/7 task. At the occasion of CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with always improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on reinforcement learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the presentation made at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present a version with improved algorithms, manipulation tools, and report on experience with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  11. A consideration about major business control system for independent administrative institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinya; Nakata, Yutaka; Iitsuka, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Kojiro

    2003-10-01

    Japanese government is carrying out the administrative reform aiming to promote decentralization of authority, to magnify the field of private sectors, etc. in order to corresponds appropriately to matured economy, internationalized market, etc. As one of the reforms, Japanese government decided that JAERI and JNC would unite into an independent administrative agency. The aims of the independent administrative agency institution include realization of effective and transparent system and management. The aim of the present investigation is to be useful for the new agency to develop a major business control system, which manages financial affairs and accounts not only efficiently but also in correspondence with open information to the public and promoting research activities effectively. First of all, the authors examined Japanese laws and standards relating to the independent administrative agency. They investigated the financial affairs and accounts systems of the preceding independent administrative agencies for research and development and also the development trends of work-flow systems in private enterprises in Japan. They considered expected problems and solutions for developing and making use of the major business control system. On the basis of the above investigations, the authors revealed the total concept of the best major business control system of the new unified agency besides the necessary conditions of the system for an independent administrative agency. Additionally, the above mentioned laws and standards are collected in an appendix. (author)

  12. High concentration of Daunorubicin and Daunorubicinol in human malignant astrocytomas after systemic administration of liposomal Daunorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, K. W.; de Witt Hamer, P. C.; Leenstra, S.; Bakker, P. J.; Beijnen, J. H.; Troost, D.; Kaaijk, P.; Bosch, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    The value of chemotherapy in patients with malignant astrocytoma remains controversial. In our laboratories in vitro experiments with organotypic spheroid cultures showed superior effectiveness of anthracyclines. Systemic administration did not provide in therapeutic concentrations so far. Because

  13. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 8: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, (5) terminal support, and (6) retrieval subsystem.

  14. Persia under Mongol domination. The effectiveness and and failings of a dual administrative system

    OpenAIRE

    Aigle , Denise

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper points out the break of the traditionnal administrative patterns from dure Gret' Khans period to the fall of the Persian Ilkhanate in 1355. Previously, financial and secretarial offices had been handed down, to generation, in established families. However, under the Mongols, a dual administrative system was set up, consisting of both Mongol and local peersonnal. This administratif system was efficient on the beginning of the period. But during de Ilkhanid's ...

  15. Development of Citizens’ Political Participation in Local Administration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çukurçayır

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of modern local governments in Turkey was laid with an imperial edict in 1839. This reform also called Gulhane Hatt-i Hümayunu or Tanzimat Edict, paved the way for local and regional councils. Since the 1850s, the municipalities have been established. However, it is not possible to talk about the functionality of these municipalities in current terms. Since the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, modern laws regulating local governments were issued. Village Law and Municipal Law are the first examples of these reformations. With the 1961 Constitution, modern participatory local government approach was adopted and mayors began to be elected directly by people for the first time. From 1960 to present, many local government reforms were made, but none of them were so fundamental as in 2012. With this reform, local government system has completely changed. Aim of this study is investigation of results of this reform and find out needs for a new wave of reform. New Metropolitan Municipalities Law is problematic in terms of local governance and local participation. Although European Charter of Local Self-Government and the European Urban Charter paying special importance to citizen’s participation, last developments in Turkey as a European Union candidate continues in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss all aspects of the new regulation. So that, field researches will be analyzed and recommendations will be presented in the light of these field studies relevant to the reforms.

  16. Poly lactic acid based injectable delivery systems for controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tahami, Khaled; Meyer, Amanda; Singh, Jagdish

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the critical formulation parameters (i.e., polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, and solvent nature) affecting the controlled delivery of a model protein, lysozyme, from injectable polymeric implants. The conformational stability and biological activity of the released lysozyme were also investigated. Three formulations containing 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/v) poly lactic acid (PLA) in triacetin were investigated. It was found that increasing polymer concentration in the formulations led to a lower burst effect and a slower release rate. Formulation with a high molecular weight polymer showed a greater burst effect as compared to those containing low molecular weight. Conformational stability and biological activity of released samples were studied by differential scanning calorimeter and enzyme activity assay, respectively. The released samples had significantly (P solution kept at same conditions). Increasing polymer concentration increased both the conformational stability and the biological activity of released lysozyme. In conclusion, phase sensitive polymer-based delivery systems were able to deliver a model protein, lysozyme, in a conformationally stable and biologically active form at a controlled rate over an extended period.

  17. On-Line Fission Gas Release Monitoring System in the High Flux Reactor Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurie, M.; Fuetterer, M. A.; Appelman, K.H.; Lapetite, J.-M.; Marmier, A.; Knol, S.; Best, J.

    2013-06-01

    For HTR fuel irradiation tests in the HFR Petten a specific installation was designed and installed dubbed the 'Sweep Loop Facility' (SLF). The SLF is tasked with three functions, namely temperature control by gas mixture technique, surveillance of safety parameters (temperature, pressure, radioactivity etc.) and analysis of fission gas release for three individual capsules in two separate experimental rigs. The SLF enables continuous and independent surveillance of all gas circuits. The release of volatile fission products (FP) from the in-pile experiments is monitored by continuous gas purging. The fractional release of these FP, defined as the ratio between release rate of a gaseous fission isotope (measured) to its instantaneous birth rate (calculated), is a licensing-relevant test for HTR fuel. The developed gamma spectrometry station allows for higher measurement frequencies, thus enabling follow-up of rapid and massive release transients. The designed stand-alone system was tested and fully used through the final irradiation period of the HFR-EU1 experiment which was terminated on 18 February 2010. Its robustness allowed the set up to be used as extra safety instrumentation. This paper describes the gas activity measurement technique based on HPGe gamma spectrometry and illustrates how qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile FP can be performed on-line. (authors)

  18. The OCaml system release 4.04: Documentation and user's manual

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Xavier; Doligez, Damien; Frisch, Alain; Garrigue, Jacques; Rémy, Didier; Vouillon, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    This manual documents the release 4.04 of the OCaml system. It is organized as follows. Part I, "An introduction to OCaml", gives an overview of the language. Part II, "The OCaml language", is the reference description of the language. Part III, "The OCaml tools", documents the compilers, toplevel system, and programming utilities. Part IV, "The OCaml library", describes the modules provided in the standard library.

  19. The OCaml system release 4.02: Documentation and user's manual

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Xavier; Doligez, Damien; Frisch, Alain; Garrigue, Jacques; Rémy, Didier; Vouillon, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This manual documents the release 4.02 of the OCaml system. It is organized as follows. Part I, "An introduction to OCaml", gives an overview of the language. Part II, "The OCaml language", is the reference description of the language. Part III, "The OCaml tools", documents the compilers, toplevel system, and programming utilities. Part IV, "The OCaml library", describes the modules provided in the standard library.

  20. The OCaml system release 4.06: Documentation and user's manual

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy , Xavier; Doligez , Damien; Frisch , Alain; Garrigue , Jacques; Rémy , Didier; Vouillon , Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    This manual documents the release 4.06 of the OCaml system. It is organized as follows. Part I, "An introduction to OCaml", gives an overview of the language. Part II, "The OCaml language", is the reference description of the language. Part III, "The OCaml tools", documents the compilers, toplevel system, and programming utilities. Part IV, "The OCaml library", describes the modules provided in the standard library.

  1. Protein instability and immunogenicity: roadblocks to clinical application of injectable protein delivery systems for sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskoot, Wim; Randolph, Theodore W; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Schöneich, Christian; Winter, Gerhard; Friess, Wolfgang; Crommelin, Daan J A; Carpenter, John F

    2012-03-01

    Protein instability and immunogenicity are two main roadblocks to the clinical success of novel protein drug delivery systems. In this commentary, we discuss the need for more extensive analytical characterization in relation to concerns about protein instability in injectable drug delivery systems for sustained release. We then will briefly address immunogenicity concerns and outline current best practices for using state-of-the-art analytical assays to monitor protein stability for both conventional and novel therapeutic protein dosage forms. Next, we provide a summary of the stresses on proteins arising during preparation of drug delivery systems and subsequent in vivo release. We note the challenges and difficulties in achieving the absolute requirement of quantitatively assessing the degradation of protein molecules in a drug delivery system. We describe the potential roles for academic research in further improving protein stability and developing new analytical technologies to detect protein degradation byproducts in novel drug delivery systems. Finally, we provide recommendations for the appropriate approaches to formulation design and assay development to ensure that stable, minimally immunogenic formulations of therapeutic proteins are created. These approaches should help to increase the probability that novel drug delivery systems for sustained protein release will become more readily available as effective therapeutic agents to treat and benefit patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost

  3. 75 FR 76692 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 252 RIN 0750-AG58 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition... for Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) in the Federal Register on... improve the effectiveness of DoD oversight of contractor business systems. The comment period is being...

  4. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ..., et al. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-- Definition and... Regulation Supplement; Business Systems--Definition and Administration (DFARS Case 2009-D038) AGENCY: Defense.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background DoD published a proposed rule for Business Systems--Definition and...

  5. Progesterone PLGA/mPEG-PLGA Hybrid Nanoparticle Sustained-Release System by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Liu, Yang; Guo, Yuting; Zhang, Enbo; Pu, Chenguang; He, Haibing; Yin, Tian; Tang, Xing

    2018-02-14

    To prepare sustained-release PLGA/mPEG-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles of progesterone (PRG), and evaluate the descending required administration dosage in vivo. PRG hybrid nanoparticles (PRG H-NPs) based on PLGA/mPEG-PLGA were compared with PRG nanoparticles (PRG-NPs) of pure PLGA as the matrix and PRG-oil solutions. Nanoparticles (NPs) were formed by the method of nanoemulsion, and the pharmacokinetics of the sustained-release PRG H-NPs in male Sprague dawley (SD) rats were investigated. The rats were randomly divided into four groups, each group received: single dose of PRG H-NPs (14.58 mg/kg, i.m.) and PRG-NPs (14.58 mg/kg, i.m.), repeated dosing for 7 days of PRG-oil (2.08 mg/kg, i.m.) solution (Oil-L) and a higher dosage of PRG-oil (6.24 mg/kg, i.m.) solution (Oil-H), respectively. In the pharmacokinetic test, the PRG H-NPs exhibited a comparatively good sustained-release effect against the PRG-NPs without mPEG-PLGA and PRG-oil solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PRG H-NPs, PRG-NPs, Oil-L and Oil-H were AUC 0-t (ng·h·mL -1 ) 8762.1, 1546.1, 1914.5, and 12,138.9, t 1/2 (h)52.7, 44.1, 8.4 and 44.6 respectively. Owing to the modification of PEG, PRG H-NPs can act as safe delivery platforms for sustained-release of drugs with a lower dosage required.

  6. Environmental effects of normal and off-normal releases of tritium from CTR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1978-08-01

    Near term fusion technology will utilize the deuterium-tritium reaction. To quantify the magnitude of the hazard presented by major tritium release mechanisms, a method is presented for determining doses to the public from releases of tritium as tritiated water vapor or tritiated lithium compounds. Inclusion of this method in a computer model is described. This model uses the Gaussian dispersion method to predict distribution of tritium species in the downwind environment. Movement of tritium into biological systems is determined by treating these systems as a series of interacting water compartments. Dispersion and uptake calculations are applied to two sample sites in order to predict health effects. These effects are compared to the long range effect of introducing tritium into the world water system

  7. Adequate Measuring Technology and System of Fission Gas release Behavior from Voloxidation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Park, J. J.; Jung, I. H.; Shin, J. M.; Yang, M. S.; Song, K. C.

    2006-09-01

    Based on the published literature and an understanding of available hot cell technologies, more accurate measuring methods for each volatile fission product released from voloxidation process were reviewed and selected. The conceptual design of an apparatus for measuring volatile and/or semi-volatile fission products released from spent fuel was prepared. It was identified that on-line measurement techniques can be applied for gamma-emitting fission products, and off-line measurement such as chemical/or neutron activation analysis can applied for analyzing beta-emitting fission gases. Collection methods using appropriate material or solutions were selected to measure the release fraction of beta-emitting gaseous fission products at IMEF M6 hot cell. Especially, the on-line gamma-ray counting system for monitoring of 85Kr and the off-line measuring system of 14C was established. On-line measuring system for obtaining removal ratios of the semi-volatile fission products, mainly gamma-emitting fission products such as Cs, Ru etc., was also developed at IMEF M6 hot cell which was based on by measuring fuel inventory before and after the voloxidation test through gamma measuring technique. The development of this measurement system may enable basic information to be obtained to support design of the off-gas treatment system for the voloxidation process at INL, USA

  8. Application of dynamic modeling for assessing the impact of radioactive releases to water sewer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundell-Bergman, Synnove; Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Potential radiological emergencies due to accidental or malicious acts involving nuclear materials requires tools for emergency dose assessment to help in the planning of countermeasures. In urban areas, the municipal sewage systems will receive the wastewater from households, industries and hospitals as well as the run-off water. Investigations have shown that sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator for radionuclides released from hospitals or spread via the atmosphere and thus simulation modelling of the fate of radionuclides entering sewage treatment plants via urban drainage systems could prove useful in emergency situations. A dynamic model (LUCIA) has been developed to assess the radiological consequences of non-homogenous releases of radionuclides to the sewage plants. In the first step the focussing has been on radioactive liquid releases from hospitals and the predictions show that there is a significant probability (> 0,2) that the sewage worker doses exceed 10 μSv/y while doses to farmers or fishermen (downstream plants) are marginal. Comparison of measured and estimated concentration values for iodine-131 reveal that the predictions made by LUCIA are reasonably good and fall within a factor of 2. For the purpose of emergency preparedness, scenarios have been defined and the fate of released radionuclides has been assessed. The main features of the LUCIA model will be presented and the application of the tool for emergency preparedness will be discussed. (author)

  9. Dual turn-on fluorescence signal-based controlled release system for real-time monitoring of drug release dynamics in living cells and tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiuqi; Dong, Baoli; Song, Xuezhen; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Weiying

    2018-01-01

    Controlled release systems with capabilities for direct and real-time monitoring of the release and dynamics of drugs in living systems are of great value for cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we describe a novel dual turn-on fluorescence signal-based controlled release system ( CDox ), in which the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin ( Dox ) and the fluorescent dye ( CH ) are conjugated by a hydrazone moiety, a pH-responsive cleavable linker. CDox itself shows nearly no fluorescence as the fluorescence of CH and Dox is essentially quenched by the C=N isomerization and N-N free rotation. However, when activated under acidic conditions, CDox could be hydrolyzed to afford Dox and CH , resulting in dual turn-on signals with emission peaks at 595 nm and 488 nm, respectively. Notably, CDox exhibits a desirable controlled release feature as the hydrolysis rate is limited by the steric hindrance effect from both the Dox and CH moieties. Cytotoxicity assays indicate that CDox shows much lower cytotoxicity relative to Dox , and displays higher cell inhibition rate to cancer than normal cells. With the aid of the dual turn-on fluorescence at different wavelengths, the drug release dynamics of CDox in living HepG2 and 4T-1 cells was monitored in double channels in a real-time fashion. Importantly, two-photon fluorescence imaging of CDox in living tumor tissues was also successfully performed by high-definition 3D imaging. We expect that the unique controlled release system illustrated herein could provide a powerful means to investigate modes of action of drugs, which is critical for development of much more robust and effective chemotherapy drugs.

  10. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  11. Pneumatic transport system development: residuals and releases program at Westinghouse Cheswick site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larouere, P.J.; Shoulders, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium oxide and uranium oxide powders are processed within glove boxes or within confinement systems during the fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) pellets for recycle fuel. The release of these powders to the glove box or to the confinement results in some airborne material that is deposited in the enclosure or is carried in the air streams to the effluent air filtration system. Release tests on simulated leaks in pneumatic transport equipment and release tests on simulated failures with powder blending equipment were conducted. A task to develop pneumatic transport for the movement of powders within an MOX fabrication plant has been underway at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories. While testing and evaluating selected pneumatic transport components on a full scale were in progress, it was deemed necessary that final verification of the technology would have to be performed with plutonium-bearing powders because of the marked differences in certain properties of plutonium from those of uranium oxides. A smaller was designed and constructed for the planned installation in glove boxes at the Westinghouse Plutonium Fuel Development Laboratory. However, prior to use with plutonium it was agreed that this system be set up and tested with uranium oxide powder. The test program conducted at the Westinghouse Cheswick site was divided into two major parts. The first of these examined the residuals left as a result of the pneumatic transport of nuclear fuel powders and verified the operability of this one-third scale system. The second part of the program studied the amount of powder released to the air when off-standard process procedures or maintenance operations were conducted on the pneumatic transport system. Air samplers located within the walk-in box housing the transport loop were used to measure the solids concentration in the air. From this information, the total amount of airborne powder was determined

  12. Building a polysaccharide hydrogel capsule delivery system for control release of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Wang, Ting; Yan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Development of a delivery system which can effectively carry hydrophobic drugs and have pH response is becoming necessary. Here we demonstrate that through preparation of β-cyclodextrin polymer (β-CDP), a hydrophobic drug molecule of ibuprofen (IBU) was incorporated into our prepared β-CDP inner cavities, aiming to improve the poor water solubility of IBU. A core-shell capsule structure has been designed for achieving the drug pH targeted and sustained release. This delivery system was built with polysaccharide polymer of Sodium alginate (SA), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) by physical cross-linking. The drug pH-response control release is this hydrogel system's chief merit, which has potential value for synthesizing enteric capsule. Besides, due to our simple preparing strategy, optimal conditions can be readily determined and the synthesis process can be accurately controlled, leading to consistent and reproducible hydrogel capsules. In addition, phase-solubility method was used to investigate the solubilization effect of IBU by β-CDP. SEM was used to prove the forming of core and shell structure. FT-IR and 1 H-NMR were also used to perform structural characteristics. By the technique of UV determination, the pH targeted and sustained release study were also performed. The results have proved that our prepared polysaccharide hydrogel capsule delivery system has potential applications as oral drugs delivery in the field of biomedical materials.

  13. Effect of temperature and ph on the drug release rate from a polymer conjugate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, E.; Abdel-Hay, F.I.; El-Newehy, M.H.; Ottenbrite, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroximide and A-methylhydroxamic acid of poly(ethylene-altmaleic anhydride) (average MW 100-500 k) were used as a carrier for a new drug delivery system. The synthesis of the hydroximide and N methylhydroxamic acid of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) were carried out by chemical modification of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) with hydroxylamine and N-methyl hydroxylamine, respectively, in N,N- dimethylformamide at room temperature to yield water soluble copolymer. Ketoprofen was reacted with hydroximide and N-methylhydroxamic acid derivatives of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as condensation agent at -5 degree C to yield water insoluble ketoprofen conjugates. All products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1HNMR spectra. The in-vitro ketoprofen release was carried out by UV spectrophotometer at max =260 nm. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of hydroximide and N-methylhydroxamic acid of polyethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a drug delivery system. The release rates were studied at various ph and temperatures. The copolymer-drug adducts released the drug very slowly at the low ph found in the stomach thus protecting the drug from the action of high concentrations of digestive acids. These results showed the usefulness of hydroxamic acid polymer-drug conjugates as a new drug delivery system for drugs to be targeted to sites in the GI system

  14. Both acute and prolonged administration of EPO reduce cerebral and systemic vascular conductance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Kim, Yu-Sok; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) has been linked to cerebrovascular events. EPO reduces vascular conductance, possibly because of the increase in hematocrit. Whether EPO in itself affects the vasculature remains unknown; here it was evaluated in healthy males by determining systemic...... and cerebrovascular variables following acute (30,000 IU/d for 3 d; n=8) and chronic (5000 IU/week for 13 wk; n=8) administration of EPO, while the responsiveness of the vasculature was challenged during cycling exercise, with and without hypoxia. Prolonged administration of EPO increased hematocrit from 42.5 ± 3...

  15. Furfural production from biomass pretreatment hydrolysate using vapor-releasing reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2018-03-01

    Biomass hydrolysate from autohydrolysis pretreatment was used for furfural production considering it is in rich of xylose, xylo-oligomers, and other decomposition products from hemicellulose structure. By using the vapor-releasing reactor system, furfural was protected from degradation by separating it from the reaction media. The maximum furfural yield of 73% was achieved at 200 °C for biomass hydrolysate without the use of the catalyst. This is because the presence of organic acids such as acetic acid in hydrolysate functioned as a catalyst. According to the results in this study, biomass hydrolysate with a vapor-releasing system proves to be efficient for furfural production. The biorefinery process which allows the separation of xylose-rich autohydrolysate from other parts from biomass feedstock also improves the overall application of the biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Delivery systems and local administration routes for therapeutic siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Fabiana Testa Moura de Carvalho; Borgheti-Cardoso, Lívia Neves; Depieri, Lívia Vieira; de Macedo Mano, Danielle; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Petrilli, Raquel; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2013-04-01

    With the increasing number of studies proposing new and optimal delivery strategies for the efficacious silencing of gene-related diseases by the local administration of siRNAs, the present review aims to provide a broad overview of the most important and latest developments of non-viral siRNA delivery systems for local administration. Moreover, the main disease targets for the local delivery of siRNA to specific tissues or organs, including the skin, the lung, the eye, the nervous system, the digestive system and the vagina, were explored.

  17. NIR responsive liposomal system for rapid release of drugs in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen MM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Mao Chen,1 Yuan-Yuan Liu,1 Guang-Hao Su,2 Fei-Fei Song,1 Yan Liu,3 Qi-Qing Zhang1,4 1Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 2Institute of Pediatric Research, Children’s Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 3State Key Lab of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, 4Key Laboratory of Biomedical Material of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To design a rapid release liposomal system for cancer therapy, a NIR responsive bubble-generating thermosensitive liposome (BTSL system combined with photothermal agent (Cypate, doxorubicin (DOX, and NH4HCO3 was developed. Cypate/DOX-BTSL exhibited a good aqueous stability, photostability, and photothermal effect. In vitro release suggested that the amounts of DOX released from BTSL were obviously higher than that of (NH42SO4 liposomes at 42°C. After NIR irradiation, the hyperthermic temperature induced by Cypate led to the decomposition of NH4HCO3 and the generation of a large number of CO2 bubbles, triggering a rapid release of drugs. Confocal laser scanning microscope and acridine orange staining indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL upon irradiation could facilitate to disrupt the lysosomal membranes and realize endolysosomal escape into cytosol, improving the intracellular uptake of DOX clearly. MTT and trypan blue staining implied that the cell damage of Cypate/DOX-BTSL with NIR irradiation was more severe than that in the groups without irradiation. In vivo results indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL with irradiation could dramatically increase the accumulation of DOX in tumor, inhibit tumor growth, and reduce systemic side effects of DOX. These data demonstrated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL has the potential to be used as a NIR responsive liposomal system for a rapid

  18. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, J; Tham, K W; Licina, D

    2015-12-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal manikin at distances between 1 and 4 m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure. Exposure to cough droplets was reduced with increasing distance between cough source and exposed occupant. The results from this study show that an advanced air distribution system such as personalized ventilation reduces exposure to cough-released droplets better than commonly applied overhead mixing ventilation. This work can inform HVAC engineers about different aspects of air distribution systems’ performance and can serve as an aid in making critical design decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Drug release control in delivery system for biodegradable polymer drugs by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Azo, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeo

    1997-01-01

    Characterizations of the drug release from microsphere and hydrogel preparation made from biodegradable polymers were investigated aiming at development of a drug delivery system which allows an optimum drug delivery and the identification of the factors which control its delivery. Poly-lactic acid microspheres containing 10% of progesterone were produced from poly DL-lactic acid and exposed to γ-ray at 5-1000 kGy. And its glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature was gradually lowered with an increase in the dose of radiation. Tg of the microsphere exposed at 1000 kGy was lower by 10degC compared with the untreated one, showing that Tg control is possible without changing the size distribution of microsphere. Then, the amount of progesterone released from microsphere was determined. The release rate of the drug linearly increased with a square root of radiation time. These results indicate that the control of drug release rate is possible through controling the microsphere's Tg by γ-ray radiation. (M.N.)

  20. LABCORE post release 1.0 development system project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The LABCORE post release 1.0 development system project management plan (SPMP) is the primary planning document governing the development of specific enhancements to the LABCORE project. The mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratories is changing from supporting the 200 Area chemical processing plants for process control, waste management, and effluent monitoring to supporting environmental restoration and regulatory compliance commitments. The LABCORE program was implemented as the key element for meeting the commitments by upgrading the laboratories through the implementation of an Automated Data Processing improvement program in January 1994. Scope for LABCORE release 1.0 consisted of hardware and software implementation required to support a minimum number of analyses (Single-Shell Tank [SST] analysis at 222S Laboratory and Performance Evaluation samples at the Waste Sampling Characterization Facility laboratory) using manual entry of data, and to support routine laboratory functions, common to all laboratories. LABCORE post release 1.0 enhancements will expand the functionality presented to the laboratory. Post release 1.0 enhancements will also address the integration of a database for Analytical Services Program Integration, budgeting, and scheduling offices into LABCORE

  1. Evidence of arsenic release promoted by disinfection by-products within drinking-water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Botsaris, George; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Kalyvas, Harris; Costa, Costas N

    2014-02-15

    Changes in disinfectant type could trigger a cascade of reactions releasing pipe-anchored metals/metalloids into finished water. However, the effect of pre-formed disinfection by-products on the release of sorbed contaminants (arsenic-As in particular) from drinking water distribution system pipe scales remains unexplored. A bench-scale study using a factorial experimental design was performed to evaluate the independent and interaction effects of trihalomethanes (TTHM) and haloacetic acids (HAA) on arsenic (As) release from either scales-only or scale-biofilm conglomerates (SBC) both anchored on asbestos/cement pipe coupons. A model biofilm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was allowed to grow on select pipe coupons prior experimentation. Either TTHM or HAA individual dosing did not promote As release from either scales only or SBC, detecting water. In the case of scales-only coupons, the combination of the highest spike level of TTHM and HAA significantly (pwater in pipe networks remains to be investigated in the field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Modified-Release Tablets of Zolpidem Tartrate by Biphasic Quick/Slow Delivery System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahapatra, Anjan Kumar; Sameeraja, N. H.; Murthy, P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine analogue of imidazopyridine of sedative and hypnotic category. It has a short half-life with usual dosage regimen being 5 mg, two times a day, or 10 mg, once daily. The duration of action is considered too short in certain circumstances. Thus, it is desirable to lengthen the duration of action. The formulation design was implemented by preparing extended-release tablets of zolpidem tartrate using the biphasic delivery system technology, where sodium s...

  3. Accuracy of manual entry of drug administration data into an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Dotan, Koren; Weissman, Charles; Cohen, Matan J; Levin, Phillip D

    2014-11-01

    Data on drug administration are entered manually into anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). This study examined whether these data are accurate regarding drug name, dose administered, and time of administration, and whether the stage of anesthesia influences data accuracy. Real-time observational data on drug administration during elective operations were compared with computerized information on drug administration entered by anesthesiologists. A trained observer (K.D.) performed the observations. Data were collected during 57 operations which included 596 separate occasions of drug administration by 22 anesthesiologists. No AIMS records were found for 90 (15.1%) occasions of drug administration (omissions), while there were 11 (1.8%) AIMS records where drug administration was not observed. The AIMS and observer data matched for drug name on 495 of 596 (83.1%) occasions, for dose on 439 of 495 (92.5%) occasions, and for time on 476 of 495 (96.2%) occasions. Amongst the 90 omitted records, 34 (37.8%) were for vasoactive drugs with 24 (27.7%) for small doses of hypnotics. Omissions occurred mostly during maintenance: 50 of 153 (24.6%), followed by induction: 30 of 325 (9.2%) and emergence: 10 of 57 (17.5%) (P < 0.001). Time and dose inaccuracies occurred mainly during induction, followed by maintenance and emergence; time inaccuracies were 7/325 (8.3%), 10/203 (4.9%), and 0/57 (0%), respectively (P = 0.07), and dose inaccuracies were 15/325 (4.6%), 3/203 (1.5%), and 1/57 (1.7%), respectively (P = 0.11). The range of accuracy varies when anesthesiologists manually enter drug administration data into an AIMS. Charting omissions represent the largest cause of inaccuracy, principally by omissions of records for vasopressors and small doses of hypnotic drugs. Manually entered drug administration data are not without errors. Accuracy of entering drug administration data remains the responsibility of the anesthesiologist.

  4. Cost and Benefit Analysis of an Automated Nursing Administration System: A Methodology*

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Karen A.

    1984-01-01

    In order for a nursing service administration to select the appropriate automated system for its requirements, a systematic process of evaluating alternative approaches must be completed. This paper describes a methodology for evaluating and comparing alternative automated systems based upon an economic analysis which includes two major categories of criteria: costs and benefits.

  5. Diagnosis of multi-agent systems and its application to public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Abramowicz, W.; Maciaszek, L.; Węcel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based diagnosis view on the complex social systems in which large public administration organizations operate. The purpose of diagnosis as presented in this paper is to identify agent role instances that are not conforming to expectations in a multi-agent system

  6. Legal expert systems in social administration: From fearing computers to fearing accountants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteen-eighties, the Tessec expert system was developed and several studies showed that this system could improve administrative decision making under the Netherlands' General Assistance Act. Despite this favourable evaluation, Dutch municipalities did not adopt Tessec and the development

  7. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  8. SMA-Based System for Environmental Sensors Released from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pellone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work at hand, a shape memory alloy (SMA-based system is presented. The system, conceived for releasing environmental sensors from ground or small unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV (often named UAS, unmanned aerial system, is made of a door, integrated into the bottom of the fuselage, a device distributor, operated by a couple of antagonistic SMA springs, and a kinematic chain, to synchronize the deployment operation with the system movement. On the basis of the specifications (weight, available space, energy supply, sensors size, etc., the system design was addressed. After having identified the main system characteristics, a representative mock-up was manufactured, featuring the bottom part of the reference fuselage. Functionality tests were performed to prove the system capability to release the sensors; a detailed characterization was finally carried out, mainly finalized at correlating the kinematic chain displacement with the SMA spring temperature and the supplied electrical power. A comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental outcomes showed good agreement.

  9. Distributed emergency response system to model dispersion and deposition of atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.S.

    1985-04-01

    Aging hardware and software and increasing commitments by the Departments of Energy and Defense have led us to develop a new, expanded system to replace the existing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system. This distributed, computer-based, emergency response system is used by state and federal agencies to assess the environmental health hazards resulting from an accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Like its predecessor, the expanded system uses local meteorology (e.g., wind speed and wind direction), as well as terrain information, to simulate the transport and dispersion of the airborne material. The system also calculates deposition and dose and displays them graphically over base maps of the local geography for use by on-site authorities. This paper discusses the limitations of the existing ARAC system. It also discusses the components and functionality of the new system, the technical difficulties encountered and resolved in its design and implementation, and the software methodologies and tools employed in its development

  10. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2. The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD.

  11. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Yan

    2010-09-15

    There is a need for edible delivery systems to encapsulate, protect and release bioactive and functional lipophilic constituents within the food and pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems could be used for a number of purposes: controlling lipid bioavailability; targeting the delivery of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract; and designing food matrices that delay lipid digestion and induce satiety. Emulsion technology is particularly suited for the design and fabrication of delivery systems for lipids. In this article we provide an overview of a number of emulsion-based technologies that can be used as edible delivery systems by the food and other industries, including conventional emulsions, nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. Each of these delivery systems can be produced from food-grade (GRAS) ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals) using relatively simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, preparation, and utilization of each type of delivery system for controlling lipid digestion are discussed. This knowledge can be used to select the most appropriate emulsion-based delivery system for specific applications, such as encapsulation, controlled digestion, and targeted release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect for Recovery of the Containment Spray System to the Release of Cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mi Ro [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the perspective of the amount of Cs-137, the mass of Cs-137 correspondent with the 100TBq is calculated as 32g. However, during the severe accident, if the containment has been failed, it is generally expected that the mass of Cs-137 released to the environment is more than 1kg for most accident sequences So, the review and improvement of the PSA model in order to reduce containment failure frequency should be needed. Actually, the current PSA model is known to be constructed by the conservative assumptions, especially in the view point of Level 2 PSA model. Therefore, it is necessary to find this conservatism and to improve the Model using the reasonable assumptions. All of the domestic operating nuclear power plants are required to prepare the Accident Management Plan within 3 years and this Accident Management Plan should have to meet the New Safety Goal including the requirement that the sum of the accident frequency that the release of the radioactive nuclide Cs-137 to the environment exceeds the 100TBq should be less than 1.0E-6/RY. The containment spray system is the only facility that mitigates the containment over-pressurization in the operating nuclear power plants, such as Westinghouse type or OPR1000 type. In this study, the effects of the containment spray system recovery on the amount of Cesium released to the environment were analyzed. If the recovery of the containment spray system can be applied to the PSA model, it is expected that the containment failure frequency and also the amount of cesium released to the environment can be greatly reduced.

  13. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  14. Construction of a novel pH-sensitive drug release system from mesoporous silica tablets coated with Eudragit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingpu; Qu, Fengyu; Wang, Yu; Lin, Huiming; Wu, Xiang; Jin, Yingxue

    2011-03-01

    A novel pH-sensitive drug release system has been established by coating Eudragit (Eud) on drug-loaded mesoporous silica (MS) tablets. The release rate of ibuprofen (IBU) from the MS was retarded by coating with Eudragit S-100, and the higher retardation was due to the increase of coating concentration and the coating layers. The target position of the release depended on the pH of the release medium, which was confirmed by the drug release from IBU/MS/Eud increasing rapidly with the change of medium pH from 1.2 to 7.4. This drug delivery system could prohibit irritant drug from leaking in the stomach and make it only release in the intestine. The loaded and unloaded drug samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), N 2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  15. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions.

  16. Unleashing elastic energy: dynamics of energy release in rubber bands and impulsive biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Cox, Suzanne; Egelmeers, Thijs; Patek, S. N.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    Impulsive biological systems - which include mantis shrimp, trap-jaw ants, and venus fly traps - can reach high speeds by using elastic elements to store and rapidly release energy. The material behavior and shape changes critical to achieving rapid energy release in these systems are largely unknown due to limitations of materials testing instruments operating at high speed and large displacement. In this work, we perform fundamental, proof-of-concept measurements on the tensile retraction of elastomers. Using high speed imaging, the kinematics of retraction are measured for elastomers with varying mechanical properties and geometry. Based on the kinematics, the rate of energy dissipation in the material is determined as a function of strain and strain-rate, along with a scaling relation which describes the dependence of maximum velocity on material properties. Understanding this scaling relation along with the material failure limits of the elastomer allows the prediction of material properties required for optimal performance. We demonstrate this concept experimentally by optimizing for maximum velocity in our synthetic model system, and achieve retraction velocities that exceed those in biological impulsive systems. This model system provides a foundation for future work connecting continuum performance to molecular architecture in impulsive systems.

  17. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans releases 2.0 and 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guettler, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  18. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  19. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System test plans release 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  20. Diffusivity database (DDB) system for major rocks and buffer materials (Released on 2007/specification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Yoshikatsu; Shibata, Masahiro; Sato, Haruo; Kitamura, Akira

    2007-03-01

    The Diffusivity Database (DDB) System developed on early 2006 was upgraded to apply the data of effective diffusion coefficient of the nuclides in the rock matrix for the 'H12: Project to Establish the Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan', and the data in the buffer materials from literature survey was newly added. Some functions of data search and selection were reformed to improve the level of convenience. This DDB system (work on MS-Access TM ) is released to the public through Web server managed by JAEA. (author)

  1. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) test plans release 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Architecture document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  2. System with embedded drug release and nanoparticle degradation sensor showing efficient rifampicin delivery into macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousil, Jiří; Filippov, Sergey K; Hrubý, Martin; Mazel, Tomáš; Syrová, Zdeňka; Cmarko, Dušan; Svidenská, Silvie; Matějková, Jana; Kováčik, Lubomír; Porsch, Bedřich; Konefał, Rafał; Lund, Reidar; Nyström, Bo; Raška, Ivan; Štěpánek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable, biocompatible system for the delivery of the antituberculotic antibiotic rifampicin with a built-in drug release and nanoparticle degradation fluorescence sensor. Polymer nanoparticles based on poly(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) were noncovalently loaded with rifampicin, a combination that, to best of our knowledge, was not previously described in the literature, which showed significant benefits. The nanoparticles contain a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system that allows real-time assessment of drug release not only in vitro, but also in living macrophages where the mycobacteria typically reside as hard-to-kill intracellular parasites. The fluorophore also enables in situ monitoring of the enzymatic nanoparticle degradation in the macrophages. We show that the nanoparticles are efficiently taken up by macrophages, where they are very quickly associated with the lysosomal compartment. After drug release, the nanoparticles in the cmacrophages are enzymatically degraded, with half-life 88±11 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium release-dependent inactivation precedes formation of the tubular system in developing rat cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macková, Katarina; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Hoťka, Matej; Hoffmannová, Barbora; Zahradník, Ivan; Zahradníková, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Developing cardiac myocytes undergo substantial structural and functional changes transforming the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling from the embryonic form, based on calcium influx through sarcolemmal DHPR calcium channels, to the adult form, relying on local calcium release through RYR calcium channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum stimulated by calcium influx. We characterized day-by-day the postnatal development of the structure of sarcolemma, using techniques of confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the development of the calcium current, measured by the whole-cell patch-clamp in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. We characterized the appearance and expansion of the t-tubule system and compared it with the appearance and progress of the calcium current inactivation induced by the release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum as structural and functional measures of direct DHPR-RYR interaction. The release-dependent inactivation of calcium current preceded the development of the t-tubular system by several days, indicating formation of the first DHPR-RYR couplons at the surface sarcolemma and their later spreading close to contractile myofibrils with the growing t-tubules. Large variability of both of the measured parameters among individual myocytes indicates uneven maturation of myocytes within the growing myocardium.

  4. Effect of acute and chronic MK-801 administration on extracellular glutamate and ascorbic acid release in the prefrontal cortex of freely moving mice on line with open-field behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dai-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Chun-Fu; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2006-04-04

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg), a noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist on extracellular glutamate (Glu) and ascorbic acid (AA) release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of freely moving mice using in vivo microdialysis with open-field behavior. In line with earlier studies, acute administration of MK-801 induced an increase of Glu in the PFC. We also observed single MK-801 treatment increased AA release in the PFC. In addition, our results indicated that the basal AA levels in the PFC after MK-801 administration for 7 consecutive days were significantly decreased, and basal Glu levels also had a decreased tendency. After chronic administration (0.6 mg/kg, 7 days), MK-801 (0.6 mg/kg) challenge significantly decreased dialysate levels of AA and Glu. Our study also found that both acute and chronic administration of MK-801 induced hyperactivity in mice, but the intensity of acute administration was more than that of chronic administration. Furthermore, in all acute treatment mice, individual changes in Glu dialysate concentrations and the numbers of locomotion were positively correlated. In conclusion, this study may provide new evidence that a single MK-801 administration induces increases of dialysate AA and Glu concentrations in the PFC of freely moving mice, which are opposite to those induced by repeated MK-801 administration, with an unknown mechanism. Our results suggested that redox-response might play an important role in the model of schizophrenic symptoms induced by MK-801.

  5. Magnetic Active Agent Release System (MAARS): evaluation of a new way for a reproducible, externally controlled drug release into the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Christian T; Richert, Hendryk; Abert, Sandra; Merkel, Ute; Hippius, Marion; Stallmach, Andreas

    2012-08-10

    Human absorption studies are used to test new drug candidates for their bioavailability in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to replace invasive techniques (e.g. oral or rectal intubation) a variety of externally controlled capsule-based drug release systems has been developed. Most of these use ionizing radiation, internal batteries, heating elements or even chemicals for the localization and disintegration process of the capsule. This embodies potential harms for volunteers and patients. We report about a novel technique called "Magnetic Active Agent Release System" (MAARS), which uses purely magnetic effects for this purpose. In our trial thirteen healthy volunteers underwent a complete monitoring and release procedure of 250 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) targeting the flexura duodenojejunalis and the mid-part of the jejunum. During all experiments MAARS initiated a sufficient drug release and was well tolerated. Beside this we also could show that the absorption of ASA is about two times faster in the more proximal region of the flexura duodenojejunalis with a tmax of 47±13 min compared to the more distal jejunum with tmax values of 100±10 min (p=0.031). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Li, Qian; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP) is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4) at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded.

  8. IBM i5iSeries Primer Concepts and Techniques for Programmers, Administrators, and System Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Forsythe, Kevin; Holt, Ted; Pence, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive, 35-chapter book is the ultimate resource and a "must-have" for every professional working with the i5/iSeries. It is perfect for novice and intermediate programmers as well as for system administrators and operators. In simple, straightforward style, the authors explain core i5/iSeries concepts and show you step by step how to perform a wide variety of essential functions. The book includes sections on installation, operations, administration, system architecture, programming, the Internet, and troubleshooting. These sections are organized in free-standing style so you d

  9. The impact of records management system in transparency of public administrations: Transparency by design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustí Cerrillo Martínez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Records management system has a great impact in the improvement of transparency in public administration. Transparency by design refers to the inclusion of transparency duties stated by legislation in force in the records’ life cycle in a way that it guarantees citizens effective access to public information. In this paper, the changes that public administrations have to propel in their records management systems to improve public transparency and to make easy access to information are analysed. In particular, as a case study, provisions made by Law 19/2014, of December 29, on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance of Catalonia are explored.

  10. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglietti Felipe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration.

  11. Zein-alginate based oral drug delivery systems: Protection and release of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungmun; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-12-30

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a great therapeutic potential by scavenging superoxide that is one of ROS; however, in vivo application is limited especially when it is orally administered. SOD is easily degraded in vivo by the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Here, we design a zein-alginate based oral drug delivery system that protects SOD from the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract and releases it in the environment of the small intestine. SOD is encapsulated in zein-alginate nanoparticles (ZAN) via a phase separation method. We demonstrate that ZAN protect SOD from the harsh conditions of the stomach or small intestine condition. ZAN (200:40) at the weight ratio of 200mg zein to 40mg of alginate releases SOD in a pH dependent manner, and it releases 90.8±1.2% of encapsulated SOD at pH 7.4 in 2h, while only 11.4±0.4% of SOD was released at pH 1.3. The encapsulation efficiency of SOD in ZAN (200:40) was 62.1±2.0%. SOD in ZAN (200:40) reduced the intracellular ROS level and it saved 88.9±7.5% of Caco-2 cells from the toxic superoxide in 4 hours. Based on the results, zein-alginate based oral drug delivery systems will have numerous applications to drugs that are easily degradable in the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated environmental modeling system for noble gas releases at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) is a large nuclear complex engaged in varied activities and is the AEC's major site for the production of weapons material. As a result of these activities, there are continuous and intermittent releases of radioactive gases to the atmosphere. Of these releases, the noble gases constitute about 11 percent of the total man-rem exposure to the population out to a distance of 100 km. Although SRP has an extensive radiological monitoring program, an environmental modeling system is necessary for adequately estimating effects on the environment. The integrated environmental modeling system in use at SRP consists of a series of computer programs that generate and use a library of environmental effects data as a function of azimuth and distance. Annual average atmospheric dispersion and azimuthal distribution of material assumed to be released as unit sources is estimated from a 2-year meteorological data base--assuming an arbitrary point of origin. The basic library of data consists of: ground-level concentrations according to isotope, and whole body gamma dose calculations that account for the total spatial distribution at discrete energy levels. These data are normalized to tritium measurements, and are subsequently used to generate similar library data that pertain to specific source locations, but always with respect to the same population grid. Thus, the total additive effects from all source points, both on- and off-site, can be estimated. The final program uses the library data to estimate population exposures for specified releases and source points for the nuclides of interest (including noble gases). Multiple source points are considered within a single pass to obtain the integrated effects from all sources

  13. Compression and release dynamics of an active matter system of Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Amy; Tsang, Alan C. H.; Ouellette, Nicholas; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    Active matter, defined as ensembles of self-propelled particles, encompasses a large variety of systems at all scales, from nanoparticles to bird flocks. Though various models and simulations have been created to describe the dynamics of these systems, experimental verification has been difficult to obtain. This is frequently due to the complex interaction rules which govern the particle behavior, in turn making systematic varying of parameters impossible. Here, we propose a model for predicting the system evolution of compression and release of an active system based on experiments and simulations. In particular, we consider ensembles of the unicellular, photo-responsive algae, Euglena gracilis, under light stimulation. By varying the spatiotemporal light patterns, we are able to finely adjust cell densities and achieve arbitrary non-homogeneous distributions, including compression into high-density aggregates of varying geometries. We observe the formation of depletion zones after the release of the confining stimulus and investigate the effects of the density distribution and particle rotational noise on the depletion. These results provide implications for defining state parameters which determine system evolution.

  14. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglietti, Felipe; Tellado, Matias; Olaiz, Nahuel; Michinski, Sebastian; Marshall, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration. We propose combined bleomycin administration, both systemic and local, using companion animals as models. We selected 22 canine patients which failed to achieve a complete response after an ECT treatment session. Eleven underwent another standard ECT session (control group), while 11 received a combined local and systemic administration of bleomycin in the second treatment session. According to the WHO criteria, the response rates in the combined administration group were: complete response (CR) 54% (6), partial response (PR) 36% (4), stable disease (SD) 10% (1). In the control group, these were: CR 0% (0), PR 19% (2), SD 63% (7), progressive disease (PD) 18% (2). In the combined group 91% objective responses (CR+PR) were obtained. In the control group 19% objective responses were obtained. The difference in the response rate between the treatment groups was significant (p < 0.01). Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration was effective in previously to ECT non responding canine patients. The results indicate that this approach could be useful and effective in specific population of patients and reduce the number of treatment sessions needed to obtain an objective response

  15. Recovery of pituitary-gonadal function in male and female rats after prolonged administration of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Srkalovic, G; Szepeshazi, K; Schally, A V

    1991-08-01

    The reversibility of the antifertility effects induced by long-term administration of the LH-RH antagonistic analog [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]-LH-RH (SB-75) was investigated in male and female rats. Male rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing 50 micrograms of SB-75/day for 60 days. The control rats were implanted with minipumps containing only vehicle. The treatment with the antagonist caused a significant decrease in the weights of the testes, seminal vesicles and ventral prostates (p less than 0.01) and reduced serum LH and testosterone levels (p less than 0.01). The histology of the testes from the treated rats showed that spermatogenesis was totally depressed. No mature elongated or round spermatids were found in the seminiferous tubules, spermatocytes being the most advanced germ cell form in 100% of the testicular tubules. These changes indicate that a total spermatogenetic arrest occurred in the treated animals. Ninety days after cessation of treatment with the LH-RH antagonist, there was a complete recovery of the weights of the testes, seminal vesicles and ventral prostates and LH and testosterone returned to control levels. Histological studies revealed a complete recovery of spermatogenesis, with 99.2% of seminiferous tubules containing mature elongated spermatids. Immediately after the discontinuation of treatment with SB-75, a significant down-regulation of the pituitary LH-RH receptors was found, but 90 days later, this phenomenon was completely reversed. Female rats were injected every 3 weeks for 6 weeks with SB-75 microcapsules, at a dose calculated to release 27 micrograms/day of the antagonist. The treatment with SB-75 disrupted the normal estrous cycle. Body weights were not affected, but ovarian and uterine weights were significantly decreased (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively) in the animals treated with the antagonist. Treated rats had significantly lower LH (p less than 0.05) and

  16. Provider risk factors for medication administration error alerts: analyses of a large-scale closed-loop medication administration system using RFID and barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeonsoo; Yoon, Dukyong; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Hee; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-12-01

    To determine the risk factors and rate of medication administration error (MAE) alerts by analyzing large-scale medication administration data and related error logs automatically recorded in a closed-loop medication administration system using radio-frequency identification and barcodes. The subject hospital adopted a closed-loop medication administration system. All medication administrations in the general wards were automatically recorded in real-time using radio-frequency identification, barcodes, and hand-held point-of-care devices. MAE alert logs recorded during a full 1 year of 2012. We evaluated risk factors for MAE alerts including administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, and factors associated with nurse practices by logistic regression analysis. A total of 2 874 539 medication dose records from 30 232 patients (882.6 patient-years) were included in 2012. We identified 35 082 MAE alerts (1.22% of total medication doses). The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration at non-standard time [odds ratio (OR) 1.559, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.515-1.604], emergency order (OR 1.527, 95%CI 1.464-1.594), and the number of medication doses administered (OR 0.993, 95%CI 0.992-0.993). Medication route, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule were also significantly related. The MAE alert rate was 1.22% over the 1-year observation period in the hospital examined in this study. The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule. The real-time closed-loop medication administration system contributed to improving patient safety by preventing potential MAEs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Interoperability and models for exchange of data between information systems in public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavev, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The types of software applications used by public administrations can be divided in three main groups: document management systems, record management systems and business process systems. Each one of them generates outputs that can be used as input data to the others. This is the main reason that requires exchange of data between these three groups and well defined models that should be followed. There are also many other reasons that will be discussed in the paper. Interoperability is a key aspect when those models are implemented, especially when there are different manufactures of systems in the area of software applications used by public authorities. The report includes examples of implementation of models for exchange of data between software systems deployed in one of the biggest administration in Bulgaria.

  18. Release measurement of great amount of waste. Conveyor belt versus wire mesh pallet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland; Langer, Felix [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Great amount of waste has to be measured for release during the decommissioning and rebuilding of nuclear facilities and installation. Since the enclosed storage or decontamination is very expensive it is advisable for economic reasons to separate contaminated material. The necessary measurement is however a time and cost intensive work which has carefully provided. There are two general methods to perform this task: one is a continuously running system on the basis of a conveyor belt system. The other approach is a discontinuously running system using wire mesh pallets. With the knowledge from existing installations this article will discuss the pro's and contra's and show the limits of the systems.

  19. AEROS: a real-time emergency response system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasstrom, J.S.; Greenly, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a sophisticated computer-based real-time emergency response system for radiotoxic releases into the atmosphere. The ARAC Emergency Response Operating System (AEROS) has a centralized computer facility linked to remote site computers, meteorological towers, and meteorological data sources. The system supports certain fixed sites, but has the ability to respond to accidents at arbitrary locations. Product quality and response time are optimized by using complex three-dimensional dispersion models; extensive on-line data bases; automated data processing; and an efficient user interface, employing graphical computer displays and computer-displayed forms. Upon notification, the system automatically initiates a response to an emergency and proceeds through preliminary calculations, automatically processing accident information, meteorological data, and model parameters. The model calculations incorporate mass-consistent three-dimensional wind fields, terrain effects, and particle-in-cell diffusion. Model products are color images of dose or deposition contours overlaid on a base map

  20. Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS), System Administration Guide FEMIS: Phase 1, Version 1.1u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna, P.A.; Conner, W.M.; Curtis, L.M. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that is being developed under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package.

  1. Pro Linux system administration learn to build systems for your business using free and open source software

    CERN Document Server

    Matotek, Dennis; Lieverdink, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to ease the entry of businesses to the world of zero-cost software running on Linux. It takes a layered, component-based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure.

  2. [Effect of nociceptin on histamine and serotonin release in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Melinda; Hantos, Mónika; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Korniléa

    2006-01-01

    Role in pain sensation of both nociceptin (NC), the bioactive heptadecapeptide sequence of preproorphaninFQ and of histamine has been widely evidenced in the central nervous system (CNS). In the current series of experiments effect of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered NC (5.5 nmol/rat) on histamine and serotonin levels in blood plasma, CSF and brain areas (hypothalamus and hippocampus) was studies and compared to the effect of the mast cell degranulator Compound 48/80(100microg/kg, i.c.v.) and the neuroactive peptide Substance P (50nmol/rat, i.c.v.). It was found that all the three compounds increased the histamine level in the CNS, however their activity concerning the mast cell-, and neuronal histamine release is different. NC could release histamine from both the mast cells and the neurons and it decreased CNS serotonin levels. Substance P was found the most potent in increasing CNS histamine levels. Compound 48/80 treatment resulted in elevated histamine levels both in the CNS and blood plasma. It is concluded that the histamine releasing effects of i.c.v. administered NC and SP are limited to the CNS, but in the effect of Compound 48/80 its blood-brain barrier impairing activity is also involved. Data also demonstrate that NC has significant effect on both the histaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the CNS.

  3. Release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliance: an in vitro study in continuous flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A new system for in vitro testing of dental materials was constructed and consisted of a thermostatic glass reactor that enabled immersion of the studied material. Experimental conditions reflected the human oral cavity, with a temperature of 37°C and a saliva flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The simulated fixed orthodontic appliance made of stainless steel was evaluated. Sampling was performed at several time points during the 28-day study, and the metal ion concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The total mass of released metal ions from the appliance during 4 weeks of the experiment was as follows nickel 18.7 μg, chromium 5.47 μg, copper 31.3 μg. The estimated doses of nickel, chromium, and copper determined by extrapolation of experimental data released during the treatment period were far below the toxic dose to humans. This shows that orthodontic treatment might not be a significant source of exposure to these metal ions.

  4. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  5. [Research on controlling iron release of desalted water transmitted in existing water distribution system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Mei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Shan, Jin-Lin; Yang, Suo-Yin; Liu, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Desalted water, with strong corrosion characteristics, would possibly lead to serious "red water" when transmitted and distributed in existing municipal water distribution network. The main reason for red water phenomenon is iron release in water pipes. In order to study the methods of controlling iron release in existing drinking water distribution pipe, tubercle analysis of steel pipe and cast iron pipe, which have served the distribution system for 30-40 years, was carried out, the main construction materials were Fe3O4 and FeOOH; and immersion experiments were carried in more corrosive pipes. Through changing mixing volume of tap water and desalted water, pH, alkalinity, chloride and sulfate, the influence of different water quality indexes on iron release were mainly analyzed. Meanwhile, based on controlling iron content, water quality conditions were established to meet with the safety distribution of desalted water: volume ratio of potable water and desalted water should be higher than or equal to 2, pH was higher than 7.6, alkalinity was higher than 200 mg x L(-1).

  6. The legal regime of the relations between the center and the administrative-territorial units within the contemporary administrative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GORIUC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The decentralization of public administration refers to the process of increasing the autonomy of local communities by transferring new decision-making responsibilities, as well as financial and patrimonial resources, respecting the principle of subsidiarity, reducing current spending and increasing transparency in relation to citizens and increasing the quality and access to public services, or in other words, is a process of transferring authority and administrative responsibilities from central to local government in the areas of planning, decision-making, legal accountability and public service management.

  7. The Administrative Impact of Computers on the British Columbia Public School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Trevor P.

    This case study analyzes and evaluates the administrative computer systems in the British Columbia public school organization in order to investigate the costs and benefits of computers, their impact on managerial work, their influence on centralization in organizations, and the relationship between organizational objectives and the design of…

  8. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... a significant administrative burden and should balance that burden against the interests of special.... Comment: One respondent organization noted that it attempts to work collaboratively where possible to... land use fee determinations and land use fee determinations under any future fee system for recreation...

  9. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  10. Some Teaching Reform Ideas on Management Information System of Master of Business Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chongjun

    2009-01-01

    Management information system (MIS) is one of the core courses of master of business administration (MBA). Based on the educational characteristics of MBA, this paper studies the teaching issues and strategies of MIS course of MBA. The discussion includes three parts: modification of educational content; improvement of educational ability; case…

  11. The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

    2010-01-01

    Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…

  12. Manual for SFR R and D and Technology Monitoring System Administrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Yong Bum; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-05-15

    This report is a administrator manual on R and D and technology monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. First of all, enterprise project management solution is introduced and then enterprise resources and data creation method are described. Also it made a description of project web assess design, data management method etc.

  13. Evolution of Medication Administration Workflow in Implementing Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the clinical workflow evolutions when implementing the health information technology (HIT). The study especially emphasized on administrating medication when the electronic health record (EHR) systems were adopted at rural healthcare facilities. Mixed-mode research methods, such as survey, observation, and focus group, were…

  14. From street level to system level bureaucracies. How ICT is transforming administrative discretion and constitutional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, M.A.P.; Zouridis, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ICT is rapidly changing the structure of a number of large executive public agencies. They used to be machine bureaucracies in which street level officials exercised ample administrative discretion in dealing with individual clients. This was kept in check by elaborate systems of external

  15. Entrepreneurial environmental management model of marketing in a political-administrative system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadchenko Olena Vasylivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for entrepreneurial model of environmental management, in particular environmental marketing in modern political and administrative systems. In the context of the complexity of the social structure, forming a dense network of communications, globalization, cultural and economic-ecological space offers new mechanisms for the relationship between the state and civil society in environmental management.

  16. Creating and Using a Computer Networking and Systems Administration Laboratory Built under Relaxed Financial Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Michael P.; Mullins, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Computer Science Department at Slippery Rock University created a laboratory for its Computer Networks and System Administration and Security courses under relaxed financial constraints. This paper describes the department's experience designing and using this laboratory, including lessons learned and descriptions of some student projects…

  17. Manual for SFR R and D and Technology Monitoring System Administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Yong Bum; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-05-01

    This report is a administrator manual on R and D and technology monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. First of all, enterprise project management solution is introduced and then enterprise resources and data creation method are described. Also it made a description of project web assess design, data management method etc

  18. Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.; Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods

  19. Is catalase involved in the effects of systemic and pVTA administration of 4-methylpyrazole on ethanol self-administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peana, Alessandra T; Pintus, Francesca A; Bennardini, Federico; Rocchitta, Gaia; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Serra, Pier Andrea; Porru, Simona; Rosas, Michela; Acquas, Elio

    2017-09-01

    The oxidative metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde involves several enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and catalase-hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this regard, while it is well known that 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) acts by inhibiting ADH in the liver, little attention has been placed on its ability to interfere with fatty acid oxidation-mediated generation of H 2 O 2 , a mechanism that may indirectly affect catalase whose enzymatic activity requires H 2 O 2 . The aim of our investigation was twofold: 1) to evaluate the effect of systemic (i.p. [intraperitoneal]) and local (into the posterior ventral tegmental area, pVTA) administration of 4-MP on oral ethanol self-administration, and 2) to assess ex vivo whether or not systemic 4-MP affects liver and brain H 2 O 2 availability. The results show that systemic 4-MP reduced ethanol but not acetaldehyde or saccharin self-administration, and decreased the ethanol deprivation effect. Moreover, local intra-pVTA administration of 4-MP reduced ethanol but not saccharin self-administration. In addition, although unable to affect basal catalase activity, systemic administration of 4-MP decreased H 2 O 2 availability both in liver and in brain. Overall, these results indicate that 4-MP interferes with ethanol self-administration and suggest that its behavioral effects could be due to a decline in catalase-H 2 O 2 system activity as a result of a reduction of H 2 O 2 availability, thus highlighting the role of central catalase-mediated metabolism of ethanol and further supporting the key role of acetaldehyde in the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconciliation of international administrative coding systems for comparison of colorectal surgery outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, A; Chang, D; Mamidanna, R; Middleton, S; Joy, M; Penninckx, F; Darzi, A; Livingston, E; Faiz, O

    2014-07-01

    Significant variation in colorectal surgery outcomes exists between different countries. Better understanding of the sources of variable outcomes using administrative data requires alignment of differing clinical coding systems. We aimed to map similar diagnoses and procedures across administrative coding systems used in different countries. Administrative data were collected in a central database as part of the Global Comparators (GC) Project. In order to unify these data, a systematic translation of diagnostic and procedural codes was undertaken. Codes for colorectal diagnoses, resections, operative complications and reoperative interventions were mapped across the respective national healthcare administrative coding systems. Discharge data from January 2006 to June 2011 for patients who had undergone colorectal surgical resections were analysed to generate risk-adjusted models for mortality, length of stay, readmissions and reoperations. In all, 52 544 case records were collated from 31 institutions in five countries. Mapping of all the coding systems was achieved so that diagnosis and procedures from the participant countries could be compared. Using the aligned coding systems to develop risk-adjusted models, the 30-day mortality rate for colorectal surgery was 3.95% (95% CI 0.86-7.54), the 30-day readmission rate was 11.05% (5.67-17.61), the 28-day reoperation rate was 6.13% (3.68-9.66) and the mean length of stay was 14 (7.65-46.76) days. The linkage of international hospital administrative data that we developed enabled comparison of documented surgical outcomes between countries. This methodology may facilitate international benchmarking. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Acoustic mapping of shallow water gas releases using shipborne multibeam systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Peter; Köser, Kevin; Weiß, Tim; Greinert, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Water column imaging (WCI) shipborne multibeam systems are effective tools for investigating marine free gas (bubble) release. Like single- and splitbeam systems they are very sensitive towards gas bubbles in the water column, and have the advantage of the wide swath opening angle, 120° or more allowing a better mapping and possible 3D investigations of targets in the water column. On the downside, WCI data are degraded by specific noise from side-lobe effects and are usually not calibrated for target backscattering strength analysis. Most approaches so far concentrated on manual investigations of bubbles in the water column data. Such investigations allow the detection of bubble streams (flares) and make it possible to get an impression about the strength of detected flares/the gas release. Because of the subjective character of these investigations it is difficult to understand how well an area has been investigated by a flare mapping survey and subjective impressions about flare strength can easily be fooled by the many acoustic effects multibeam systems create. Here we present a semi-automated approach that uses the behavior of bubble streams in varying water currents to detect and map their exact source positions. The focus of the method is application of objective rules for flare detection, which makes it possible to extract information about the quality of the seepage mapping survey, perform automated noise reduction and create acoustic maps with quality discriminators indicating how well an area has been mapped.

  2. The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B; Gamper, L; Gukelberger, J; Hehn, A; Isakov, S V; Ma, P N; Mates, P; Carr, L D; Evertz, H G; Feiguin, A; Freire, J; Koop, D; Fuchs, S; Gull, E; Guertler, S; Igarashi, R; Matsuo, H; Parcollet, O; Pawłowski, G; Picon, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present release 2.0 of the ALPS (Algorithms and Libraries for Physics Simulations) project, an open source software project to develop libraries and application programs for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models such as quantum magnets, lattice bosons, and strongly correlated fermion systems. The code development is centered on common XML and HDF5 data formats, libraries to simplify and speed up code development, common evaluation and plotting tools, and simulation programs. The programs enable non-experts to start carrying out serial or parallel numerical simulations by providing basic implementations of the important algorithms for quantum lattice models: classical and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) using non-local updates, extended ensemble simulations, exact and full diagonalization (ED), the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) both in a static version and a dynamic time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) code, and quantum Monte Carlo solvers for dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The ALPS libraries provide a powerful framework for programmers to develop their own applications, which, for instance, greatly simplify the steps of porting a serial code onto a parallel, distributed memory machine. Major changes in release 2.0 include the use of HDF5 for binary data, evaluation tools in Python, support for the Windows operating system, the use of CMake as build system and binary installation packages for Mac OS X and Windows, and integration with the VisTrails workflow provenance tool. The software is available from our web server at http://alps.comp-phys.org/

  3. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  4. Design of a controlled release system of OP-1 and TGF-β1 based in microparticles of sodium alginate and release characterization by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Pérez-Urizar, José; Dibildox-Alvarado, Estela; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Avelar-González, Francisco Javier; Flores-Reyes, Héctor; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury de Jesús; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma Lilián

    2011-12-01

    A new system for sustained release of growth factors, such as osteogenic protein 1 (OP-1) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), intended to repair and promote dental tissue regeneration in rats was designed and characterized in this work. The release system was made with microparticles of sodium alginate, produced by ionic gelling dripping technique. The release profiles of OP-1 and TGF-β1 from biopolymer matrix were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and with this purpose, an HPLC-UV method was developed. About 80% of each growth factor was released in the first 24 h, reaching almost 100% in 168 h. The system was tested during the tissue repair in rat molars in comparison with calcium hydroxide and both growth factors not encapsulated. The dentin sialoprotein (DSP) was used as a repair marker. It was detected by immunohistochemistry, after 14- and 28-d post-treatment. X (2) test (p ≤ 0.001) and Fisher exact test (p ≤ 0.05) were applied for assessment of the amount of immunostaining. The treatment with encapsulated OP-1 showed an increased DSP immunostaining after 14 d and did not find any significant difference with the immunostaining observed for calcium hydroxide treatment. Treatment with TGF-β1 did not show significant difference with calcium hydroxide. Treatment with both factors OP-1 and TGF-β1 showed higher DSP immunostaining in comparison with calcium hydroxide treatment. In conclusion, the combination of both growth factors encapsulated showed more DSP immunostaining in comparison with each one separated, either encapsulated or not.

  5. Status of emission release and associated problems in energy systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Koyama, Shigeo; Ihara, Seijiro.

    1987-11-01

    OECD/IEA/ETSAP (Energy Technology System Analysis Project) has been started in March 1976. Since initiation of the projects, JAERI and ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) have been participating in the projects as operating agent of Japan. From last October, the ETSAP has initiated its Annex III programme, which pursues the problems laid down in energy-environment relationships. Main research objective of the programme is to investigate through the systems analysis ''how various environmental constrains would affect the pattern of fuel and technology use and the choice and timing of implementation of abatement technologies''. In this report, we describe the status of emission release in Japan and associated problems in energy system analysis which has been investigated at the start of these research programme mentioned above. (author)

  6. Design of environment monitoring system to evaluate radionuclide release from subsystem on PWR nuclear power accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro; Sugiyanto; Pande Made Udiyani; Jupiter Sitorus Pane

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plan (NPP) as a renewable energy source is selected as an alternative, because it has many advantages that is environmentally friendly, fuel supply which is independent of the season, and the price that can compete with other power plants. However, the existence of some public skepticism about nuclear radiation safety, the government must be convinced about the operation of nuclear power plants are safe and secure. Research on the design of environment monitoring system for evaluation of radionuclide release from the reactor subsystems and the environment due to accidents at power reactors has been done. The study was conducted by calculating the distribution of radionuclide release into the reactor subsystem and the environment and also to build the environment radiation monitoring system. Environmental monitoring system consists of a radiation counter, early warning systems, meteorological measurement systems, GPS systems and GIS. Radiation monitoring system used to record the data of radiation, meteorological measurement system used to record data of wind and speed direction, while the GPS system is used to determine position of data measurements. The data is then transmitted to a data acquisition system and then to be transmitted to the control center. Collection and transmission of data is done via SMS formatting using a modem device that is placed in the control center. The control center receives measurement data from various places. In this case the control center has a function as an SMS Gateway. This system can visualize for different measurement locations. Furthermore, radiation data and position data to be integrated with digital maps. System integration is then visualized in a personal computer. To position of measurements directly visualized on the map and also look for the data displayed on a monitor as a red or green circle colour. That colour indicated as a safe limit of radiation monitor. When the cycle colour is red, the system will

  7. Enhancing topical analgesic administration: review and prospect for transdermal and transbuccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Roser; Calpena, Ana C; Mallandrich, Mireia; Clares, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Topical administration is an appealing method for drug delivery due to its non-invasiveness, self-controlled application, avoidance of first-pass metabolism in the liver and reduction of systemic side effects compared to other conventional routes such as oral and parenteral. However, topical administration must overcome the permeable barriers that skin and mucosa represent for the drug to achieve its desired therapeutic effect. Penetration of drugs through human skin is mainly impaired by the stratum corneum- the uppermost keratinized skin layer. In contrast, the stratified squamous epithelium (a nonkeratinized tissue) represents the major physical barrier for transbuccal drug administration in humans. Different technologies have been studied to enhance the bioavailability or local effects of drugs administered through skin and buccal mucosa. Those technologies involve the use of physical or chemical enhancers and new dosage forms such as vesicles, cyclodextrins, nanoparticles and other complex systems. Combinations of these technologies may further increase drug delivery in some cases. As analgesia is one of the main therapeutic effects sought through topical administration, this paper focuses on the review of drug delivery systems to improve the topical and transdermal/transbuccal drug delivery of substances with known analgesic action. A discussion of their possibilities and limitations is also included.

  8. Administration and transaction cost estimates for a greenhouse gas offset system : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Canada's Climate Change Plan provides large final emitters (LFEs) with the option to meet their emission targets through the purchase of domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) offset credits. This paper presents the results of a study which identified and estimated transaction costs associated with an offset system. The cost to both proponents and governments were identified. The study also suggested ways to reduce administration and transaction costs through design options. The study considered projects involving agriculture, forests, landfill gas capture, renewable energy and energy efficiency within a potential domestic offset system. It was determined that average transaction costs per tonne range from $19 per tonne to $0.05 depending on the design choice and project type. Total administration costs did not vary more than 5 per cent between different design choices. The total system costs, which are the combination of all transaction and administration costs, are the best indicator for the potential of a project. Eight case studies were examined and costs per tonne were presented. According to the results, the best opportunities to reduce both transaction and administration costs are to choose a broad approach to baselines, boundaries and quantification; and, to allow pooling in the forestry and agriculture sectors. Transaction costs can be lowered further by reducing the frequency of monitoring and verification and allowing pre-2008 crediting. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Biomaterial-based drug delivery systems for the controlled release of neurotrophic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohtaram, Nima Khadem; Montgomery, Amy; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights recent work on the use of biomaterial-based drug delivery systems to control the release of neurotrophic factors as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Examples of neurotrophic factors include the nerve growth factor, the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. In particular, this review focuses on two methods of drug delivery: affinity-based and reservoir-based systems. We review the advantages and challenges associated with both types of drug delivery system and how these systems can be applied to neurological diseases and disorders. While a limited number of affinity-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of neurotrophic factors, we also examine the broad spectrum of reservoir-based delivery systems, including microspheres, electrospun nanofibers, hydrogels and combinations of these systems. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the current state of such drug delivery systems as applied to neural tissue engineering along with some thoughts on the future direction of the field. (topical review)

  10. TURVA-2012: Assessment of radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Paul; Poteri, Antti; Nordman, Henrik; Cormenzana, Jose Luis; Snellman, Margit; Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Koskinen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the analyses of the radionuclide release scenarios formulated in a companion paper, TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Marcos, 2014). The scenarios and the analyses take into account major uncertainties in the initial state of the barriers and possible paths for the evolution of the repository system identified in a further paper: TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (Hellae, 2014). For each scenario, calculation cases are analysed to evaluate compliance of the proposed repository with regulatory requirements on radiological protection, as well as to illustrate the impact of specific uncertainties or combinations of uncertainties on the calculated results. Each case illustrates different possibilities for how the repository might evolve and perform over time, taking into account uncertainties in the models and parameter values used to represent radionuclide release, retention and transport and, for biosphere assessment calculation cases, radiation exposure. The calculation cases each address a single, failed canister, where three possible modes of failure are considered: - The presence of an initial defect in the copper overpack of the canister that penetrates the overpack completely (subsequent corrosion of the insert may then lead to an enlargement of the defect). - Corrosion of the copper overpack, which occurs most rapidly in scenarios in which buffer density is reduced, e.g. by erosion. - Shear movements on fractures intersecting the deposition holes. However, the likelihood and consequences of more than one canister failure occurring during the assessment time fame are also considered, generally based on the findings from the single canister calculations. Quantitative

  11. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Cadenas, Cristina; Fernández Martínez, Nélida; Sierra Vega, Matilde; Diez Liébana, Maria J; Gonzalo Orden, Jose M; Sahagún Prieto, Ana M; García Vieitez, Juan J

    2012-11-01

    To determine the tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders by measuring its concentration at various sample collection sites. 26 udders (obtained following euthanasia) from 26 healthy lactating sheep. For each isolated udder, 1 mammary gland was perfused with warmed, gassed Tyrode solution. Enrofloxacin (1 g of enrofloxacin/5 g of ointment) was administered into the perfused gland via the intramammary route or systemically via the perfusion fluid (equivalent to a dose of 5 mg/kg). Samples of the perfusate were obtained every 30 minutes for 180 minutes; glandular tissue samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base after 180 minutes. The enrofloxacin content of the perfusate and tissue samples was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. After intramammary administration, maximun perfusate enrofloxacin concentration was detected at 180 minutes and, at this time, mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was detected and mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was 123.80, 54.48, 36.72, and 26.42 μg/g of tissue at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base, respectively. Following systemic administration, perfusate enrofloxacin concentration decreased with time and, at 180 minutes, tissue enrofloxacin concentrations ranged from 40.38 to 35.58 μg/g of tissue. By 180 minutes after administration via the intramammary or systemic route in isolated perfused sheep mammary glands, mean tissue concentration of enrofloxacin was greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit growth of 90% of many common mastitis pathogens in sheep. Use of either route of administration (or in combination) appears suitable for the treatment of acute mastitis in sheep.

  12. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  13. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of a new 30 mg modified-release tablet formulation of metoclopramide for once-a-day administration versus 10 mg immediate-release tablets: a single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel study in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Escudero, Roberto; Alonso-Campero, Rosalba; Francisco-Doce, María Teresa de Jesús; Cortés-Fuentes, Myriam; Villa-Vargas, Miriam; Angeles-Uribe, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of a new, modified-release metoclopramide tablet, and compare it to an immediate-release tablet. A single and multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, parallel, pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Investigational products were administered to 26 healthy Hispanic Mexican male volunteers for two consecutive days: either one 30 mg modified-release tablet every 24 h, or one 10 mg immediate-release tablet every 8 h. Blood samples were collected after the first and last doses of metoclopramide. Plasma metoclopramide concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Safety and tolerability were assessed through vital signs measurements, clinical evaluations, and spontaneous reports from study subjects. All 26 subjects were included in the analyses [mean (SD) age: 27 (8) years, range 18-50; BMI: 23.65 (2.22) kg/m², range 18.01-27.47)]. Peak plasmatic concentrations were not statistically different with both formulations, but occurred significantly later (p 0.05)]. One adverse event was reported in the test group (diarrhea), and one in the reference group (headache). This study suggests that the 30 mg modified-release metoclopramide tablets show features compatible with slow-release formulations when compared to immediate-release tablets, and is suitable for once-a-day administration.

  14. Biodegradable in situ gelling system for subcutaneous administration of ellagic acid and ellagic acid loaded nanoparticles: evaluation of their antioxidant potential against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Italia, J L; Sonaje, K; Tikoo, K; Ravi Kumar, M N V

    2007-03-12

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a potent antioxidant marketed as a nutritional supplement. Its pharmacological activity has been reported in wide variety of disease models; however its use has been limited owing to its poor biopharmaceutical properties, thereby poor bioavailability. The objective of the current study was to develop chitosan-glycerol phosphate (C-GP) in situ gelling system for sustained delivery of ellagic acid (EA) via subcutaneous route. EA was incorporated in the system employing propylene glycol (PG) and triethanolamine (TEA) as co-solvents; on the other hand EA loaded PLGA nanoparticles (np) were dispersed in the gelling system using water. These in situ gelling systems were thoroughly characterized for mechanical, rheological and swelling properties. These systems are liquid at room temperature and gels at 37 degrees C. The EA C-GP system showed an initial burst release in vitro with about 85% drug released in 12 h followed by a steady release till 160 h, on the other hand EA nanoparticles entrapped in the C-GP system displayed sustained release till 360 h. The histopathological analysis indicates the absence of inflammation on administration, suggesting that these formulations are safe during the studied period. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of EA C-GP and EA np C-GP gels has been evaluated against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The data indicates that formulations were effective against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity, where the EA C-GP gels showed activity at 10 times lower dose and the EA np C-GP gels at 150 times lower dose when compared to orally given EA. Formulating nanoparticles of EA and incorporating them in C-GP system results in 15 times lowering of dose in comparison EA C-GP gels which is quite significant. Together, these results indicate that the bioavailability of ellagic acid can be improved by subcutaneous formulations administered as simple EA or EA nps.

  15. Development and Validation of a National System for Routine Monitoring of Mortality in People Recently Released from Prison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Kinner

    Full Text Available People released from prison are at increased risk of death. However, no country has established a system for routine monitoring of mortality in this population. The aims of this study were to (a evaluate a system for routine monitoring of deaths after release from prison in Australia and (b estimate the number of deaths annually within 28 and 365 days of prison release from 2000 to 2013.Persons released from prison and deaths were identified in records held by Centrelink, Australia's national provider of unemployment benefits. Estimates generated in this manner were compared with those from a study that probabilistically linked correctional records with the National Death Index (NDI, for each calendar year 2000 to 2007. Using Centrelink data, national estimates of mortality within 28 and 365 days of release were produced for each calendar year 2000 to 2013.Compared with estimates based on linkage with the NDI, the estimated crude mortality rate based on Centrelink records was on average 52% lower for deaths within 28 days of release and 24% lower for deaths within 365 days of release. Nationally, over the period 2000 to 2013, we identified an average of 32 deaths per year within 28 days of release and 188 deaths per year within 365 days of release. The crude mortality rate for deaths within both 28 and 365 days of release increased over this time.Using routinely collected unemployment benefits data we detected the majority of deaths in people recently released from prison in Australia. These data may be sufficient for routine monitoring purposes and it may be possible to adopt a similar approach in other countries. Routine surveillance of mortality in ex-prisoners serves to highlight their extreme vulnerability and provides a basis for evaluating policy reforms designed to reduce preventable deaths.

  16. Aerial release of Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to control Persicaria perfoliata (Polygonaceae) using an unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lak; Gururajan, Srikanth; Thistle, Harold; Chandran, Rakesh; Reardon, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major biological control agent against the invasive plant Persicaria perfoliata. Release of R. latipes is challenging with the current visit-and-hand release approach because P. perfoliata shows a high degree of patchiness in the landscape, possesses recurved barbs on its stems, and often spreads into hard-to-access areas. This 3-year study developed and evaluated unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for precise aerial release of R. latipes to control P. perfoliata. We have developed two UAS (i.e. quad-rotor and tri-rotor) and an aerial release system to disseminate R. latipes. These include pods containing R. latipes and a dispenser to accommodate eight pods. Results of field tests to evaluate the systems showed no significant (P > 0.05) effects on survivorship and feeding ability of R. latipes after aerial release. Our study demonstrates the potential of UAS for precision aerial release of biological control agents to control invasive plants. The aerial deployment systems we have developed, including both pods and a dispenser, are low cost, logistically practical, and effective with no negative effects on aerially released R. latipes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Maxim E; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C; Zastrow, Leonhard; Golz, Karin; Doucet, Olivier; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    High doses of sun-emitted UV-radiation induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as major pro-oxidants thus inducing premature skin aging. The best prevention of the destructive action of free radicals in human skin is textile coverings, topical sunscreens and the development of a high antioxidative protective network. The effects of topical, systemic and combined application of antioxidants (AO) were investigated on human skin in vivo. Topical application of creams and systemic incorporation of tablets both containing AO was investigated in vivo by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Topical, systemic and combined AO-treatments induced a statistically significant increase of AO levels in human skin while placebo did not show any changes. The highest accumulation was induced by the combination of topical and systemic AO. Carotenoid-tablets combined with placebo-cream induced less carotenoid accumulation than carotenoid-tablets alone. Carotenoid levelling after the end of treatment lasted for around 2 weeks following the topical application of AOs, and up to 5 weeks after systemic administration, depending on the BMI of volunteers. Topically applied AO are stored in the SC for a short time only due to the rapid AO-depletion by desquamation, textile contact, washing and environmental stress. In contrast to topical application, the systemically applied carotenoids are stored in the body fat tissue and slowly released onto the skin surface with sweat and sebum. The combined topical and systemic application of AO represents an optimal form of protection of the AO-network. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of ca2+ to salicylic acid release in pectin based controlled drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistriyani, L.; Wirawan, S. K.; Sediawan, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    Wastes from orange peel are potentially be utilized to produce pectin, which are currently an import commodity. Pectin can be used in making edible film. Edible films are potentially used as a drug delivery system membrane after a tooth extraction. Drug which is used in the drug delivery system is salicylic acid. It is an antiseptic. In order to control the drug release rate, crosslinking process is added in the manufacturing of membrane with CaCl2.2H2O as crosslinker. Pectin was diluted in water and mixed with a plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution at 66°C to make edible film. Then the mixture was dried in an oven at 50 °C. After edible film was formed, it was coated using plasticizer and CaCl2.2H2O solution with various concentration 0, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.05g/mL. This study showed that the more concentration of crosslinker added, the slower release of salicylic acid would be. This was indicated by the value of diffusivites were getting smaller respectively. The addition of crosslinker also caused smaller gels swelling value,which made the membrane is mechanically stronger

  19. Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno D; Tardy, Blaise L; Magalhães, Washington L E; Rojas, Orlando J

    2017-09-28

    We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides). Major breakthroughs are sought to mitigate or eliminate consequential environmental and health impacts in agriculture and silviculture. Here, we consider the most important BDS vehicles or carriers, their synthesis, the environmental impact of their constituents and interactions with the active components together with the factors that affect their rates of release such as environmental factors and interaction of BDS with the crops or forest products. We put in perspective the state-of-the-art nanostructured carriers for controlled release, which need to address many of the challenges that exist in the application of BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A System for Anesthesia Drug Administration Using Barcode Technology: The Codonics Safe Label System and Smart Anesthesia Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelacic, Srdjan; Bowdle, Andrew; Nair, Bala G; Kusulos, Dolly; Bower, Lynnette; Togashi, Kei

    2015-08-01

    Many anesthetic drug errors result from vial or syringe swaps. Scanning the barcodes on vials before drug preparation, creating syringe labels that include barcodes, and scanning the syringe label barcodes before drug administration may help to prevent errors. In contrast, making syringe labels by hand that comply with the recommendations of regulatory agencies and standards-setting bodies is tedious and time consuming. A computerized system that uses vial barcodes and generates barcoded syringe labels could address both safety issues and labeling recommendations. We measured compliance of syringe labels in multiple operating rooms (ORs) with the recommendations of regulatory agencies and standards-setting bodies before and after the introduction of the Codonics Safe Label System (SLS). The Codonics SLS was then combined with Smart Anesthesia Manager software to create an anesthesia barcode drug administration system, which allowed us to measure the rate of scanning syringe label barcodes at the time of drug administration in 2 cardiothoracic ORs before and after introducing a coffee card incentive. Twelve attending cardiothoracic anesthesiologists and the OR satellite pharmacy participated. The use of the Codonics SLS drug labeling system resulted in >75% compliant syringe labels (95% confidence interval, 75%-98%). All syringe labels made using the Codonics SLS system were compliant. The average rate of scanning barcodes on syringe labels using Smart Anesthesia Manager was 25% (730 of 2976) over 13 weeks but increased to 58% (956 of 1645) over 8 weeks after introduction of a simple (coffee card) incentive (P < 0.001). An anesthesia barcode drug administration system resulted in a moderate rate of scanning syringe label barcodes at the time of drug administration. Further, adaptation of the system will be required to achieve a higher utilization rate.

  1. Microspheres prepared with biodegradable PHBV and PLA polymers as prolonged-release system for ibuprofen: in vitro drug release and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Carolina Bazzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and poly(l-lactide (PLA microspheres containing ibuprofen were prepared with the aim of prolonging the drug release. The oil-in-water (O/W emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used, varying the polymer ratio. All formulations provided spherical particles with drug crystals on the surface and a porous and rough polymeric matrix when PHBV was used and smooth external surface when prepared with PLA. The in vitro dissolution profiles show that the formulation containing PHBV/PLA at the proportion of 30/70 presented the best results in terms of prolonging the ibuprofen release. The analysis of the concentration of ibuprofen in the blood of rats showed that maximum levels were achieved at between one and two hours after administration of the immediate-release form (pure drug, while the prolonged microspheres led to a small amount of the drug being released within the first two hours and reached the maximum level after six hours of administration. It was concluded that it is possible to prolong the release of ibuprofen through its incorporation into PHBV/PLA microspheres.No presente estudo foram preparadas microesferas de poli(hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato (PHBV e poli(ácido láctico (PLA com o objetivo de prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno, utilizado como fármaco modelo. Empregou-se o método de emulsificação e evaporação do solvente óleo em água (O/A, variando-se a proporção entre os polímeros. Todas as formulações originaram partículas esféricas com cristais de fármaco aderidos à superfície externa. As microesferas apresentaram superfície rugosa e porosa, quando o PHBV foi utilizado, e superfície externa lisa, quando preparadas com o PLA. Os perfis de dissolução in vitro evidenciaram que a formulação que continha PHBV/PLA na proporção de 30/70 apresentou melhores resultados para prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno. Através da análise da concentra

  2. Electron beam processed transdermal delivery system for administration of an anti-anginal agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiyan, P. N.; Vavia, P. R.; Bharadwaj, Y. K.; Sabarwal, S.; Majali, A. B.

    2002-12-01

    Electron beam irradiation was used to synthesize a matrix type transdermal system of isosorbide dinitrate, an effective anti-anginal agent. The drug was dissolved in two monomeric systems, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate : methyl methacrylate (9 : 1). The solutions were then directly irradiated on a backing membrane (Scotchpak ®1006) at different doses to get transdermal patches. The developed systems were evaluated for residual monomer content, equilibrium weight swelling ratio, weight uniformity, thickness uniformity, drug content, peel strength, in vitro release and skin permeation kinetics. They possessed excellent tack and adhesive properties. In the case of isosorbide dinitrate-EHA systems, an increase in the peel strength values with respect to the skin was observed with increasing radiation doses. The systems exhibited promising skin permeation kinetics favorable for transdermal drug delivery. The radiation stability of the drug in the pure solid state form was also assessed.

  3. Electron beam processed transdermal delivery system for administration of an anti-anginal agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotiyan, P.N. E-mail: pramila-kotiyan@uiowa.edu; Vavia, P.R.; Bharadwaj, Y.K.; Sabarwal, S.; Majali, A.B

    2002-12-01

    Electron beam irradiation was used to synthesize a matrix type transdermal system of isosorbide dinitrate, an effective anti-anginal agent. The drug was dissolved in two monomeric systems, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate : methyl methacrylate (9 : 1). The solutions were then directly irradiated on a backing membrane (Scotchpak[reg]1006) at different doses to get transdermal patches. The developed systems were evaluated for residual monomer content, equilibrium weight swelling ratio, weight uniformity, thickness uniformity, drug content, peel strength, in vitro release and skin permeation kinetics. They possessed excellent tack and adhesive properties. In the case of isosorbide dinitrate-EHA systems, an increase in the peel strength values with respect to the skin was observed with increasing radiation doses. The systems exhibited promising skin permeation kinetics favorable for transdermal drug delivery. The radiation stability of the drug in the pure solid state form was also assessed.

  4. Electron beam processed transdermal delivery system for administration of an anti-anginal agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotiyan, P.N.; Vavia, P.R.; Bharadwaj, Y.K.; Sabarwal, S.; Majali, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation was used to synthesize a matrix type transdermal system of isosorbide dinitrate, an effective anti-anginal agent. The drug was dissolved in two monomeric systems, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate : methyl methacrylate (9 : 1). The solutions were then directly irradiated on a backing membrane (Scotchpak[reg]1006) at different doses to get transdermal patches. The developed systems were evaluated for residual monomer content, equilibrium weight swelling ratio, weight uniformity, thickness uniformity, drug content, peel strength, in vitro release and skin permeation kinetics. They possessed excellent tack and adhesive properties. In the case of isosorbide dinitrate-EHA systems, an increase in the peel strength values with respect to the skin was observed with increasing radiation doses. The systems exhibited promising skin permeation kinetics favorable for transdermal drug delivery. The radiation stability of the drug in the pure solid state form was also assessed

  5. Systemic release of cytokines and heat shock proteins in porcine models of polytrauma and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Todd A.; Romero, Jacqueline; Bach, Harold H.; Strom, Joel A.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Majetschak, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define systemic release kinetics of a panel of cytokines and heat shock proteins (HSP) in porcine polytrauma/hemorrhage models and to evaluate whether they could be useful as early trauma biomarkers. Design and Setting Prospective study in a research laboratory. Subjects Twenty-one Yorkshire pigs. Measurements and Main Results Pigs underwent polytrauma (femur fractures/lung contusion, P), hemorrhage (mean arterial pressure 25-30mmHg, H), polytrauma plus hemorrhage (P/H) or sham procedure (S). Plasma was obtained at baseline, in 5-15min intervals during a 60min shock period without intervention and in 60-120min intervals during fluid resuscitation for up to 300min. Plasma was assayed for IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, IFNγ, TGFβ, TNFα, HSP40, HSP70 and HSP90 by ELISA. All animals after S, P and H survived (n=5/group). Three of six animals after P/H died. IL-10 increased during shock after P and this increase was attenuated after H. TNFα increased during the shock period after P, H and also after S. P/H abolished the systemic IL-10 and TNFα release and resulted in 20-30% increased levels of IL-6 during shock. As fluid resuscitation was initiated TNFα and IL-10 levels decreased after P, H and P/H, HSP 70 increased after P, IL-6 levels remained elevated after P/H and also increased after P and S. Conclusions Differential regulation of the systemic cytokine release after polytrauma and/or hemorrhage, in combination with the effects of resuscitation, can explain the variability and inconsistent association of systemic cytokine/HSP levels with clinical variables in trauma patients. Insults of major severity (P/H) partially suppress the systemic inflammatory response. The plasma concentrations of the measured cytokines/HSPs do not reflect injury severity or physiological changes in porcine trauma models and are unlikely to be able to serve as useful trauma biomarkers in patients. PMID:21983369

  6. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  7. Early alveolar and systemic mediator release in patients at different risks for ARDS after multiple trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymondos, Konstantinos; Martin, Michael U; Schmudlach, Tanja; Baus, Stefan; Weilbach, Christian; Welte, Tobias; Krettek, Christian; Frink, Michael; Hildebrand, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Alveolar IL-8 has been reported to early identify patients at-risk to develop ARDS. However, it remains unknown how alveolar IL-8 is related to pulmonary and systemic inflammation in patients predisposed for ARDS. We studied 24 patients 2-6h after multiple trauma. Patients with IL-8 >200 pg/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assigned to the group at high risk for ARDS (H, n = 8) and patients with BAL IL-8 mediators. The enhanced alveolar and systemic inflammation associated with alveolar IL-8 release should be considered to identify high-risk patients for pulmonary complications after multiple trauma to adjust surgical and other treatment strategies to the individual risk profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intricacies of Using Kevlar and Thermal Knives in a Deployable Release System: Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso C.; Hair, Jason H.; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of Kevlar cord and thermal knives in a deployable release system produces a number of issues that must be addressed in the design of the system. This paper proposes design considerations that minimize the major issues, thermal knife failure, Kevlar cord relaxation, and the measurement of the cord tension. Design practices can minimize the potential for thermal knife laminate and element damage that result in failure of the knife. A process for in-situ inspection of the knife with resistance, rather than continuity, checks and 10x zoom optical imaging can detect damaged knives. Tests allow the characterization of the behavior of the particular Kevlar cord in use and the development of specific pre-stretching techniques and initial tension values needed to meet requirements. A new method can accurately measure the tension of the Kevlar cord using a guitar tuner, because more conventional methods do not apply to arimid cords such as Kevlar.

  9. Intricacies of Using Kevlar Cord and Thermal Knives in a Deployable Release System: Issues and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso; Hair, Jason H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of Kevlar cord and thermal knives in a deployable release system produces a number of issues that must be addressed in the design of the system. This paper proposes design considerations that minimize the major issues, thermal knife failure, Kevlar cord relaxation, and the measurement of the cord tension. Design practices can minimize the potential for thermal knife laminate and element damage that result in failure of the knife. A process for in-situ inspection of the knife with resistance, rather than continuity, checks and 10x zoom optical imaging can detect damaged knives. Tests allow the characterization of the behavior of the particular Kevlar cord in use and the development of specific prestretching techniques and initial tension values needed to meet requirements. A new method can accurately measure the tension of the Kevlar cord using a guitar tuner, because more conventional methods do not apply to arimid cords such as Kevlar.

  10. Status, recent developments and perspective of TINE-powered video system, release 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, S.; Melkumyan, D.; Duval, P.

    2012-01-01

    Experience has shown that imaging software and hardware installations at accelerator facilities needs to be changed, adapted and updated on a semi-permanent basis. On this premise the component-based core architecture of Video System 3 was founded. In design and implementation, emphasis was, is, and will be put on flexibility, performance, low latency, modularity, inter operability, use of open source, ease of use as well as reuse, good documentation and multi-platform capability. In the past year, a milestone was reached as Video System 3 entered production-level at PITZ, Hasylab and PETRA III. Since then, the development path has been more strongly influenced by production-level experience and customer feedback. In this contribution, we describe the current status, layout, recent developments and perspective of the Video System. Focus will be put on integration of recording and playback of video sequences to Archive/DAQ, a standalone installation of the Video System on a notebook as well as experiences running on Windows 7-64 bit. In addition, new client-side multi-platform GUI/application developments using Java are about to hit the surface. Last but not least it must be mentioned that although the implementation of Release 3 is integrated into the TINE control system, it is modular enough so that integration into other control systems can be considered. (authors)

  11. SPEAR-BETA fuel-performance code system: fission-gas-release module. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The original SPEAR-BETA general description manual covers both mechanistic and statistical models for fuel reliability, but only mechanistic modeling of fission gas release. This addendum covers the SPEAR-BETA statistical model for fission gas release

  12. Tobacco Company Efforts to Influence the Food and Drug Administration-Commissioned Institute of Medicine Report Clearing the Smoke: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spurred by the creation of potential modified risk tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the science base for tobacco “harm reduction,” leading to the 2001 IOM report Clearing the Smoke. The objective of this study was to determine how the tobacco industry organized to try to influence the IOM committee that prepared the report. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and IOM public access files. (A limitation of this method includes the fact that the tobacco companies have withheld some possibly relevant documents.) Tobacco companies considered the IOM report to have high-stakes regulatory implications. They developed and implemented strategies with consulting and legal firms to access the IOM proceedings. When the IOM study staff invited the companies to provide information on exposure and disease markers, clinical trial design for safety and efficacy, and implications for initiation and cessation, tobacco company lawyers, consultants, and in-house regulatory staff shaped presentations from company scientists. Although the available evidence does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions, and the IOM may have come to the same conclusions without the influence of the tobacco industry, the companies were pleased with the final report, particularly the recommendations for a tiered claims system (with separate tiers for exposure and risk, which they believed would ease the process of qualifying for a claim) and license to sell products comparable to existing conventional cigarettes (“substantial equivalence”) without prior regulatory approval. Some principles from the IOM report, including elements of the substantial equivalence recommendation, appear in the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Conclusions Tobacco companies

  13. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  14. Tailored release drug delivery system for rifampicin and isoniazid for enhanced bioavailability of rifampicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Bhise, Satish B

    2011-04-01

    The front line antitubercular drugs rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH), when co-administered, face the problem of reduced bioavailability of RMP. Stabilization of RMP in the presence of INH under acidic environment may improve the bioavailability of RMP. In vitro degradation studies showed around 15-25% degradation of RMP under the aforesaid conditions if the ratio of RMP: INH is above 1:0.5.This degradation is reduced to less than 10% when the ratio of RMP: INH is below 1:0.25. Based on these findings, an innovative drug delivery system was designed with the immediate release of RMP and tailored prolonged release of INH. The bilayer tablets prepared with this concept were subjected to relative bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers in an open label, balanced, randomized, single-dose, cross-over study under fasted state. A validated LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method was employed for estimation of RMP and INH in plasma. Bioavailability studies revealed that C(max) and AUC for RMP increased by 18 and 20%, respectively, confirming the above innovative concept. Even in the case of INH, AUC increased significantly by around 30% and thus time above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) would also increase, which may result in further improved clinical outcome.

  15. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Yun Chen,1,* Qian Li,1,2,* Qingsheng Wu1 1Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai; 2Shanghai Institute of Quality Inspection and Technical Research, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4 at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded. Keywords: stearic acid, emulsion solvent evaporation method, drug delivery, cis-DIDP, in vitro

  16. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Source-term release formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses

  17. Recent Advances in Stimuli-Responsive Release Function Drug Delivery Systems for Tumor Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chendi Ding

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Benefiting from the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems (DDSs with stimuli-responsive controlled release function show great potential in clinical anti-tumor applications. By using a DDS, the harsh side effects of traditional anti-cancer drug treatments and damage to normal tissues and organs can be avoided to the greatest extent. An ideal DDS must firstly meet bio-safety standards and secondarily the efficiency-related demands of a large drug payload and controlled release function. This review highlights recent research progress on DDSs with stimuli-responsive characteristics. The first section briefly reviews the nanoscale scaffolds of DDSs, including mesoporous nanoparticles, polymers, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, quantum dots (QDs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The second section presents the main types of stimuli-responsive mechanisms and classifies these into two categories: intrinsic (pH, redox state, biomolecules and extrinsic (temperature, light irradiation, magnetic field and ultrasound ones. Clinical applications of DDS, future challenges and perspectives are also mentioned.

  18. SYSTEM OF COMPLEX EVALUATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF IN THE UNIVERSITY: PRACTICE AND FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Myalkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the problem of assessing the administrative staff of an educational organization of higher education is becoming increasingly important, as the competence, effectiveness and loyalty of staff is becoming an increasingly important factor and competitive advantage in the face of financial and resource constraints in the activities of universities. Traditional approaches to assessing the performance of employees give way to individual accounting of achievements and flexible regulation of material incentives for each employee.Materials and Methods: the article summarizes the experience and methods of personnel assessment as a key factor in the implementation of personnel policy and optimization of the personnel management system; the review of already applied methods of an estimation of scientific and pedagogical workers of high school is presented; a description of the methodology for a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the administrative and management staff of the university, based on performance indicators and job descriptions, as well as performance and effectiveness indicators (KPI.Results:  the article presents the results obtained in the implementation of the pilot project for the comprehensive assessment of the administrative staff of the Minin University, a system for assessing administrative personnel is described, taking into account the quality of the execution of job descriptions and the performance indicators of each employee. Based on the evaluations of employees, an assessment of the structural units was carried out.Discussion and Conclusions: based on the results of the pilot project, a set of methods for assessing personnel in the personnel work system of the university is proposed, which ensures the quality, efficiency, loyalty and systematic individual development of the university staff. The assessment of the administrative and managerial staff allows us to conclude that this methodology can be used

  19. Effect of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide on food intake and neural activation after different routes of peripheral administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, Jana; Pirník, Zdenko; Pražienková, Veronika; Bednárová, Lucie; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, Jan (2016), s. 109-117 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * food intake * c-Fos * pharmacokinetics * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2016

  20. Novel lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide have prolonged half-lives and exert anti-obesity effects after peripheral administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, L.; Nagelová, V.; Tichá, A.; Zemenová, J.; Pirník, Z.; Holubová, M.; Špolcová, A.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Blechová, M.; Sýkora, D.; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, B.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2015), s. 986-993 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : food intake * prolactin-releasing peptide * GPR10 receptor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2015

  1. Effect of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide on food intake and neural activation after different routes of peripheral administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, Barbora; Zemenová, J.; Pirník, Z.; Pražienková, V.; Bednárová, L.; Železná, B.; Maletínská, L.; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, Jan (2016), s. 109-117 ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * food intake * c-Fos * pharmacokinetics * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.778, year: 2016

  2. Peripheral administration of palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide induces Fos expression in hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis in NMRI male mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirník, Zdenko; Železná, Blanka; Kiss, A.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1625, Nov 2 (2015), s. 151-158 ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hypothalamus * prolactin-releasing peptide * Fos * oxytocin * hypocretin * mice Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2015

  3. International safeguards data management system. System description: Version 1.1.; Release PLI 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, T.; Casilli, T.; Costantini, L.; Dondi, M.G.; Franklin, M.

    1982-01-01

    This document describes a nuclear material accountancy system which has been developed using the ADABAS data base management system and is implemented on the JRC-Ispra computer. Throughout the report, the data base system is referred to as ''ISADAM'', i.e. International Safeguards Data Management System. The system provides tools for a safeguards authority to decide whether an operators MUF (Material Unaccounted For) can be accounted for as an accumulation of operator measurement errors. The principle objective of the applications programs described here is to provide a variance analysis of MUF in which the variance of MUF is computed as a function of the accounting declarations and the error characteristics of the operator measurement system. A overview of ISADAM is presented; then, a detailed description of the processing applied by the system is given. A description of the parameter information required by the four autonomous programs ISADAM is presented. In developing ISADAM, one of the prime factors taken into consideration was the ease with which it could be used

  4. New noninvasive method for evaluating portal systemic circulation by Tl-201 chloride per-rectal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Aburano, Tamio; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-12-01

    A new method for evaluating portal systemic circulation by /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration was developed and performed in 65 patients with various liver diseases and in 13 control subjects. In normal control, the liver was visualized on the 0 - 5 minutes' image after /sup 201/Tl administration, while the heart, spleen and lungs were not clearly visualized even on the 20 - 25 minutes' image. In patients with portal hypertension, the liver was not clearly visualized, while activities of other organs, especially the heart became great. As the index of estimating the degrees of portal-to-systemic shunt the heart/liver uptake ratio at 20 min. after administration (H/L ratio) was employed. The H/L ratio in liver cirrhosis was significantly higher than those in normal and chronic hepatitis. The patients with esophageal varices showed a significant higher mean H/L ratio compared to that in cirrhotic patients without esophageal varices. There was also a significant difference in H/L ratio between esophageal varices stages. Since there were many other patients with hepatocellular damage who had high H/L ratios similar to those in liver cirrhosis, the effect that hepatocellular damage has on the liver uptake of /sup 201/Tl is also considered. Our present data suggest that this noninvasive method seems to be useful to evaluate the degrees of portal-to-systemic shunt.

  5. Innovation of novel 'Tab in Tab' system for release modulation of milnacipran HCl: optimization, formulation and in vitro investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejiya, Punit B; Barot, Bhavesh S; Patel, Hetal K; Shelat, Pragna K; Shukla, Arunkumar

    2013-11-01

    The study was aimed toward development of modified release oral drug delivery system for highly water soluble drug, Milnacipran HCl (MH). Novel Tablet in Tablet system (TITs) comprising immediate and extended release dose of MH in different parts was fabricated. The outer shell was composed of admixture of MH, lactose and novel herbal disintegrant obtained from seeds of Lepidium sativum. In the inner core, MH was matrixed with blend of hydrophilic (Benecel®) and hydrophobic (Compritol®) polymers. 3² full factorial design and an artificial neuron network (ANN) were employed for correlating effect of independent variables on dependent variables. The TITs were characterized for pharmacopoeial specifications, in vitro drug release, SEM, drug release kinetics and FTIR study. The release pattern of MH from batch A10 containing 25.17% w/w Benecel® and 8.21% w/w of Compritol® exhibited drug release pattern close proximal to the ideal theoretical profile (t(50%) = 5.92 h, t(75%) = 11.9 h, t(90%) = 18.11 h). The phenomenon of drug release was further explained by concept of percolation and the role of Benecel® and Compritol® in drug release retardation was studied. The normalized error obtained from ANN was less, compared with the multiple regression analysis, and exhibits the higher accuracy in prediction. The results of short-term stability study revealed stable chataracteristics of TITs. SEM study of TITs at different dissolution time points confirmed both diffusion and erosion mechanisms to be operative during drug release from the batch A10. Novel TITs can be a succesful once a day delivery system for highly water soluble drugs.

  6. High concentrations of thiosulfate in scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Pernilla Videhult; Engmér, Cecilia; Wallin, Inger; Laurell, Göran; Ehrsson, Hans

    2009-02-01

    High concentrations of the antioxidant thiosulfate reach scala tympani perilymph after i.v. administration in the guinea pig. Thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph remain elevated longer than in blood. This warrants further studies on the possibility of obtaining otoprotection by thiosulfate administration several hours before that of cisplatin without compromising the anticancer effect caused by cisplatin inactivation in the blood compartment. Thiosulfate may reduce cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, presumably by oxidative stress relief and formation of inactivate platinum complexes. This study aimed to explore to what extent thiosulfate reaches scala tympani perilymph after systemic administration in the guinea pig. Scala tympani perilymph (1 microl) was aspirated from the basal turn of each cochlea up to 3 h after thiosulfate administration (103 mg/kg b.w., i.v.). Blood samples were also taken. Thiosulfate was quantified by HPLC and fluorescence detection. Substantial thiosulfate concentrations were found in perilymph. The area under the concentration-time curve for thiosulfate in perilymph and blood was 3100 microMxmin and 6300 microMxmin, respectively. The highest thiosulfate concentrations in perilymph were found at the first sampling at about 10 min. Due to a more rapid elimination from blood, perilymph concentrations exceeded those of blood towards the end of the experiment.

  7. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS): Application source/release control for EPICS R3.11.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieman, B.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes a set of tools that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. It provides the following features: Multiple applications; the entire system is composed of an arbitrary number of applications: Source/Release Control; all files created or modified by the applications developers can be put under sccs (a UNIX Source/Release control utility): Multiple Developers; it allows a number of applications developers to work separately during the development phase but combine their applications for system testing and for a production system; Makefiles: makefiles are provided to automatically rebuild various application components. For C and state notation programs, Imagefiles are provided

  8. Depiction of Trends in Administrative Healthcare Data from Hospital Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalankesh, Leila R; Pourasghar, Faramarz; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Khanehdan, Negar

    2015-06-01

    administrative healthcare data are among main components of hospital information system. Such data can be analyzed and deployed for a variety of purposes. The principal aim of this research was to depict trends of administrative healthcare data from HIS in a general hospital from March 2011 to March 2014. data set used for this research was extracted from the SQL database of the hospital information system in Razi general hospital located in Marand. The data were saved as CSV (Comma Separated Values) in order to facilitate data cleaning and analysis. The variables of data set included patient's age, gender, final diagnosis, final diagnosis code based on ICD-10 classification system, date of hospitalization, date of discharge, LOS(Length of Stay), ward, and survival status of the patient. Data were analyzed and visualized after applying appropriate cleansing and preparing techniques. morbidity showed a constant trend over three years. Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium were the leading category of final diagnosis (about 32.8 %). The diseases of the circulatory system were the second class accounting for 13 percent of the hospitalization cases. The diseases of the digestive system had the third rank (10%). Patients aged between 14 and 44 constituted a higher proportion of total cases. Diseases of the circulatory system was the most common class of diseases among elderly patients (age≥65). The highest rate of mortality was observed among patients with final diagnosis of the circulatory system diseases followed by those with diseases of the respiratory system, and neoplasms. Mortality rate for the ICU and the CCU patients were 62% and 33% respectively. The longest average of LOS (7.3 days) was observed among patients hospitalized in the ICU while patients in the Obstetrics and Gynecology ward had the shortest average of LOS (2.4 days). Multiple regression analysis revealed that LOS was correlated with variables of surgery, gender, and type of payment, ward, the

  9. The impact of a closed-loop electronic prescribing and administration system on prescribing errors, administration errors and staff time: a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bryony Dean; O'Grady, Kara; Donyai, Parastou; Jacklin, Ann; Barber, Nick

    2007-08-01

    To assess the impact of a closed-loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and electronic medication administration record (EMAR) system on prescribing and administration errors, confirmation of patient identity before administration, and staff time. Before-and-after study in a surgical ward of a teaching hospital, involving patients and staff of that ward. Closed-loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and EMAR system. Percentage of new medication orders with a prescribing error, percentage of doses with medication administration errors (MAEs) and percentage given without checking patient identity. Time spent prescribing and providing a ward pharmacy service. Nursing time on medication tasks. Prescribing errors were identified in 3.8% of 2450 medication orders pre-intervention and 2.0% of 2353 orders afterwards (pMedical staff required 15 s to prescribe a regular inpatient drug pre-intervention and 39 s afterwards (p = 0.03; t test). Time spent providing a ward pharmacy service increased from 68 min to 98 min each weekday (p = 0.001; t test); 22% of drug charts were unavailable pre-intervention. Time per drug administration round decreased from 50 min to 40 min (p = 0.006; t test); nursing time on medication tasks outside of drug rounds increased from 21.1% to 28.7% (p = 0.006; chi(2) test). A closed-loop electronic prescribing, dispensing and barcode patient identification system reduced prescribing errors and MAEs, and increased confirmation of patient identity before administration. Time spent on medication-related tasks increased.

  10. The impact of a closed‐loop electronic prescribing and administration system on prescribing errors, administration errors and staff time: a before‐and‐after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bryony Dean; O'Grady, Kara; Donyai, Parastou; Jacklin, Ann; Barber, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of a closed‐loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and electronic medication administration record (EMAR) system on prescribing and administration errors, confirmation of patient identity before administration, and staff time. Design, setting and participants Before‐and‐after study in a surgical ward of a teaching hospital, involving patients and staff of that ward. Intervention Closed‐loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and EMAR system. Main outcome measures Percentage of new medication orders with a prescribing error, percentage of doses with medication administration errors (MAEs) and percentage given without checking patient identity. Time spent prescribing and providing a ward pharmacy service. Nursing time on medication tasks. Results Prescribing errors were identified in 3.8% of 2450 medication orders pre‐intervention and 2.0% of 2353 orders afterwards (pMedical staff required 15 s to prescribe a regular inpatient drug pre‐intervention and 39 s afterwards (p = 0.03; t test). Time spent providing a ward pharmacy service increased from 68 min to 98 min each weekday (p = 0.001; t test); 22% of drug charts were unavailable pre‐intervention. Time per drug administration round decreased from 50 min to 40 min (p = 0.006; t test); nursing time on medication tasks outside of drug rounds increased from 21.1% to 28.7% (p = 0.006; χ2 test). Conclusions A closed‐loop electronic prescribing, dispensing and barcode patient identification system reduced prescribing errors and MAEs, and increased confirmation of patient identity before administration. Time spent on medication‐related tasks increased. PMID:17693676

  11. A model system for targeted drug release triggered by biomolecular signals logically processed through enzyme logic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Shay; Halámek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-03-07

    A new Sense-and-Act system was realized by the integration of a biocomputing system, performing analytical processes, with a signal-responsive electrode. A drug-mimicking release process was triggered by biomolecular signals processed by different logic networks, including three concatenated AND logic gates or a 3-input OR logic gate. Biocatalytically produced NADH, controlled by various combinations of input signals, was used to activate the electrochemical system. A biocatalytic electrode associated with signal-processing "biocomputing" systems was electrically connected to another electrode coated with a polymer film, which was dissolved upon the formation of negative potential releasing entrapped drug-mimicking species, an enzyme-antibody conjugate, operating as a model for targeted immune-delivery and consequent "prodrug" activation. The system offers great versatility for future applications in controlled drug release and personalized medicine.

  12. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How to maintain hundreds of computers offering different functionalities with only 2 system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Higgs, C.; Kapeller, R.; Lutz, H.; Provenzano, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the control systems of our large research facilities are maintained by the Controls section. These facilities include two proton accelerators, (HIPA and PROSCAN), two electron accelerators, (SLS and the Injector Test Facility of the future SwissFEL) as well as the control systems of all their related beamlines and test facilities. The control system configuration and applications for each facility is stored on independent NFS file servers. The total number of Linux computers and servers is about 500. Since only two system administrators are responsible for their installation, configuration and maintenance, we have adopted a well defined solution that relies on 3 ideas: -) Virtualization, -) Unified operating system installation and update mechanism, and -) Automatic configuration by a common tool (puppet). This paper describes methods and tools which are used to develop and maintain the challenging computing infrastructure deployed by the Controls section

  14. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho

    2001-03-01

    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents

  15. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents.

  16. Development of filter module for passive filtration and accident gas release confinement system for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelizarov, P.G.; Efanov, A.D.; Martynov, P.N.; Masalov, D.P.; Osipov, V.P.; Yagodkin, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One of the urgent problems of the safe NPP operation is air cleaning from radioactive aerosols and volatile iodine compounds under the accident operation conditions of NPP. A principally new passive accident gas release confinement system is used as the basis of the designs of new generation reactor power blocks under the-beyond-design-basis accident conditions with total loss of current. The basic structural component of the passive filtration system (PFS) is the filter-sorber being heated up to 300 deg. C. The filter-sorber represents a design consisting of 150 connected in parallel two-step filtering modules. The first step is intended to clean air from radioactive aerosols, the second one - to clean air from radioactive iodine and its volatile compounds. The filter-sorber is located in the upper point of the exterior protection shell. Due to natural convection, it provides confinement of r/a impurities and controlled steam-gas release from the inter-shell space into atmosphere. The basic specific design feature is the two-section design of the PFS filter module consisting of a coarse-cleaning section and a fine-cleaning section. A combination of layer-by-layer put filtering materials on the basis of glass fiber and metal fiber. The pilot PFS filter module specimen tests run in conditions modeling accident situation indicated that at a filtration rate of 0,3 cm/s the aerodynamic resistance of the module does not exceed 12 Pa, the filtration effectiveness equals 99,99 % in terms of aerosol, no less than 99,9% in terms of radioactive 131 I and no less than 99,0% in terms of organic compounds of iodine (CH 3 131 I); the dust capacity amounts to a value above 50 g/m 2 . The obtained results of tests comply with the design requirements imposed on the PFS filter-sorber module. (authors)

  17. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by 201 Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of 201 Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in 201 Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized. (author)

  18. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Systemic Teriparatide Administration Promotes Osseous Regeneration of an Intrabony Defect: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashutski, Jill D; Kinney, Janet S; Benavides, Erika; Maitra, Samopriyo; Braun, Thomas M; Giannobile, William V; McCauley, Laurie K; Eber, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    Teriparatide comprises the first 34 amino acids of parathyroid hormone and is a systemic anabolic agent that is Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of osteoporosis but not for periodontitis. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report to document the treatment of a patient with severe periodontitis using an open-flap debridement procedure in conjunction with teriparatide. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis, including the presence of an intrabony defect on tooth #6. She received open-flap debridement surgery in conjunction with daily systemic administration of 20 µg teriparatide, oral vitamin D, and calcium supplements for 6 weeks. Radiographic, clinical, gingival crevicular fluid (pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, procollagen type 1 N-propeptide, and osteocalcin), and serum parameters (parathyroid hormone, bone alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D) were assessed. Treatment outcomes were evaluated over 4 years, with successful radiographic and clinical results throughout the follow-up period. Teriparatide administration in conjunction with traditional open-flap debridement surgery offers potential for the treatment of severe intrabony defects resulting from chronic periodontitis.

  20. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    The report addresses radioactive discharges to sewers originating from hospitals, mainly in the form of the excretion of patients treated with radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Assessments of doses to the public, including sewage workers, arising from such discharges are performed. Doses are compared against the exemption level of 10 {mu}Sv/a and the dose constraint of 100 {mu}Sv/a. As a basis for the dose assessments, information on the use of radionuclides in Swedish hospitals during the period 1999-2004 is presented and estimates of discharges to the sewage systems are derived. Current sewage treatment practices in Sweden are summarised focusing particularly on the fate of sewage sludge, both in the sewage plant and outside. Radiological impact assessments are performed in two steps. The assessments in the first stage are performed using a simple screening model, not intending to predict exposures realistically but only to identify exposure pathways and radionuclides that are potentially relevant and require further consideration in the more detailed assessments. Results show that only a few of those radionuclides used in the period 1999-2004 in Swedish hospitals for radiotherapy and radiodiagnostics could lead to potentially significant doses (P-32, Y-90, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, I-131 and Tl-201). Relevant exposure pathways are the external exposure of sewage workers (for Tc- 99m, I-123, I-131, In-111 and Tl-201) and the exposure of the public via ingestion of water (I-131) and fish (P-32, Y-90 and In-111 and I-131). The objective of the second stage is to perform realistic assessments of the doses to sewage workers and to the public through the use of contaminated agricultural sludge and through the contamination of drinking water. For this purpose, the LUCIA model was developed. This model dynamically addresses the behaviour of radionuclides in the different process steps of a sewage plant. The model can address continuous releases as well

  1. Novel lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide have prolonged half-lives and exert anti-obesity effects after peripheral administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Nagelová, Veronika; Tichá, Anežka; Zemenová, Jana; Pirník, Zdenko; Holubová, Martina; Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Blechová, Miroslava; Sýkora, D.; Lacinová, Z.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2015), s. 986-993 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1368; GA ČR GAP303/12/0576; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : food intake * prolactin-releasing peptide * GPR10 receptor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2015

  2. Human Resource Reforms in Public Administration: The Importance of the Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Freitas Bradley Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management encompasses administrating and managing human resources or otherwise known as employees. The HR or Human Resources department of any company, whether it be public or private, deals with the day to aspects pertaining to employees, from the recruitment process to probably the most important aspect for any employee; remuneration and benefits. The importance of finding a perfect equilibrium between monetary and non-monetary incentives is crucial in obtaining an efficient work environment, as well as increasing productivity and employee motivation. Having an administrative background or knowledge is essential for any HR manager, in order to detect and implement the most beneficial reward system for both implicated parties.

  3. Stress and addiction: contribution of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF system in neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L Haass-Koffler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF has been shown to induce various behavioral changes related to adaptation to stress. Dysregulation of the CRF system at any point can lead to a variety of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs. CRF has been associated with stress-induced drug reinforcement. Extensive literature has identified CRF to play an important role in the molecular mechanisms that lead to an increase in susceptibility that precipitates relapse to SUDs. The CRF system has a heterogeneous role in SUDs. It enhances the acute effects of drugs of abuse and is also responsible for the potentiation of drug-induced neuroplasticity evoked during the withdrawal period. We present in this review the brain regions and circuitries where CRF is expressed and may participate in stress-induced drug abuse. Finally, we attempt to evaluate the role of modulating the CRF system as a possible therapeutic strategy for treating the dysregulation of emotional behaviors that result from the acute positive reinforcement of substances of abuse as well as the negative reinforcement produced by withdrawal.

  4. Relations between administrative monitoring system to cope with corporate scandals and market competition situation(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    SHIRAISHI Ken

    2005-01-01

    One of the measures to cope with corporate scandals is monitoring by the administrative agencies. This paper refers the theory of the monitoring, inspects some current Japanese administrative monitoring systems and indicates desirable way to design social system based on law and economic theory. As to current Japanese monitoring systems, some systems are rationally designed, combining inside and outside monitoring, and lowered the social costs, but others are excessive or underrate monitoring...

  5. Program support of the automated system of planned calculations of the Oil and Gas Extracting Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkinuze, V G; Reznikovskiy, P T

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the program support of the Automated System of Planned Calculations (ASPC) of the oil and Gas Extracting Administration (OGEA). Specific requirements for the ASPC of the OGEA are indicated and features of its program realization. In developing the program support of the system, an approach of parametric programming was used. A formal model of the ASPC OGEA is described in detail. It was formed in a theoretical-multiple language. Sets with structure of a tree are examined. They illustrate the production and administrative hierarchical structure of the planning objects in the oil region. The top of the tree corresponds to the OGEA as a whole. In the simplest realization, the tree has two levels of hierarchy: association and field. In general features, a procedure is described for possible use of the system by the planning workers. A plan is presented for program support of the ASPC OGEA, in light of whose specific nature a large part of the programs which realize this system are written in a language ASSEMBLER.

  6. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  7. Cardiovascular safety of the oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) formulation of tamsulosin compared to the modified release (MR) formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Klauwinkel, W.; Shear, M.; Davies, J.; Quartel, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The potential to interfere with efferent adrenergic drive in the cardiovascular system was tested in elderly healthy subjects for the new oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg tablet formulation of tamsulosin compared to the modified release (MR) 0.4 mg capsule formulation of

  8. Development of a magnetic capsule as a drug release system for future applications in the human GI tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, Hendryk; Surzhenko, Oleksy; Wangemann, Sebastian; Heinrich, Jochen; Goernert, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A method for active drug delivery inside the human digestive system is proposed. This method allows the localisation of a magnetically marked capsule on its natural way through the digestive system and to open it at a desired position. Thus, the procedure contains two important components: the magnetic monitoring and active drug release

  9. Modulation of active pharmaceutical material release from a novel 'tablet in capsule system' containing an effervescent blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh C; Sumitra G, Manhapra

    2002-02-19

    The objective of the present study was to obtain programmed drug delivery from hard gelatin capsules containing a hydrophilic plug (HPMC or guar gum). The significance of factors such as type of plug (powder or tablet), plug thickness and the formulation of fill material on the release pattern of diltiazem HCl, a model drug, was investigated. The body portion of the hard gelatin capsules was cross-linked by the combined effect of formaldehyde and heat treatment. A linear relationship was observed between weight of HPMC K15M and log % drug released at 4 h from the capsules containing the plug in powder form. In order to accelerate the drug release after a lag time of 4 h, addition of an effervescent blend, NaHCO(3) and citric acid, in the capsules was found to be essential. The plugs of HPMC in tablet form, with or without a water soluble adjuvant (NaCl or lactose) were used for obtaining immediate drug release after the lag time. Sodium chloride did not cause significant influence on drug release whereas lactose favourably affected the drug release. The capsules containing HPMC K15M tablet plug (200 mg) and 35 mg effervescent blend in body portion of the capsule met the selection criteria of less than 10% drug release in 4 h and immediate drug release thereafter. It is further shown that the drug release was also dependant on the type of swellable hydrophilic agent (HPMC or guar gum) and molecular weight of HPMC (K15M or 20 cPs). The results reveal that programmed drug delivery can be obtained from hard gelatin capsules by systemic formulation approach.

  10. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  11. Systemic Administration of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Does Not Halt Osteoporotic Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Huang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have innate ability to self-renew and immunosuppressive functions, and differentiate into various cell types. They have become a promising cell source for treating many diseases, particular for bone regeneration. Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder with elevated systemic inflammation which in turn triggers enhanced bone loss. We hypothesize that systemic infusion of MSCs may suppress the elevated inflammation in the osteoporotic subjects and slow down bone loss. The current project was to address the following two questions: (1 Will a single dose systemic administration of allogenic MSCs have any effect on osteoporotic bone loss? (2 Will multiple administration of allogenic MSCs from single or multiple donors have similar effect on osteoporotic bone loss? 18 ovariectomized (OVX rats were assigned into 3 groups: the PBS control group, MSCs group 1 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs at Day 10, 46, 91 from the same donor following OVX and MSCs group 2 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs from three different donors at Day 10, 46, 91. Examinations included Micro-CT, serum analysis, mechanical testing, immunofluorescence staining and bone histomorphometry analysis. Results showed that BV/TV at Day 90, 135, BMD of TV and trabecular number at Day 135 in the PBS group were significantly higher than those in the MSCs group 2, whereas trabecular spacing at Day 90, 135 was significantly smaller than that in MSCs group 2. Mechanical testing data didn't show significant difference among the three groups. In addition, the ELISA assay showed that level of Rantes in serum in MSCs group 2 was significantly higher than that of the PBS group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. Bone histomorphometry analysis showed that Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS in the PBS group were significant lower than those in MSCs group 2; Ob.S/BS and Ob.N/BS did not show significant difference among the three groups. The current study

  12. Application of the dose limitation system to the control of carbon-14 releases from heavy-water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy-water-moderated reactors produce substantially more carbon-14 than light-water reactors. Applying the principles of the systems of dose limitation, the paper presents the rationale used for establishing the release limit for effluents containing this nuclide and for the decisions made regarding the effluent treatment in the third nuclear power station in Argentina. Production of carbon-14 in PHWR and the release routes are analysed in the light of the different effluent treatment possibilities. An optimization assessment is presented, taking into account effluent treatment and waste management costs, and the collective effective dose commitment due to the releases. The contribution of present carbon-14 releases to future individual doses is also analysed in the light of an upper bound for the contribution, representing a fraction of the individual dose limits. The paper presents the resulting requirements for the effluent treatment regarding carbon-14 and the corresponding regulatory aspects used in Argentina. (author)

  13. Development of an administrative system for an integral program of safety and occupational hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez R, J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation thesis will be to provide a clear application of the basic elements of the administration for the elaboration of an integral program of security and occupational hygiene that serves like guide for the creation of new programs and of an internal integral regulation, in the matter. For the above mentioned the present work of thesis investigation besides applying those basic elements of the integral administration will be given execution to the normative one effective as well as the up-to-date concepts of security and hygiene for that the present thesis will be based on these premises that guided us for the elaboration of the program of security and occupational hygiene and that it will serve like base to be applied in all the areas of the National Institute of Nuclear Research and in special in those that are certifying for the system of administration of quality ISO 9001:2000 that with their implantation the objectives were reached that the Institute it has been traced in their general politics. It is necessary to make mention that the Institute has a primordial activity that is the one of to make Research and Development in nuclear matter for the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy, for that that with a strong support of the conventional areas of the type industrial the institutional objectives are achieved, for what is in these areas where the present thesis investigation is developed, without stopping to revise and to apply the nuclear normativity. (Author)

  14. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was developed and validated in accordance with the USA FDA guidelines including accuracy, precision, specificity, and linearity. Perilymph was sampled from the apical turn of the cochlea to prevent contamination with the cerebrospinal fluid. ADAC was detected in cochlear perilymph within two minutes following intravenous administration and remained in perilymph above its minimal effective concentration for at least two hours. The pharmacokinetic pattern of ADAC was significantly altered by exposure to noise, suggesting transient changes in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier and/or cochlear blood flow. This study supports ADAC development as a potential clinical otological treatment for acute sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gelling systems for intranasal administration of gastrodin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiangrong; Sun, Feng; Yang, Zhaoxiang; Hou, Shixiang; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2011-12-01

    Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese drug "Tianma." It is used in the treatment of some nervous system diseases and can be transported to the brain via intranasal administration. In the current paper, the development of a novel ion-activated in situ gelling system for the nasal delivery of gastrodin is discussed. An in situ perfusion model was used to determine the absorption-rate constant of gastrodin through rat nasal mucosa. The optimal formulation was determined by measuring the critical cation concentration, anti-dilution capacity, gel expansion coefficient, water-holding capacity, and adhesive capacity. The best formulation consisted of 10% gastrodin, 0.5% deacetylated gellan gum as the gelatinizer, and 0.03% ethylparaben as the preservative. The rheological properties of gastrodin nasal in situ gels were also investigated. The viscosity and elasticity sharply increased at temperatures below 25°C. When physiological concentrations of cations were added into the preparation, the mixture gelled into a semi-solid. The results of an accelerated stability test show that gastrodin nasal in situ gels can be stable for more than 2 years. Mucociliary toxicity was evaluated using the in situ toad palate model and the rat nasal mucociliary method; both models demonstrated no measurable ciliotoxicity. Pharmacodynamic studies suggest that similar acesodyne and sedative effects were induced following intranasal administration of 50 mg/kg gastrodin nasal in situ gels or oral administration of 100 mg/kg gastrodin solution. The in situ gel preparation is a safe and effective nasal delivery system for gastrodin.

  16. Design challenges for electronic medication administration record systems in residential aged care facilities: a formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, A; Lehnbom, E; Oliver, K; Georgiou, A; Rowe, C; Osmond, T; Westbrook, J

    2014-01-01

    Electronic medication administration record (eMAR) systems are promoted as a potential intervention to enhance medication safety in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-practice evaluation of an eMAR being piloted in one Australian RACF before its roll out, and to provide recommendations for system improvements. A multidisciplinary team conducted direct observations of workflow (n=34 hours) in the RACF site and the community pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews (n=5) with RACF staff and the community pharmacist were conducted to investigate their views of the eMAR system. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify challenges associated with the design of the eMAR system. The current eMAR system does not offer an end-to-end solution for medication management. Many steps, including prescribing by doctors and communication with the community pharmacist, are still performed manually using paper charts and fax machines. Five major challenges associated with the design of eMAR system were identified: limited interactivity; inadequate flexibility; problems related to information layout and semantics; the lack of relevant decision support; and system maintenance issues. We suggest recommendations to improve the design of the eMAR system and to optimize existing workflows. Immediate value can be achieved by improving the system interactivity, reducing inconsistencies in data entry design and offering dedicated organisational support to minimise connectivity issues. Longer-term benefits can be achieved by adding decision support features and establishing system interoperability requirements with stakeholder groups (e.g. community pharmacies) prior to system roll out. In-practice evaluations of technologies like eMAR system have great value in identifying design weaknesses which inhibit optimal system use.

  17. Bone formation induced in an infant by systemic prostaglandin-E2 administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H R; Svanholm, H; Høst, A

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of long-term systemic administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a newborn infant with ductus-dependent congenital heart disease. After 46 days of treatment, radiography showed cortical hyperostosis of the long bones. The child died 62 days after discontinuation of prostaglandin...... treatment. Histologic examination of tubular bones showed hyperostosis presumably due to prostaglandin-induced rapid formation of primitive bone. The additional finding of extensive resorption of the outer cortical surface and bone formation at the inner surface suggested a reversible phase after...

  18. Social work in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) System: rewards, challenges, roles and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Joan; Postiglione, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For the social worker in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) System, numerous challenges are faced and met while serving the nation's Veterans. As part of the multidisciplinary team, social workers perform a variety of tasks and function in diverse roles. The qualitative survey research reported in this article sought to detail what social workers identified about the impact and rewards of their work and what they saw as the challenges and frustrations. In addition the social workers were asked to clarify their role with the patient and the family. Intervention strategies used in the course of the social workers interaction with the Veterans was also ascertained.

  19. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  20. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB.

  1. Modified thermoresponsive Poloxamer 407 and chitosan sol-gels as potential sustained-release vaccine delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojarunchitt, Thunjiradasiree; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Dong, Yao-Da

    2015-01-01

    Thermoresponsive, particle-loaded, Poloxamer 407 (P407)-Pluronic-R® (25R4) or chitosan-methyl cellulose (MC) formulations were developed as single-dose, sustained release vaccines. The sol-gels, loaded either with a particulate vaccine (cubosomes) or soluble antigen (ovalbumin) and adjuvants (Quil...... the chitosan-MC sol-gels sustained the release of antigen up to at least 14 days after administration. The chitosan-MC sol-gels stimulated both cellular and humoral responses. The inclusion of cubosomes in the sol-gels did not provide a definitive beneficial effect. Further analysis of the formulations...... with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that while cubosomes were stable in chitosan-MC gels they were not stable in P407-25R4 formulations. The reason for the mixed response to cubosome-loaded vehicles requires more investigation, however it appears that the cubosomes did not facilitate...

  2. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  3. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaoning; Li Yunde; Li Jinghong; Lin Fangliang

    1997-01-01

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  4. Simulation experiments on the radial pool growth in gas-releasing melting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadieh, R.; Purviance, R.; Carlson, N.

    1983-01-01

    Following an HCDA, molten core-debris can contact the concrete foundation of the reactor building resulting in a molten UO 2 /concrete interaction and considerable gas release. The released gas can pressurize the containment building potentially leading to radiological releases. Furthermore, directional growth of the molten core-debris pool can reduce the reactor building structural integrity. To implement design changes that insure structural integrity, an understanding of the thermal-hydraulic and mass-transfer process associated with such a growth is most desirable. Owing to the complex nature of the combined heat, mass, and hydrodynamic processes associated with the two-dimensional problem of gas release and melting, the downward and radial penetration problems have been investigated separately. The present experimental study addresses the question of sideward penetration of the molten core debris into a gas-releasing, meltable, miscible solid

  5. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  6. Validation of a numerical release model (REPCOM) for the Finnish reactor waste disposal systems: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1987-05-01

    The aim of the work is to model experimentally the inner structures and materials of two reactor waste repositories and to use the results for the validation work of a numerical near field release model, REPCOM. The experimental modelling of the multibarrier systems is conducted on a laboratory scale by using the same principal materials as are employed in the Finnish reactor waste disposal concepts. The migration of radionuclides is studied in two or more consecutive material layers. The laboratory arrangements include the following test materials: bituminized resin, cemented resin, concrete, crushed rock, and water. The materials correspond to the local materials in the planned disposal systems. Cs-137, Co-60, Sr-85, and Sr-90 are used as tracers, with which the resin, water, and crushed rock are labeled depending on the specimen type. The basic specimen geometries are cylindrical and cubic. In the cylindrical geometry the test materials were placed into PVC-tubes. The corresponding numerical model is one-dimensional. In the cubic geometry the materials were placed inside each other. The boundaries form cubes, and the numerical model is three-dimensional. Altogether 12 test system types were produced. The gamma active nuclides in the cylindrical samples were measured nondestructively with a scanner in order to determine the activity profiles in the specimens. The gamma active nuclides in the cubic samples and the beta emeitting Sr-90 in separate samples will be measured after splitting the samples. One to five activity profiles were determined for each cylindrical gamma-active sample. There are already clear diffusion profiles to be had for strontium in crushed rock, and for cesium in crushed rock and in concrete. Cobalt indicated no diffusion. No activity profiles were measured for the cubic samples or for the beta active, Sr-90-doped samples

  7. "You Need a System": Exploring the Role of Data in the Administration of University Students and Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Henderson, Michael; Chao, Shu-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Universities generate a mass of data related to students and the courses that they study. As such, "data work" using digital technologies and digital systems is integral to educational administration within higher education. Drawing on in-depth interviews with administrative and managerial staff in an Australian university, this article…

  8. Administrative Decentralization in School Systems and Its Effect on the Organization of Media Services. Atlanta Public Schools: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. David

    This study reviews the literature on public school administration and on decentralization to establish the groundwork for an analysis of the administration of a decentralized school system and its media services, discusses some of the confusion in the centralization vs. decentralization debate, and presents a heuristic study of the administration…

  9. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    The first model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the ''failed'' waste package and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the package (because of corrosion products plugging the perforations), thereby being prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to diffuse through the perforations, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had lower peak EBS release rates than with the first model. Impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with low solubility. The analysis indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a ''failed'' waste package (the first model) may be too conservative; thus a ''failed'' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be an important barrier to radionuclide release

  10. Poly-ε-caprolactone microspheres as a drug delivery system for cannabinoid administration: development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of their antitumoral efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, D; Ligresti, A; Gil-Alegre, M E; Aberturas, M R; Molpeceres, J; Di Marzo, V; Torres Suárez, A I

    2012-08-10

    Cannabinoids show promise for the treatment of various medical conditions such as emesis, anorexia, pain, cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and glaucoma. However, their high lipohilicity and instability complicate their handling and dosing, and restrict their use as pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present work was to assess the feasibility of developing cannabinoid loaded poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) microparticles prepared by the oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique as a suitable dosage form for their administration. Spherical microparticles with a size range of 20-50 μm, and high entrapment efficiency (around 100%) were obtained. Cannabidiol (CBD) dissolved in the polymeric matrix of the microspheres was slowly released in vitro within 10 days. In vitro cell viability studies demonstrated the antitumoral activity of CBD released from microparticles. After 4 and 7 days of incubation, CBD in microspheres significantly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells by 60% as compared to the 50% attained with free drug. The results suggest that PCL microparticles could be an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration, showing potential therapeutic advantages over free drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto and others

    1986-03-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized.

  12. Change of nuclear administrative system and long-term program for nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Jeong, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    Japanese new governmental adminstrative system was restructured and became in operation from January 1, 2001 including newly establishment of the Ministry of Cabinet. Accordingly, Japanese nuclear administrative system were also changed significantly, in order to reflect the changing policy environment and response to them more efficiently in the use and development of nuclear energy. Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Safety Commission administrated by Science and Technology Agency in the past, were moved to the Ministry of Cabinet, and Integrated Science and Technology Council was also newly established under the Ministry of Cabinet. And Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry(METI) is in charge of nuclear energy policy and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) is in charge of nuclear academic science consequently. At the same time, the revision work of 'Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear of Japan' established in 1994, has been carried out from 1999 in order to set up the long term based national nuclear policy towards the 21st century, and finally the results were open to the public in November 2000. Major changes of nuclear policy of Japan the will be good references in the establishing future national nuclear policy for the use and development of nuclear energy

  13. Expand classical drug administration ways by emerging routes using dendrimer drug delivery systems: a concise overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Serge; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Drugs are introduced into the body by numerous routes such as enteral (oral, sublingual and rectum administration), parenteral (intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous and inhalation administration), or topical (skin and mucosal membranes). Each route has specific purposes, advantages and disadvantages. Today, the oral route remains the preferred one for different reasons such as ease and compliance by patients. Several nanoformulated drugs have been already approved by the FDA, such as Abelcet®, Doxil®, Abraxane® or Vivagel®(Starpharma) which is an anionic G4-poly(L-lysine)-type dendrimer showing potent topical vaginal microbicide activity. Numerous biochemical studies, as well as biological and pharmacological applications of both dendrimer based products (dendrimers as therapeutic compounds per se, like Vivagel®) and dendrimers as drug carriers (covalent conjugation or noncovalent encapsulation of drugs) were described. It is widely known that due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties, dendrimers afforded improvement of corresponding carried-drugs as dendrimer-drug complexes or conjugates (versus plain drug) such as biodistribution and pharmacokinetic behaviors. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent progresses of dendrimers as nanoscale drug delivery systems for the delivery of drugs using enteral, parenteral and topical routes. In particular, we focus our attention on the emerging and promising routes such as oral, transdermal, ocular and transmucosal routes using dendrimers as delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized, double-blind trial of guanfacine extended release in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: morning or evening administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Stein, Mark A; Childress, Ann C; Youcha, Sharon; White, Carla; Enright, Gail; Rubin, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    To examine the efficacy and tolerability of guanfacine extended release (GXR) administered in the morning or evening in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-optimization study, children 6 to 12 years of age with ADHD were randomized to receive GXR (1-4 mg/d) in the morning and placebo in the evening (GXR am), placebo in the morning and GXR in the evening (GXR pm), or twice-daily placebo. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV). A total of 333 child participants received study drug in the following cohorts: GXR am (n = 107), GXR pm (n = 114), or placebo (n = 112). Mean (standard deviation) changes from baseline to week 8 (visit 10 or last observation carried forward) in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were significant for both GXR treatment groups combined (GXR all-active: -20.0 [12.97]) and separately (GXR am: -19.8 [12.95]; GXR pm: -20.1 [13.04]) compared with placebo (-11.0 [12.93]; p ADHD symptoms. The levels of response and tolerability observed with GXR were similar regardless of time of dosing (morning versus evening), indicating that once-daily GXR monotherapy is effective whether administered in the morning or evening. Clinical trial registration information-Tolerability and Efficacy of AM and PM Once Daily Dosing With Extended-release Guanfacine Hydrochloride in Children 6-12 With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (The ADHD Tempo Study. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Benchtop-magnetic resonance imaging (BT-MRI) characterization of push-pull osmotic controlled release systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, Vincent; Metz, Hendrik; Ogorka, Joerg; Gurny, Robert; Loggia, Nicoletta; Mäder, Karsten

    2009-01-05

    The mechanism of drug release from push-pull osmotic systems (PPOS) has been investigated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using a new benchtop apparatus. The signal intensity profiles of both PPOS layers were monitored non-invasively over time to characterize the hydration and swelling kinetics. The drug release performance was well-correlated to the hydration kinetics. The results show that (i) hydration and swelling critically depend on the tablet core composition, (ii) high osmotic pressure developed by the push layer may lead to bypassing the drug layer and incomplete drug release and (iii) the hydration of both the drug and the push layers needs to be properly balanced to efficiently deliver the drug. MRI is therefore a powerful tool to get insights on the drug delivery mechanism of push-pull osmotic systems, which enable a more efficient optimization of such formulations.

  16. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH.

  17. John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety Awards. System innovation: Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heget, Jeffrey R; Bagian, James P; Lee, Caryl Z; Gosbee, John W

    2002-12-01

    In 1998 the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) created the National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) to lead the effort to reduce adverse events and close calls systemwide. NCPS's aim is to foster a culture of safety in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) by developing and providing patient safety programs and delivering standardized tools, methods, and initiatives to the 163 VA facilities. To create a system-oriented approach to patient safety, NCPS looked for models in fields such as aviation, nuclear power, human factors, and safety engineering. Core concepts included a non-punitive approach to patient safety activities that emphasizes systems-based learning, the active seeking out of close calls, which are viewed as opportunities for learning and investigation, and the use of interdisciplinary teams to investigate close calls and adverse events through a root cause analysis (RCA) process. Participation by VA facilities and networks was voluntary. NCPS has always aimed to develop a program that would be applicable both within the VA and beyond. NCPS's full patient safety program was tested and implemented throughout the VA system from November 1999 to August 2000. Program components included an RCA system for use by caregivers at the front line, a system for the aggregate review of RCA results, information systems software, alerts and advisories, and cognitive acids. Following program implementation, NCPS saw a 900-fold increase in reporting of close calls of high-priority events, reflecting the level of commitment to the program by VHA leaders and staff.

  18. Release of WIMS10: a versatile reactor physics code for thermal and fast systems - 15467

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, B.A.; Newton, T.D.; Hosking, J.G.; Smith, P.N.; Powney, D.J.; Tollit, B.; Smith, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    the WIMS code provides a versatile software package for neutronic calculations, which can be applied to all thermal reactor types including mixed moderator systems. It can provide lattice cell and supercell calculations using a range of flux solutions methods to produce the neutronic libraries for use in PANTHER or other whole core analysis codes. With the release of WIMS10, the range of problems which WIMS can solve has been greatly extended. A WIMS/PANTHER calculation route has been developed and validated for part MOX-fuelled PWRs, with calculations showing excellent agreement with 2D core deterministic and Monte Carlo transport solutions. A flexible geometry 3D method of characteristics transport solver, CACTUS3D has been added to the code. CACTUS3D has been benchmarked for a 3D BWR assembly model, and was in good agreement with a direct 172-group solution in the Monte Carlo code MONK. Fast reactor calculations using the ECCO deterministic calculation route have been validated using experimental data from the ZEBRA reactor. Power deposition can be treated through following neutrons and/or photons to their point of interaction. The improved methodology is shown to give more accurate calculation of heat deposition and improve agreement between calculated and measured detector responses for part MOX-fuelled cores. (authors)

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the adult and fetal human olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Patel, L; Tobet, S A; King, J C; Rubin, B S; Stopa, E G

    1999-05-01

    Studies in fetal brain tissue of rodents, nonhuman primates and birds have demonstrated that cells containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) migrate from the olfactory placode across the nasal septum into the forebrain. The purpose of this study was to examine GnRH neurons in components of the adult and fetal human olfactory system. In the adult human brain (n=4), immunoreactive GnRH was evident within diffusely scattered cell bodies and processes in the olfactory bulb, olfactory nerve, olfactory cortex, and nervus terminalis located on the anterior surface of the gyrus rectus. GnRH-immunoreactive structures showed a similar distribution in 20-week human fetal brains (n=2), indicating that the migration of GnRH neurons is complete at this time. In 10-11-week fetal brains (n=2), more cells were noted in the nasal cavity than in the brain. Our data are consistent with observations made in other species, confirming olfactory derivation and migration of GnRH neurons into the brain from the olfactory placode. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. A sustained release system using porous cellulose spheres modified by grafting as matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoi, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Saito, Kenji; Koishi, Masumi.

    1987-01-01

    Polymer-coated spheres, obtained by the graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto porous spheres based on cellulose by the pre-irradiation method, were used as matrices for the drug sustained release system for salicylic acid. The adsorption of salicylic acid was carried out by dipping the grafted spheres in a 50% aqueous ethanol solution containing salicylic acid. The amount of salicylic acid adsorbed (Q) increased proportionately with the percent graft of MMA (G) to the power of 2.9. Adsorption mechanism of salicylic acid could be expressed in term of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The ratio of constants for adsorption and desorption (k) and the saturated amount of salicylic acid adsorbed (Q 0 ) were expressed as k = k 1 G and Q 0 = k 2 G 2.4 , respectively. These results indicate that the number of adsorption sites increased proportionately with the nth power of G as a results of the interaction of grafted poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) and cellulose. Similar results were obtained with grafting of MMA, MMA-styrene (St), and MMA-methacrylic acid (MAc) in the presence of salicylic acid. (author)

  1. Autoradiographic localization of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaker, S.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to examine the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors in the rat and human central nervous system (CNS). The binding of [ 3 H]-3-methyl-histidine 2 -TRH ([ 3 H]-MeTRH) to TRH receptors was saturable, of a high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5 nM), and specific for TRH analogs. Studies with neurotoxins ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) suggest that TRH receptors within the amygdala are predominantly located on cell bodies, and not nerve terminals. Finally, an examination was made of the concentrations of TRH receptors in spinal cords of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease of the motor neurons located in Lamina IX. Large decreases in TRH receptors were noted in ALS spinal cords, when compared to non-neurological controls, probably reflecting the loss of motor neurons. In addition, decreases in the TRH receptor concentration of Lamina II were observed. This finding may reflect the sensitivity of neurons throughout the CNS to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuronal degeneration which cause ALS

  2. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  3. Control of drug releasing from biodegradable polymer drug delivery system by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Aso, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeo

    1999-01-01

    In order to introduce the drug to the target organ, we developed a gel to control the drug releasing velocity by response to change of temperature by means of γ-ray irradiation to gelatin-GMA modified dextran mixture aqueous solution. A certain level of molecular weight of drug is necessary. The response to the temperature (change of drug releasing velocity) was affected by the concentration of gelatin and the modification rate of GMA. The Higuchi equation was applied to the releasing of β-galactosidase from gelatin-dextran gel and the releasing velocity was calculated. The releasing velocity decreased with increasing GMA modification rate at 37degC and 15degC. The releasing velocity of β-galactosidase decreased with increasing the concentration of gelatin at 15degC, but the velocity increased with increasing the concentration at 37degC. These results indicated that the good drug releasing conditions are obtained by controlling the GMA modification rate and the concentration of gelatin. (S.Y.)

  4. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of [14C]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of [ 1 - 14 C]arachidonic acid and [(U)- 14 C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced [ 14 C]thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of [ 14 C]TXB3 from [ 14 C]EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous [ 14 C]EPA to [ 14 C]TXB3 was lower than that of [ 14 C]AA to [ 14 C]TXB2. The release of [ 14 C]AA from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets

  5. Attenuation of Morphine Physical Dependence and Blood Levels of Cortisol by Central and Systemic Administration of Ramelteon in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic administration of morphine cause physical dependence but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. The aim of this study is the assessment of systemic and intracerebroventricular (icv administration of ramelteon (a melatonin receptor agonist on morphine physical dependence. Methods: 88 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups, namely “systematic” and “central” administration of ramelteon. In the first category, systemic administration of ramelteon at various dosages (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with positive (received morphine and saline as systemic administration, negative control (saline and group under treatment by ramelteon (40 mg/kg groups. In the second category, central administration of ramelteon at various dosages (25, 50, or 100 μg, was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with the positive control (received morphine and saline as icv and negative control (saline groups, and the group under treatment by ramelteon (50 μg/5 μl/rat. On the test day, all animals received naloxone (3 mg/kg and were observed for withdrawal signs. Total withdrawal score (TWS was also determined. Finally, to evaluate the stress level of dependent rats, blood cortisols were measured. Results: Central administration of ramelteon in all doses and systemic administration in high doses attenuate withdrawal syndrome in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Both central and systemic administrations of ramelteon can attenuate the blood cortisol level in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that central administration of ramelteon attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms and cortisol level as a stress marker.

  6. Ingenious pH-sensitive dextran/mesoporous silica nanoparticles based drug delivery systems for controlled intracellular drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Jia; Kuang, Ying; Li, Qilin; Zheng, Di-Wei; Song, Qiongfang; Chen, Hui; Chen, Xueqin; Xu, Yanglin; Li, Cao; Jiang, Bingbing

    2017-05-01

    In this work, dextran, a polysaccharide with excellent biocompatibility, is applied as the "gatekeeper" to fabricate the pH-sensitive dextran/mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) based drug delivery systems for controlled intracellular drug release. Dextran encapsulating on the surface of MSNs is oxidized by NaIO 4 to obtain three kinds of dextran dialdehydes (PADs), which are then coupled with MSNs via pH-sensitive hydrazone bond to fabricate three kinds of drug carriers. At pH 7.4, PADs block the pores to prevent premature release of anti-cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). However, in the weakly acidic intracellular environment (pH∼5.5) the hydrazone can be ruptured; and the drug can be released from the carriers. The drug loading capacity, entrapment efficiency and release rates of the drug carriers can be adjusted by the amount of NaIO 4 applied in the oxidation reaction. And from which DOX@MSN-NH-N=C-PAD 10 is chosen as the most satisfactory one for the further in vitro cytotoxicity studies and cellular uptake studies. The results demonstrate that DOX@MSN-NH-N=C-PAD 10 with an excellent pH-sensitivity can enter HeLa cells to release DOX intracellular due to the weakly acidic pH intracellular and kill the cells. In our opinion, the ingenious pH-sensitive drug delivery systems have application potentials for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  8. The role of medical group practice administrators in the adoption and implementation of Medicare's physician quality reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulam, Robert; Kralewski, John; Dowd, Bryan; Gans, David

    2016-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the factors influencing the adoption of quality assurance (QA) programs by medical group practices, few have focused on the role of group practice administrators. To gain insights into the role these administrators play in QA programs, we analyzed how medical practices adopted and implemented the Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the largest physician quality reporting system in the United States. We conducted focus group interviews in 2011 with a national convenience sample of 76 medical group practice administrators. Responses were organized and analyzed using the innovation decision framework of Van de Ven and colleagues. Administrators conducted due diligence on PQRS, influenced how the issue was presented to physicians for adoption, and managed implementation thereafter. Administrators' recommendations were heavily influenced by practice characteristics, financial incentives, and practice commitments to early adoption of quality improvement innovations. Virtually, all who attempted it agreed that PQRS was straightforward to implement. However, the complexities of Medicare's PQRS reports impeded use of the data by administrators to support quality management. Group practice administrators are playing a prominent role in activities related to the quality of patient care--they are not limited to the business side of the practice. Especially, as PQRS becomes more nearly universal after 2014, Medicare should take account of the role that administrators play, by more actively engaging administrators in shaping these programs and making it easier for administrators to use the results. More research is needed on the rapidly evolving role of nonphysician administration in medical group practices. Practice administrators have a larger role than commonly understood in how quality reporting initiatives are adopted and used and are in an exceptional position to influence the more appropriate use of these resources if

  9. Review of dextromethorphan administration in 18 patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Maryam; Birnbaum, Daniel; Golden, Carla

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of methotrexate central nervous system toxicity is multifactorial, but it is likely related to central nervous system folate homeostasis. The use of folinate rescue has been described to decrease toxicity in patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. It has also been described in previous studies that there is an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had received intrathecal methotrexate. Homocysteine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist. The use of dextromethorphan, noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor antagonist, has been used in the treatment of sudden onset of neurological dysfunction associated with methotrexate toxicity. It remains unclear whether the dextromethorphan impacted the speed of recovery, and its use remains controversial. This study reviews the use of dextromethorphan in the setting of subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Charts of 18 patients who had sudden onset of neurological impairments after receiving methotrexate and were treated with dextromethorphan were reviewed. The use of dextromethorphan in most of our patients resulted in symptomatic improvement. In this patient population, earlier administration of dextromethorphan resulted in faster improvement of impairments and led to prevention of recurrence of seizure activity induced by methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Our study provides support for the use of dextromethorphan in patients with subacute methotrexate central nervous system toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using web-based group support systems to enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors are investigating whether Web-based Group Support System (GSS) tools can support and enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa. They report here on work that emanates from a masters dissertation...

  11. Nurses' perspectives on how an e-message system supports cross-sectoral communication in relation to medication administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Signe; Nørholm, Vibeke; Andersen, Ove

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe nurses' perspectives on how an e-message system supports communication between hospital and home care nurses in relation to medication administration. BACKGROUND: Medication administration is a complex process involving a high risk of error. Unclear......: The e-message system did not provide the information needed by the home care nurses to ensure safe medication administration after discharge due to (a) limitations of the system, (b) hospital nurses' lack of knowledge about home care nurses' information needs, and (c) hospital nurses' lack of access...... safe medication administration; however, the e-message system did not support exchange of the information needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 7: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety information system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, and (5) update mode functions.

  13. Evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning of women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system--Mirena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka

    2008-12-01

    The advantages ensuing from the high contraceptive efficacy, positive effect on the parameters of the menstrual cycle as well as other values of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may play an important role in women's sexual life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the quality of life and sexual functioning of women. The research encompassed 200 women aged between 30 and 45. 52 women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were qualified to the study as the research group (Mirena Group). The control groups consisted of 48 women using a different type of intrauterine device (Control Group I--Other IUD) and 50 women using no contraception (Control Group II). A specific questionnaire with a general part concerning socio-demographic conditions, a part dealing with contraception and Polish version of self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index and Mell-Krat Scale was used as a research tool. Quality of life parameters for women using the Mirena system were higher than for the control groups, especially in the aspect of general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. A significant beneficial effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on sexual functioning (sexual desire and arousal) was also revealed in the study. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 20.8% of Other IUD, 34.7% of Control Group II and 9.6% of Mirena Group. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increases female quality of life and sexual functioning parameters.

  14. Comparison of vascular alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism of tamsulosin in oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) and modified release (MR) formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.; Shear, M.; Davies, J.; Quartel, A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The cardiovascular a-l-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonism of the new oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg tablet formulation of tamsulosin was compared with that of the modified release (MR) 0.4 mg capsule formulation in healthy male volunteers after a single dose in the fasted

  15. Comparison of the cardiovascular effects of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) and alfuzosin prolonged release (XL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Chapple, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The cardiovascular (CV) effects of tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (OCAS) 0.4 mg were compared with those of alfuzosin prolonged release (XL) 10 mg. METHODS: Two single-dose, crossover studies were performed. In study 1, CV alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonism was assessed by

  16. Form and toxicity of copper released into marine systems from conventionally and nano-sized copper treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate and effects of pristine engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in simplified systems have been widely studied; however, little is known about the potential release and impact of ENMs from consumer goods, especially lumber that has been treated with micronized copper. Micronized...

  17. Local vs. systemic administration of bisphosphonates in rat cleft bone graft: A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hong

    Full Text Available A majority of patients with orofacial cleft deformity requires cleft repair through a bone graft. However, elevated amount of bone resorption and subsequent bone graft failure remains a significant clinical challenge. Bisphosphonates (BPs, a class of anti-resorptive drugs, may offer great promise in enhancing the clinical success of bone grafting. In this study, we compared the effects of systemic and local delivery of BPs in an intraoral bone graft model in rats. We randomly divided 34 female 20-week-old Fischer F344 Inbred rats into four groups to repair an intraoral critical-sized defect (CSD: (1 Control: CSD without graft (n = 4; (2 Graft/Saline: bone graft with systemic administration of saline 1 week post-operatively (n = 10; (3 Graft/Systemic: bone graft with systemic administration of zoledronic acid 1 week post-operatively (n = 10; and (4 Graft/Local: bone graft pre-treated with zoledronic acid (n = 10. At 6-weeks post-operatively, microCT volumetric analysis showed a significant increase in bone fraction volume (BV/TV in the Graft/Systemic (62.99 ±14.31% and Graft/Local (69.35 ±13.18% groups compared to the Graft/Saline (39.18±10.18%. Similarly, histological analysis demonstrated a significant increase in bone volume in the Graft/Systemic (78.76 ±18.00% and Graft/Local (89.95 ±4.93% groups compared to the Graft/Saline (19.74±18.89%. The local delivery approach resulted in the clinical success of bone grafts, with reduced graft resorption and enhanced osteogenesis and bony integration with defect margins while avoiding the effects of BPs on peripheral osteoclastic function. In addition, local delivery of BPs may be superior to systemic delivery with its ease of procedure as it involves simple soaking of bone graft materials in BP solution prior to graft placement into the defect. This new approach may provide convenient and promising clinical applications towards effectively managing cleft patients.

  18. Factors influencing release of phosphorus from sediments in a high productive polymictic lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solim, S U; Wanganeo, A

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) release rates from bottom sediments are high (20.6 mg/m(2)/day) in Dal Lake (India), a polymictic hyper-eutrophic lake. These gross release rates occur over a period of 72 days during summer only. Likewise, a net internal load of 11.3 tons was obtained from mass balance estimates. Significant proportion i.e. approximately 80% of 287.3 tons/yr of nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load is either eliminated by denitrification or gets entrapped for a short period in high macrophyte biomass of 3.2 kg/m(2) f.w., which eventually get decomposed and nitrogen (N) is released back. These processes result in low lake water NO(3)-N concentrations which potentially influence sediment phosphorus (P) release. Especially, nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) 500 microg/L in the lake waters were associated with high P concentrations. Phosphorus was also observed to increase significantly in relation to temperature and pH, and it seems likely that release of phosphorus and ammonical nitrogen (NH(4)-N) depend on decomposition of rich reserves of organic matter (893 tons d.w. in superficial 10-cm bottom sediment layer). Lake P concentrations were significantly predicted by a multivariate regression model developed for the lake. This study describes significance of various lake water variables in relation to P-release from bottom sediments.

  19. Administration of secretin for autism alters dopamine metabolism in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kenji; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Masahito; Nozaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kagami, Shoji

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical effects of intravenously administered secretin in 12 children with autism (age range: 4-6 years, median age: 9 years, boy:girl=8:4). In addition, we investigated the association between improvement in symptoms and changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homovanillic acid (HVA),5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), and 6R-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH(4)) levels after administration. After administration of secretin, the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) score improved in 7 of the 12 children. However, the score deteriorated in 2 of the 12 children (in the item of 'restricted and repetitive, stereotyped interests and behaviors'). The HVA and BH(4) levels in CSF were increased in all children with improvement in the ADI-R score. In contrast, no patient without the elevation of the BH(4) level showed improvement in the score. These findings suggest that secretin activated metabolic turnover of dopamine in the central nervous system via BH(4), improving symptoms.

  20. Information Systems Success In Public Administration: Proposal For An Exploratory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvison de Lima Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investments in Information Systems (IS have been significantly increasing and hence the relevance of the studies on the IS success is persistent. Delone and Mclean (2003 developed an IS successful model which is a benchmark for researches in the area, however, in the perspective of the public sector, studies are still rare. In this research it was sought to propose an exploratory model of successful IS in public administration, from the identification of each construct items of the Delone and McLean (2003 original model, through multiple case studies in three Municipalities and a Town Hall of the Southern Cone of Rondônia state, in Brazil. Based on the empirical research, it was found that the IS success factors in municipal public administration are close to those factors indicated in the reviewed literature, however, showing some particularities of the public sector. A model of successful factors and items of IS, from the confrontation between literature and empirical data, is presented in the end of this work.

  1. An analysis of the implementation of an environmental management system in a local public administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Macarena; Vallés, José

    2007-03-01

    The Environmental Management System (EMS) is commonly implemented in private firms. However, on the basis of a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, our work analyzes the consequences of implementing an EMS within the context of local public administrations, particularly regarding the City Council of Ohanes in Almería (Spain). This is the first European corporation to implement an EMS according to the ISO 14001 Standard, certified by the Spanish Association of Normalization and Certification. Its analysis would be equivalent to the Shumpeterian "market innovator study", so that public administration "followers" can take advantage of the derived benefits and of minimizing the negative effects of such an experience. On the other hand, we show that the economic and environmental advantages derived from the EMS go beyond the activities that the City Council is in charge of. They have spillover effects that extend them to all economic activities in the municipality and these effects are expected to be increased in the medium and long-term perspective. In this paper, we compare the costs and benefits that the municipality obtains in two cases: the City Council implements the EMS or it does not implement it. The main objective of this article is to show the economic and environmental advantages obtained by a municipality when it is only the City Council who is implementing an EMS. It is logical to suppose that this case study can stimulate other municipalities to use this instrument, even if the economic and environmental characteristics of the municipality are different.

  2. RELOS.MOD2: a code system for the determination of instationary fission product releases from molten pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Unger, H.; Funke, F.

    1999-01-01

    For the assessment of molten corium pool source terms, a mechanistic model has been developed to describe the transport of fission products from liquid corium pool surfaces into a colder gas atmosphere. Modelling is based on an approach for diffusive and convective transport processes coupled with thermochemical equilibrium considerations enabling detailed speciation analyses of the fission products released. Both have been implemented into the code system RELOS.MOD2. RELOS.MOD2 sensitivity calculations on possible effects of anticipated uncertainties in the thermo-chemical data on the fission product release predictions are presented. (author)

  3. Construction and evaluation of controlled-release delivery system of Abamectin using porous silica nanoparticles as carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Haixin; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Photolysis and poor solubility in water of Abamectin are key issues to be addressed, which causes low bioavailability and residual pollution. In this study, a novel hydrophilic delivery system through loading Abamectin with porous silica nanoparticles (Abam-PSNs) was developed in order to improve the chemical stability, dispersity, and the controlled release of Abamectin. These results suggest that Abam-PSNs can significantly improve the performance of controllable release, photostability, and water solubility of Abamectin by changing the porous structure of silica nanoparticles, which is favorable to improve the bioavailability and reduce the residues of pesticides.

  4. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  5. The effect of solvents and hydrophilic additive on stable coating and controllable sirolimus release system for drug-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Sung-Bin; Bedair, Tarek M; Kim, Man-Ho; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2017-09-01

    Various drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been developed to prevent restenosis after stent implantation. However, DES still needs to improve the drug-in-polymer coating stability and control of drug release for effective clinical treatment. In this study, the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surface was coated with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL) mixed with hydrophilic Pluronic F127 additive by using ultrasonic spray coating system in order to achieve a stable coating surface and control SRL release. The degradation of PDLLA/SRL coating was studied under physiological solution. It was found that adding F127 reduced the degradation of PDLLA and improved the coating stability during 60days. The effects of organic solvent such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) on the coating uniformity were also examined. It was revealed that THF produced a very smooth and uniform coating compared to chloroform. The patterns of in vitro drug release according to the type of organic solvent and hydrophilic additive proposed the possibility of controllable drug release design in DES. It was found that using F127 the drug release was sustained regardless of the organic solvent used. In addition, THF was able to get faster and controlled release profile when compared to chloroform. The structure of SRL molecules in different organic solvents was investigated using ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Furthermore, the structure of SRL is concentration-dependent in chloroform with tight nature under high concentration, but concentration-independent in THF. These results strongly demonstrated that coating stability and drug release patterns can be changed by physicochemical properties of various parameters such as organic solvents, additive, and coating strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. "Curcumin-loaded Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanovesicles induce antinociceptive effects and reduce pronociceptive cytokine and BDNF release in spinal cord after acute administration in mice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Stefano; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Di Giannuario, Amalia; Mukerjee, Anindita; Marzoli, Francesca; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2017-10-01

    Given the poor bioavailability of curcumin, its antinociceptive effects are produced after chronic intravenous administration of high doses, while poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-loaded vesicles (PLGA) can improve drug delivery. This paper investigates the antinociceptive effects of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanovesicles (PLGA-CUR) administered via intravenous (i.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) routes at low and high doses. The following models of pain were used: formalin test, zymosan-induced hyperalgesia and sciatic nerve ligation inducing neuropathic allodynia and hyperalgesia. PLGA-CUR administered intravenously was able to reduce the response to nociceptive stimuli in the formalin test and hyperalgesia induced by zymosan. Curcumin, instead, was inactive. Low-dose i.t. administration of PLGA-CUR significantly reduced allodynia produced by sciatic nerve ligation, whereas low doses of curcumin did not change the response to nociceptive stimuli. Long-lasting antinociceptive effects were observed when high doses of PLGA-CUR were administered intrathecally. At high doses, i.t. administration of curcumin only exerted rapid and transient antinociceptive effects. Measurement of cytokine and BDNF in the spinal cord of neuropathic mice demonstrate that the antinociceptive effects of PLGA-CUR depend on the reduction in cytokine release and BDNF in the spinal cord. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of PLGA-CUR and suggest that PLGA-CUR nanoformulation might be a new potential drug in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A case-mix classification system for explaining healthcare costs using administrative data in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Maria Chiara; Avossa, Francesco; Schievano, Elena; Gallina, Pietro; Ferroni, Eliana; Alba, Natalia; Dotto, Matilde; Basso, Cristina; Netti, Silvia Tiozzo; Fedeli, Ugo; Mantoan, Domenico

    2018-03-04

    The Italian National Health Service (NHS) provides universal coverage to all citizens, granting primary and hospital care with a copayment system for outpatient and drug services. Financing of Local Health Trusts (LHTs) is based on a capitation system adjusted only for age, gender and area of residence. We applied a risk-adjustment system (Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups System, ACG® System) in order to explain health care costs using routinely collected administrative data in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy). All residents in the Veneto Region were included in the study. The ACG system was applied to classify the regional population based on the following information sources for the year 2015: Hospital Discharges, Emergency Room visits, Chronic disease registry for copayment exemptions, ambulatory visits, medications, the Home care database, and drug prescriptions. Simple linear regressions were used to contrast an age-gender model to models incorporating more comprehensive risk measures aimed at predicting health care costs. A simple age-gender model explained only 8% of the variance of 2015 total costs. Adding diagnoses-related variables provided a 23% increase, while pharmacy based variables provided an additional 17% increase in explained variance. The adjusted R-squared of the comprehensive model was 6 times that of the simple age-gender model. ACG System provides substantial improvement in predicting health care costs when compared to simple age-gender adjustments. Aging itself is not the main determinant of the increase of health care costs, which is better explained by the accumulation of chronic conditions and the resulting multimorbidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Deployable Plume and Aerosol Release Prediction and Tracking System. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Task 1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleppe, John; Norris, William; Etezadi, Mehdi

    2006-07-19

    This contract was awarded in response to a proposal in which a deployable plume and aerosol release prediction and tracking system would be designed, fabricated, and tested. The system would gather real time atmospheric data and input it into a real time atmospheric model that could be used for plume predition and tracking. The system would be able to be quickly deployed by aircraft to points of interest or positioned for deployment by vehicles. The system would provide three dimensional (u, v, and w) wind vector data, inversion height measurements, surface wind information, classical weather station data, and solar radiation. The on-board real time computer model would provide the prediction of the behavior of plumes and released aerosols.

  9. Information System Security: Air Force Web Site Administration, Policies, and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Subsequent reports will cover Web site administration within the Army and DoD. The Naval Audit Service plans to issue a separate report based on the audit of Web site administration within the Navy and the Marine Corps...

  10. Effect of Guizhifuling capsule combined with levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system on adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Tao Shi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of Guizhifuling capsule combined with levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS in the treatment of adenomyosis (AM. Methods: A total of 80 patients with AM who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to February, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. LNG-IUS was placed in patients in the two groups 7 d after menstruation. The patients in the study group were given additional Guizhifuling capsule, 3 capsules/time, 3 times/d, and the drug was withdrawn in the menstrual period. Six-month treatment was regarded as one course. PBAC was used to evaluate the menstrual blood volume before and after treatment. The chronic pain grading questionnaire method was used for dysmenorrhea degree rating. The vaginal B ultrasound 3 d after menstruation was performed to detect the uterine volume. E2, FSH, LH, and serum CA125 level before and after treatment were detected. Results: The menstrual blood volume, dysmenorrhea degree, and uterine volume after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. After treatment, CA125 level in the two groups was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05, and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Guizhifuling capsule combined with LNG-IUS in the treatment of AM can significantly improve the clinical symptoms, effectively reduce CA125 level, and has no significant effect on the sex hormone levels with a satisfactory clinical efficacy; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  11. Eclipsing damped Lyα systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathivavsari, H.; Petitjean, P.; Jamialahmadi, N.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Rahmani, H.; Finley, H.; Noterdaeme, P.; Pâris, I.; Srianand, R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of our automatic search for proximate damped Lyα absorption (PDLA) systems in the quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We constrain our search to those PDLAs lying within 1500 km s-1 from the quasar to make sure that the broad DLA absorption trough masks most of the strong Lyα emission from the broad line region (BLR) of the quasar. When the Lyα emission from the BLR is blocked by these so-called eclipsing DLAs, narrow Lyα emission from the host galaxy could be revealed as a narrow emission line (NEL) in the DLA trough. We define a statistical sample of 399 eclipsing DLAs with log N(H I) ≥ 21.10. We divide our statistical sample into three subsamples based on the strength of the NEL detected in the DLA trough. By studying the stacked spectra of these subsamples, we found that absorption from high ionization species are stronger in DLAs with stronger NEL in their absorption core. Moreover, absorption from the excited states of species like Si II are also stronger in DLAs with stronger NEL. We also found no correlation between the luminosity of the Lyα NEL and the quasar luminosity. These observations are consistent with a scenario in which the DLAs with stronger NEL are denser and physically closer to the quasar. We propose that these eclipsing DLAs could be the product of the interaction between infalling and outflowing gas. High resolution spectroscopic observation would be needed to shed some light on the nature of these eclipsing DLAs.

  12. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tanaka

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg or saline (1:1 was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals.

  13. Two step novel hydrogen system using additives to enhance hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of alane and activated aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore

    2015-12-01

    A system for the generation of hydrogen for use in portable power systems is set forth utilizing a two-step process that involves the thermal decomposition of AlH.sub.3 (10 wt % H.sub.2) followed by the hydrolysis of the activated aluminum (Al*) byproduct to release additional H.sub.2. Additionally, a process in which water is added directly without prior history to the AlH.sub.3:PA composite is also disclosed.

  14. Biodegradable polyesters for veterinary drug delivery systems: Characterization, in vitro degradation and release behavior of Oligolactides and Polytartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Schliecker, Gesine

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the degradation and release behavior of aliphatic polyesters with special respect to the influence of oligomers on the degradation rate and the potential use of these biomaterials for the development of veterinary drug delivery systems. In Chapter 1 the animal health care market is introduced with regard to opportunities and challenges of veterinary drug delivery systems. . In the second part of this chapter...

  15. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  16. Development of the nowcasting system for the XVII Asiad at Korea Meteorological Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Juwon; Jang, Taekyu; Hwang, Seung On; Park, Yunho; Kim, Yoonjae; Park, Seonjoo; Joo, Sangwon; Noh, Hae Mi

    2014-05-01

    The XVII Asiad, known as the 2014 Asian game, is the largest sporting event in Asia. It will be held in Incheon, South Korea from September 19 to October 4, with 437 events in 36 sports. To support this game, Korea Meteorological Administration developed Incheon Data Assimilation and Prediction System (IDAPS) for nowcasting and very short range forecasts. The domain is centered at Incheon city and covers the central region of the Korean peninsula and adjacent seas. It repeats analysis and forecast processes with 1 hour cycling interval. IDAPS has approximately 1 km horizontal resolution with 324 x 360 grids and 70 vertical layers. Three dimensional variational data assimilation is applied to assimilate AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, rain rate, and radar products. The details of IDAPS and the experiment results will be given during the conference.

  17. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  18. Groundwater monitoring systems and groundwater quality in the administrative district of Detmold (North Rhine-Westphalia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabau, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two groundwater monitoring systems for areas of different dimensions in the administrative district of Detmold are introduced. Firstly, the monitoring of groundwater and untreated water by the Water Conservation and Waste Disposal Authority (Amt fuer Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft) in Minden and secondly, the monitoring of groundwater and drinking water by the Water Resources Board (Wasserschutzamt) in Bielefeld. Different approaches and methods are required for the description of groundwater quality on a regional and a local basis, respectively, i.e. for the monitoring of a whole region and the monitoring of parts of such a region. The properties of groundwater in areas of different dimensions are analysed and described by means of an extensive database and with the help of (geo)statistical methods of analysis. Existing hydrochemical data have only limited value as evidence of groundwater properties in the dimensional units ''region'' and ''small investigation area''. They often do not meet the requirements of correct mathematical statistical methods. (orig.)

  19. Information Technology Service Management with Cloud Computing Approach to Improve Administration System and Online Learning Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilianto Wilianto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the development of information technology service management using cloud computing approach to improve the performance of administration system and online learning at STMIK IBBI Medan, Indonesia. The network topology is modeled and simulated for system administration and online learning. The same network topology is developed in cloud computing using Amazon AWS architecture. The model is designed and modeled using Riverbed Academic Edition Modeler to obtain values of the parameters: delay, load, CPU utilization, and throughput. The simu- lation results are the following. For network topology 1, without cloud computing, the average delay is 54  ms, load 110 000 bits/s, CPU utilization 1.1%, and throughput 440  bits/s.  With  cloud  computing,  the  average  delay  is 45 ms,  load  2 800  bits/s,  CPU  utilization  0.03%,  and throughput 540 bits/s. For network topology 2, without cloud computing, the average delay is 39  ms, load 3 500 bits/s, CPU utilization 0.02%, and throughput database server 1 400 bits/s. With cloud computing, the average delay is 26 ms, load 5 400 bits/s, CPU utilization email server 0.0001%, FTP server 0.001%, HTTP server 0.0002%, throughput email server 85 bits/s, FTP    server 100 bits/sec, and HTTP server 95  bits/s.  Thus,  the  delay, the load, and the CPU utilization decrease; but,  the throughput increases. Information technology service management with cloud computing approach has better performance.

  20. Nanoformulations of Rilpivirine for Topical Pericoital and Systemic Coitus-Independent Administration Efficiently Prevent HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Abhijit A.; Long, Julie M.; Nochii, Tomonori; Belshan, Michael; Shibata, Annemarie; Vincent, Heather; Baker, Caroline E.; Thayer, William O.; Kraus, Guenter; Lachaud-Durand, Sophie; Williams, Peter; Destache, Christopher J.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention. Topically applied rilpivirine, encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles, was delivered in a thermosensitive gel, which becomes solid at body temperature. PLGA nanoparticles with encapsulated rilpivirine coated the reproductive tract and offered significant protection to BLT humanized mice from a vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge. A different nanosuspension of crystalline rilpivirine (RPV LA), administered intramuscularly, protected BLT mice from a single vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge one week after drug administration. Using transmitted/founder viruses, which were previously shown to establish de novo infection in humans, we demonstrated that RPV LA offers significant protection from two consecutive high-dose HIV-1 challenges one and four weeks after drug administration. In this experiment, we also showed that, in certain cases, even in the presence of drug, HIV infection could occur without overt or detectable systemic replication until levels of drug were reduced. We also showed that infection in the presence of drug can result in acquisition of multiple viruses after subsequent exposures. These observations have important implications for the implementation of long-acting antiretroviral formulations for HIV prevention. They provide first evidence that occult infections can occur, despite the presence of sustained levels of antiretroviral drugs. Together, our results demonstrate that topically- or systemically administered rilpivirine offers significant coitus-dependent or coitus-independent protection from HIV infection. PMID:26271040

  1. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  2. Experience of health-system pharmacy administration residents in a longitudinal human resource management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Lindsey B Poppe; Granko, Robert P; Savage, Scott W; Daniels, Rowell; Eckel, Stephen F

    2014-12-15

    The experience of health-system pharmacy administration (HSPA) residents in a longitudinal human resource (HR) management program is described. The subsequent benefits to the residents, department, and profession are also discussed. Postgraduate year 2 HSPA residents at an academic medical center desired more responsibility for managing an operational area. To this end, a program was created in which these residents directly manage a small group of pharmacy technicians and report to a clinical manager or assistant director with oversight responsibility. These "resident managers" are responsible, under the direction of the area's clinical manager, for the personnel, schedule, time and attendance, and HR activities of the area. Resident managers have led and sustained operational improvement projects in their areas. In addition to providing learning experiences to residents, the HSPA residency program has also improved the operations of the areas in which these residents work. Benefits to the residents include conducting annual performance evaluations for employees with whom they have a relationship as it is a task every administrator completes. Resident managers at UNC have consistently stated that this longitudinal HR experience is one of the most rewarding and most challenging experiences offered in the two-year HSPA residency. The involvement of HSPA residents in longitudinal management responsibilities furthers residents' leadership success by providing trained managers who are ready to immerse themselves into practice postresidency, having employee engagement and HR skills as well as experiences with leading operational improvements. A longitudinal HR management experience was successfully incorporated into an HSPA residency combined Master of Science degree program. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A systemic administration of liposomal curcumin inhibits radiation pneumonitis and sensitizes lung carcinoma to radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi HS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hua-shan Shi1,* Xiang Gao,1,3,* Dan Li,1,* Qiong-wen Zhang,1 Yong-sheng Wang,2 Yu Zheng,1 Lu-Lu Cai,1 Ren-ming Zhong,2 Ao Rui,1 Zhi-yong Li,1 Hao Zheng,1 Xian-cheng Chen,1 Li-juan Chen,11State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medicine School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Thoracic Oncology, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 3Deparment of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Radiation pneumonitis (RP is an important dose-limiting toxicity during thoracic radiotherapy. Previous investigations have shown that curcumin is used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and cancer, suggesting that curcumin may prevent RP and sensitize cancer cells to irradiation. However, the clinical advancement of curcumin is limited by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration. Here, a water-soluble liposomal curcumin system was developed to investigate its prevention and sensitizing effects by an intravenous administration manner in mice models. The results showed that liposomal curcumin inhibited nuclear factor-κB pathway and downregulated inflammatory factors including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and transforming growth factor-β induced by thoracic irradiation. Furthermore, the combined treatment with liposomal curcumin and radiotherapy increased intratumoral apoptosis and microvessel responses to irradiation in vivo. The significantly enhanced inhibition of tumor growth also was observed in a murine lung carcinoma (LL/2 model. There were no obvious toxicities observed in mice. The current results indicate that liposomal curcumin can effectively

  4. A RESEARCH FOR THE USAGE LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS BY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Kingir‎

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Denominated as the information age of today provided a better understanding of the value of the information day by day. The use of information technology in the globalization of the economy offers a serious competitive advantage to businesses. Even though it is foreseen to provide an economic superiority in the first place, the management information systems affect the structure and functioning of many different organizations in a positive aspect. In this context, the educational institutions that we may discuss can not be excluded. The sole aim of which is to train students in educational institutions in accordance with the objectives of the education system, the efficient use of management information systems certainly have a positive effect on this process. Decision-making processes of managers on management information systems and knowledge management provides great support to the school administrators. Management information systems in order to improve the quality of education and training in educational institutions are actively used captured that success can be said to constitute one of the pillars in the success of our young people who will shape our future. The universe of the study consists of the schools in the city centre of Diyarbakir. As the means of collecting data, questionnaire was used in the study. The data were obtained from the survey evaluated in the 18th version of Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences. Prepared for this purpose with this study of school administrators’, working in educational institutions, utilization levels and the scope of the management information systems in their institutions are discussed.

  5. Administration of FTY720 during Tourniquet-Induced Limb Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Attenuates Systemic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Foster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI of the extremities leads to local and systemic inflammatory changes which can hinder limb function and can be life threatening. This study examined whether the administration of the T-cell sequestration agent, FTY720, following hind limb tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle IRI in a rat model would attenuate systemic inflammation and multiple end organ injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 1 hr of ischemia via application of a rubber band tourniquet. Animals were randomized to receive an intravenous bolus of either vehicle control or FTY720 15 min after band placement. Rats (n=10/time point were euthanized at 6, 24, and 72 hr post-IRI. Peripheral blood as well as lung, liver, kidney, and ischemic muscle tissue was analyzed and compared between groups. FTY720 treatment markedly decreased the number of peripheral blood T cells (p<0.05 resulting in a decreased systemic inflammatory response and lower serum creatinine levels and had a modest but significant effect in decreasing the transcription of injury-associated target genes in multiple end organs. These findings suggest that early intervention with FTY720 may benefit the treatment of IRI of the limb. Further preclinical studies are necessary to characterize the short-term and long-term beneficial effects of FTY720 following tourniquet-induced IRI.

  6. Systemic approach in rural administration: Study of the family production unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson R. Paz Stamberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the rationality of production management and available resources in agricultural production unit (UPA, identifying its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics in order to make a diagnosis to subsidize the rural manager in decision making.This study was part of the extension project approved in the Institutional Incentive Extension Program of the Farroupilha Federal Institute (Brazil, prioritizing as object of study a family UPA in the municipality of Santo Antônio das Missões/RS/Brazil, being conducted between October-November 2014.As methodological procedure a survey was done with qualitative and quantitative data, such as natural resources, utilized agricultural area, herd, plant, machinery and equipment, availability of labor force and yields of the various cultivation subsystems, breeding and processing. This data was organized in a spreadsheet, which identifies the adopted production system and its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics. As proposed, technical and managerial intervention in the production system, proposed strategically to enhance milk production opposed to the soybean production, considering its high contribution in relation to the value added per unit area.Key Words: Rural Administration - Production management - Systemic approach.

  7. Tamoxifen-loaded nanoparticles based on a novel mixture of biodegradable polyesters: characterization and in vitro evaluation as sustained release systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Elena; Benito, Marta; Teijón, César; Olmo, Rosa; Teijón, José M; Blanco, M Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) from mixtures of two poly(D,L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC) copolymers, PLC 40/60 and PLC 86/14, with poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and PCL were prepared: PLC 40/60-PCL (25:75), PLC 86/14-PCL (75:25) and PLC 86/14-PLA (75:25). Tamoxifen was loaded with encapsulation efficiency between 65% and 75% (29.9-36.3 µg TMX/ mg NP). All selected systems showed spherical shape and nano-scale size. TMX-loaded NPs were in the range of 293-352 nm. TMX release from NP took place with different profiles depending on polymeric composition of the particles. After 60 days, 59.81% and 82.65% of the loaded drug was released. The cytotoxicity of unloaded NP in MCF7 and HeLa cells was very low. Cell uptake of NP took place in both cell types by unspecific internalization in a time dependent process. The administration of 6 and 10 µm TMX by TMX-loaded NP was effective on both cellular types, mainly in MCF7 cells.

  8. [Knowledge and use of the Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) by municipal health administrators, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Keila Silene de Brito E; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano

    2010-02-01

    Considering the importance of Brazil's Information System on Public Health Budgets (SIOPS) as a tool for planning, management, and social control of public expenditures in health, this article aimed to evaluate the relationship between the regularity of data entry into the SIOPS and knowledge and use of the system by municipal health administrators in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Ten municipalities were selected from the State's five meso-regions, five of which entered information into the system and five only on an irregular basis. Semi-structured interviews were performed with the municipal health secretaries. Analysis of the data showed that command of information technology and knowledge of the System do not affect the regularity of data entry, as a function of the distance between the Municipal Health Secretariat administrators and the SIOPS, such that the data are normally entered by outsourced services. Thus, the resulting information has not been fully explored by systems administrators as a management tool.

  9. Involvement of serotonergic pathways in mediating the neuronal activity and genetic transcription of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor in the brain of systemically endotoxin-challenged rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laflamme, N.; Feuvrier, E.; Richard, D.; Rivest, S. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, 2705 boul. Laurier, Ste-Foy Quebec (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of serotonin depletion on the neuronal activity and transcription of corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat brain during the acute-phase response. Conscious male rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with the immune activator lipopolysaccaride (25 {mu}g/100 g body wt) after being treated for three consecutive days with para-chlorophenylalanine (30 mg/100 g/day). This irreversible inhibitor of tryptophane-5-hydroxylase decreased hypothalamic serotonin levels by 96%. One, 3 and 6 h after a single i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide or vehicle solution, rats were killed and their brains cut in 30-{mu}m coronal sections. Messenger RNAs encoding c-fos, nerve-growth factor inducible-B gene, corticotropin-releasing factor and the heteronuclear RNA encoding corticotropin-releasing factor primary transcript were assayed by in situ hybridization using {sup 35}S-labeled riboprobes, whereas Fos-immunoreactive nuclei were labeled by immunocytochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide induced a wide neuronal activation indicated by the expression of both immediate-early gene transcripts and Fos protein in numerous structures of the brain. The signal for both immediate-early gene transcripts was low to moderate 1 h after lipopolysaccharide administration, maximal at 3 h and decline at 6 h post-injection, whereas at that time, Fos-immunoreactive nuclei were still detected in most of the c-fos messenger RNA-positive structures. Interestingly, the strong and widespread induction of both immediate-early gene transcripts was almost totally inhibited by para-chlorophenylalanine treatment; in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus for example, c-fos messenger RNA signal and the number of Fos-immunoreactive positive cells were reduced by 80 and 48%, respectively, in serotonin-depleted rats treated with the bacterial endotoxin. This blunted neuronal response was also associated with an attenuated stimulation of neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing

  10. Compact microelectrode array system: tool for in situ monitoring of drug effects on neurotransmitter release from neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Chunxian; Lim, Layhar; Cheong, Serchoong; Zhang, Qingxin; Tang, Kumcheong; Reboud, Julien

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a compact microelectrode array (MEA) system, to study potassium ion-induced dopamine release from PC12 neural cells, without relying on a micromanipulator and a microscope. The MEA chip was integrated with a custom-made "test jig", which provides a robust electrical interfacing tool between the microchip and the macroenvironment, together with a potentiostat and a microfluidic syringe pump. This integrated system significantly simplifies the operation procedures, enhances sensing performance, and reduces fabrication costs. The achieved detection limit for dopamine is 3.8 x 10-2 muM (signal/noise, S/N = 3) and the dopamine linear calibration range is up to 7.39 +/- 0.06 muM (mean +/- SE). The effects of the extracelluar matrix collagen coating of the microelectrodes on dopamine sensing behaviors, as well as the influences of K+ and l-3,4-digydroxyphenylalanine concentrations and incubation times on dopamine release, were extensively studied. The results show that our system is well suited for biologists to study chemical release from living cells as well as drug effects on secreting cells. The current system also shows a potential for further improvements toward a multichip array system for drug screening applications.

  11. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelic, J.; Tham, K. W.; Licina, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    manikin at distances between 1 and 4m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced......The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal...

  12. A New Environmentally Safe Formulation and of Low Cost for Prolonged Release System of Atrazine and Diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracy karla da Rocha Cortes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuron and atrazine were incorporated in new formulations developed with the purpose to improve herbicides action through release systems, as well as to reduce the environmental toxicity. A low cost formulation (ALG/ESC was obtained by combining sodium alginate (ALG with fish scales of the Piau fish (ESC from the Leporinus elongatus species. From the crosslinking of ALG/ESC with CaCl2, the formulation ALG/ESC-CaCl2 was obtained. For ALG/ESC-CaCl2, the results are successful, showing a prolonged release of 3.5 and 4.5 days for atrazine and diuron, respectively. Based on parameters of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, it appears that the release systems of diuron and atrazine from ALG/ESC-CaCl2 are by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport, which did not follow Fick’s laws of diffusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.994

  13. Independent Planning System and Public Administration in Metropolitan Development: Agglomeration Strategies of Greater Chaoshan in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines independent planning system as a means of public administration in regional economic development. It proposes a new strategy based on the theories of public administrative resources, to agglomerate and unify the cities of Shantou, Jieyang, and Chaozhou into a new administrative entity as a metropolis with the status of independent planning and the preferred policies of a Special Economic Region to lead regional development. The optimal allocation of public administrative resources has played a key role in the fundamental economic development in China in recent years. The new administrative system of large cities (metropolises with independent planning has become an innovative format to utilize the renewable soft resources of administration, which in fact is a new attempt to reform the economic system by the Chinese government. The greater Chaoshan area needs to be agglomerated and unified to further develop the regional economy with the implementation of independent planning system. The current research conducted from a practical and political point of view is of significant value to the overall planning and strategic layout of the economic and social development of the whole eastern Guangdong region.

  14. Systemic and mammary gland disposition of enrofloxacin in healthy sheep following intramammary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cristina; García, Juan José; Sierra, Matilde; Diez, María José; Pérez, Claudia; Sahagún, Ana Maria; Fernández, Nélida

    2015-04-09

    Mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy sheep. Antimicrobial drugs are often administered directly through teat to treat or prevent this disease, but data on drug distribution within glandular tissue are scarce and it cannot be estimated from concentrations in milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate systemic and mammary gland distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary administration. The drug was administered to 6 healthy lactating Assaf sheep with an injector containing an enrofloxacin preparation (1 g drug/5 g ointment). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. Animals were then sedated and sacrificed, and glandular tissue samples were obtained from treated udders at 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm height. Enrofloxacin concentrations were measured in plasma and tissue samples by UV high-performed liquid chromatography. Mean enrofloxacin plasma concentrations were below 0.5 μg/mL. Mean tissue concentrations decreased in mammary gland with vertical distance from the teat, ranging from 356.6 μg/g at 2 cm to 95.60 μg/g at the base of the udder. Glandular tissue concentrations best fitted to a decreasing monoexponential model, and showed a good correlation with an ex vivo model previously developed. Enrofloxacin concentrations were effective in the entire glandular tissue against the main pathogens causing mastitis in sheep. These results suggest that this drug may be suitable to treat mastitis in sheep by intramammary administration.

  15. Multimodal system designed to reduce errors in recording and administration of drugs in anaesthesia: prospective randomised clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Alan F; Webster, Craig S; Hannam, Jacqueline; Mitchell, Simon J; Henderson, Robert; Reid, Papaarangi; Edwards, Kylie-Ellen; Jardim, Anisoara; Pak, Nick; Cooper, Jeremy; Hopley, Lara; Frampton, Chris; Short, Timothy G

    2011-09-22

    To clinically evaluate a new patented multimodal system (SAFERSleep) designed to reduce errors in the recording and administration of drugs in anaesthesia. Prospective randomised open label clinical trial. Five designated operating theatres in a major tertiary referral hospital. Eighty nine consenting anaesthetists managing 1075 cases in which there were 10,764 drug administrations. Use of the new system (which includes customised drug trays and purpose designed drug trolley drawers to promote a well organised anaesthetic workspace and aseptic technique; pre-filled syringes for commonly used anaesthetic drugs; large legible colour coded drug labels; a barcode reader linked to a computer, speakers, and touch screen to provide automatic auditory and visual verification of selected drugs immediately before each administration; automatic compilation of an anaesthetic record; an on-screen and audible warning if an antibiotic has not been administered within 15 minutes of the start of anaesthesia; and certain procedural rules-notably, scanning the label before each drug administration) versus conventional practice in drug administration with a manually compiled anaesthetic record. Primary: composite of errors in the recording and administration of intravenous drugs detected by direct observation and by detailed reconciliation of the contents of used drug vials against recorded administrations; and lapses in responding to an intermittent visual stimulus (vigilance latency task). Secondary: outcomes in patients; analyses of anaesthetists' tasks and assessments of workload; evaluation of the legibility of anaesthetic records; evaluation of compliance with the procedural rules of the new system; and questionnaire based ratings of the respective systems by participants. The overall mean rate of drug errors per 100 administrations was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 6.9 to 11.4) with the new system (one in 11 administrations) and 11.6 (9.3 to 13.9) with conventional methods (one

  16. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference

  17. Secondary effects of anion exchange on chloride, sulfate, and lead release: systems approach to corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Hillary; Boyer, Treavor H

    2012-05-01

    Water treatment processes can cause secondary changes in water chemistry that alter finished water quality including chloride, sulfate, natural organic matter (NOM), and metal release. Hence, the goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) with regards to chloride and sulfate variations at full-scale water treatment plants and corrosion potential under simulated premise plumbing conditions. Laboratory corrosion studies were conducted using Pb-Sn solder/Cu tubing galvanic cells exposed to model waters with low (approx. 5 mg/L Cl(-) and 10 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) and high (approx. 50 mg/L Cl(-) and 100 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) concentrations of chloride and sulfate at a constant CSMR of ≈ 0.5. The role of NOM during corrosion was also evaluated by changing the type of organic material. In addition, full-scale sampling was conducted to quantify the raw water variability of chloride, sulfate, and NOM concentrations and the changes to these parameters from magnetic ion exchange treatment. Test conditions with higher concentrations of chloride and sulfate released significantly more lead than the lower chloride and sulfate test waters. In addition, the source of NOM was a key factor in the amount of lead released with the model organic compounds yielding significantly less lead release than aquatic NOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of light and temperature on circadian system controlling sperm release in moth Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syrová, Zdeňka; Šauman, Ivo; Giebultowicz, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2003), s. 809-821 ISSN 0742-0528 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Insects * sperm release rhythm * peripheral clock Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.590, year: 2003

  19. Connecting the dots: interprofessional health education and delivery system redesign at the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stuart C; Chokshi, Dave A; Bowen, Judith L; Rugen, Kathryn Wirtz; Cox, Malcolm

    2014-08-01

    Health systems around the United States are embracing new models of primary care using interprofessional team-based approaches in pursuit of better patient outcomes, higher levels of satisfaction among patients and providers, and improved overall value. Less often discussed are the implications of new models of care for health professions education, including education for physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other professions engaged in primary care. Described here is the interaction between care transformation and redesign of health professions education at the largest integrated delivery system in the United States: the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Challenges and lessons learned are discussed in the context of a demonstration initiative, the VA Centers of Excellence in Primary Care Education. Five sites, involving VA medical centers and their academic affiliates in Boise, Cleveland, San Francisco, Seattle, and West Haven, introduced interprofessional primary care curricula for resident physicians and nurse practitioner students beginning in 2011. Implementation struggles largely revolved around the operational logistics and cultural disruption of integrating educational redesign for medicine and nursing and facilitating the interface between educational and clinical activities. To realize new models for interprofessional teaching, faculty, staff, and trainees must understand the histories, traditions, and program requirements across professions and experiment with new approaches to achieving a common goal. Key recommendations for redesign of health professions education revolve around strengthening the union between interprofessional learning, team-based practice, and high-value care.

  20. Prevention of Intraabdominal Adhesions by Local and Systemic Administration of Immunosuppressive Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kemal; Inal, Abdullah; Sayar, Ilyas; Sahin, Murat; Gullu, Huriye; Inal, Duriye Gul; Isik, Arda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intraperitoneal adhesion formation is a serious postsurgical issue. Adhesions develop after damage to the peritoneum by surgery, irradiation, infection or trauma. Objectives: Using a rat model, we compared the effectiveness of systemic and intraperitoneally administered common immunosuppressive drugs for prevention of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions. Materials and Methods: Peritoneal adhesions were induced in 98 female Wistar-Albino rats by cecal abrasion and peritoneal excision. Rats were randomly separated into seven groups, each containing fourteen rats, and the standard experimental model was applied to all of rats. 14 days later, rats were euthanized, intraperitoneal adhesions were scored and tissues were examined histologically using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining. Results: Throughout the investigation, no animal died during or after surgery. In all of experimental groups, decrease in fibrosis was statistically significant. Decrease in fibrosis was most prominently in intraperitoneal tacrolimus group (P = 0.000), and decrease was least in intraperitoneal cyclosporine group (P = 0.022). Vascular proliferation was significantly decreased in all experimental groups (P < 0.05) except for systemic tacrolimus group (P = 0.139). Most prominent reduction in vascular proliferation was in intraperitoneal tacrolimus group (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Administration of immunosuppressive drugs is effective for prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. PMID:24693396