WorldWideScience

Sample records for release storage yard

  1. Releases of UF6 to the atmosphere after a potential fire in a cylinder storage yard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), a toxic material, is stored in just over 6200 cylinders at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The safety analysis report (SAR) for cylinder yard storage operations at the plant required the development of accident scenarios for the potential release of UF 6 to the atmosphere. In accordance with DOE standards and guidance, the general approach taken in this SAR was to examine the functions and contents of the cylinder storage yards to determine whether safety-significant hazards were present for workers in the immediate vicinity, workers on-site, the general public off-site, or the environment. and to evaluate the significance of any hazards that were found. A detailed accident analysis was performed to determine a set of limiting accidents that have potential for off-site consequences. One of the limiting accidents identified in the SAR was the rupture of a cylinder engulfed in a fire

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  3. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard

  4. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF6 cylinder storage yards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF 6 normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF 6 cylinders. The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF 6 , one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs

  5. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  6. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact

  7. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  8. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd 3 of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft 3 of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as LLW, and

  11. Prevention of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles : Experimental results in coal storage yard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This paper deals with oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal piles laid in coal storage yard and the measures to avoid the heat losses produced. Investigations on self heating were carried out with five test

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  13. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Strand

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  16. Integrated Yard Space Allocation and Yard Crane Deployment Problem in Resource-Limited Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard storage space and yard crane equipment are the core resources in the container terminal yard area. This paper studies the integrated yard space allocation (outbound container space and yard crane deployment problem in resource-limited container terminals where yard space and yard cranes are extremely scarce. Two corresponding counterstrategies are introduced, respectively, and the integrated problem is solved as mixed integer programming. The model this paper formulated considers the container volume fluctuation of the service line, and the objective is a trade-off between yard sharing space and terminal operation cost. In numerical experiments, this paper tries to reveal the management meaning in practical operation of container terminal and provides decision support for terminal managers; therefore a series of scenarios are presented to analyze the relations among the yard sharing space, the number of yard cranes, the size of yard subblock, and the cost of terminal operation.

  17. Results of the remote sensing feasibility study for the uranium hexafluoride storage cylinder yard program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, L.K.; Bowman, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    The US DOE manages the safe storage of approximately 650,000 tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride remaining from the Cold War. This slightly radioactive, but chemically active, material is contained in more than 46,000 steel storage cylinders that are located at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Some of the cylinders are more than 40 years old, and approximately 17,500 are considered problem cylinders because their physical integrity is questionable. These cylinders require an annual visual inspection. The remainder of the 46,000-plus cylinders must be visually inspected every four years. Currently, the cylinder inspection program is extremely labor intensive. Because these inspections are accomplished visually, they may not be effective in the early detection of leaking cylinders. The inspection program requires approximately 12--14 full-time-equivalent (FTE) employees. At the cost of approximately $125K per FTE, this translates to $1,500K per annum just for cylinder inspection. As part of the technology-development portion of the DOE Cylinder Management Program, the DOE Office of Facility Management requested the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to evaluate remote sensing techniques that have potential to increase the effectiveness of the inspection program and, at the same time, reduce inspection costs and personnel radiation exposure. During two site visits (March and May 1996) to the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN, RSL personnel tested and characterized seven different operating systems believed to detect leakage, surface contamination, thickness and corrosion of cylinder walls, and general area contamination resulting from breached cylinders. The following techniques were used and their performances are discussed: Laser-induced fluorescent imaging; Long-range alpha detection; Neutron activation analysis; Differential gamma-ray attenuation; Compton scatterometry; Active infrared inspection; and Passive thermal infrared imaging

  18. Space-sharing Strategy for Building Dynamic Container Yard Storage Considering Uncertainty on Number of Incoming Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurminarsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of AEC (Asian Economic Community leads to demand increase at ports in Indonesia. This increasing demand is followed by operational efficiency at the port as well. In fact, ports in Indonesia have an average dwell time for 5 days. One of the causes of this long dwell time is container transfer inefficiencies during loading process. In this research, we will focus in yard management and increasing land utilization. To increase the land utilization, we develop the space-sharing concept to reduce the initial space needed for a given workload. Since the ships arrivals are also varying, this concept will be possible. We develop the concept by adding uncertainty on number of incoming containers at operational level as the determining factor in planning a shared yard area. We propose a simulation approach to evaluate strategies in making yard template.

  19. The spatial concentration of dust emissions measured by using 3D scanning lidar in the open storage yards of steel-making company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Chou, Huann-Ming; Sun, Shu-Huang; Lee, Jiann-Shen

    2017-06-01

    The wind-blown dust emissions frequently occur in the open storage yards of steel-making companies. Tracking the dust source and monitoring their dispersion are rather difficult. This type of open-air storage yards poses many environmental hazards. The 3-D scanning lidar system is effective in environmental monitoring (e.g., dust) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which is lacking in traditional ground-based measurement. The objective of this paper is to make an attempt for the flux estimation of dust concentration by using lidar system. Further, we investigate the dynamical process of dust and their relationship with local air quality monitoring data. The results show that the material storage erosion by wind ( 3.6 m/s) could cause dust to elevate up to 20m height above the material storage, and produces the flux of dust around 674 mg/s. The flux of dust is proportional to the dust mass concentration (PM10) measured by commercial ambient particular monitors.

  20. Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of storage conditions on physical and release properties of lipophilic-based piroxicam suppositories with a view to determining the most desirable conditions for their storage. Piroxicam 20 mg suppositories were prepared by fusion method using cocoa butter, Witepsol H15® and Witepsol ...

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Paoli Rail Yard, Paoli, PA. (First remedial action), July 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 428-acre Paoli Rail Yard site is a maintenance, storage, and repair facility located north of Paoli in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Soil contamination in and around the car shop is attributed to releases of fuel oil and PCB-laden transformer fluid from rail cars during maintenance and repair activities. In 1985, EPA identified PCB contamination in soil and sediment, and on building surfaces. The rail companies agreed to address site clean-up activities, including erosion, sedimentation, and stormwater characteristics and control, decontamination, soil sampling, excavation of 3,500 cubic yards residential soil, and implementation of worker protection measures. The ROD provides a final remedy for contaminated soil (from the rail yard and residences), sediment, and structures at the Paoli Rail Yard, and contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes; and other organics, including PCBs. The selected remedial action for the site are included

  2. Soils in our big back yard: characterizing the state, vulnerabilities, and opportunities for detecting changes in soil carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Loiesel, Julie; Ryals, Rebecca; Lawrence, Corey; Blankinship, Joseph; Phillips, Claire; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Hugelius, Gustaf; Nave, Luke; Malhotra, Avni; Silver, Whendee; Sanderman, Jon

    2017-04-01

    A number of diverse approaches and sciences can contribute to a robust understanding of the I. state, II. vulnerabilities, and III. opportunities for soil carbon in context of its potential contributions to the atmospheric C budget. Soil state refers to the current C stock of a given site, region, or ecosystem/landuse type. Soil vulnerabilities refers to the forms and bioreactivity of C stocks, which determine how soil C might respond to climate, disturbance, and landuse perturbations. Opportunities refer to the potential for soils in their current state to increase capacity for and rate of C storage under future conditions, thereby impacting atmospheric C budgets. In order to capture the state, vulnerability, and opportunities for soil C, a robust C accounting scheme must include at least three science needs: (1) a user-friendly and dynamic database with transparent, shared coding in which data layers of solid, liquid, and gaseous phases share relational metadata and allow for changes over time (2) a framework to characterize the capacity and reactivity of different soil types based on climate, historic, and landscape factors (3) a framework to characterize landuse practices and their impact on physical state, capacity/reactivity, and potential for C change. In order to transfer our science information to practicable implementations for land policies, societal and social needs must also include: (1) metrics for landowners and policy experts to recognize conditions of vulnerability or opportunity (2)communication schemes for accessing salient outcomes of the science. Importantly, there stands an opportunity for contributions of data, model code, and conceptual frameworks in which scientists, educators, and decision-makers can become citizens of a shared, scrutinized database that contributes to a dynamic, improved understanding of our soil system.

  3. Release of tritium from fuel and collection for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.; Trevorrow, L.E.

    1976-04-01

    Recent work is reviewed on the technology that has been suggested as applicable to collection and storage of tritium in anticipation of the necessity of that course of action. Collection technology and procedures must be adapted to the tritium-bearing effluent and to the facility from which it emerges. Therefore, this discussion of tritium collection technology includes some information on the processes from which release is expected to occur, the amounts, the nature of the effluent media, and the form in which tritium appears. Recent work on collection and storage concepts has explored, both by experimentation and by feasibility analyses, the operations generally aimed at producing recycle, collection, or storage of tritium from these streams. Storage concepts aimed specifically at tritium involve plans to store volumes ranging from that of the entire effluent stream to only that of a small volume of a concentrate. Decisions between storage of unconcentrated streams and storage of concentrates are expected to be made largely by weighing the cost of storage space against the cost of concentration. The storage of tritium concentrate requires the selection of a form of tritium possessing physical and chemical properties appropriate for the expected storage conditions. This selection of an appropriate storage form has occupied a major portion of recent work concerned with tritium storage concepts. In summary, within the context of present regulations and expected amounts of waste tritium; this waste can be disposed of by dilution and dispersal to the environment. In the future, however, more restrictive regulations might be introduced that could be satisfied only by some collection and storage operations. Technology for this practice is not now available, and the present discussion reviews recent activities devoted to its development

  4. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  5. Activity release during the dry storage of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, M.K.; Fettel, W.; Gunther, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that wet storage is the predominant storage method in the USA for spent fuel assemblies. Nevertheless, most utilities have stretched their storage capacities and several reactors will lose their full-core reserve in the 90's. A great variety of out-of-pool storage methods already exist, including the FUELSTOR vault-type dry storage concept. A FUELSTOR vault relies on double containment of the spent fuel (intact cladding as the primary containment and sealing of assemblies in canisters filled with an inert gas as the secondary containment) to reduce radiation levels at the outside wall of the vault to less than site boundary levels. Investigation of accident scenarios reveals that radiation release limits are only exceeded following complete failure of all canisters and simultaneous cladding breach for more than 40% of the rods (or for more than 1% of failed rods if massive fuel oxidation occurs following cladding failure). Such failures are considered highly improbable. Thus, it can be concluded that this type of dry storage is safe and individual canister monitoring is not required in the facility

  6. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  7. Simulation model for port shunting yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusca, A.; Popa, M.; Rosca, E.; Rosca, M.; Dragu, V.; Rusca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ports are important nodes in the supply chain, joining two high capacity transport modes: rail and maritime transport. The huge cargo flows transiting port requires high capacity construction and installation such as berths, large capacity cranes, respectively shunting yards. However, the port shunting yards specificity raises several problems such as: limited access since these are terminus stations for rail network, the in-output of large transit flows of cargo relatively to the scarcity of the departure/arrival of a ship, as well as limited land availability for implementing solutions to serve these flows. It is necessary to identify technological solutions that lead to an answer to these problems. The paper proposed a simulation model developed with ARENA computer simulation software suitable for shunting yards which serve sea ports with access to the rail network. Are investigates the principal aspects of shunting yards and adequate measures to increase their transit capacity. The operation capacity for shunting yards sub-system is assessed taking in consideration the required operating standards and the measure of performance (e.g. waiting time for freight wagons, number of railway line in station, storage area, etc.) of the railway station are computed. The conclusion and results, drawn from simulation, help transports and logistics specialists to test the proposals for improving the port management.

  8. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  9. Device for storage of radio-nuclide configurations releasing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, R.; Jeschar, R.; Tenhumberg, M.

    1985-01-01

    In dry intermediate storage of burnt-up fuel elements and HAN, the storage shafts have cooling air flowing through them in the axial direction. The lids of the storage cells are made into heat exchangers via the outer cooling air circulation. Inside the storage cells, vertical, spatially and functionally separate updraught and downdraught chimneys are situated at the openings of the storage shafts. To force a convection flow of the right direction inside the storage cells, the lid or the storage shafts are inclined in the direction of the downdraught chimney or the storage shafts are provided with flow obstructions favouring one direction. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Bulk-scaffolded hydrogen storage and releasing materials and methods for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; Li, Xiaohong S [Richland, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA

    2011-06-21

    Compositions are disclosed for storing and releasing hydrogen and methods for preparing and using same. These hydrogen storage and releasing materials exhibit fast release rates at low release temperatures without unwanted side reactions, thus preserving desired levels of purity and enabling applications in combustion and fuel cell applications.

  11. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  12. Norepinephrine storage, distribution, and release in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, P.K.; Beamish, R.E.; Dhalla, K.S.; Innes, J.R.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of hearts to store, distribute, and release norepinephrine (NE) was investigated in rats 8 wk after the induction of diabetes by an injection of streptozotocin. Chronic diabetes was associated with increased content and concentration of NE in heart and in other tissues such as kidney, brain, and spleen. Reserpine or tyramine treatment resulted in depletion of endogenous cardiac NE in control and diabetic rats. The depletion of NE stores at different times after a dose of reserpine was greater in diabetic hearts. On the other hand, NE stores in diabetic hearts were less sensitive than control hearts to low doses of tyramine but were more sensitive to high doses. The uptake of [ 3 H]NE was greater in diabetic hearts in isolated perfused preparations. In comparison with the control values, diabetic hearts showed a decrease in [ 3 H]NE in the granular fraction and an increase in the supernatant fraction. Diabetic hearts also showed an accelerated spontaneous release of [ 3 H]NE. The increased cardiac NE and the uptake and release of NE in diabetic animals were reversible upon treatment with insulin. These results are consistent with the view that sympathetic activity is increased in diabetic cardiomyopathy and indicate that cardiac NE in diabetic rats is maintained at a higher level partly due to an increased uptake of released NE by adrenergic nerve terminals

  13. 43 CFR 414.3 - Storage and Interstate Release Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any other provisions that the parties deem appropriate. (b) How to address financial considerations. The Secretary will not execute an agreement that has adverse impacts on the financial interests of the... Release Agreement on the financial interests of the United States. Based on the consideration of the...

  14. Yards face up to future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, Jan Gunnar

    1997-01-01

    The article puts the attention to market relations in connection with the Norwegian petroleum industry. The paradox facing Norwegian yards involved in the offshore industry is that while the sector is now experiencing a market boom, within two years contractors could find themselves scrambling for work in a reduced market. 1 tab

  15. Sediments of a retting yard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Remani, K.N.; Venugopal, P.; Devi, K.S.; Unnithan, R.V.

    (av. 46.8 and 92.3 mg/g respectively) compared to the reference station (20.6 and 48.9 mg/g) and published data on estuarine sediments.C/N ratios were consistently higher in the retting yard. Organic nitrogen, however,did not show this trend. Annual...

  16. Production, detection, storage and release of spin currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantum rings connected to ballistic circuits couple strongly to external magnetic fields if the connection is not symmetric. Moreover, properly connected rings can be used to pump currents in the wires giving raise to a number of interesting new phenomena. At half filling using a time-dependent magnetic field in the plane of the ring one can pump a pure spin current, excited by the the spin–orbit interaction in the ring.Results: Such a magnetic current is even under time reversal and produces an electric field instead of the usual magnetic field. Numerical simulations show that one can use magnetizable bodies as storage units to concentrate and save the magnetization in much the same way as capacitors operating with charge currents store electric charge. The polarization obtained in this way can then be used on command to produce spin currents in a wire. These currents show interesting oscillations while the storage units exchange their polarizations.Conclusion: The magnetic production of spin currents can be a useful alternative to optical excitation and electric field methods.

  17. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. 25.56 Section 25.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers. (a) By no later than March 31, 2009, and...

  18. Vesicular storage and release of acetylcholine in Torpedo electroplaque synapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszkiw, J B; Zimmermann, H; Whittaker, V P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoefer-Inst.), Goettingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    The disposition of newly synthesized ACh subsequent to depletion of vesicular endogenous ACh by stimulation was studied in the electromotor nerve terminals of Torpedo marmorata using (/sup 3/H) acetate as a precursor of ACh. Little vesicular (/sup 3/H) ACh could be isolated from tissue immediately after stimulation at 1 Hz. After 3 h post-stimulation recovery the newly-synthesized (/sup 3/H) ACh is found predominantly in a subpopulation of vesicles distinct from the vesicles containing most of the endogenous poorly labelled ACh. Restimulation of the tissue causes release of highly labelled ACh with a specific radioactivity (SRA) comparable to that of the newly synthesized (/sup 3/H) ACh in the highly labelled subpopulation of vesicles and significantly greater than the SRA of ACh in the main vesicular pool of the total tissue.

  19. A Short History of Hanford Waste Generation, Storage, and Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-01-01

    Nine nuclear reactors and four reprocessing plants at Hanford produced nearly two-thirds of the plutonium used in the United States for government purposes . These site operations also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste. Some contaminants were released into the environment, exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Other contaminants were stored. The last reactor was shut down in 1987, and the last reprocessing plant closed in 1990. Most of the human-made radioactivity and about half of the chemicals remaining onsite are kept in underground tanks and surface facilities. The rest exists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Hanford contains about 40% of all the radioactivity that exists across the nuclear weapons complex. Today, environmental restoration activities are under way.

  20. Storage and sustained release of volatile substances from a hollow silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiexin [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Ding Haomin [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao Xia [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen Jianfeng [Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2007-06-20

    Porous hollow silica nanospheres (PHSNSs) prepared by adopting a nanosized CaCO{sub 3} template were utilized for the first time as a novel carrier for the storage and sustained release of volatile substances. Two types of volatile substances, Indian pipal from perfumes and peroxyacetic acid from disinfectants, were selected and then tested by one simple adsorption process with two separate comparative carriers, i.e. activated carbon and solid porous silica. It was demonstrated that a high storage capacity (9.6 ml{sub perfume}/mg{sub carrier}) of perfume could be achieved in a PHSNS matrix, which was almost 14 times as much as that of activated carbon. The perfume release profiles showed that PHSNSs exhibited sustained multi-stage release behaviour, while the constant release of activated carbon at a low level was discerned. Further, a Higuchi model study proved that the release process of perfume in both carriers followed a Fickian diffusion mechanism. For peroxyacetic acid as a disinfectant model, PHSNSs also displayed a much better delayed-delivery process than a solid porous silica system owing to the existence of unique hollow frameworks. Therefore, the aforementioned excellent sustained-release behaviours would make PHSNSs a promising carrier for storage and sustained delivery applications of volatile substances.

  1. Activity release from the damaged spent VVER-fuel during long-term wet storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slonszki, E.; Hozer, Z. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Pinter, T.; Baracska Varju, I. [Nuclear Power Plant Paks, Paks (Hungary)

    2010-07-01

    An ex-core fuel damage incident took place at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary on the 10{sup th} April 2003. After this event the damaged fuel assemblies were stored under water for four years. During wet storage a continuous activity release was observed. The evaluation of the measured activity concentration showed that the UO{sub 2} mass released from the fuel into the coolant was {approx} 1.8% of the total fuel mass. Furthermore this paper contains the calculation methods and the calculated activity release of the main analysed isotopes. (orig.)

  2. Activity release from the damaged spent VVER-fuel during long-term wet storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slonszki, E.; Hozer, Z.; Pinter, T.; Baracska Varju, I.

    2010-01-01

    An ex-core fuel damage incident took place at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary on the 10 th April 2003. After this event the damaged fuel assemblies were stored under water for four years. During wet storage a continuous activity release was observed. The evaluation of the measured activity concentration showed that the UO 2 mass released from the fuel into the coolant was ∼ 1.8% of the total fuel mass. Furthermore this paper contains the calculation methods and the calculated activity release of the main analysed isotopes. (orig.)

  3. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshkunov, K.A., E-mail: moshkunov@gmail.co [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmid, K.; Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurnaev, V.A.; Gasparyan, Yu.M. [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-30

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D{sub 2}O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of {approx}300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  4. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshkunov, K.A.; Schmid, K.; Mayer, M.; Kurnaev, V.A.; Gasparyan, Yu.M.

    2010-01-01

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D 2 O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of ∼300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  5. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkunov, K. A.; Schmid, K.; Mayer, M.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Gasparyan, Yu. M.

    2010-09-01

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D 2O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of ˜300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  6. Radioactive Release from Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel in Basin Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-10-21

    The report provides an evaluation of: (1) the release rate of radionuclides through minor cladding penetrations (breaches) on aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (AL SNF), and (2) the consequences of direct storage of breached AL SNF relative to the authorization basis for SRS basin operation.

  7. Radioactive Release from Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel in Basin Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The report provides an evaluation of: (1) the release rate of radionuclides through minor cladding penetrations (breaches) on aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (AL SNF), and (2) the consequences of direct storage of breached AL SNF relative to the authorization basis for SRS basin operation

  8. Evaluation of Radionuclide Release from Aluminum-Based SNF in Basin Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Burke, S.D.; Howell, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the release rates of radionuclides from breached A1-SNF assemblies and evaluates the effect of direct storage of breached fuel at a conservative upper bound reference condition on the SRS basin water activity levels

  9. Storage and on-demand release of microwaves using superconducting resonators with tunable coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Mathieu; Svensson, Ida-Maria; Raman Sathyamoorthy, Sankar; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per

    2014-01-01

    We present a system which allows to tune the coupling between a superconducting resonator and a transmission line. This storage resonator is addressed through a second, coupling resonator, which is frequency-tunable and controlled by a magnetic flux applied to a superconducting quantum interference device. We experimentally demonstrate that the lifetime of the storage resonator can be tuned by more than three orders of magnitude. A field can be stored for 18 μs when the coupling resonator is tuned off resonance and it can be released in 14 ns when the coupling resonator is tuned on resonance. The device allows capture, storage, and on-demand release of microwaves at a tunable rate.

  10. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % 235 U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % 235 U, and the grams of 235 U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities

  11. Release of radionuclides following severe accident in interim storage facility. Source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, S.; Mariani, M.; Giacobbo, F.; Covini, R.

    2006-01-01

    Among the severe accidents that can cause the release of radionuclides from an interim storage facility, with a consequent relevant radiological impact on the population, there is the impact of an aircraft on the facility. In this work, a safety assessment analysis for the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility is tackled. To this aim a methodology, based upon DOE, IAEA and NUREG standard procedures and upon conservative yet realistic hypothesis, has been developed in order to evaluate the total radioactivity, source term, released to the biosphere in consequence of the impact, without recurring to the use of complicated numerical codes. The procedure consists in the identification of the accidental scenarios, in the evaluation of the consequent damage to the building structures and to the waste packages and in the determination of the total release of radionuclides through the building-atmosphere interface. The methodology here developed has been applied to the case of an aircraft crash into an interim storage facility currently under design. Results show that in case of perforation followed by a fire incident the total released activity would be greater of some orders of magnitude with respect to the case of mere perforation. (author)

  12. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen selenide in vented storage cabinets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, V. M.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Sproull, R. D.

    1988-07-01

    Highly toxic hydrogen selenide and hydrogen sulfide gases are used in the production of copper-indium-diselenide photovoltaic cells by reactive sputtering. In the event of an accident, these gases may be released to the atmosphere and pose hazards to public and occupational safety and health. This paper outlines an approach for designing systems for the control of these releases given the uncertainty in release conditions and lack of data on the chemical systems involved. Accidental releases of these gases in storage cabinets can be controlled by either a venturi and packed-bed scrubber and carbon adsorption bed, or containment scrubbing equipment followed by carbon adsorption. These systems can effectively reduce toxic gas emissions to levels needed to protect public health. The costs of these controls (˜0.012/Wp) are samll in comparison with current (˜6/Wp) and projected (˜I/Wp) production costs.

  13. Porous PDMS structures for the storage and release of aqueous solutions into fluidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Peter; Baratchi, Sara; Szydzik, Crispin; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2017-07-11

    Typical microfluidic systems take advantage of multiple storage reservoirs, pumps and valves for the storage, driving and release of buffers and other reagents. However, the fabrication, integration, and operation of such components can be difficult. In particular, the reliance of such components on external off-chip equipment limits their utility for creating self-sufficient, stand-alone microfluidic systems. Here, we demonstrate a porous sponge made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is fabricated by templating microscale water droplets using a T-junction microfluidic structure. High-resolution microscopy reveals that this sponge contains a network of pores, interconnected by small holes. This unique structure enables the sponge to passively release stored solutions very slowly. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the sponge can be used for the passive release of stored solutions into narrow channels and circular well plates, with the latter used for inducing intracellular calcium signalling of immobilised endothelial cells. The release rate of stored solutions can be controlled by varying the size of interconnecting holes, which can be easily achieved by changing the flow rate of the water injected into the T-junction. We also demonstrate the active release of stored liquids into a fluidic channel upon the manual compression of the sponge. The developed PDMS sponge can be easily integrated into complex micro/macro fluidic systems and prepared with a wide array of reagents, representing a new building block for self-sufficient microfluidic systems.

  14. Storage and release of hydrogen cyanide in a chelicerate (Oribatula tibialis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Adrian; Raspotnig, Günther; Wehner, Katja; Meusinger, Reinhard; Norton, Roy A.; Heethoff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cyanogenesis denotes a chemical defensive strategy where hydrogen cyanide (HCN, hydrocyanic or prussic acid) is produced, stored, and released toward an attacking enemy. The high toxicity and volatility of HCN requires both chemical stabilization for storage and prevention of accidental self-poisoning. The few known cyanogenic animals are exclusively mandibulate arthropods (certain myriapods and insects) that store HCN as cyanogenic glycosides, lipids, or cyanohydrins. Here, we show that cyanogenesis has also evolved in the speciose Chelicerata. The oribatid mite Oribatula tibialis uses the cyanogenic aromatic ester mandelonitrile hexanoate (MNH) for HCN storage, which degrades via two different pathways, both of which release HCN. MNH is emitted from exocrine opisthonotal oil glands, which are potent organs for chemical defense in most oribatid mites. PMID:28289203

  15. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  16. Gas release and leachates at bark storage: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirjis, Raida; Andersson, Paal; Aronsson, Paer

    2005-01-01

    Large volumes of bark are produced as a by-product from saw mills and pulp and paper industry all year round in Sweden. Most of the bark is used as a biofuel. Due to the uneven demand for the fuel during the year, bark has to be often stored for a few months. Storage normally takes place outdoors in fairly large piles. A number of biological and chemical processes are known to occur during storage. These processes can lead to the emission and leakage of environmentally unaccepted products which can also affect working environment. The aim of this project was to evaluate the outcome of some of these processes and to asses its effect on working environment as well as the surrounding environment. This study investigates the storage of fresh bark from pine and spruce in laboratory scale experiments and a large scale storage trial. Results of the analyses of bark material, before and after storage, and the chemical constituents of the released gases and leached material are presented. Estimation of the total amounts that can be released in gas form or leached out from bark piles during storage, and possible environmental consequences are discussed. Conclusions and some practical suggestion concerning bark storage are given in this report. The laboratory experiment involved storage of fresh bark in a 34 litres cylindrical chamber at room temperature (RT) or heated to an average of 55 deg C. The chambers were designed to provide gas samples during emissions experiment and allow irrigation during leakage experiments. Sampling of the released gases (using Tenax-adsorbent) was performed during two or three weeks of storage for spruce and pine bark respectively. The total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and individual monoterpenes were determined. Changes in the chemical constituents of bark during storage were studied using different extraction methods and measuring instruments including Gas spectroscopy (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC- mass spectroscopy (MS

  17. Creation, Storage, and On-Demand Release of Optical Quantum States with a Negative Wigner Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Yoshikawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly nonclassical quantum states of light, characterized by Wigner functions with negative values, have been all-optically created so far only in a heralded fashion. In this case, the desired output emerges rarely and randomly from a quantum-state generator. An important example is the heralded production of high-purity single-photon states, typically based on some nonlinear optical interaction. In contrast, on-demand single-photon sources are also reported, exploiting the quantized level structure of matter systems. These sources, however, lead to highly impure output states, composed mostly of vacuum. While such impure states may still exhibit certain single-photon-like features such as antibunching, they are not nonclassical enough for advanced quantum-information processing. On the other hand, the intrinsic randomness of pure, heralded states can be circumvented by first storing and then releasing them on demand. Here, we propose such a controlled release, and we experimentally demonstrate it for heralded single photons. We employ two optical cavities, where the photons are both created and stored inside one cavity and finally released through a dynamical tuning of the other cavity. We demonstrate storage times of up to 300 ns while keeping the single-photon purity around 50% after storage. Our experiment is the first demonstration of a negative Wigner function at the output of an on-demand photon source or a quantum memory. In principle, our storage system is compatible with all kinds of nonclassical states, including those known to be essential for many advanced quantum-information protocols.

  18. Development of a new esomeprazole delayed release gastro-resistant pellet formulation with improved storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalexis, Panagiotis; Grypioti, Agni

    2018-06-01

    This study describes the development of a new esomeprazole (ESO) delayed release gastro-resistant formulation with improved storage stability. A three-step (drug-, sub(seal)- and enteric-) coating process was employed with the aid of a fluid bed coater. Several formulation factors (namely, size and quantity of starting non-pareil sugar spheres, binder quantity during drug-layering, sub(seal)-coating polymer type, and quantity and enteric coating quantity) were evaluated and the whole process was modeled with the aid of feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs). Results showed that the selection of small-sized starting spheres (45/60 mesh size) leads to pellet agglomeration, while as sub(seal)-coating weight gain increases a reduction in ESO dissolution rate is observed. The enteric-coating applied (Eudragit L30D-55) showed good gastro-resistant performance in both 0.1 N HCl and pH 4.5 media, while immediate release profiles with more than 85% of ESO being released in less than 30 min were obtained. The effect of cellulose-based sub(seal)-coating polymers, (namely, hydroxypropyl cellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) on formulation's storage stability at 40 ± 2 °C/75 ± 5%RH indicated that only hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose was able to stabilize ESO delayed-release formulations in terms of assay, dissolution, impurities, and gastro-resistance performance. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed smooth and homogeneous external surface/coating layers in all three levels (drug-, sub(seal)-, and enteric- coating), while x-ray diffraction showed no polymorphic transformations.

  19. Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Arun Kumar, M B; Walia, Suresh; Shakil, Najam A; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-02-01

    Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage. Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content. Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.

  20. The diversity of methoxyphenols released by pyrolysis-gas chromatography as predictor of soil carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A; Álvarez, Ana M; Carral, Pilar; González-Vila, Francisco J; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2017-07-28

    The variable extent to which environmental factors are involved in soil carbon storage is currently a subject of controversy. In fact, justifying why some soils accumulate more organic matter than others is not trivial. Some abiotic factors such as organo-mineral associations have classically been invoked as the main drivers for soil C stabilization. However, in this research indirect evidences based on correlations between soil C storage and compositional descriptors of the soil organic matter are presented. It is assumed that the intrinsic structure of soil organic matter should have a bearing in the soil carbon storage. This is examined here by focusing on the methoxyphenols released by direct pyrolysis from a wide variety of topsoil samples from continental Mediterranean ecosystems from Spain with different properties and carbon content. Methoxyphenols are typical signature compounds presumptively informing on the occurrence and degree of alteration of lignin in soils. The methoxyphenol assemblages (12 major guaiacyl- and syringyl-type compounds) were analyzed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was chosen to describe the complexity of this phenolic signature. A series of exploratory statistical analyses (simple regression, partial least squares regression, multidimensional scaling) were applied to analyze the relationships existing between chemical and spectroscopic characteristics and the carbon content in the soils. These treatments coincided in pointing out that significant correlations exist between the progressive molecular diversity of the methoxyphenol assemblages and the concentration of organic carbon stored in the corresponding soils. This potential of the diversity in the phenolic signature as a surrogate index of the carbon storage in soils is tentatively interpreted as the accumulation of plant macromolecules altered into microbially reworked structures not readily recognized by soil enzymes. From

  1. 40 CFR 60.1915 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1915 Section 60... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1915 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15370 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 62.15370 Section 62... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15370 What is yard waste? Yard waste is grass, grass...

  3. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-01-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies

  4. Deglacial climate modulated by the storage and release of Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condron, A.; Coletti, A. J.; Bradley, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Periods of abrupt climate cooling during the last deglaciation (20 - 8 kyr ago) are often attributed to glacial outburst floods slowing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Here, we present results from a series of climate model simulations showing that the episodic break-up and mobilization of thick, perennial, Arctic sea ice during this time would have released considerable volumes of freshwater directly to the Nordic Seas, where processes regulating large-scale climate occur. Massive sea ice export events to the North Atlantic are generated whenever the transport of sea ice is enhanced, either by changes in atmospheric circulation, rising sea level submerging the Bering land bridge, or glacial outburst floods draining into the Arctic Ocean from the Mackenzie River. We find that the volumes of freshwater released to the Nordic Seas are similar to, or larger than, those estimated to have come from terrestrial outburst floods, including the discharge at the onset of the Younger Dryas. Our results provide the first evidence that the storage and release of Arctic sea ice helped drive deglacial climate change by modulating the strength of the AMOC.

  5. Improved Understanding of Carbon Storage Risk Via Controlled-Release Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.

    2014-12-01

    Two issues are often recognized as main risk drivers for carbon storage projects. The first is the possibility of pressure-induced slip of pre-existing faults, which can lead to breaching of seals to CO2 storage reservoirs. Although the mechanics of induced seismicity are well known, the characteristics of such slip events are poorly constrained and significant questions remain. The second is the potential impact of leaking CO2 on the quality of shallow potable groundwater. While several studies have been conducted using laboratory tests, natural analogues, and numerical models to evaluate the water quality changes induced by elevated CO2 concentrations, predictive understanding of these coupled processes remains limited in realistic field settings. We discuss in this invited contribution two controlled-release field experiments targeting remaining science gaps associated with induced seismicity and groundwater chemistry. The first experiment is a planned active fault slip experiment conducted in an underground research laboratory (URL) in a hardened shale formation that serves as a caprock analog. The critically stressed fault will be perturbed by the injection of fluid under pressure to simulate the influence of CO2 overpressure. The in situ reactivation experiment will use a novel borehole deformation tool that assesses the magnitude of overpressure required to cause slip, defines the mode of this slip as creeping (aseismic) or rapid (seismic), and measures the evolution of permeability on the fault. The second controlled-release field experiment was conducted in 2011/2012 to simulate the release of CO2 from a geologic storage site and study the transport as well as the chemical mechanisms leading to the CO2-induced mobilization of trace elements in a shallow aquifer. The field test involved a dipole system in which the shallow groundwater was pumped from one well, saturated with CO2 at the pressure corresponding to the hydraulic pressure of the aquifer, and

  6. Antibacterial and antiproliferative peptides in synbiotic yogurt-Release and stability during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, B N P; Vasiljevic, T; McKechnie, S; Donkor, O N

    2016-06-01

    The search for alternative therapeutics is on the rise due to the extensive increase in bacterial resistance to various conventional antibiotics and side effects of conventional cancer therapies. Bioactive peptides released from natural sources such as dairy foods by lactic acid bacteria have received attention as a potential source of biotherapeutic peptides. However, liberation of peptides in yogurt depends on proteolytic activities of the cultures used. Thus, this research was conducted to establish generation of inhibitory peptides in yogurt against pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells during storage at 4°C for 28d. Water-soluble crude peptide extracts were prepared by high-speed centrifugation of plain and probiotic yogurts supplemented with or without pineapple peel powder (PPP). The inhibition zones against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by PPP-fortified probiotic yogurt at 28d of storage were, respectively, 25.89 and 11.72mm in diameter, significantly higher than that of nonsupplemented control yogurts. Antiproliferative activity against HT29 colon cancer cells was also significantly higher in probiotic yogurt with PPP than in nonsupplemented probiotic yogurt. Overall, crude water-soluble peptide extracts of the probiotic yogurt with PPP possessed stronger inhibitory activities against bacteria and cancer cells than controls, and these activities were maintained during storage. However, activities were lowered substantially during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. These findings support the possibility of utilizing dairy-derived bioactive peptides in the development of a superior alternative to the current generation of antibacterial and anticancer agents, as well as a functional ingredient in foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site. This report contains remedial verification of the soil sample analytical results for the following: Area 11 Tweezer facility; Area 12 boiler house; Area 12 service station; Area 23 bypass yard; Area 23 service station; Area 25 power house; Area 25 tech. services building; Area 25 tech. operations building; Area 26 power house; and Area 27 boiler house

  8. Electrospun silk fibroin fibers for storage and controlled release of human platelet lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Cataldo; Perotto, Giovanni; Nardini, Marta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-04-17

    Human platelet lysate (hPL) is a pool of growth factors and cytokines able to induce regeneration of different tissues. Despite its good potentiality as therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine applications, hPL has been only moderately exploited in this field. A more widespread adoption has been limited because of its rapid degradation at room temperature that decreases its functionality. Another limiting factor for its extensive use is the difficulty of handling the hPL gels. In this work, silk fibroin-based patches were developed to address several points: improving the handling of hPL, enabling their delivery in a controlled manner and facilitating their storage by creating a device ready to use with expanded shelf life. Patches of fibroin loaded with hPL were synthesized by electrospinning to take advantage of the fibrous morphology. The release kinetics of the material was characterized and tuned through the control of fibroin crystallinity. Cell viability assays, performed with primary human dermal fibroblasts, demonstrated that fibroin is able to preserve the hPL biological activity and prolong its shelf-life. The strategy of storing and preserving small active molecules within a naturally-derived, protein-based fibrous scaffold was successfully implemented, leading to the design of a biocompatible device, which can potentially simplify the storage and the application of the hPL on a human patient, undergoing medical procedures such as surgery and wound care. Human platelets lysate (hPL) is a mixture of growth factors and cytokines able to induce the regeneration of damaged tissues. This study aims at enclosing hPL in a silk fibroin electrospun matrix to expand its utilization. Silk fibroin showed the ability to preserve the hPL activity at temperature up to 60 °C and the manipulation of fibroin's crystallinity provided a tool to modulate the hPL release kinetic. This entails the possibility to fabricate the hPL silk fibroin patches in advance and

  9. 76 FR 58167 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... subject matter expert. Thus, EWS contains the best data to support the play yard regulatory work. 1... compressed the airway. One toddler was killed when the play yard collapsed unexpectedly. The child was... hospitalization was caused by the presence of soft bedding in the play yard. This was a severe injury to a 7-week...

  10. Phase changing nanocomposites for low temperature thermal energy storage and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop new elastomeric phase change materials (PCM for the thermal energy storage/release below room temperature. In particular, poly(cyclooctene (PCO/paraffin blends filled with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, were prepared by a melt compounding process. The microstructural, thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of the resulting materials were investigated. The microstructure of these materials was characterized by the presence of paraffin domains inside the PCO, and CNTs were located only inside the paraffin domains in forms of aggregated clusters. DSC tests evidenced the existence of two distinct crystallization peaks at –10 and at 6 °C, respectively associated to the paraffin and the PCO phases, indicating that both the polymeric constituents are thermally active below room temperature. Moreover, CNT addition did not substantially alter the melting/crystallization properties of the material. Noticeable improvements of the mechanical properties and of the electrical conductivity with respect to the neat PCO/paraffin blend could be obtained upon CNT addition, and also thermal conductivity/diffusivity values were considerably enhanced above the percolation threshold. Finite element modeling demonstrated the efficacy of the prepared nanocomposites for applications in the thermal range from –30 to 6 °C.

  11. The effect of enzymes upon metabolism, storage, and release of carbohydrates in normal and abnormal endometria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E C

    1976-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data concerning the relationship of various components of glandular epithelium and effect of enzymes on metabolism, storage, and release of certain substances in normal and abnormal endometria. Activity of these endometrial enzymes has been compared between two groups: 252 patients with normal menstrual histories and 156 patients, all over the age of 40, with abnormal uterine bleeding. Material was obtained by endometrial biopsy or curettage. In the pathologic classification of the group of 156, 30 patients had secretory endometria, 88 patients had endometria classified as proliferative, 24 were classified as endometrial hyperplasia, and 14 were classified as adenocarcinoma. All tissue was studied by histologic, histochemical, and biochemical methods. Glycogen synthetase activity caused synthesis of glucose to glycogen, increasing in amount until midcycle, when glycogen phosphorylase activity caused the breakdown to glucose during the regressive stage of endometrial activity. This normal cyclic activity did not occur in the abnormal endometria, where activity of both enzymes continued at low constant tempo. Only the I form of glycogen synthetase increased as the tissue became more hyperplastic. With the constant glycogen content and the increased activity of both the TPN isocitric dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the hyperplastic and cancerous endometria, tissue energy was created, resulting in abnormal cell proliferation. These altered biochemical and cellular activities may be the basis for malignant cell growth.

  12. Peat Archives in the Hudson River Estuary… Marsh Formation, Carbon Storage and Release, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Corbett, E. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kenna, T. C.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We target deep peat stores (at least 8 meters) of carbon in the lower Hudson Estuary, which formed as the glacial fjord became an estuary with mid-Holocene sea level rise. These deep marshes play an extremely important role in the estuary health and stability in a changing climate. Never before have we faced the threats to coastal marshes that we are facing today, and the resulting sedimentation rates, inorganic/organic component histories, pollen, macrofossil, isotopic, and XRF data reveal critical information about past vegetation and climate change. Long-term shifts in organic/inorganic storage appear to be linked to drought, as watershed erosion results in more sand, silt and clay in the marshes. Climatic shifts often result in regional watershed shifts in vegetation, both locally and regionally. Understanding how these marshes are linked to human impact (disturbance, invasive species, higher nitrogen, heavy metal pollution, dams) over the last four centuries is critical to providing management of these key ecosystems, and their preservation as sea level rises. Quantification of processes that cause carbon degradation and release from these wetlands to the estuary is also key to this investigation. Peat loss would contribute to heavy metal pollution in the estuary as well as carbon loss. Young investigators from secondary schools in New York City participated in much of the fieldwork as part of the NASA/GISS NYC Research Initiative and the LDEO Secondary School Field Research Carbon Team.

  13. The effects of regeneration conditions on NOx and NH3 release from NOx storage/reduction catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epling, William S.; Yezerets, Aleksey; Currier, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    A standard protocol developed by the Cross-Cut Lean Exhaust Emissions Reduction Simulations (CLEERS) group was used to investigate the evolution of N-byproduct species and the release of unreduced NO x from a commercial NO x storage/reduction (NSR) catalyst. NH 3 was readily formed at temperatures below 375 C, and the onset of its formation was typically observed coincident with reductant breakthrough. N 2 O was also observed at these lower test temperatures. The rate of NO x release, as both NO and NO 2 , increased with increasing temperature due to decreasing nitrate stability. Reduction of NO x necessarily involved the presence of reductant, which was also used to titrate oxygen species from oxygen-storage components such as ceria. Changes in the release of unreduced NO x from the catalyst as a function of temperature were directly attributable to the temperature dependencies of nitrate stability and decomposition, NO x diffusion to the precious metal sites, the rate of the NO x reduction reaction and the rate of reduction of these oxygen-storage components. Furthermore, by accounting for the amount of reductant needed for titration of the oxygen-storage components and the amount of NO x trapped, mass balance calculations were performed and used to estimate the amounts of residual nitrates on the catalyst surface after regeneration. These calculations indicate that only at the lower temperatures were the regenerations not effective enough to remove all the trapped NO x . (author)

  14. Hydrogen Storage and Release Properties of Transition Metal-Added Magnesium Hydride Alloy Fabricated by Grinding in a Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sung Nam; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Ryoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    90 wt% MgH{sub 2}+5 wt% Ni+2.5 wt% Fe+2.5 wt% Ti (called MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti), a hydrogen storage and release material, was fabricated by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere, and then its quantities of stored and released hydrogen as a function of time were examined. A nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti specimen was made by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere and subsequent hydrogen storage-release cycling. The crystallite size of Mg and the strain of the Mg crystallite after ten hydrogen storage-release cycles, which were obtained using the Williamson-Hall method, were 38.6 (±1.4) nm and 0.025 (±0.0081) %, respectively. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti sample after the process of grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere was highly reactive with hydrogen. The sample exhibited an available storage capacity of hydrogen (the amount of hydrogen stored during 60 minutes) of about 5.7 wt%. At the first cycle, the MgH2+Ni+Fe+Ti sample stored hydrogen of 5.53 wt% in 5 minutes, 5.66 wt% in 10 minutes and 5.73 wt% in 60 minutes at 573 K and 12 bar of hydrogen. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti after activation released hydrogen of 0.56 wt% in 5 minutes, 1.26 wt% in 10 minutes, 2.64 wt% in 20 minutes, 3.82 wt% in 30 minutes, and 5.03 wt% in 60 minutes.

  15. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Emese; Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor; Vajda, Nora

    2009-01-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  16. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Zoltan, E-mail: hozer@aeki.kfki.h [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szabo, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor [Nuclear Power Plant Paks, H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Vajda, Nora [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest, Muegyetem rakpart 9 (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  17. Slow heat release - solid fuel stove with acetat-trihydrate heat storage sodium; Slow heat release - Braendeovn med salthydratvarmelager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, U.; Bjerrum, M.; Noergaard, T. (Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    Of the 700,000 solid fuel stoves in Denmark, 600,000 are installed in permanent residences, and 100,000 are installed in summer cottages. Recent examinations have shown that in the heating season, these stoves contribute with a not negligible share of air pollution in the cities. The reason is often inexpedient firing and an inappropriate performance of the stove. In many cases the thermal output of the stove exceeds the heating demand of a modern residence; and the user typically reduces the stove's combustion air supply with the purpose of lowering the temperature of the accommodation space. The result is a sooting combustion followed by undesired and environmentally damaging emissions. In worst case the user fires throughout the night reducing the air to an absolutely minimum. In these situations the fuel smoulders all night, and the stove emits large amounts of undesirable and unhealthy emissions. By constructing the stove with a heat storage that can accumulate the heat from the stove and emit the heat later (when not firing), the problem with the unhealthy ''night firings'' should be eliminated. The project started with a pre-examination regarding suitable materials for a heat storage and a literature study of the subject. By using an OGC material, in this case sodiumacetat-trihydrat, the weight of the stove, in spite of the heat storage, could be held within reasonable frames, since 130 kg PCM can contain the same heat amount as 1,200 kg stone. The great challenge was to compensate for PCM's poor heat conductivities, to distribute the heat in the whole heat storage, making it melt regularly without generating local boiling. This problem was solved by construction measures. The system with sodiumacetat-trihydrat, which melts by 58 deg. C, came to function satisfactorily. 14 hours after the last firing, the temperature of the heat storage was 30 deg. C. The tests with PCM were followed by an extensive emission measuring program

  18. Detection of fission products release in the research reactor 'RA' spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z.; Pavlovic, S.; Maksin, T.; Idakovic, Z.; Marinkovic, N.

    1997-05-01

    Spent fuel resulting from 25 years of operating the 6.5/10 MW thermal heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor RA at the VINCA Institute is presently all stored in the temporary spent fuel storage pool in the basement of the reactor building. In 1984, the reactor was shut down for refurbishment, which for a number of reasons has not yet been completed. Recent investigations show that independent of the future status of the research reactor, safe disposal of the so far irradiated fuel must be the subject of primary concern. The present status of the research reactor RA spent fuel storage pool at the VINCA Institute presents a serious safety problem. Action is therefore initiated in two directions. First, safety of the existing spent fuel storage should be improved. Second, transferring spent fuel into another, presumably dry storage space should be considered. By storing the previously irradiated fuel of the research reactor RA in a newly built storage space, sufficient free space will be provided in the existing spent fuel storage pool for the newly irradiated fuel when the reactor starts operation again. In the case that it would be decided to decommission the research reactor RA, the newly built storage space would provide safe disposal for the fuel irradiated so far

  19. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Grace G D; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-11-13

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid-solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive goal. Herein, we report a combination of photo-switching dopants and organic phase-change materials as a way to introduce an activation energy barrier for phase-change materials solidification and to conserve thermal energy in the materials, allowing them to be triggered optically to release their stored latent heat. This approach enables the retention of thermal energy (about 200 J g -1 ) in the materials for at least 10 h at temperatures lower than the original crystallization point, unlocking opportunities for portable thermal energy storage systems.

  20. 40 CFR 60.1440 - What is yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is yard waste? 60.1440 Section 60...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste... Reconstruction is Commenced After June 6, 2001 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60...

  1. Storage selection functions : A coherent framework for quantifying how catchments store and release water and solutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldo, A.; Benettin, P.; Harman, C.J.; Hrachowitz, M.; McGuire, K.J.; Van der Velde, Y.; Bertuzzo, E.; Botter, G.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a recent theoretical approach combining catchment-scale flow and transport processes into a unified framework. The approach is designed to characterize the hydrochemistry of hydrologic systems and to meet the challenges posed by empirical evidence. StorAge Selection functions (SAS) are

  2. Collagen induced aggregation of platelets and release of 14C serotonin from platelets depending on temperature and pH during in vitro storage of platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper investigates collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release in dependence of age, temperature, and pH value during the storage of the conserved platelets. The optimum pH (with adjusted CO 2 /air mixture) for platelet storage is found to be pH 6.9. The optimum temperature for platelet storage is 4-8 0 C. After 12, 24, or 48 hours of storage at pH 6.9 and 4-8 0 C and subsequent heating of the platelet-rich plasma to 37 0 C for 30 minutes, the values determined for collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release rarely differed from the initial values before storage. Cold-induced spontaneous platelet aggregation and serotonin release of the platelets stored at 4-8 0 C can be avoided by 30-60 minutes pre-incubation of the platelets at 37 0 C before transfusions. The in vitro findings for collagen-induced platelet aggregation and 14 C serotonin release indicate that platelet storage for 24-48 hours at pH 6.9 and 4-8 0 C may be permissible also for clinical purposes. The problem remains open whether the clinical effect of these platelets is still sufficient after 48 hours of storage, but literature findings suggest that this may well be the case. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of storage temperature and time of antimony release from PET bottles into drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fei; Lei, Kun; Li, Zicheng; Liu, Qing; Wei, Zhanliang; An, Lihui; Qi, Hongli; Cui, Song

    2018-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) concentrations were measured in 10 brands of PET bottled drinking water available in supermarkets in China. To simulate general storage habits based on market research, these PET bottles with drinking water were stored for 4 weeks in a lab or a car trunk during the summer. Although the PET package material of brand A had the lowest Sb level (142.71 ± 29.81 μg/g), it showed a significant increase in Sb concentrations when stored in both the car trunk and the lab. There was significant release of Sb from the PET bottles into the water following 24 h of incubation at ≥ 40 °C (40, 50, 60, and 70 °C), especially at 70 °C. The potential health risk of Sb release from PET bottles was calculated based on daily intake values and determined to be acceptable for consumers under normal storage conditions.

  4. Vertical stratification of soil water storage and release dynamics in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Warren; F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.C. Domec

    2005-01-01

    We characterized vertical variation in the seasonal release of stored soil moisture in old-growth ponderosa pine (OG-PP, xeric), and young and old-growth Douglas-fir (Y-DF, OG-DF, mesic) forests to evaluate changes in water availability for root uptake. Soil water potential (ψ) and volumetric water content (θ...

  5. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 1: biomechanical analysis related to user benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Eisma, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The energy storing and releasing behaviour of 2 energy storing feet (ESF) and 2 conventional prosthetic feet (CF) were compared (ESF: Otto Bock Dynamic Pro and Hanger Quantum; CF: Otto Bock Multi Axial and Otto Bock Lager). Ten trans-tibial amputees were selected. The study was designed as a

  6. Accidental Release of Chlorine from a Storage Facility and an On-Site Emergency Mock Drill: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathumpara Raman Soman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current industrial scenario there is a serious need for formulating strategies to handle hazardous substances in the safest way. Manufacture, storage, and use of hazardous substances pose a serious risk to industry, people, and the environment. Accidental release of toxic chemicals can lead to emergencies. An emergency response plan (ERP is inevitable to minimize the adverse effects of such releases. The on-site emergency plan is an integral component of any process safety and risk management system. This paper deals with an on-site emergency response plan for a chlorine manufacturing industry. It was developed on the basis of a previous study on chlorine release and a full scale mock drill has been conducted for testing the plan. Results indicated that properly trained personnel can effectively handle each level of incidents occurring in the process plant. As an extensive guideline to the district level government authorities for off-site emergency planning, risk zone has also been estimated with reference to a chlorine exposure threshold of 3 ppm.

  7. Transfer into the biosphere of radionuclides released from deep storage of radioactive wastes. Bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedon, V.; Siclet, F.

    1995-03-01

    Most countries with civilian nuclear programs today are encountering difficulty in implementing a nuclear waste management policy that is both technically safe in the long term and accepted by the public. To meet both criteria, the solution most generally envisaged is deep storage either of untreated spent nuclear fuel or of highly radioactive wastes resulting from reprocessing. In order to predict the potential impact of such storage on man, one needs to understand the path followed by radionuclides in the geosphere, and later in the biosphere. Given the time scales involved and the critical nature of the elements concerned, it is indispensable to turn to mathematical modeling of the phenomena. This, however, does not preclude the essential need for in-depth knowledge of the phenomena and of the physico-chemical characteristics of radionuclides. This report presents what is hoped to be a complete inventory of the radionuclides contained in ''high level'' wastes (categories B AND C). The elements concerned in studies on deep storage are essentially long-life radionuclides (both actinides and certain fission and activation products). Their physico-chemical characteristics and their behavior in various ecological compartments are examined. Bibliographical data bearing on: solubility (in an oxidizing, reducing medium), distribution factors (water/rock-sediment-soil), concentration and transfer factors (in aquatic and terrestrial mediums), dose conversion factors (in the case of internal and external irradiation), principal paths of exposure for each radionuclide studied, are presented in this report. Initial results from international projects to model what happens to radionuclides in the biosphere are also presented. In general, they are optimistic as to the future, but nonetheless point to a need to improve the conceptual base of the models, to ensure that all major phenomena and processes are taken into consideration and to examine any possible amplification

  8. Multifunctional glass fiber/polyamide composites with thermal energy storage/release capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fredi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composite laminates with thermal energy storage (TES capability were prepared by combining a glass fabric, a polyamide 12 (PA12 matrix and two different phase change materials (PCMs, i.e. a paraffinic wax microencapsulated in melamine-formaldehyde shells and a paraffin shape stabilized with carbon nanotubes. The melt flow index of the PA12/PCM blends decreased with the PCM concentration, especially in the systems with shape stabilized wax. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, for the matrices with microcapsules, the values of enthalpy were approximately the 70% of the theoretical values, which was attributed to the fracture of some microcapsules. Nevertheless, most of the energy storage capability was preserved. On the other hand, much lower relative enthalpy values were measured on the composites with shape stabilized wax, due to a considerable paraffin leakage or degradation. The subsequent characterization of the glass fabric laminates highlighted that the fiber and void volume fractions were comparable for all the laminates except for that with the higher amount of shape stabilized wax, where the high viscosity of the matrix led to a low fiber volume fraction and higher void content. The mechanical properties of the laminates were only slightly impaired by PCM addition, while a more sensible drop of the elastic modulus, of the stress at break and of the interlaminar shear strength could be observed in the shape stabilized wax systems.

  9. Storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers and ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Eran; Battin, Tom J.; Fellman, Jason; O'Neel, Shad; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers, which cover roughly 11% of the Earth's land surface, store organic carbon from local and distant sources and then release it to downstream environments. Climate-driven changes to glacier runoff are expected to be larger than climate impacts on other components of the hydrological cycle, and may represent an important flux of organic carbon. A compilation of published data on dissolved organic carbon from glaciers across five continents reveals that mountain and polar glaciers represent a quantitatively important store of organic carbon. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is the repository of most of the roughly 6 petagrams (Pg) of organic carbon stored in glacier ice, but the annual release of glacier organic carbon is dominated by mountain glaciers in the case of dissolved organic carbon and the Greenland Ice Sheet in the case of particulate organic carbon. Climate change contributes to these fluxes: approximately 13% of the annual flux of glacier dissolved organic carbon is a result of glacier mass loss. These losses are expected to accelerate, leading to a cumulative loss of roughly 15 teragrams (Tg) of glacial dissolved organic carbon by 2050 due to climate change -- equivalent to about half of the annual flux of dissolved organic carbon from the Amazon River. Thus, glaciers constitute a key link between terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes, and will be of increasing importance in land-to-ocean fluxes of organic carbon in glacierized regions.

  10. Storage and release of organic carbon from glaciers and ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Eran; Battin, Tom J.; Fellman, Jason; O'Neel, Shad; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers, which cover roughly 11% of the Earth's land surface, store organic carbon from local and distant sources and then release it to downstream environments. Climate-driven changes to glacier runoff are expected to be larger than climate impacts on other components of the hydrological cycle, and may represent an important flux of organic carbon. A compilation of published data on dissolved organic carbon from glaciers across five continents reveals that mountain and polar glaciers represent a quantitatively important store of organic carbon. The Antarctic Ice Sheet is the repository of most of the roughly 6 petagrams (Pg) of organic carbon stored in glacier ice, but the annual release of glacier organic carbon is dominated by mountain glaciers in the case of dissolved organic carbon and the Greenland Ice Sheet in the case of particulate organic carbon. Climate change contributes to these fluxes: approximately 13% of the annual flux of glacier dissolved organic carbon is a result of glacier mass loss. These losses are expected to accelerate, leading to a cumulative loss of roughly 15 teragrams (Tg) of glacial dissolved organic carbon by 2050 due to climate change — equivalent to about half of the annual flux of dissolved organic carbon from the Amazon River. Thus, glaciers constitute a key link between terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes, and will be of increasing importance in land-to-ocean fluxes of organic carbon in glacierized regions.

  11. Gardening/Yard Work and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elisa R; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Ronis, David L; Neighbors, Harold W; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scheduling freight trains in rail-rail transshipment yards

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Boysen; Erwin Pesch

    2008-01-01

    Transshipment yards, where gantry cranes allow for an effcient transshipment of containers between different freight trains, are important entities in modern railway systems and facilitate the general shift from point-to-point transport to hub-and-spoke railway systems. Modern rail-rail transshipment yards accelerate container handling, so that multiple smaller trains with equal destination can be consolidated to a reduced number of trains without jeopardizing on time deliveries. An important...

  13. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The yard... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air...

  14. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  15. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  16. Socioeconomic drivers of yard sustainable practices in a tropical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia J. Meléndez-Ackerman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work has emphasized the importance of residential areas to the overall green infrastructure of cities and recognizes that outcomes related to these areas are best studied using a social-ecological approach. We conducted vegetation surveys to evaluate yard practices that relate to the state of the yard vegetation, including species diversity and abundance, vegetation structure, and the percent of green area of yards versus paved areas, at the Río Piedras watershed within the San Juan metropolitan area. We used concomitant social household surveys to evaluate the association of social-economic and demographic factors at the household scale with these vegetation characteristics, as well as with landscape-level characteristics related to urban morphology and elevation. Our results for this tropical site were consistent with studies elsewhere in that a greater number of social factors at the household scale were more important in explaining the traits related to how green the yards were. On the other hand, we failed to detect the so-called luxury effect on urban vegetation encountered at many sites. Instead, we found consistent vegetation associations with the age of the residents, housing ownership, and, most importantly, with yard size. We have discussed the potential reasons for these discrepancies and the potential consequences of the human-natural links at the household scale to the future dynamics of this portion of the green infrastructure within this urban watershed.

  17. The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Lucía; Timofeeva, Galina; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Hommel, Robert; Gessler, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three-year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~10 weeks, and 13 C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the 13 C label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated with drought effects and subsequent drought release. The results demonstrate that soluble sugars accumulated in P. sylvestris under drought conditions independently of growth trends; thus, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) formation cannot be simply considered a passive overflow process in this species. Once drought ceased, C allocation to storage was still prioritized at the expense of growth, which suggested the presence of 'drought memory effects', possibly to ensure future growth and survival. On the contrary, NSC and growth dynamics in T. platyphyllos were consistent with a passive (overflow) view of NSC formation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impacts of external convection on release rates in metal hydride storage tanks. Paper no. IGEC-1-080

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, B.; Rowe, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Ho, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversible metal hydrides can be used to store hydrogen at relatively low pressures, with very high volumetric density. The rate hydrogen can be drawn from a given tank is strongly influenced by the rate heat can be transferred to the reaction zone. Because of this, enhancing and controlling heat transfer is a key area of research in the development of metal hydride storage tanks. In this work, the impacts of external convection resistance on hydrogen release rates are examined. A one-dimensional resistive analysis determines the thermal resistances in the system based on one case where no external heat transfer enhancements are used, and a second case where external fins are used. A two-dimensional, transient model, developed in FEMLAB, is used to determine the impact of the external fins on the mass flow rate of hydrogen in more detail. For the particular metal hydride alloy (LaNi 4.8 Sn 0.2 ) and tank geometry studied, it was found that the fins have a large impact on the hydrogen flow rate during the initial stages of desorption. The flow rate with no fins is only 20% of the flow rate with fins for a full tank, 57% when the tank is 33% full, and 74% when the tank is 5% full. As the reaction proceeds, the resistance of the metal hydride alloy within the tank increases and becomes dominant. Therefore, the impact of the fins becomes less significant as the tank empties. (author)

  19. Drought stress release increased growth rate but did not affect levels of storage carbohydrates in Scots pine trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbeck, Leonie; Gessler, Arthur; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Li, Mai-He

    2017-04-01

    For trees, energy storage in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) plays an important role for survival and growth, especially during stress events such as drought. It is hypothesized, that tree individuals that experience long-term drought stress use up larger amounts of NSCs than trees that do not experience drought. Consequently, such drought-induced depletion might lead to a decrease in tree vigor and carbon starvation, a mechanism that is subject of intensive debates in recent literature. Hence, if carbon starvation is occurring during drought, drought stress release should again increase NSC concentrations. A long-term (13 years) irrigation experiment is being conducted in the Pfyn forest, the largest Pinus sylvestris dominated forest in Switzerland, located in the dry inner-Alpine Swiss Rhone valley (average precipitation 600 mm/year, with frequent dry spells). Water addition ( 600 mm/year) is executed every year during the growing season between April and October. Tree height, stem diameter and crown transparency are being measured since 2003. In February, July and October 2015, roots, stem sapwood and needles were harvested from 30 irrigated and 30 control trees and 5 different crown transparency classes. Shoot length, needle morphology, soluble sugars, starch concentrations, needle δ13C and δ15N were measured. Shoot and stem growth were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees. Growth decreased with increasing crown transparency in both treatments. Only in July, needle starch levels were higher in irrigated trees than in control trees but there was no treatment effect for wood and root starch concentrations. Tissue starch and sugar levels were negatively correlated with crown transparency, particularly in the roots (preduced NSC is related to reduced tree vigor under drought.

  20. Variation in training regimens in professional showjumping yards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lönnell, A C; Bröjer, J; Nostell, K; Hernlund, E; Roepstorff, L; Tranquille, C A; Murray, R C; Oomen, A; van Weeren, René; Bitschnau, C; Montavon, S; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2014-01-01

    REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Training regimens of showjumping horses under field conditions are largely undocumented. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to quantify and compare training regimens used in professional-level showjumping yards, with respect to time exercised and type of activity.

  1. Photochemical Energy Storage and Electrochemically Triggered Energy Release in the Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System: UV Photochemistry and IR Spectroelectrochemistry in a Combined Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Olaf; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian; Bachmann, Julien; Libuda, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    The two valence isomers norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) enable solar energy storage in a single molecule system. We present a new photoelectrochemical infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PEC-IRRAS) experiment, which allows monitoring of the complete energy storage and release cycle by in situ vibrational spectroscopy. Both processes were investigated, the photochemical conversion from NBD to QC using the photosensitizer 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone, MK) and the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion from QC to NBD. Photochemical conversion was obtained with characteristic conversion times on the order of 500 ms. All experiments were performed under full potential control in a thin-layer configuration with a Pt(111) working electrode. The vibrational spectra of NBD, QC, and MK were analyzed in the fingerprint region, permitting quantitative analysis of the spectroscopic data. We determined selectivities for both the photochemical conversion and the electrochemical cycloreversion and identified the critical steps that limit the reversibility of the storage cycle.

  2. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Grace G. D.; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid–solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive ...

  3. Miniature stick-packaging--an industrial technology for pre-storage and release of reagents in lab-on-a-chip systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oordt, Thomas; Barb, Yannick; Smetana, Jan; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2013-08-07

    Stick-packaging of goods in tubular-shaped composite-foil pouches has become a popular technology for food and drug packaging. We miniaturized stick-packaging for use in lab-on-a-chip (LOAC) systems to pre-store and on-demand release the liquid and dry reagents in a volume range of 80-500 μl. An integrated frangible seal enables the pressure-controlled release of reagents and simplifies the layout of LOAC systems, thereby making the package a functional microfluidic release unit. The frangible seal is adjusted to defined burst pressures ranging from 20 to 140 kPa. The applied ultrasonic welding process allows the packaging of temperature sensitive reagents. Stick-packs have been successfully tested applying recovery tests (where 99% (STDV = 1%) of 250 μl pre-stored liquid is released), long-term storage tests (where there is loss of only <0.5% for simulated 2 years) and air transport simulation tests. The developed technology enables the storage of a combination of liquid and dry reagents. It is a scalable technology suitable for rapid prototyping and low-cost mass production.

  4. An Agent-Based Solution Framework for Inter-Block Yard Crane Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omor Sharif

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of yard operations is critical to the overall productivity of a container terminal because the yard serves as the interface between the landside and waterside operations. Most container terminals use yard cranes to transfer containers between the yard and trucks (both external and internal. To facilitate vessel operations, an efficient work schedule for the yard cranes is necessary given varying work volumes among yard blocks with different planning periods. This paper investigated an agent-based approach to assign and relocate yard cranes among yard blocks based on the forecasted work volumes. The goal of our study is to reduce the work volume that remains incomplete at the end of a planning period. We offered several preference functions for yard cranes and blocks which are modeled as agents. These preference functions are designed to find effective schedules for yard cranes. In addition, we examined various rules for the initial assignment of yard cranes to blocks. Our analysis demonstrated that our model can effectively and efficiently reduce the percentage of incomplete work volume for any real-world sized problem.

  5. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  6. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  8. Eratosthenes' teachings with a globe in a school yard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 by installing globes in many school and university courtyards

  9. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO2 leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payán, M. Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R.

    2012-01-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO 2 acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied. - Highlights: ► Tier structured approach for assessment of the release of metals from sediment. ► Standard column leaching test to simulate CO 2 acidified seawater CCS leakages. ► Metal and DOC release from marine sediment in contact to CO 2 acidified seawater. ► From empirical to geochemical modeling approaches of DOC and metals release in column tests. ► Contamination line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment. - Column metal release from CO 2 acidified seawater leakages in contact with estuarine contaminated sediment in CCS sites

  10. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on the Release of Phthalate Esters into Packed Acidic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Rastkari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic liquids such as verjuice, lemon juice and vinegar are frequently consumed in Iran. Different kinds of acidic liquids are packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET and high-density polyethylene (HDPE bottles. There is evidence indicating that phthalates can leach from PET and HDPE bottles into their contents. In this work the effect of storage time, temperature and bottle type on the migration of phthalates from packaging materials into acidic liquids is studied by analyzing the samples stored under different conditions, before storage and after 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. The determined mean phthalate concentrations in μg/L were: <0.04 to 0.501 in verjuice, <0.04 to 0.231 in lemon juice and <0.04 to 0.586 in vinegar. The highest concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in PET and HDPE bottles, respectively. Results of analyses before and after storage indicate that under some storage conditions, the concentrations of DEP, DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP increased in acidic liquids. The possible migration of phthalic acid esters from plastic packaging materials into the contents was indicated by the results of the present study.

  11. Revised RCRA closure plan for the Interim Drum Yard (S-030) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Interim Drum Yard (IDY) facility is a containerized waste storage area located in the Y-12 exclusion area. It was used to store waste materials which are regulated by RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act); uranyl nitrate solutions were also stored there. The closure plan outlines the actions required to achieve closure of IDY and is being submitted in accordance with TN Rule 1200-1-11.05(7) and 40 CFR 265.110

  12. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: zhouxiang@njust.edu.cn; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  13. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  14. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  16. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ``A through K`` evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site.

  17. Experimentation of nuclear weapons, releases and storages of radioactive wastes in the Kara sea and in New Zemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmasson, S.

    1996-01-01

    132 nuclear weapons were tested from 1955 to 1990 in New Zemble. From 1959 to 1993, low level liquid radioactive wastes, low and medium level solid radioactive wastes, reactor core and fuel of submarine and nuclear propelled ships were released in the Kara and the Barentz seas. For these two seas, a recapitulation of the different radioactive sources and the found level of radioactivity of the marine environment are presented. (A.B.). 22 refs. 4 figs., 6 tabs

  18. When soils become sediments: Large-scale storage of soils in sandpits and lakes and the impact of reduction kinetics on heavy metals and arsenic release to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jos P M; van Zomeren, Andre; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J

    2017-08-01

    Simulating the storage of aerobic soils under water, the chemical speciation of heavy metals and arsenic was studied over a long-term reduction period. Time-dynamic and redox-discrete measurements in reactors were used to study geochemical changes. Large kinetic differences in the net-complexation quantities of heavy metals with sulfides was observed, and elevated pore water concentrations remained for a prolonged period (>1 year) specifically for As, B, Ba, Co, Mo, and Ni. Arsenic is associated to the iron phases as a co-precipitate or sorbed fraction to Fe-(hydr)oxides, and it is being released into solution as a consequence of the reduction of iron. The composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reducing pore water was monitored, and relative contributions of fulvic, humic and hydrophylic compounds were measured via analytical batch procedures. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in organic compounds occur during reduction; DOM increased up to a factor 10, while fulvic acids become dominant over humic acids which disappear altogether as reduction progresses. Both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions increase and may even become the dominant fraction. Reactive amorphous and crystalline iron phases, as well as dissolved FeII/FeIII speciation, were measured and used as input for the geochemical model to improve predictions for risk assessment to suboxic and anaerobic environments. The release of arsenic is related to readily reducible iron fractions that may be identified by 1 mM CaCl 2 extraction procedure. Including DOM concentration shifts and compositional changes during reduction significantly improved model simulations, enabling the prediction of peak concentrations and identification of soils with increased emission risk. Practical methods are suggested to facilitate the practice of environmentally acceptable soil storage under water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY... of Availability of Environmental Assessment for the Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Construction... the construction of an underground concrete casing to preserve a right-of- way (ROW) (the proposed...

  20. Optimising the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a two-stage heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...

  1. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  2. Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either...... as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release...... total N. Possibly N2O production via denitrification was stimulated by oxygen-limited conditions near the decomposing silage. In contrast, compost incorporated by harrowing caused net N2O uptake, presumably an effect of reduced mineral N availability in this treatment. Overall, our study revealed...

  3. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  4. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roik, N.V.; Belyakova, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved

  5. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use...

  7. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator combusts...

  9. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15380 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If...

  11. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C.; Tilwankar, Atit K.; Asolekar, Shyam R., E-mail: asolekar@iitb.ac.in

    2012-11-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3} and 428 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3} (at 4 m/s and 1 m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}. These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling

  12. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C.; Tilwankar, Atit K.; Asolekar, Shyam R.

    2012-01-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang–Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 μg/Nm 3 and 428 μg/Nm 3 (at 4 m/s and 1 m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 μg/Nm 3 . These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 μg/Nm 3 ). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India. -- Highlights

  13. Genome wide analysis of the evolution of Senecavirus A from swine clinical material and assembly yard environmental samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanhong Xu

    Full Text Available Senecavirus A (SVA, previously known as Seneca Valley virus, was first isolated in the United States in 2002. SVA was associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease in Canada and the USA in 2007 and 2012, respectively. Recent increase in SVA outbreaks resulting in neonatal mortality of piglets and/or vesicular lesions in sows in Brazil, the USA and Canada point to the necessity to study the pathogenicity and molecular epidemiology of the virus. Here, we report the analysis of the complete coding sequences of SVA from 2 clinical cases and 9 assembly yard environmental samples collected in 2015 in Canada, along with 22 previously released complete genomes in the GenBank. With this combined data set, the evolution of the SVA over a 12-month period in 2015/2016 was evaluated. These SVA isolates were characterized by a rapid accumulation of genetic variations driven mainly by a high nucleotide substitution rate and purifying selection. The SVA sequences clustered in clearly defined geographical areas with reported cases of SVA infection. No transmission links were identified between assembly yards, suggesting that point source introductions may have occurred. In addition, 25 fixed non-synonymous mutations were identified across all analyzed strains when compared to the prototype SVA strain (SVV-001. This study highlights the importance of monitoring SVA mutations for their role in increased virulence and impact on SVA diagnostics.

  14. Sequential batch anaerobic composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, D.M.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Owens, J.M.; Sifontes, J. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC[sup TM]) was used to treat two fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), the organic fraction of the MSW (processed MSW) and yard waste. Processed MSW gave a mean methane yield of 0.19 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] volatile solids (VS) after 42 days. The mean VS reduction was 49.7% for this same period. Yard waste gave a mean methane yield of 0.07 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] VS. Methane content of the biogas stabilized at a mean of 48% from three to four days after startup. The mean VS reduction for yard waste was 19%. With processed MSW, the volatile acid concentration was over 3000 mg L[sup -1] during startup but these acids were reduced within a few days to negligible levels. The trend was similar with yard waste except that volatile acids reached maximum concentrations of less than 1000 mg L[sup -1]. Composts from the reactors were evaluated for agronomic characteristics and pollution potential. Processed MSW and yard waste residues had marginal fertilizer value but posed no potential for groundwater pollution. Yard waste residue caused no apparent inhibition to mustard (Brassica juncea) germination relative to a commercial growth medium. Anaerobic yard waste compost demonstrated the potential to improve the water holding capacity of Florida soils. (author)

  15. Plant species richness and abundance in residential yards across a tropical watershed: implications for urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Vila-Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces within residential areas provide important contributions to the sustainability of urban systems. Therefore, studying the characteristics of these areas has become a research priority in cities worldwide. This project evaluated various aspects of the plant biodiversity of residential yards (i.e., front yards and back yards within the Río Piedras watershed in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Our work included gathering information on vegetation composition and abundance of woody species (i.e., trees, shrubs, palms, ferns and large herbs (>2 m height, species origin (native vs. introduced, and species uses (ornamental, food, and medicinal plants. A total of 424 yards were surveyed within an area of 187,191 m². We found 383 woody species, with shrubs being the most abundant plant habitat. As expected, residential yards hosted a disproportionate amount of introduced species (69.5%. The most common shrub species were all non-native ornamentals, whereas the most common tree species included food trees as well as ornamental plants and two native species. Front yards hosted more ornamental species per unit area than backyards, while the latter had more food plants. The high amount of introduced species may present a challenge in terms of implementation of plant conservation initiatives if there is no clear definition of urban conservation goals. On the other hand, the high frequency of yards containing food plants may facilitate the development of residential initiatives that could provide future adaptive capacity to food shortages.

  16. Effect of farm yard manure and nitrogen application on seed cotton yield under arid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of farm yard manure and green manuring is well established for better crop production. The availability of farm yard manure is becoming difficult due to mechanized farming. An experiment was conducted with farm yard manure application in less quantity i.e. 5000 kg per hectare through fermenter with irrigation water as concentrated solution of farm yard manure. Four levels of nitrogen i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha were applied through soil to Cotton crop planted on bed-furrows. Two years average results indicated that application of FYM at the rate of 5 metric ton per hectare through fermenter with 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha through soil increased seed cotton by 7 percent, on over all average basis of all fertilizer levels, as compared with no farm yard manure application. There was 6 percent increase with first 50 kgN/ha in the presence of FYM where as 100 kgN/ha gave 15% increase in seed cotton yield over no nitrogen application. It indicated that the efficiency of nitrogen at the rate of 100 kg/ha in the presence of farm yard manure was increased. There was 7, 15 and 20 percent increase in seed cotton with 50, 100 and 150 kgN/ha over no nitrogen on over all average basis of farm yard manure variables. Benefit cost ratio was more with FYM application alone.(author)

  17. GIS Analysis of Available Data to Identify regions in the U.S. Where Shallow Ground Water Supplies are Particularly Vulnerable to Contamination by Releases to Biofuels from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIS analysis of available data to identify regions in the U.S. where shallow ground water supplies are particularly vulnerable to contamination by releases of biofuels from underground storage tanks. In this slide presentation, GIS was used to perform a simple numerical and ...

  18. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  19. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  20. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salafranca, Jesús, E-mail: fjsl@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Clemente, Isabel, E-mail: isabelclemente1984@gmail.com [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Isella, Francesca, E-mail: Francesca.Isella@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bosetti, Osvaldo, E-mail: Osvaldo.Bosetti@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy)

    2015-06-09

    Highlights: • 13 different food-use multilayers unirradiated and gamma-irradiated were studied. • 60–80 compounds/sample were identified by SPME–GC–MS even after 8-month storage. • Volatile profile of air- and N{sub 2}-filled bags greatly differed after irradiation. • Principal component analysis classified the samples into 4 groups. • Migration from irradiated materials to vapor phase was much lower than EU limits. - Abstract: The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60–80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  1. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ''A Through K'' evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site

  2. Establishing the Ohio Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Release Compensation Board: Dispelling the notion of a open-quotes Pot of Goldclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Miller, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors are the Executive Director and the Chief Financial Officer of the Ohio Petroleum Underground Storage Tank Release Compensation Board. Under the guidance of a public-sector governing board, they are responsible for implementing Ohio's UST Financial Assurance Fund program and for managing the resources and priorities necessary to maintain a solvent, practical approach to legislatively-mandated UST corrective action costs in Ohio. The paper will discuss: (1) the challenges of legislating and implementing a state assurance fund; (2) the task of defining the program's mission and coming to terms with open-quotes great expectationsclose quotes of tank owners and clean-up contractors; (3) implementing true cost-controls; how the regulatory back-drop contributes to costs and success; (4) managing the financial assets of an assurance fund and estimating future clean-up needs; (5) the search for the proper mix of financing alternatives, including reinsurance; (6) defining long-term success. The paper will develop the evolution of the essential elements of the Ohio Financial Assurance Fund and focus on the financial management of necessary resources to fulfill the public-sector mission. Managing claim costs and meeting the grassroots expectation of claimants underscore critical development issues: (1) establishing and communicating the Fund's purpose and management philosophy; (2) forging a companion relationship between industry and regulator; (3) how do such funds maintain solvency and dispel the notion that they constitute a open-quotes pot of goldclose quotes for environmental liability?

  3. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste constituents. The results ...

  4. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus. M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics. (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste.

  5. How to Park Freight Trains on Rail-Rail Transshipment Yards: The Train Location Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kellner; Nils Boysen; Malte Fliedner

    2010-01-01

    In modern rail-rail transshipment yards huge gantry cranes spanning all railway tracks allow for an efficent transshipment of containers between different freight trains. This way, multiple trains loaded with cargo for varying destinations can be consolidated to a reduced number of homogeneous trains, which is an essential requirement of hub-and-spoke railway systems. An important problem during the daily operations of such a transshipment yard is the train location problem, which assigns eac...

  6. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with multiple sources of air pollutant emissions (e.g., heavy-duty vehicles, locomotives, cranes), which may affect local air quality in residential areas nearby. In order to understand emissions and related air quality impacts, two field studies took place over the time span of 2010-2012 to measure air pollution trends in close proximity to the Inman and Tilford rail yard complex in Atlanta, GA. One field study involved long-term stationary monitoring of black carbon, fine particles, and carbon dioxide at two stations nearby the rail yard. In addition, a second field study performed intensive mobile air monitoring for a one month period in the summer of 2012 at a roadway network surrounding the rail yard complex and measured a comprehensive array of pollutants. Real-time mobile particulate measurements included particle counts, extinction coefficient, black carbon via light-absorption and particle incandescence, and particle composition derived by aerosol mass spectrometry. Gas-phase measurements included oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and air toxics (e.g., benzene). Both sets of measurements determined detectable local influence from rail yard-related emissions.

  7. A stakeless yard long bean cultivar derived from an interspecific cross between cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and yard long bean Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luadthong, Sanit

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yard long bean' is an important vegetable in the Thai diet, particularly in Northeast Thailand. However, growing 'yard long beans' requires stakes for supporting the twining stems and keeping the pod from touching the ground. Staking costs money, takes time and needs labour. An ideal cultivar would be a 'yard long bean' with erect plant type and under 80 cm in height that produces typical long bean pods and allows convenient picking during the harvest time. An attempt to breed such a cultivar was made by crossing cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.) with' yard long bean' Vigna sesquipedalis L. (Verdc.) in 1984. This resulted in a new cultivar 'KKU 25'. This cultivar, having erect plant type, requires no staking for supporting the stem and produces long fresh pods with acceptable taste which can be harvested within 43 days. The average pod length is 48 cm, and pod diameter 1.43 cm. In a preliminary yield trial, an average fresh pod yield of 16 t/ha was obtained. (author)

  8. Morphological characteristic of purple long yard bean cultivars and their tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M W Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of purple long yard bean which tolerance to drought stress and have high productivity can improve farming in arid area. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of the tolerance purple long yard beans to drought stress based on morphologic characters, to get the hypothesis method of tolerance and to obtain tolerance cultivars to the drought stress. Eight cultivars of purple long yard beans, i.e. UBPHU1-41, UBPHU1-130, UBPU3-153, UBPU1-202, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, Brawijaya 4 and Bagong 2, were tested in two environmental conditions, 100% field capacity and 50% field capacity. The results showed that drought stress in purple long yard bean affected all morphological characters observed, except for root length and flowering time. Estimation of tolerance to drought stress using the Principles Component Analysis (PCA showed that the shoot fresh weight could be an indicator of purple pod bean tolerance to drought stress. However, the test using Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI was not able to classify the purple long yard bean tolerance to drought stress. The results of analysis using PCA followed by discriminant analysis and clustering dendrogram showed that the UBPU1-41, UBPU1-130, UBPU2-222, UBPU1-365, UB4 and Bagong 2 cultivars were medium cultivars that are tolerant to drought stress. Therefore, they can be planted in semiarid regions.

  9. Work accidents during cable yarding operations in Central Europe 2006 – 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allman, M.; Jankovský, M.; Allmanová, Z.; Ferenčík, M.; Messingerová, V.; Vlčková, M.; Stanimir Stoilov

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: This study is focused on detailed analysis of accidents in yarding during the years 2006–2014. There is still not enough information about such accidents in Central Europe in the literature available. Area of study: We collected the data on occupational accidents recorded in timber yarding from the databases of the Slovak state forest enterprise. Material and Methods: The data on occupational accidents were recorded according to actual European Regulation, the form of the record meets the requirements of the ESAW (European Statistics on Accidents at Work) methodology. To analyze the data, we used the multiple regression and correlation analysis, contingency tables, and a χ2 –test. Main results: Almost half of the accidents were the foot injuries and the most frequent type of injury was fracture of a bone. The most hazardous operation was yarding. Most of the accidents occurred between 1301-1400 h (22 %). The most frequent agent causing accidents were Particles, dust, splinters, fragments, etc. (14.05 by ESAW). Research highlights: This study informs about the most important risk factors in timber yarding, the most hazardous parts of shift, as well as the days when the most accidents occur during the week, and as such contributes to better understanding of how the accidents happen in timber yarding. The information can be subsequently used in knowledge-based improvement of safety trainings in forest enterprises.

  10. Work accidents during cable yarding operations in Central Europe 2006 – 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allman, M.; Jankovský, M.; Allmanová, Z.; Ferenčík, M.; Messingerová, V.; Vlčková, M.; Stanimir Stoilov

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: This study is focused on detailed analysis of accidents in yarding during the years 2006–2014. There is still not enough information about such accidents in Central Europe in the literature available. Area of study: We collected the data on occupational accidents recorded in timber yarding from the databases of the Slovak state forest enterprise. Material and Methods: The data on occupational accidents were recorded according to actual European Regulation, the form of the record meets the requirements of the ESAW (European Statistics on Accidents at Work) methodology. To analyze the data, we used the multiple regression and correlation analysis, contingency tables, and a χ2 –test. Main results: Almost half of the accidents were the foot injuries and the most frequent type of injury was fracture of a bone. The most hazardous operation was yarding. Most of the accidents occurred between 1301-1400 h (22 %). The most frequent agent causing accidents were Particles, dust, splinters, fragments, etc. (14.05 by ESAW). Research highlights: This study informs about the most important risk factors in timber yarding, the most hazardous parts of shift, as well as the days when the most accidents occur during the week, and as such contributes to better understanding of how the accidents happen in timber yarding. The information can be subsequently used in knowledge-based improvement of safety trainings in forest enterprises.

  11. Residents' Yard Choices and Rationales in a Desert City: Social Priorities, Ecological Impacts, and Decision Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelli L.; Casagrande, David; Harlan, Sharon L.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2009-11-01

    As a dominant land use in urban ecosystems, residential yards impact water and other environmental resources. Converting thirsty lawns into alternative landscapes is one approach to water conservation, yet barriers such as cultural norms reinforce the traditional lawn. Meanwhile, the complex social and ecological implications of yard choices complicate programs aimed at changing grass and other yard features for particular purposes. In order to better understand individual landscape decisions, we qualitatively examined residents’ rationales for their preferred yard types in the desert metropolis of Phoenix, Arizona. After briefly presenting landscape choices across two survey samples, the dominant reasons for preferences are discussed: appearance, maintenance, environment, recreation, microclimate, familiarity, and health/safety. Three broader analytical themes emerged from these descriptive codes: (1) residents’ desires for attractive, comfortable landscapes of leisure encompassing pluralistic tastes, lifestyles, and perceptions; (2) the association of environmental benefits and impacts with different landscape types involving complex social and ecological tradeoffs; and (3) the cultural legacies evident in modern landscape choices, especially in terms of a dichotomous human-nature worldview among long-time residents of the Phoenix oasis. Given these findings, programs aimed at landscape change must recognize diverse preferences and rationalization processes, along with the perceived versus actual impacts and tradeoffs of varying yard alternatives.

  12. Quick Release of Internal Water Storage in a Glacier Leads to Underestimation of the Hazard Potential of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Lake Merzbacher in Central Tian Shan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Donghui; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin; Xie, Zunyi; Pieczonka, Tino; Xu, Junli; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2017-10-01

    Glacial meltwater and ice calving contribute to the flood volume of glacial lakes such as Lake Merzbacher in the Tian Shan Mountains of central Asia. In this study, we simulated the lake's volume by constructing an empirical relationship between the area of Lake Merzbacher, determined from satellite images, and the lake's water storage, derived from digital elevation models. Results showed that the lake water supply rate before Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) generally agreed well with those during the GLOFs from 2009 to 2012 but not in 2008 and 2015. Furthermore, we found that the combination of glacial meltwater and ice calving is not enough to fully explain the supply rate during GLOFs in 1996 and 1999, suggesting other factors affect the supply rate during GLOFs as well. To examine this further, we compared the water supply rate before and during GLOF events in 1999 and 2008. We inferred that quickly released short-term and intermediate-term water storage by glaciers have likely contributed to both flood events in those years. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the supply component of outburst floods, such as irregularly released stored water may lead to GLOF events with generally three different types: case I (singular event-triggered englacial water release), case II (glacier melt due to temperature changes), and case III (englacial water release mixed with glacier melt).

  13. Students Grow Their Own Vegetables in School Yards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Kommu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Environment Education (CEE, Andhra Pradesh State Cell, implemented the project ‘Student Amateurs in School Yard Agriculture (SASYA’ with support from UNICEF Hyderabad and the Department of Education (Sarva Siksha Abhiyan in 150 schools in the Medak district of Andhra Pradesh, India.  The Medak district is a semi-arid district with an average annual rainfall of 80 cm. Agricultural activities are dependent mainly on rainfall. The aim of the project was to provide chemical-free, nutrient-rich vegetables to the children and to provide an opportunity to learn by doing. Schools were selected based on the available space, water, fence.  A small start-up kit was provided with a manual with guidelines, vegetable seeds and other requirements like sample bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides and equipment like hand sprayers. A resource group was formed for every 10 schools with a teacher, the Mandal Educational Officer, and a field coordinator from a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO. The resource group was trained at the district level that acted as trainers for the other 9 schools of their mandal (administrative district and provided continuous support.The gardens were initiated with support from the village community who were part of the garden lay out plan, and operations like land preparation, and sowing.  Contributions from the villagers also came in the form of implements, farm yard manure and seeds. Gardens were maintained by the student committees formed for the purpose under guidance of teachers. Suggestions regarding the cultural operations were provided by the community, field coordinators and CEE. The produce was utilised for the mid-day meals served in the school. At times they were also shared by the community and teachers. Preparations (collection of seed from the garden and community were under progress for the next season. This project was implemented successfully in 136 schools where the students had benefited through

  14. Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.

  15. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  16. Data acquisition and PV module power production in upgraded TEP/AzRISE solar test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit E.; Fishgold, Asher D.; Lai, Teh; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    The Tucson Electric Power (TEP)/University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) solar test yard is continuing efforts to improve standardization and data acquisition reliability throughout the facility. Data reliability is ensured through temperature-insensitive data acquisition devices with battery backups in the upgraded test yard. Software improvements allow for real-time analysis of collected data, while uploading to a web server. Sample data illustrates high fidelity monitoring of the burn-in period of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module test string with no data failures over 365 days of data collection. In addition to improved DAQ systems, precision temperature monitoring has been implemented so that PV module backside temperatures are routinely obtained. Weather station data acquired at the test yard provides local ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, and irradiance measurements that have been utilized to enable characterization of PV module performance over an extended test period

  17. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  18. FACSIM/MRS [Monitored Retrievable Storage]-2: Storage and shipping model documentation and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.D.; Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Otis, P.T.; Sovers, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a stochastic computer model, FACSIM/MRS, to assist in assessing the operational performance of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) waste-handling facility. This report provides the documentation and user's guide for FACSIM/MRS-2, which is also referred to as the back-end model. The FACSIM/MRS-2 model simulates the MRS storage and shipping operations, which include handling canistered spent fuel and secondary waste in the shielded canyon cells, in onsite yard storage, and in repository shipping cask loading areas

  19. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends using stationary and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  20. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE--LOW-TECH SOLUTIONS TO THE PADUCAH SCRAP METAL REMOVAL PROJECT ARE PROVIDING SAFE, COST-EFFECTIVE REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP YARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Dan; Eyman, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1983, contaminated equipment was removed from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) process buildings as part of an enrichment process upgrade program. The upgrades consisted of the dismantlement, removal, and on-site storage of contaminated equipment, cell components, and scrap material (e.g., metal) from the cascade facilities. Scrap metal including other materials (e.g., drums, obsolete equipment) not related to this upgrade program have thus far accumulated in nine contiguous radiologically-contaminated and non-contaminated scrap yards covering 1.05E5 m2 (26 acres) located in the northwestern portion of the PGDP. This paper presents the sequencing of field operations and methods used to achieve the safe removal and disposition of over 47,000 tonnes (53,000 tons) of metal and miscellaneous items contained in these yards. The methods of accomplishment consist of mobilization, performing nuclear criticality safety evaluations, moving scrap metal to ground level, inspection and segregation, sampling and characterization, scrap metal sizing, packaging and disposal, and finally demobilization. Preventing the intermingling of characteristically hazardous and non-hazardous wastes promotes waste minimization, allowing for the metal and materials to be segregated into 13 separate waste streams. Low-tech solutions such as using heavy equipment to retrieve, size, and package scrap materials in conjunction with thorough planning that integrates safe work practices, commitment to teamwork, and incorporating lessons learned ensures that field operations will be conducted efficiently and safely

  2. Exploring Homeowner Diffusion of Yard Care Knowledge as One Step Toward Improving Urban Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nicholas F.; Nelson, Kristen C.; Dahmus, Maria E.

    2014-11-01

    Urban ecosystems are increasingly influenced by residential yard care decisions. This had led researchers to focus on homeowner education programs when it comes to yard care. Typically, the success of programs designed to influence yard care is based on whether the target subject changes his or her behavior in a more environmentally conscious manner. This threshold, however, fails to consider if individuals share this information with their friends and neighbors, thus having a possible spillover effect. In this paper, we focus on the transmission of new lawn management information among neighbors and consider (1) if individuals discuss information they learned in a short-term educational program, (2) what factors are associated with diffusion, (3) what information individuals share, and (4) what barriers to transmission exist. In the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, we used data from a mailed survey, group discussions, and mailed information exchanges. Results indicate that best management practices for yards can diffuse through the neighborhood (approximately 34 % shared information with their neighbors in a one-month period). In addition, factors such as (1) attending a group discussion, 2) individual social connectedness, (3) length of home ownership, and (4) the presence of children in the household were found to be positively related to increased sharing of information. Also, for lawns, the content of information shared tended to be about increasing grass height and reducing fertilizer applications. Finally, we find barriers to sharing ideas based on spatial, temporal, or perception factors but overcoming some of these barriers is possible.

  3. Access to Science and Literacy through Inquiry and School Yard Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Petersen, Anne; Spencer, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an integrated science and literacy instructional model in which students build background knowledge by engaging in free-choice learning options during an investigation of school yard habitats. Students interact with their peers while inquiring, discussing findings, and using print resources to enhance learning.

  4. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  6. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  7. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... 74% total organic matter (TOM), 7.2 pH and 132% germination index (GI) further showed the potentials of the produced compost. Based on this, food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT) showed an economic potential for sustainable production of compost using low technology. Key words: Lignocellulolytic ...

  8. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on the Release of Phthalate Esters into Packed
Acidic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkari, Noushin; Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Acidic liquids such as verjuice, lemon juice and vinegar are frequently consumed in Iran. Different kinds of acidic liquids are packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles. There is evidence indicating that phthalates can leach from PET and HDPE bottles into their contents. In this work the effect of storage time, temperature and bottle type on the migration of phthalates from packaging materials into acidic liquids is studied by analyzing the samples stored under different conditions, before storage and after 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. The determined mean phthalate concentrations in µg/L were: liquids. The possible migration of phthalic acid esters from plastic packaging materials into the contents was indicated by the results of the present study.

  9. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  10. 75 FR 72952 - Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W, Charenton Drainage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 1000-yard radius from position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W, Charenton Drainage.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone extending to a 1000-yard radius from... Navigation and Drainage Canal will be closed to all marine traffic within a 1000-yard radius of position 29...

  11. Storage Optimization for Export Containers in the Port of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Türsel Eliiyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider a real-life export container storage problem at an important container terminal in the Port of Izmir, Turkey. Currently, the container storage decisions at the port are taken by operators manually, which leads to continuous unnecessary re-handling movements of the containers. High transportation costs, waste of time, and inefficient capacity utilization in the container storage area are the consequences of non-optimal decisions. The main goal of this study is to minimize the transportation costs and the number of re-handling moves while storing the export containers at the terminal yard. We formulate the problem in two stages. While the first stage assigns the containers of the same vessel to a group of yard bays via an optimization model, the second stage decides on the exact location of each container with the help of an efficient heuristic approach. The experimental results with real data are presented and discussed.

  12. Synthesis of copolymers suitable for the storage and slow release of reactants. Cases of copper salts for intra-uterine devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, Gilbert; Duchemin-Berthet, Jeanne.

    1976-01-01

    This research has been carried out to determine whether a grafted poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix could be prepared which would release useful amounts of copper salts when used in intra-uterine devices. Intra-uterine devices were prepared by grafting hydroxyethyl acrylate onto ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers (EVA). The kinetics of the grafting reaction were studied. The grafting reaction was initiated by cobalt 60 gamma rays using the simultaneous method. The conditions of copper salts absorption by the grafted copolymers were selected. The average quantity of copper salts released daily from the intra-uterine device was meaured as a function of grafting ratio and the amount of copper salt initially incorporated in the grafted polymeric matrix. In vitro experiments samples showed constant release rates during a period of 18 months

  13. Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Container Yard Using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianhong Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT, a network of objects, has been regarded as the next revolution for the global information industry after the Internet. With IoT, many intelligent applications can be accomplished or improved. This paper presents a framework for dangerous goods management in container yard using IoT technology. The framework consists of three layers: perceptual layer, transport layer, and application layer. It offers an infrastructure for management and data analysis and utilization. According to the features of dangerous goods, the framework can be enhanced for container information forecast, container gate-in and gate-out management, environment parameters monitoring, and fire control as well. In order to verify our method, a prototype system is developed, which shows good performance. With our method, safe operation of dangerous goods in container yard can be accomplished.

  14. Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Container Yard Using the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lianhong; Chen, Yifan; Li, Juntao

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT), a network of objects, has been regarded as the next revolution for the global information industry after the Internet. With IoT, many intelligent applications can be accomplished or improved. This paper presents a framework for dangerous goods management in container yard using IoT technology. The framework consists of three layers: perceptual layer, transport layer, and application layer. It offers an infrastructure for management and data analysis and utilizati...

  15. Study on the influence of temperature, storage time and packaging type on di-n-butylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate release into packed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Del Prete, Ernesto; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meals packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and aluminium dishes, supplied to patients in two hospitals in the Campania region (Italy), were studied to evaluate the probable migration of di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from the packaging into the food. The influence of temperature, storage time and type of package on the migration process was considered, analysing the meals according to three time ranges, before the packaging (T(0)) and after 60 min (T(1)) and 120 min (T(2)) from packaging during the storage in thermostatic delivery carts. At T(0) in the meals sampled before packaging in PET dishes, mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.023 ± 0.002 µg/g and 0.069 ± 0.041 µg/g, respectively; the DBP level increased 230% and that of DEHP increased 208% by time T(0) versus T(2). In the meals sampled before packaging (T(0)) in aluminium dishes, the mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.030 ± 0.001 µg/g and 0.057 ± 0.015 µg/g, respectively. The significant increase in contaminant levels over storage times for meals packed in PET dishes demonstrates that from packages made of plastic materials the migration of phthalic acid esters into foods is possible. In meals packed in PET dishes, the highest DBP and DEHP increases were observed in the T(0) to T(1) range, which represented the time interval over which meals were kept hot, and mainly in the first ones, where the highest temperatures have been recorded.

  16. Final Confirmation Sampling and Analysis Report for the POL Yard, Sites SS-06 and ST-40, Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Wurtsmith AFBCA and AFCEE/ERT had no comments on the draft final report. This report represents the final contract deliverable for the AFCEE Extended Bioventing Project at the Wurtsmith AFB POL Yard...

  17. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Elowson, Torbjoern

    2006-01-01

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water

  18. Severe Outbreak of a Yellow Mosaic Disease on the Yard Long Bean in Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 crop season, an outbreak of severe yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis occurred in several farmers’ fields in West Java. Yard long bean var. Parade inoculated manually with extracts from symptomatic leaves showed the symptoms indicating the presence of virus. Symptomatic leaf samples tested positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with antibodies to group specific Potyvirus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Total RNA derived from symptomatic leaves was subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers specific to the cylindrical inclusion (CI protein of potyviruses and CMV coat protein (CP specific primers. Pair wise comparison of sequences obtained from cloned RT-PCR products with corresponding nucleotide sequences in the GenBank confirmed the presence of Bean common mosaic virus strain Blackeye (BCMV-BlC and CMV in the symptomatic beans. Sequences of BCMV and CMV isolates from the beans showed maximum nucleotide sequence identities (92-97% and (90%, respectively with BCMV-BIC and CMV isolates from Taiwan. Each virus isolate also clustered closely with corresponding isolates from Taiwan in a phylogenetic analyses. These results provide first evidence of the occurrence of multiple infection of BCMV-BIC and CMV in the yard long been from Bogor, West Java.

  19. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  20. FACSIM/MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage)-2: Storage and shipping model documentation and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, H.D.; Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Otis, P.T.; Sovers, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a stochastic computer model, FACSIM/MRS, to assist in assessing the operational performance of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) waste-handling facility. This report provides the documentation and user's guide for FACSIM/MRS-2, which is also referred to as the back-end model. The FACSIM/MRS-2 model simulates the MRS storage and shipping operations, which include handling canistered spent fuel and secondary waste in the shielded canyon cells, in onsite yard storage, and in repository shipping cask loading areas.

  1. 主动蓄放热-热泵联合加温系统在日光温室的应用%Application of heating system with active heat storage-release and heat pump in solar greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙维拓; 杨其长; 方慧; 张义; 管道平; 卢威

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese solar greenhouse has a unique greenhouse structure that regards solar energy as the main energy source, and has characteristics such as high efficiency, energy saving, and low cost. During a cold winter night, air temperature inside a solar greenhouse is low for crop growth, which would affect crop yield and quality, due to the heat-transfer characteristics and heat capacity limit of the north wall. In recent years, in trying to promote the heat storage capacity of the solar greenhouse, the thought of active heat storage-release came forward. Solar energy is a kind of clean renewable energy, but has intermittent and unstable performance when used for greenhouse heating. Meanwhile, the heat collecting efficiency of the solar thermal collector decreases with an increase in operating temperature. Thus, an active heat storage-release system (AHSRS) is difficult to use to ensure an appropriate temperature for a solar greenhouse in a frigid region or when it encounters weather conditions with weak solar radiation. As an efficient means of raising low-grade energy, the heat pump has been more and more applied to greenhouse heating which can reduce the operating temperature of the AHSRS when used in combination. In order to promote heating performance and stability of the AHSRS and improve air temperature inside a solar greenhouse at night, based on the concept of active heat storage-release, an active heat storage-release associated with heat pump heating system (AHSRHPS) applicable to solar greenhouse heating was designed in the present study. During the day, the solar energy reaching the north wall surface was absorbed by the circulating water and stored in reservoirs when the AHSRS was running. Running the heat pump unit was intended to promote low-grade heat energy and reduce the circulating water temperature which contributes to increasing the heat collecting efficiency of the AHSRS and maximum water temperature of the reservoir. When air temperature

  2. System for Capturing/Storage/Retrieval/Sharing of Toxicological Information Required for Rapid Assessment of Risks Posed By Release of CBRN Materials in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M. L.; Ritondo, M.; Earp Singer, L.; Rogers, J. V.; Price, J. A.; Fleming, E. J.; Chappie, D.; McGonigle, D.; Nichols, T. L.; Sonich-Mullin, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing methodology for performing rapid risk assessments needed for incident management, cleanup, and mitigation of hazards in the aftermath of a terrorist event. TCAD, working with the Department of Defense's Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC, operated by Battelle) has developed SERRA - Support for Environmental Rapid Risk Assessment. This paper describes the methodology utilized to formulate SERRA, presents current contents of the SERRA database (information derived from assessments of over 3,000 publications selected from 10,000 citations), and describes SERRA implementation. The paper also discusses how an Internet-accessible version of the SERRA database could be utilized by a country or countries to prepare for and respond to the intentional release of chemical, biological or radiological materials.(author)

  3. Analyzing the Efficiency of a Start-Up Cable Yarding Crew in Southern China under New Forest Management Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study analyzed the performance of a start-up cable yarding crew in southern China through operational monitoring by consecutive time studies, long-term log book recordings and efficiency evaluation by stochastic frontier analysis (SFA. The crew, which used a KOLLER K303 H mobile tower yarder, was monitored for two years. During this period, detailed data recordings of 687 yarding cycles of 12 yarding corridors as well as log book recordings of an additional 1122 scheduled system hours (SSH, including all delays were generated. Mean extraction productivity of the system ranged between 5.23 and 6.40 m3 per productive system hour (PSH0, excluding all delays, mostly depending on slope yarding distance and lateral distance. Corresponding gross-productivity ranged from 1.91 to 2.24 m3/SSH, with an overall mean machine utilization rate of 31%. Unproductive yarding times and delays associated with the relative low utilization rate were mainly caused by lengthy rigging processes, as well as organizational deficiencies and not yet fully developed skill sets of the operating crew. The latter was reflected in a mean efficiency effect frontier value of 0.62 based on evaluation of data sets of individual yarding cycles recorded during detailed assessments, suggesting a mean improvement potential of 38% based on the SFA, translating in a potentially achievable gross-productivity of 2.64 to 3.09 m3/SSH. We conclude that current local operating conditions including insufficient planning, implementation and logistics and in particular, frequent discontinuations of system operations of up to three months all resulting in generally low operation hours per shift and per year, inhibit efficient operations and rapid skill development. These circumstances also inhibit an economic utilization of the equipment. Nevertheless, from a technical perspective, yarding systems have a promising potential in southern China.

  4. Effect of the waste products storage on the environmental pollution by toxic organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Lewkiewicz-Małysa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A permanent deposition of industrial wastes is a method of its neutralization. A storage yard for toxic materials must meet specific site and construction conditions. The storage place region of toxic organic waste materials has to be monitored. The environmental impact of this waste on the groundwater quality, especially the migration of persistent organic pollutants, was discussed on the example of a chemical plant.

  5. Planning and scheduling for maritime container yards supporting and facilitating the global supply network

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenkai; Goh, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the challenges facing maritime supply chains and container port logistics service providers in Asia, this book highlights their innovative responses to these challenges through real-world case studies. With a focus on mathematical modeling, simulation and heuristics approaches, this book provides academics, engineers, container terminal operators, students in logistics and supply chain management with the latest approaches that can be used to address the planning and scheduling problem in large container terminal yards. This book can be used on a self-contained basis as teaching cases in an undergraduate or specialist class setting, or on techniques applied to maritime container operations for port operations.

  6. From ship-yard to campus. Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij; Van scheepswerf naar campus. Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosef, J.P. [Wolter en Dros, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van der Schee, W.G. [Wolter en Dros, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The industrial buildings and halls of an old ship-yard in the Netherlands of the Rotterdam Droogdok Maatschappij (a shipbuilding and repair company in Rotterdam, Netherlands) has been renovated and transferred into educational facilities and buildings for small-scale businesses. [Dutch] Waar tientallen jaren geleden zware mokerslagen door de hallen galmden, staan nu studenten geconcentreerd gebogen over de fijnste technieken. De voormalige machinehallen van de Rotterdamse Droogdok Maatschappij (RDM) in Rotterdam huisvesten tegenwoordig onderwijsinstellingen en kleinschalige innovatieve bedrijven. Het middelpunt van deze RDM-Campus is het Innovation Dock. Het was een uitdaging om in de oude tochtige hallen een behaaglijk binnenklimaat te creeren voor onderwijsdoeleinden en kantoren.

  7. Discrete event simulation model for external yard choice of import container terminal in a port buffer area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusgiyarto, Ferry; Sjafruddin, Ade; Frazila, Russ Bona; Suprayogi

    2017-06-01

    Increasing container traffic and land acquisition problem for terminal expansion leads to usage of external yard in a port buffer area. This condition influenced the terminal performance because a road which connects the terminal and the external yard was also used by non-container traffic. Location choice problem considered to solve this condition, but the previous research has not taken account a stochastic condition of container arrival rate and service time yet. Bi-level programming framework was used to find optimum location configuration. In the lower-level, there was a problem to construct the equation, which correlated the terminal operation and the road due to different time cycle equilibrium. Container moves from the quay to a terminal gate in a daily unit of time, meanwhile, it moves from the terminal gate to the external yard through the road in a minute unit of time. If the equation formulated in hourly unit equilibrium, it cannot catch up the container movement characteristics in the terminal. Meanwhile, if the equation formulated in daily unit equilibrium, it cannot catch up the road traffic movement characteristics in the road. This problem can be addressed using simulation model. Discrete Event Simulation Model was used to simulate import container flow processes in the container terminal and external yard. Optimum location configuration in the upper-level was the combinatorial problem, which was solved by Full Enumeration approach. The objective function of the external yard location model was to minimize user transport cost (or time) and to maximize operator benefit. Numerical experiment was run for the scenario assumption of two container handling ways, three external yards, and thirty-day simulation periods. Jakarta International Container Terminal (JICT) container characteristics data was referred for the simulation. Based on five runs which were 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 repetitions, operation one of three available external yards (external yard

  8. Evaluation of airborne methyl salicylate for improved conservation biological control of two-spotted spider mite and hop aphid in Oregon hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; James, D G; Lee, J C; Gent, D H

    2011-12-01

    The use of synthetic herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) to attract natural enemies has received interest as a tool to enhance conservation biological control (CBC). Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a HIPV that is attractive to several key predators of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera: Aphididae). A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the recommended commercial use of MeSA in hop yards in Oregon. Slow-release MeSA dispensers were stapled to supporting poles in 0.5 ha plots and these plots were compared to a paired non-treated plot on each of three farms in 2008 and 2009. Across both years, there was a trend for reduced (range 40-91%) mean seasonal numbers of T. urticae in five of the six MeSA-baited plots. Stethorus spp., key spider mite predators, tended to be more numerous in MeSA-baited plots compared to control plots on a given farm. Mean seasonal densities of hop aphid and other natural enemies (e.g., Orius spp. and Anystis spp.) were similar between MeSA-treated and control plots. Variability among farms in suppression of two-spotted spider mites and attraction of Stethorus spp. suggests that the use of MeSA to enhance CBC of spider mites in commercial hop yards may be influenced by site-specific factors related to the agroecology of individual farms or seasonal effects that require further investigation. The current study also suggests that CBC of hop aphid with MeSA in this environment may be unsatisfactory.

  9. Oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers of Raichur City, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vengal Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a vital part of general health and is a valuable asset of every individual. The working population in India usually belong to the lower socioeconomic group. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 550 laborers of Gunj marketing yard of Raichur city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO assessment form 1997. Simplified oral hygiene index (1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.1 (± 8.02 years and the mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decayed, missing, filled teeth was 2.06 (± 1.49, 0.76 (± 2.53, 0.13 (± 0.39, and 2.95 (± 3.02, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 85.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 45.9% of the study participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries as well as a large proportion of unmet dental needs among these laborers.

  10. Technical Report: Optimizing the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a Two-Stage Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present The Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...... considered here, is concerned with the generation of schedules for these. The problem is decomposed and modeled in two parts, namely a planning problem and a scheduling problem. In the planning problem a set of crane operations is created to take the yard from its current state to a desired goal state...... schedule for the cranes is generated, where each operation is assigned to a crane and is given a specific time of initiation. For both models, a thorough description of the modeling details is given along with a specification of objective criteria. Variants of the models are presented as well. Preliminary...

  11. Chlorine leak on Mumbai Port Trust's Sewri yard: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Chawla, Raman; Kumar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    Chemical emergencies involving hazardous chemicals are not uncommon in India. More than 25 incidents have been identified in National Disaster Management Guidelines – Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management, released in May 2007. In a recent occurrence on the morning of 14 July 2010, nearly at 3:00 a.m., chlorine leak was reported from a gas cylinder referred as turner, weighing about 650 kg, corroding with time at the Haji Bunder hazardous cargo warehouse in Mumbai Port Trust, Sewri, affecting over 120 people in the neighborhood, including students, laborers, port workers and fire fighters, of whom 70 were reported critical. It has been observed to be a blatant case of ignorance and negligence as well as contraventions to the safety and environmental safeguard requirements under existing statues as well as non-maintenance of failsafe conditions at the site requisite for chlorine storage. The analysis revealed significant gaps in the availability of neutralization mechanism and the chlorine stored in open increased the possibility of formation of ingress mixture due to busting of chlorine filled tankers. The Government of India has institutionalized emergency preparedness framework at national, state and district level as envisaged in Disaster Management Act, 2005, to prepare the nation to mitigate such incidences, if all the preventive safety provisions fail. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is preparing National Action Plan-Chemical (Industrial) Disaster Management based on National Guidelines to implement all the mechanisms of capacity development across the country. PMID:21829311

  12. Chlorine leak on Mumbai port trust′s Sewri yard: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical emergencies involving hazardous chemicals are not uncommon in India. More than 25 incidents have been identified in National Disaster Management Guidelines - Chemical (Industrial Disaster Management, released in May 2007. In a recent occurrence on the morning of 14 July 2010, nearly at 3:00 a.m., chlorine leak was reported from a gas cylinder referred as turner, weighing about 650 kg, corroding with time at the Haji Bunder hazardous cargo warehouse in Mumbai Port Trust, Sewri, affecting over 120 people in the neighborhood, including students, laborers, port workers and fire fighters, of whom 70 were reported critical. It has been observed to be a blatant case of ignorance and negligence as well as contraventions to the safety and environmental safeguard requirements under existing statues as well as non-maintenance of failsafe conditions at the site requisite for chlorine storage. The analysis revealed significant gaps in the availability of neutralization mechanism and the chlorine stored in open increased the possibility of formation of ingress mixture due to busting of chlorine filled tankers. The Government of India has institutionalized emergency preparedness framework at national, state and district level as envisaged in Disaster Management Act, 2005, to prepare the nation to mitigate such incidences, if all the preventive safety provisions fail. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF is preparing National Action Plan-Chemical (Industrial Disaster Management based on National Guidelines to implement all the mechanisms of capacity development across the country.

  13. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain...

  15. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  16. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  17. Disease-Causing Fungi in Homes and Yards in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in those with compromised immune systems. Allergic disease may include sinusitis, pneumonitis and immediate hypersensitivity. Controversial topics include mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds and sick building syndrome. This narrative review describes the usual presentations, domestic environmental sources, prevention techniques and risk of acquiring these diseases in the Midwestern United States.

  18. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  19. A Matheuristic Approach for Solving the Railroad Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin

    dependent subproblems. Optimization-based strategies are adopted for two of these, while the third is solved using a greedy heuristic. We demonstrate the efficiency of the complete framework on the official datasets, where solutions within 4-14% of a known lower bound (to a relaxed problem) are found. We......This paper presents a novel matheuristic for solving the Hump Yard Block-to-Track Assignment Problem. This is an important problem rising in the railway freight industry and involves scheduling the transitions of a set of rail cars from a set of inbound trains to a set of outbound trains over...... a certain planning horizon. It was also the topic of the 2014 challenge organised by the Railway Applications Section of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences for which the proposed matheuristic was awarded first prize. Our approach decomposes the problem into three highly...

  20. [Transformation of Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-bao; Huang, Yong-jie; Zhen, Quan; Yan, Mi; Yang, Hong-fei; Liu, Deng-yi

    2007-06-01

    The study on the Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard in Tongling City, Anhui Province showed that among the test Cu forms, the amount of residual form occupied the majority, while that of exchangeable form was relatively low. Compared with non-rhizosphere soil, rhizosphere soil had a higher organic matter content but a lower pH. With the growth of C. dactylon, the contents of organically combined and exchangeable Cu in rhizosphere soil increased by 7.89% and 5%, respectively, while those of carbonate-combined and Fe-Mn oxides-combined Cu decreased. The growth of C. dactylon accelerated the transformation of Cu forms in rhizosphere soil, and decreased the rhizosphere soil Cu content through its absorption.

  1. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  2. Bee Fauna and Floral Abundance Within Lawn-Dominated Suburban Yards in Springfield, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, S B; Milam, J

    2016-09-01

    Private yards comprise a significant component of urban lands, with managed lawns representing the dominant land cover. Lawns blanket > 163,000 km 2 of the United States, and 50% of urban and suburban areas. When not treated with herbicides, lawns have the capacity to support a diversity of spontaneous (e.g., not planted) flowers, with the potential to provide nectar and pollen resources for pollinators such as native bees. In order to determine the extent to which suburban lawns support these important species, we surveyed lawns in 17 suburban yards in Springfield, MA, between May and September 2013 and 2014. Householders participating in the study did not apply chemical pesticides or herbicides to lawns for the duration of the study. We collected 5,331 individual bees, representing 111 species, and 29% of bee species reported for the state. The majority of species were native to North America (94.6%), nested in soil (73%), and solitary (48.6%). Species richness was lower for oligolectic (specialists on a single plant; 9.9%) and parasitic species (12.6%). Abundance percentages for number of individuals were similar. We documented 63 plant species in the lawns, the majority of which were not intentionally planted. The most abundant lawn flowers were dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) and clover ( Trifolium sp. ). Nearly 30% of the spontaneous plant species growing in the lawns were native to North America. Our study suggests that the spontaneous lawn flowers could be viewed as supplemental floral resources and support pollinators, thereby enhancing the value of urban green spaces.

  3. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  4. 78 FR 36545 - Notice of Ability To Pay-Cash-out Settlement Agreement for the Jefferson City Residential Yards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9824-4] Notice of Ability To Pay--Cash-out Settlement... payment of certain response costs incurred at the Jefferson City Residential Yards Site in Jefferson City... portion of the past costs expended at the Site. Payment shall be made in 35 installments of $2,500 per...

  5. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches... SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.67 Switch crews; controlling operations...

  7. To mow or to mow less: Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Alexandra R. Contosta; Joan Milam; Christofer Bang

    2018-01-01

    Green spaces embedded within the urban matrix, particularly residential yards, could mitigate negative aspects of urban development and provide pollinator habitat. Lawns represent a dominant green space, and their management consists of frequent mowing to inhibit the growth of ostensibly “weedy” species (e.g., dandelions and clover). Since widespread population...

  8. A branch-and-price algorithm to solve the integrated berth allocation and yard assignment problem in bulk ports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robenek, Tomáš; Umang, Nitish; Bierlaire, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In this research, two crucial optimization problems of berth allocation and yard assignment in the context of bulk ports are studied. We discuss how these problems are interrelated and can be combined and solved as a single large scale optimization problem. More importantly we highlight the diffe...

  9. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. 40 CFR 281.33 - Release detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipped with release detection that detects a release within an hour by restricting or shutting off flow... designed to allow the contents of the pipe to drain back into the storage tank if the suction is released... UST systems must use interstitial monitoring within secondary containment of the tanks and the...

  11. Geophysical survey work plan for White Wing Scrap Yard (Waste Area Grouping 11) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The White Wing Scrap Yard, located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation, served as an aboveground storage and disposal area for contaminated debris and scrap from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge National laboratory. The site is believed to have been active from the early 1950s until the mid-1960s. A variety of materials were disposed of at the site, including contaminated steel tanks and vehicles. As an interim corrective action, a surface debris removal effort was initiated in November 1993 to reduce the potential threat to human health and the environment from the radionuclide-contaminated debris. Following this removal effort, a geophysical survey will be conducted across the site to locate and determine the lateral extent of buried nonindigenous materials. This survey will provide the data necessary to prepare a map showing areas of conductivity and magnetic intensity that vary from measured background values. These anomalies represent potential buried materials and therefore can be targeted for further evaluation. This work plan outlines the activities necessary to conduct the geophysical survey

  12. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  13. A Novel Protocol to Assess Acclimation Rate in Bos taurus Heifers during Yard Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Monk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which animals acclimate to a new environment could be an important measure of ability to cope with management induced stress. This study developed a measure of acclimation rate in a group of 50 Bos taurus heifers during yard weaning over nine days. We recorded the time and order in which heifers moved through a novel funnel structure into a feeding yard daily. We hypothesised that addition of an obstacle at the entrance would increase the time it took heifers to move through the funnel, but that they would acclimate to the obstacle over a three-day period. The change in latency to move through could then be used as a measure of acclimation rate. We hypothesised that individuals which acclimated to obstacles at a faster rate might display favourable temperament as assessed by flight time. All heifers took longer to move through the funnel after a novel object was introduced, then latency decreased over the following two days while the object was present. This indicates the protocol could be useful for measuring acclimation rate at a group level. Individual acclimation rate variables, measured as change in times and orders of heifers between test days, did not appear to have any consistent relationships with flight time or weight change during or post-weaning (p > 0.05. We concluded that the protocol was inappropriate for assessing acclimation rate at an individual level, due to social effects while testing heifers as a group. Heifers which were consistently one of the first 20 to move through the funnel had a significantly greater average weight 5 and 10 months post-weaning (345 ± 9 kg and 518 ± 10 kg respectively than heifers which were consistently one of the last 20 through the funnel (311 ± 8 kg and 484 ± 8 kg respectively; p < 0.001. This may indicate order of movement through the funnel was related to feeding motivation or another aspect of temperament not reflected by flight time.

  14. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  15. Microgrid Controller Design, Implementation, and Deployment: A Journey from Conception to Implementation at the Philadelphia Navy Yard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uluski, R.; Kumar, J.; Venkata, S. S. Mani; Vishwakarma, D.; Schneider, K.; Mehrizi-Sani, Ali; Terry, Rudy; Agate, Will

    2017-07-01

    The Philadelphia Navy Yard is a fast-evolving community microgrid, currently home to over 150 companies and four Navy activity centers occupying nearly 7 million ft2 of buildings in which approximately 12,000 people are employed. The Navy Yard (TNY) is a national center of excellence for energy research, education, and commercialization, focused specifically on community microgrid design and development. TNY microgrid is equipped with the most cost-effective and sustainable means for meeting electric capacity and energy needs through renewable resources, energy efficiency, and distribution grid infrastructure. This article briefly describes how the community microgrid was conceived and planned to produce a great success story of microgrid implementation and the details of the design, development, and implementation of the TNY microgrid controller.

  16. Distribution, enrichment and accumulation of heavy metals in coastal sediments of Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Srinivasa; Basha, Shaik; Sravan Kumar, V G; Joshi, H V; Ramachandraiah, G

    2004-06-01

    Since its inception in 1982, the Alang-Sosiya yard has become the largest ship scrapping works in the world. Several hundreds of ships arrive every year. The degree of heavy metal contamination has been studied in bulk and fine sediments from the intertidal zone of this ship scrapping yard, two stations, one on either side at 5 km distance and one reference station 60 km distance near Mahuva, towards the south. The samples have been subjected to a total digestion technique and analysed for elements: Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Al, and %TOC. The absolute metal concentrations reflected variations in BF and FF sediment samples with organic matter content. Enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) have been calculated and the relative contamination levels are assessed at these sites. At Alang-Sosiya, the enrichment of heavy metals has been observed to be relatively high.

  17. A Robust Productivity Model for Grapple Yarding in Fast-Growing Tree Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Engelbrecht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New techniques have recently appeared that can extend the advantages of grapple yarding to fast-growing plantations. The most promising technique consists of an excavator-base un-guyed yarder equipped with new radio-controlled grapple carriages, fed by another excavator stationed on the cut-over. This system is very productive, avoids in-stand traffic, and removes operators from positions of high risk. This paper presents the results of a long-term study conducted on 12 different teams equipped with the new technology, operating in the fast-growing black wattle (Acacia mangium Willd plantations of Sarawak, Malaysia. Data were collected continuously for almost 8 months and represented 555 shifts, or over 55,000 cycles—each recorded individually. Production, utilization, and machine availability were estimated, respectively at: 63 m3 per productive machine hour (excluding all delays, 63% and 93%. Regression analysis of experimental data yielded a strong productivity forecast model that was highly significant, accounted for 50% of the total variability in the dataset and was validated with a non-significant error estimated at less than 1%. The figures reported in this study are especially robust, because they were obtained from a long-term study that covered multiple teams and accumulated an exceptionally large number of observations.

  18. Analysis of Container Yard Capacity In North TPK Using ARIMA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin; Cut Gebrina Hisbach, M.; Ekawati, Ratna; Ade Irman, SM

    2018-03-01

    North container terminal known as North TPK is container terminal located in Indonesia Port Corporation area serving domestic container loading and unloading. It has 1006 ground slots with a total capacity of 5,544 TEUs and the maximum throughput of containers is 539,616 TEUs / year. Container throughput in the North TPK is increasing year by year. In 2011-2012, the North TPK container throughput is 165,080 TEUs / year and in 2015-2016 has reached 213,147 TEUs / year. To avoid congestion, and prevent possible losses in the future, this paper will analyze the flow of containers and the level of Yard Occupation Ratio in the North TPK at Tanjung Priok Port. The method used is the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model. ARIMA is a model that completely ignores independent variables in making forecasting. ARIMA results show that in 2016-2017 the total throughput of containers reached 234,006 TEUs / year with field effectiveness of 43.4% and in 2017-2018 the total throughput of containers reached 249,417 TEUs / year with field effectiveness 46.2%.

  19. Ozone for removal of acute toxicity from wood yard run-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaitis, G.; Duff, S.J.B. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Environmental regulators are increasingly concerned about stormwater run-off from wood handling facilities. The authors discussed the use of ozone in the development of treatment methods to deal with toxic run-off from wood yard and dryland sorts. Two sawmills were selected, one located on the north coast of British Columbia (mill A), while mill B was located on Vancouver Island. Balsam fir, western hemlock, Sitka spruce,and western red cedar were processed at mill A, while mill B processed a wide range of species, where it is not unusual to undergo a complete change in a 24-hour period. Water samples from the run-off were obtained at the two mills, which were then kept in 20-L plastic containers stored in the dark at 4 Celsius upon receipt. Ozone was used to treat the centrifuged samples in a lab-scale reactor. Results indicated an 80-90 per cent reduction in toxicity through ozonation, a 90-95 per cent reduction for tannin and lignin (TL), and a 95-100 per cent reduction in dehydroabietic acid (DHA). Neutral solutions tended to improve slightly the toxicity and DHA removal when compared to acidic solutions. The influence of mass transfer effects, the influence of non-toxic dissolved organics, and the potential gains through the use of catalysts are still being investigated. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Phytostabilization Potential of Yard long bean in Removing Cadmium from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanai S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cadmium (Cd on growth, physiology, distribution and tolerance was examined in root, shoot and leaves of yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis L.. The seeds were grown in pot culture under laboratory conditions for 60 days in Ferriera and Davis nutrient solution with three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM of cadmium. Cd toxicity was evident from chlorosis in young leaves and increased concentrations of Cd brought significant negative effects on plant growth, photosynthetic rate and protein biosynthesis. Translocation of Cd was found to be more in roots than the above ground parts and the accumulation was in the order of root > shoot > leaf. Low root to shoot translocation of Cd makes the crop ideal for phytostabilization. Relatively high metal tolerance index obtained in the study indicated that the crop has greater tolerance to increase Cd exposure, though accumulation of Cd had altered thickness of root and root biomass. Owing to the crop’s adaptability to high temperature, drought conditions and ability to retain Cd in roots makes it a promising candidate for phytostabilization of soil contaminated by Cd.

  1. Glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen office block in Middelthunsgt. 17. [Oslo, Norway]. Glassgaardsklima i Kredittkassens kontorbygg i Middelthunsgt. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Harsem, T T

    1986-09-01

    The report deals with the glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen head office block in Oslo (Norway). The climate has been simulated by means of the computer program Royal-DEBAK. Considered in particular are the summery and bright sunny day conditions together with the annual power required and energy consumption. The use of insulating glasses, indoor curtains, ventilation systems in the narrow zone of the glass roof, and cooling systems in the floor are important parts of the concept. 9 drawings.

  2. Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of U{sup VI} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Lin Lin; Gong, Le Le; Feng, Xue Feng; Luo, Ming Biao; Luo, Feng, E-mail: ecitluofeng@163.com

    2016-07-05

    Graphical abstract: Table of content Herein, through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples afforded ultra-high adsorption capacity for UVI ions from water with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 360 mg/g (the record value in MOFs) and remarkable photo-switched capability of 50 mg/g. - Highlights: • This work shows the record uptake capability of U{sup VI} (360 mg/g) in MOFs. • This work shows, for the first time, photo-switching behaviour towards U{sup VI} in aqueous solution. • This work demonstrates a simple and effective method to largely enhance uptake capability of U{sup VI}. • This work demonstrates a distinct method to prepare photo-sensitive MOFs for photo-switching behaviour towards guest molecules. - Abstract: Driven by an energy crisis but consequently puzzled by various environmental problems, uranium, as the basic material of nuclear energy, is now receiving extensive attentions. In contrast to numerous sorbents applied in this field, metal-organic framework (MOFs), as a renovated material platform, has only recently been developed. How to improve the adsorption capacity of MOF materials towards U{sup VI} ions, as well as taking advantage of the nature of these MOFs to design photo-switched behaviour for photo-triggered storage/release of U{sup VI} ions are at present urgent problems and great challenges to be solved. Herein, we show a simple and facile method to target the goal. Through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous- mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples displayed ultra-high adsorption capacity for U{sup VI} ions from water at pH value of 4 with

  3. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  4. A Full Overhead Cost Model for the U.S. Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Bay, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    80.0 STORAGE SHED B 43 A 35000.50 700.00 B 50 I IMPROVE SHINGLES 1750.43 40.70 B 75 I RELOCTE FLAMB STOR 22432.18 1246.23 81.0 FLAMABLE STORAGE B 43 A...35000.50 700.00 B 45 I UNKWN IMPRVMNT 50.48 1.04 B 50 I IMPROVE SHINGLES 1750.43 40.70 B 75 I RELOCTE FLAMB STOR 22432.18 1246.22 85.0 STORAGE SHED B

  5. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  6. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  7. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  8. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  9. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  10. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  11. Requirement of a Ship Breaking Yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Yousefi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author is going to investigate the concept of ship recycling which implies to the materials and equipment including end of ships life. The scraped steel is melted down and is commonly used in the construction industries of ship recycling countries, and some equipment might be re-used in other industries too. A segment of this paper is dedicated to describe about the strategic position of Arvand River and the location of Arvand Free Zone area at the Persian Gulf. It should be noted that ship recycling commonly takes place in developing countries which tend to have a competitive advantage due to the low cost labor, may have weaker environmental protection / worker health and safety regulations, and have national demand for the outputs of the activity. The International Maritime Organization (IMO adopted the Hong Kong International Convention related to the safety and environmental sound recycling of ships to address the growing about the environment, job health and safety risks related to ship recycling. A part of this paper dedicated to review the role of the Hong Kong Convention in order to ensure the process of ship recycling without risks to human health and to the environment. The main part of this paper is designated to evaluate the role of establishment of a ship scraping yard at the Arvand Free Zone Area, its market at the Persian Gulf and improving the safety of navigation at the Arvand River. The research methodology of this paper will be designated to consider the qualitative part of this research by using interview with the experts in order to find out and select the key factors for further consideration; as a result of that a model will be created which can be tested by a questioner. In addition to the above explanation, relationship between the variables and testing hypothesizes of this research will be analyzed by using SPSS and Lisrel software as quantitative part of this research.

  12. Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative: Basis for Business Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER D. MASICAT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the proposed business initiatives to enhance the operation of Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative for the long survival and growth. More specifically, it shall answer the following objectives to describe the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, type of membership and shared capital; to assess the business operation of the cooperative in the aspects of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and their delivery of services; to identify the problems encountered by the cooperative in its business operation; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment to its business operation; and to propose an action plan and to assess the business operation of BHFY Multi-Purpose Cooperative. The researcher used the descriptive correlation design in the study to obtain information concerning the current status of the BHFY-MPC cooperative; to describe what exists with respect to the variables or conditions in a situation. Based on the result, majority of the members are aged 51 to 55 years old, holding the regular type of membership and have a shared capital ranging from 51,001 to 100,000.The finding of the study states that the BHFY Multi-purpose cooperative performs well in terms of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and delivery of services. Also, there are problems seldom encountered in the operation of the cooperative but the cooperative never encountered problems like overinvestment, ineffective leadership of management team and board of directors, inadequate source of fund, income of cooperative affected by negative issues and mismanagement of funds by the officers. Also, the type of membership influences the members’ assessment on the type of delivery of services; moreover, age contributes to the assessment of the business operation in terms of management and delivery of

  13. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  14. Conceptual design and cost estimation of dry cask storage facility for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Yasuro; Hironaga, Michihiko; Kitano, Koichi; Shidahara, Isao; Shiomi, Satoshi; Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1985-01-01

    In order to propose an optimum storage method of spent fuel, studies on the technical and economical evaluation of various storage methods have been carried out. This report is one of the results of the study and deals with storage facility of dry cask storage. The basic condition of this work conforms to ''Basic Condition for Spent Fuel Storage'' prepared by Project Group of Spent Fuel Dry Storage at July 1984. Concerning the structural system of cask storage facilities, trench structure system and concrete silo system are selected for storage at reactor (AR), and a reinforced concrete structure of simple design and a structure with membrance roof are selected for away from reactor (AFR) storage. The basic thinking of this selection are (1) cask is put charge of safety against to radioactivity and (2) storage facility is simplified. Conceptual designs are made for the selected storage facilities according to the basic condition. Attached facilities of storage yard structure (these are cask handling facility, cask supervising facility, cask maintenance facility, radioactivity control facility, damaged fuel inspection and repack facility, waste management facility) are also designed. Cost estimation of cask storage facility are made on the basis of the conceptual design. (author)

  15. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  16. Order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche; Arrete du 10 janvier 2003 autorisant l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs a poursuivre les rejets d'effluents gazeux et liquides pour l'exploitation du centre de stockage de dechets radioactifs de la Manche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document, took out from the Official Journal, is the law text relative to the order of the 10 january 2003 authorizing the national agency for the radioactive wastes management to follow the gaseous and liquid effluents release for the exploitation of the radioactive wastes storage center of the Manche. (A.L.B.)

  17. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  18. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  19. Calculation of the inventory and near-field release rates of radioactivity from neutron-activated metal parts discharged from the high flux isotope reactor and emplaced in solid waste storage area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Hightower, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Emplacement of contaminated reactor components involves disposal in lined and unlined auger holes in soil above the water table. The radionuclide inventory of disposed components was calculated. Information on the composition and weight of the components, as well as reasonable assumptions for the neutron flux fueling use, the time of neutron exposure, and radioactive decay after discharge, were employed in the inventory calculation. Near-field release rates of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 154/Eu, and /sup 155/Eu from control plates and cylinders were calculated for 50 years after emplacement. Release rates of the europium isotopes were uncertain. Two release-rate-limiting models were considered and a range of reasonable values were assumed for the time-to-failure of the auger-hole linear and aluminum cladding and europium solubility in SWSA-6 groundwater. The bounding europium radionuclide near-field release rates peaked at about 1.3 Ci/year total for /sup 152,154,155/Eu in 1987 for the lower bound, and at about 420 Ci/year in 1992 for the upper bound. The near-field release rates of /sup 55/Fe, /sup 59/Ni, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 63/Ni from stainless steel and cobalt alloy components, as well as of /sup 10/Be, /sup 41/Ca, and /sup 55/Fe from beryllium reflectors, were calculated for the next 100 years, assuming bulk waste corrosion was the release-rate-limiting step. Under the most conservative assumptions for the reflectors, the current (1986) total radionuclide release rate was calculated to be about 1.2 x 10/sup -4/ Ci/year, decreasing by 1992 to a steady release of about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ Ci/year due primarily to /sup 41/Ca. 50 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  1. Description of the small plastics fragments in marine sediments along the Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, M.; Basha, Shaik; Adimurthy, S.; Ramachandraiah, G.

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the accumulation of small plastic debris in the intertidal sediments of the world's largest ship-breaking yard at Alang-Sosiya, India. Small plastics fragments were collected by flotation and separated according to their basic polymer type under a microscope, and subsequently identified by FT-IR spectroscopy as polyurethane, nylon, polystyrene, polyester and glass wool. The morphology of these materials was also studied using a scanning electron microscope. Overall, there were on average 81 mg of small plastics fragments per kg of sediment. The described plastic fragments are believed to have resulted directly from the ship-breaking activities at the site.

  2. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  3. Baseline extracellular potassium level as an indicator of the rate of increase of the same on further storage in CPDA-1 whole blood units: a potential approach to complement FIFO system for prioritisation of blood bags for release from blood-banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S; Jaiswal, M

    2014-02-01

    Potassium levels in stored blood bags increases as they age. Hyperkalemia in transfused blood has undesirable cardiac effects. Within a 19-month period, baseline and weekly samples from 15 CPDA-1 whole blood bags were collected till 28 days of storage and analysed for potassium, sodium, uric acid, albumin and whole blood haemoglobin. One unit increase in baseline (0 day) potassium in extracellular fluid of blood units was associated with the following increases in potassium levels on later days of storage: around two unit increase at 1 week (r2 = 0·50, P values. For CPDA-1 blood bags (i) low baseline potassium blood bags might be preferred for transfusion in cases demanding a low potassium load and (ii) coordinating the ‘first-in-first-out’ (FIFO) policy with ‘early release of blood-bags with high initial potassium’ might be helpful in improving the release of suitable blood units from blood-banks.

  4. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  5. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, H L

    2007-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  6. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  7. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  8. Liver Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  9. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  10. Transfer into the biosphere of radionuclides released from deep storage of radioactive wastes. Bibliographical study; Transfert dans la biosphere des radionucleides issus des stockages profonds de dechets radioactifs. Etude bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedon, V.; Siclet, F.

    1995-03-01

    Most countries with civilian nuclear programs today are encountering difficulty in implementing a nuclear waste management policy that is both technically safe in the long term and accepted by the public. To meet both criteria, the solution most generally envisaged is deep storage either of untreated spent nuclear fuel or of highly radioactive wastes resulting from reprocessing. In order to predict the potential impact of such storage on man, one needs to understand the path followed by radionuclides in the geosphere, and later in the biosphere. Given the time scales involved and the critical nature of the elements concerned, it is indispensable to turn to mathematical modeling of the phenomena. This report presents what is hoped to be a complete inventory of the radionuclides contained in ``high level`` wastes (categories B AND C). The elements concerned in studies on deep storage are essentially long-life radionuclides (both actinides and certain fission and activation products). Their physico-chemical characteristics and their behavior in various ecological compartments are examined. Bibliographical data bearing on: solubility (in an oxidizing, reducing medium), distribution factors (water/rock-sediment-soil), concentration and transfer factors (in aquatic and terrestrial mediums), dose conversion factors (in the case of internal and external irradiation), principal paths of exposure for each radionuclide studied, are presented in this report. Initial results from international projects to model what happens to radionuclides in the biosphere are also presented. In general, they are optimistic as to the future, but nonetheless point to a need to improve the conceptual base of the models, to ensure that all major phenomena and processes are taken into consideration and to examine any possible amplification (author). 67 refs., 39 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  12. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycak, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2009). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting

  13. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas

  14. Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tabares, L.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

  15. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  16. Understanding the Importance of Front Yard Accessibility for Community Building: A Case Study of Subiaco, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Yousuf Swapan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential built form, including open space, provides the physical environment for social interaction. Understanding urban open space, including semi-public and public domains, through the lens of physical accessibility and visual permeability can potentially facilitate the building of a sense of community contributing to a better quality of life. Using an inner-city suburb in Perth, Western Australia as a case study, this research explores the importance of physical accessibility patterns and visual permeability for socialising in semi-public and public domains, such as the front yard and the residential streets. It argues that maintaining a balance between public and private inter-relationship in inner city residential neighbourhoods is important for creating and maintaining a sense of community.

  17. Effect of Resistance Tube Exercises on Kicking Accuracy, Vertical Jump and 40-Yard Technical Test in Competitive Football Players – An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirumala Alekhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Kicking, jumping and agility are important skills in football. These activities require adequate lower limb strength, which can be enhanced with resistance training. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of resistance tube exercises on kicking accuracy, vertical jump performance and 40-yard technical test results in competitive football players. Methods. The study involved 23 competitive football players (11 males, 12 females aged from 18-20 years recruited from three different universities in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Back heel kick accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test time were evaluated before and after a 2-week resistance tube exercise program. Results. Significant improvements in post-intervention kicking accuracy were found when males and females were treated as a single group (p = 0.01. Vertical jump height also showed a highly significant post-intervention improvement in the males and for the combined group of males and females (p = 0.001. The 40-yard technical test values significantly improved in the females and in the combined results for males and females (p = 0.001. Conclusions. The two-week resistance tube exercise program was found to have an effect on kicking accuracy, vertical jump height and 40-yard technical test performance in competitive football players. Resistance tube exercises can thus be included as a component of a regular strength training program for such athletes.

  18. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  19. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  20. Analysis of an LPG accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.; Poggio, A.

    2004-03-01

    An industrial LPG storage accident due to the release of propane from a tanker is described in this paper and the sequence of events that led to the collapse of a storage tank is examined using simulation software. A model taking both released flows into account as a radiant thermal contribution in the presence of flames is presented. The progression of the accident is assessed through digitalization and processing of the film of the fireball produced by about 500 L of LPG, whose diameter was calculated as approximately 50 m. (author)

  1. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  2. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laycak, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  3. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  4. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  5. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  6. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  7. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  8. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  9. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  11. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  12. Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-03-01

    Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Taxonomic profiling of bacterial community structure from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard near Bhavnagar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shah, Varun; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-12-30

    The Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard (ASSBY) is considered the largest of its kind in the world, and a major source of anthropogenic pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of shipbreaking activities on the bacterial community structure with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. In the culture-dependent approach, 200 bacterial cultures were isolated and analyzed by molecular fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) gene sequencing, as well as being studied for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the culture-independent approach, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were related to eight major phyla, of which Betaproteobacteria (especially Acidovorax) was predominantly found in the polluted sediments of ASSBY and Gammaproteobacteria in the pristine sediment sample. The statistical approaches showed a significant difference in the bacterial community structure between the pristine and polluted sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of shipbreaking activity on the bacterial community structure of the coastal sediment at ASSBY. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in bioaugmented microcosm by consortium ASP developed from coastal sediment of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vilas; Patel, Janki; Madamwar, Datta

    2013-09-15

    A phenanthrene-degrading bacterial consortium (ASP) was developed using sediment from the Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard at Gujarat, India. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analyses revealed that the bacterial consortium consisted of six bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. ASP1, Pseudomonas sp. ASP2, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain ASP3, Staphylococcus sp. ASP4, Geobacillus sp. ASP5 and Alcaligenes sp. ASP6. The consortium was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene and 1000 ppm of naphthalene within 120 h and 48 h, respectively. Tween 80 showed a positive effect on phenanthrene degradation. The consortium was able to consume maximum phenanthrene at the rate of 46 mg/h/l and degrade phenanthrene in the presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. A microcosm study was conducted to test the consortium's bioremediation potential. Phenanthrene degradation increased from 61% to 94% in sediment bioaugmented with the consortium. Simultaneously, bacterial counts and dehydrogenase activities also increased in the bioaugmented sediment. These results suggest that microbial consortium bioaugmentation may be a promising technology for bioremediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intensification and Intimacy:An Examination of Charles and Ray Eames's Film, Blacktop: A Story of the Washing of a School Play Yard (1952)

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Through a close reading of Blacktop: A Story of the Washing of a School Play Yard (1952), this paper aims, like the film, to suggest an urbanism of heightened sensation. An everyday material and action is intensified through a combination of staged and found circumstance. Intimacy is evoked through manipulation of visual and aural components of the cinematography. Close attention to the film reveals strategies for flattening, heightening and overlay that enable the imagination to shift tempor...

  16. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  17. Aerosol Physics Considerations for Using Cerium Oxide CeO2 as a Surrogate for Plutonium Oxide PuO2 in Airborne Release Fraction Measurements for Storage Container Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tao, Yong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) dust is recommended as a surrogate for plutonium oxide (PuO2) in airborne release fraction experiments. The total range of applicable particle sizes for PuO2 extends from 0.0032 μm (the diameter of a single PuO2 molecule) to 10 μm (the defined upper boundary for respirable particles). For particulates with a physical particle diameter of 1.0 μm, the corresponding aerodynamic diameters for CeO2 and PuO2 are 2.7 μm and 3.4 μm, respectively. Cascade impactor air samplers are capable of measuring the size distributions of CeO2 or PuO2 particulates. In this document, the aerodynamic diameters for CeO2 and PuO2 were calculated for seven different physical diameters (0.0032, 0.02, 0.11, 0.27, 1.0, 3.2, and 10 μm). For cascade impactor measurements, CeO2 and PuO2 particulates with the same physical diameter would be collected onto the same or adjacent collection substrates. The difference between the aerodynamic diameter of CeO2 and PuO2 particles (that have the same physical diameter) is 39% of the resolution of a twelve-stage MSP Inc. 125 cascade impactor, and 34% for an eight-stage Andersen impactor. An approach is given to calculate the committed effective dose (CED) coefficient for PuO2 aerosol particles, compared to a corresponding aerodynamic diameter of CeO2 particles. With this approach, use of CeO2 as a surrogate for PuO2 material would follow a direct conversion based on a molar equivalent. In addition to the analytical information developed for this document, several US national labs have published articles about the use of CeO2 as a PuO2 surrogate. Different physical and chemical aspects were considered by these investigators, including thermal properties, ceramic formulations, cold pressing, sintering, molecular reactions, and mass loss in high temperature gas flows. All of those US national lab studies recommended the use of CeO2 as a surrogate material for PuO2.

  18. Tritium Storage Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  19. Operations Charioteer, Musketeer, Touchstone, Cornerstone, Aqueduct, Sculpin and Julin. Tests Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Mighty Oak, Middle Note Mission Ghost, Mission Cyber, Misty Echo, Disko Elm, Mineral Quarry, Distant Zenith, Diamond Fortune, and Hunters Trophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoengold, Carole

    1999-01-01

    ...; Tests MILL YARD, DIAMOND BEECH, MIGHTY OAK, MIDDLE NOTE, MISSION GHOST, MISSION CYBER, MISTY ECHO, DISKO ELM, MINERAL QUARRY, DISTANT ZENITH, DIAMOND FORTUNE, and HUNTERS TROPHY, 9 October 1985 to 18 September 1992...

  20. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  1. Regulator Interface Strategies Implemented at the Y-12 National Security Complex Old Salvage Yard Soils Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, TN - 12162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Linda [Alliant Corporation (United States); Wilkerson, Laura; Skinner, Ralph [US DOE-ORO EM (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [Link Technologies (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex housed an area known as the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) that was approximately 7 acres. The OSY was used as an area for the accumulation, processing and storage of scrap metal and equipment from Y-12 operations extending from 1968 until 2009. Areas in the northern sections of OSY also have been used for the storage of used oils containing solvents and the accumulation and recycling or de-heading and crushing of 55-gal metal drums. Scrap metal operations historically involved the accumulation, sorting, storage, public sale or disposal of scrap metal and equipment. Non-containerised storage of scrap metal was routine until 1995 when scrap metal received at OSY was placed in B-24 and B-25 boxes. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), approximately 26,759 cubic meters of scrap metal and debris were removed and disposed at both on and off-site disposal facilities including the on-site, Oak Ridge Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) landfill in 2010 and 2011. This removal action was performed in accordance with a CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD) and a close working relationship with both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Due to efficiencies and the excellent cooperative relationship forged with EPA Region IV and TDEC for Y-12 ARRA Cleanup Projects, a surplus of funding was available for additional remediation work that was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2011. The underlying OSY soils were targeted for characterization and potential remediation. To expedite these important activities, the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Management partnered with the regulators during detailed planning sessions through a variety of means to quickly and efficiently characterize and pinpoint areas requiring remediation according to previous ROD commitments. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs

  2. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  3. Emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Watts, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Stream-river models have been developed which provide an accurate prediction of normal and accidental pollutant releases to streams and rivers. Stream parameters are being developed for the Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River to allow quick response in case of an accidental release of radioactive material. These data are stored on permanent disk storage for quick access via the JOSHUA operating system. This system provides an efficient and flexible emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

  4. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH{sub 4}) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH{sub 4} yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH{sub 4} g{sup −1} dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g{sup −1} dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH{sub 4} yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  5. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH_4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH_4 and CO_2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH_4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH_4 g"−"1 dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g"−"1 dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH_4 yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  6. Computational Search for Improved Ammonia Storage Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Vegge, Tejs

    Metal halide ammines, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, can reversibly store ammonia, with high volumetric hydrogen storage capacities. The storage in the halide ammines is very safe, and the salts are therefore highly relevant as a carbon-free energy carrier in future transportation infrastructure...... selection. The GA is evolving from an initial (random) population and selecting those with highest fitness, a function based on e.g. stability, release temperature, storage capacity and the price of the elements. The search space includes all alkaline earth, 3d and 4d metals in combination with chloride......, bromide or iodide, and mixtures thereof. In total the search space consists of thousands of combinations, which makes a GA ideal, to reduce the number of necessary calculations. We are screening for a one step release from either a hexa or octa ammine, and we have found promising candidates, which...

  7. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  8. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  9. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  10. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  11. Modelling and Metaheuristic for Gantry Crane Scheduling and Storage Space Allocation Problem in Railway Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gantry crane scheduling and storage space allocation problem in the main containers yard of railway container terminal is studied. A mixed integer programming model which comprehensively considers the handling procedures, noncrossing constraints, the safety margin and traveling time of gantry cranes, and the storage modes in the main area is formulated. A metaheuristic named backtracking search algorithm (BSA is then improved to solve this intractable problem. A series of computational experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm under some randomly generated cases based on the practical operation conditions. The results show that the proposed algorithm can gain the near-optimal solutions within a reasonable computation time.

  12. Blood banking-induced alteration of red blood cell oxygen release ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaojin; Xiong, Yanlian; Wang, Ruofeng; Tang, Fuzhou; Wang, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Current blood banking procedures may not fully preserve red blood cell (RBC) function during storage, contributing to the decrease of RBC oxygen release ability. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of routine cold storage on RBC oxygen release ability. RBC units were collected from healthy donors and each unit was split into two parts (whole blood and suspended RBC) to exclude possible donor variability. Oxygen dissociation measurements were performed on blood units stored at 4 °C during a 5-week period. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fluorescent micrographs of erythrocyte band 3 were also analysed. P50 and oxygen release capacity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks, and then did not change significantly. In contrast, the kinetic properties (PO2-t curve and T*50) of oxygen release changed slowly during the first 3 weeks of storage, but then decreased significantly in the last 2 weeks. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreased quickly during the first 3 weeks of storage to almost undetectable levels. Band 3 aggregated significantly during the last 2 weeks of storage. RBC oxygen release ability appears to be sensitive to routine cold storage. The thermodynamic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability changed mainly in the first 3 weeks of storage, due to the decrease of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, whereas the kinetic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability decreased significantly at the end of storage, probably affected by alterations of band 3.

  13. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Shall consist of brass castings, rolled brass, rod brass, tubing and 26 Honey . miscellaneous yellow brasses, including plated brass. Must be free of...surveillance. (See torns include: dry cough , irritation of throat and OSHA 1910.1025) tightness of chest leading to difficulty in breath- (1) Lead...selected conditions, e.g., styrene- up the cure of a compound when added in minor acrylonitrile copolymer resins blended with butadi- quantity as compared

  14. Junk Yard Treasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Len

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a project that she developed as a challenge for her students and ended up with some fantastic student paintings. The author told her group of reluctant art students they must first research on the Internet for old, junky cars. The older and more junky the cars, the better. Once a vehicle is selected, it is driven into Adobe…

  15. 'Scrap yard challenge'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollick, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Plutonium'. The word evokes deep reactions outside of the nuclear industry. Although the majority of Plutonium currently in existence is man-made and therefore perceived as being unnatural, plutonium has been found as a product of the Oklo natural reactor in Gabon. This paper seeks to challenge two concepts, that of the Nuclear Control Institute that Plutonium is unnatural, 'fiendishly toxic' and one of the 'substances most hazardous to man' and the second image that a high security Plutonium store is merely a 'scrapyard' containing a material which has little use. The nuclear industry has often been accused of treating Plutonium and its accumulation casually in proportion to the risks perceived by those outside the industry. As a result this paper seeks to demonstrate that the industry is aware of the concerns of the public and is actively seeking viable solutions. The paper looks at Plutonium itself and explores the issues surrounding military and civil Plutonium in adding to the current stockpiles. It also suggests three possible alternatives for dealing with these Plutonium stockpiles and arrives at a conclusion as to which solutions currently appear most viable. (authors)

  16. Release Storage and Disposal Program Product Sampling Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This document includes recommended capabilities and/or services to support transport, analysis, and disposition of Immobilized High-Level and Low-Activity Waste samples as requested by the US DOE-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) as specified in the Privatization Contract between DOE-ORP and BNFL Inc. In addition, an approved implementation path forward is presented which includes use of existing Hanford Site services to provide the required support capabilities

  17. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  19. Liquid waste processing from TRIGA spent fuel storage pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl

    1988-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities and also at other facilities running TRIGA reactors, storage pits for spent fuel elements are installed. During the last revision procedure, the reactor group of the Atominstitute decided to refill the storage pits and to get rid of any contaminated storage pit water. The liquid radioactive waste had been pumped to polyethylene vessels for intermediate storage before decontamination and release. The activity concentration of the storage pit water at the Aominstitute after a storage period of several years was about 40 kBq/l, the total amount of liquid in the storage pits was about 0.25 m 3 . It was attempted to find a simple and inexpensive method to remove especially the radioactive Cesium from the waste solution. Different methods for decontamination like distillation, precipitation and ion exchange are discussed

  20. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-01-07

    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions.

  1. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  2. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  4. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  5. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  6. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  7. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  8. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  9. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  11. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  12. Request for approval, vented container annual release fraction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with the approval conditions for Modification to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC). dated August 24,1998, a new release fraction has been developed for submittal to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The proposed annual release fraction of 2.50 E-14 is proposed for use in future NOCs involving the storage and handling operations associated with vented containers on the Hanford Site. The proposed annual release fraction was the largest release fraction calculated from alpha measurements of the NucFil filters from 10 vented containers consisting of nine 55-gallon drums and one burial box with dimensions of 9.3 x 5.7 x 6.4 feet. An annual release fraction of 2.0 E-09 was used in the modification to the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC. This study confirmed that the release fraction used in the CWC radioactive air emissions NOC was conservative

  13. Containment and storage of uranium hexafluoride at US Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.R.; Alderson, J.H.; Blue, S.C.; Boelens, R.A.; Conkel, M.E.; Dorning, R.E.; Ecklund, C.D.; Halicks, W.G.; Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Philpot, H.E.; Taylor, M.S.; Vournazos, J.P.; Pryor, W.A.; Ziehlke, K.T.

    1992-07-01

    Isotopically depleted UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) accumulates at a rate five to ten times greater than the enriched product and is stored in steel vessels at the enrichment plant sites. There are approximately 55,000 large cylinders now in storage at Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Most of them contain a nominal 14 tons of depleted UF 6 . Some of these cylinders have been in the unprotected outdoor storage environment for periods approaching 40 years. Storage experience, supplemented by limited corrosion data, suggests a service life of about 70 years under optimum conditions for the 48-in. diameter, 5/16-in.-wall pressure vessels (100 psi working pressure), using a conservative industry-established 1/4-in.-wall thickness as the service limit. In the past few years, however, factors other than atmospheric corrosion have become apparent that adversely affect the serviceability of small numbers of the storage containers and that indicate the need for a managed program to ensure maintenance ofcontainment integrity for all the cylinders in storage. The program includes periodic visual inspections of cylinders and storage yards with documentation for comparison with other inspections, a group of corrosion test programs to permit cylinder life forecasts, and identification of (and scheduling for remedial action) situations in which defects, due to handling damage or accelerated corrosion, can seriously shorten the storage life or compromise the containment integrity of individual cylinders. The program also includes rupture testing to assess the effects of certain classes of damage on overall cylinder strength, aswell as ongoing reviews of specifications, procedures, practices, and inspection results to effect improvements in handling safety, containment integrity, and storage life

  14. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  15. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldulensis aqueous leachate applied (4), 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. ctunaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  16. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldtllensis aqueous leachate applied at the rate of 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application Of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  17. Survey Report For The Characterization Of The Five Tanks Located Near The Old Salvage Yard At The Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollow, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This summary report presents analytical results, radiological survey data, and other data/information for disposition planning of the five tanks located west of the Old Salvage Yard (OSY) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Field personnel from Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and URS-CH2M Oak Ridge LLC completed data collection in May 2012 per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2012). Deviations from the PSP are addressed in the body of this report. Characterization activities included three data collection modes: visual inspection, radiological survey, and volumetric sampling/analysis. This report includes the final validated dataset and updates associated with the Tank 2 residues originally thought to be a biological bloom (e.g., slime mold) but ultimately identified as iron sulfate crystals

  18. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  19. A guideline for fire prevention during the storage of biomass; Leitfaden zur Brandvermeidung bei der Lagerung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Malow, Marcus; Schmidt, Martin; Krause, Ulrich

    2009-10-14

    For five years, an increasing number of fires in timber-yards is observed. A multiplicity of these fires results from self inflammation of the material. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the fundamentals of the self inflammation by biomass using wood as an example. The methodology for the avoidance of the self inflammation of biomass is based on a combination of laboratory tests and numeric simulation in order to determine the reliable waste dump geometry and storage times. In particular, the humidity content of the stored material is very important for growth and heat production of the micro organisms. If the material does not possess optimal humidity content, heat production and the probability of self inflammation are reduced. The optimal content of humidity amounts nearly 50-60 mass-%. For the determination of a safe storage of biomass, a flow chart is developed using pinewood as an example. (orig.)

  20. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  1. Critical review of controlled release packaging to improve food safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Mo; Xu, Chenyi; Yam, Kit L

    2018-03-19

    Controlled release packaging (CRP) is an innovative technology that uses the package to release active compounds in a controlled manner to improve safety and quality for a wide range of food products during storage. This paper provides a critical review of the uniqueness, design considerations, and research gaps of CRP, with a focus on the kinetics and mechanism of active compounds releasing from the package. Literature data and practical examples are presented to illustrate how CRP controls what active compounds to release, when and how to release, how much and how fast to release, in order to improve food safety and quality.

  2. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  3. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  4. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  5. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  6. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  7. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  8. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  9. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  10. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  11. Integrated Treatment and Storage Solutions for Solid Radioactive Waste at the Russian Shipyard Near Polyarny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, A.; Engoy, T.; Endregard, M.; Busmundrud, O.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.; Krumrine, P.; Backe, S.; Gorin, S.; Evans, B.

    2002-01-01

    Russian Navy Yard No. 10 (Shkval), near the city of Murmansk, has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) pretreatment and storage facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. This shipyard serves the Northern Fleet by servicing, repairing, and dismantling naval vessels. Specifically, seven nuclear submarines of the first and second generation and Victor class are laid up at this shipyard, awaiting defueling and dismantlement. One first generation nuclear submarine has already been dismantled there, but recently progress on dismantlement has slowed because all the available storage space is full. SRW has been placed in metal storage containers, which have been moved outside of the actual storage site, which increases the environmental risks. AMEC is a cooperative effort between the Russian Federation, Kingdom of Norway and the United States. AMEC Projects 1.3 and 1.4 specifically address waste treatment and storage issues. Various waste treatment options have been assessed, technologies selected, and now integrated facilities are being designed and constructed to address these problems. Treatment technologies that are being designed and constructed include a mobile pretreatment facility comprising waste assay, segregation, size reduction, compaction and repackaging operations. Waste storage technologies include metal and concrete containers, and lightweight modular storage buildings. This paper focuses on the problems and challenges that are and will be faced at the Polyarninsky Shipyard. Specifically, discussion of the waste quantities, types, and conditions and various site considerations versus the various technologies that are to be employed will be provided. A systems approach at the site is being proposed by the Russian partners, therefore integration with other ongoing and planned operations at the site will also be discussed

  12. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  13. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  14. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  15. System for secure storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A system (100) comprising read means (112) for reading content data and control logic data from a storage medium (101), the control logic data being uniquely linked to the storage medium (101), processing means (113-117), for processing the content data and feeding the processed content data to an

  16. Grain Handling and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  17. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  18. Optical storage networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  19. PWR-GALE, Radioactive Gaseous Release and Liquid Release from PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The PWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment. 2 - Method of solution: GALE calculates expected releases based on 1) standardized coolant activities derived from ANS Standards 18.1 Working Group recommendations, 2) release and transport mechanisms that result in the appearance of radioactive material in liquid and gaseous waste streams, 3) plant-specific design features used to reduce the quantities of radioactive materials ultimately released to the environs, and 4) information received on the operation of nuclear power plants. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The liquid release portion of GALE uses subroutines taken from the ORIGEN (CCC-217) to calculate radionuclide buildup and decay during collection, processing, and storage of liquid radwaste. Memory requirements for this part of the program are determined by the large nuclear data base accessed by these subroutines

  20. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  1. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  2. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  3. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  4. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  5. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alexander, E-mail: ajw36@cam.ac.uk [Hopkinson Laboratory, Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge. CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  6. International management and storage of plutonium and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The first part of this study discusses certain questions that may arise from the disseminated production and storage of plutonium and, in the light of the relevant provisions of the Agency's Statute, examines possible arrangements for the storage of separated plutonium under international auspices and its release to meet energy or research requirements. The second part of the study deals similarly with certain problems presented by growing accumulations of spent fuel from light-water reactors in various countries and examines possible solutions, including the establishment of regional or multinational spent fuel storage facilities

  7. Tritium release reduction and radiolysis gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batifol, G.; Douche, Ch.; Sejournant, Ch. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    At CEA Valduc, the usual tritiated waste container is the steel drum. It allows good release reduction performance for middle activity waste but in some cases tritium outgassing from the waste drums is too high. It was decided to over-package each drum in a tighter container called the over-drum. According to good safety practices it was also decided to measure gas composition evolution into the over-drum in order to defect hydrogen formation over time. After a few months, a significant release reduction was observed. Additionally there followed contamination reduction in the roof storage building rainwater. However hydrogen was also observed in some over-drums, in addition to other radiolysis products. Catalyst will be added to manage the hydrogen risk in the over-drums. (authors)

  8. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  9. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  10. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  11. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  12. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  14. Magnox waste storage complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the design and construction of British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Magnox waste storage complex by Costain Engineering Limited. Magnox swarf from fuel decanning is stored underwater in specially designed silos. Gas processing capabilities from Costain Engineering Limited and the experience of BNFL combined in this project to provide the necessary problem-solving skills necessary for this waste storage upgrading and extension project. A retrofitted inerting facility was fitted to an existing building and a new storage extension was fitted, both without interrupting reprocessing operations at Sellafield. (UK)

  15. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  16. Next generation storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    With diminishing requirements for plutonium, a substantial quantity of this material requires special handling and ultimately, long-term storage. To meet this objective, we at Los Alamos, have been involved in the design of a storage facility with the goal of providing storage capabilities for this and other nuclear materials. This paper presents preliminary basic design data, not for the structure and physical plant, but for the container and arrays which might be configured within the facility, with strong emphasis on criticality safety features

  17. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  18. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  19. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  20. Storage-ring FEL for the vuv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Bisognano, J.J.; Garren, A.A.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Sah, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    A free-electron laser for the vuv operating in a storage ring requires an electron beam of high density and low energy spread and a short wavelength, narrow-gap undulator. These conditions tend to produce longitudinal and transverse beam instabilities, excessive beam growth through multiple intrabeam scattering, and a short gas-scattering lifetime. Passing the beam only occasionally through the undulator in a by-pass straight section, as proposed by Murphy and Pellegrini, allows operation in a high-gain, single-pass mode and a long gas-scattering lifetime. Several storage ring designs have been considered to see how best to satisfy the several requirements. Each features a by-pass, a low-emittance lattice, and built-in wigglers for enhanced damping to counteract the intra-beam scattering. 15 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  1. Radionuclide release from PWR spent fuel specimens with induced cladding defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    Radionuclide releases from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel rod specimens containing various artificially induced cladding defects were compared by leach testing. The study was conducted in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package Task to evaluate the effectiveness of failed cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release. Test description and results are presented

  2. Radionuclide release from PWR spent fuel specimens with induced cladding defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    Radionuclide releases from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel rod specimens containing various artificially induced cladding defects were compared by leach testing. The study was conducted in support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Waste Package Task to evaluate the effectiveness of failed cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release. Test description and results are presented. 6 references, 4 figures

  3. Storage of strawberry pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  4. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  5. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  6. Cryptography from noisy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Schaffner, Christian; Terhal, Barbara M

    2008-06-06

    We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party attempts to store each incoming qubit separately. Our model is similar to the model of bounded-quantum storage; however, we consider an explicit noise model inspired by present-day technology. To illustrate the power of this new model, we show that a protocol for oblivious transfer is secure for any amount of quantum-storage noise, as long as honest players can perform perfect quantum operations. Our model also allows us to show the security of protocols that cope with noise in the operations of the honest players and achieve more advanced tasks such as secure identification.

  7. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  8. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  9. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  10. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  11. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  12. Flywheel energy storage; Schwungmassenspeicher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornemann, H.J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Energy storages may be chemical systems such as batteries, thermal systems such as hot-water tanks, electromagnetic systems such as capacitors and coils, or mechanical systems such as pumped storage power systems or flywheel energy storages. In flywheel energy storages the energy is stored in the centrifugal mass in the form of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to electricity via a motor/generator unit and made available to the consumer. The introduction of magnetic bearings has greatly enhanced the potential of flywheel energy storages. As there is no contact between the moving parts of magnetic bearings, this technology provides a means of circumventing the engineering and operational problems involved in the we of conventional bearings (ball, roller, plain, and gas bearings). The advantages of modern flywheel energy storages over conventional accumulators are an at least thousandfold longer service life, low losses during long-time storage, greater power output in the case of short-time storage, and commendable environmental benignity. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Als Enegiespeicher kommen chemische Systeme, z.B. Batterien, thermische Systeme, z.B. Warmwassertanks, elektromagnetische Systeme, z.B. Kondensatoren und Spulen, sowie mechanische Systeme, z.B. Pumpspeicherwerke und Schwungmassenspeicher in Frage. In einem Schwungmassenspeicher wird Energie in Form von kinetischer Energie in der Schwungmasse gespeichert. Ueber eine Moter/Generator Einheit wird diese Energie in elektrischen Strom umgewandelt und dem Verbraucher zugefuehrt. Mit der Einfuehrung von magnetischen Lagern konnte die Leistungsfaehigkeit von Schwungmassenspeichern erheblich gesteigert werden. Da in einem Magnetlager keine Beruehrung zwischen sich bewegenden Teilen besteht, wird ein Grossteil der mit dem Einsatz konventioneller Lager (Kugel- und Rollenlager, Gleitlager und Gaslager) verbundenen ingenieurtechnischen und betriebstechnischen Probleme vermieden. Die Vorteile von modernen

  13. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    zones of land around each facility place a significant economic cost on the storage of munitions (Schreyer, 1970: 1). Munitions storage is a subject...ADDTOT, BTOTAL 353 REAL MPH,MW ,MPD, MPU ,4,MPNEW,MCD 354 IF (SW2.NE.0) GO TO 1 355 SW2 - 1 356 WRITE (6,2) 357 GO TO 3 358 1 IF (REC.EQ.0) GO TO 4 359 IF

  14. Spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the author explains the reasons for intermediate storage of fuel elements in nuclear power stations and in a reprocessing plant and gives the temperature and radioactivity curves of LWR fuel elements after removal from the reactor. This is followed by a description of the facilities for fuel element storage in a reprocessing plant and of their functions. Futher topics are criticality and activity control, the problem of cooling time and safety systems. (HR) [de

  15. Analog storage integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  16. Annual Report: Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Activities include laboratory experimentation, field work, and numerical modeling. The work is divided into five theme areas (or first level tasks) that each address a key research need: Flow Properties of Reservoirs and Seals, Fundamental Processes and Properties, Estimates of Storage Potential, Verifying Storage Performance, and Geospatial Data Resources. The project also includes a project management effort which coordinates the activities of all the research teams.

  17. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  18. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  19. APASS Data Release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Arne A.; Levine, Stephen; Terrell, Dirk; Welch, Douglas L.; Munari, Ulisse; Kloppenborg, Brian K.

    2018-06-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) has been underway since 2010. This survey covers the entire sky from 7.5 knowledge of the optical train distortions. With these changes, DR10 includes many more stars than prior releases. We describe the survey, its remaining limitations, and prospects for the future, including a very-bright-star extension.

  20. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  1. Storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

  2. Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  3. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  4. Secure Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Caldwell, Blake A [ORNL; Hicks, Susan Elaine [ORNL; Koch, Scott M [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL; Pogge, James R [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Sorrillo, Lawrence [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to clarify the challenges associated with storage for secure enclaves. The major focus areas for the report are: - review of relevant parallel filesystem technologies to identify assets and gaps; - review of filesystem isolation/protection mechanisms, to include native filesystem capabilities and auxiliary/layered techniques; - definition of storage architectures that can be used for customizable compute enclaves (i.e., clarification of use-cases that must be supported for shared storage scenarios); - investigate vendor products related to secure storage. This study provides technical details on the storage and filesystem used for HPC with particular attention on elements that contribute to creating secure storage. We outline the pieces for a a shared storage architecture that balances protection and performance by leveraging the isolation capabilities available in filesystems and virtualization technologies to maintain the integrity of the data. Key Points: There are a few existing and in-progress protection features in Lustre related to secure storage, which are discussed in (Chapter 3.1). These include authentication capabilities like GSSAPI/Kerberos and the in-progress work for GSSAPI/Host-keys. The GPFS filesystem provides native support for encryption, which is not directly available in Lustre. Additionally, GPFS includes authentication/authorization mechanisms for inter-cluster sharing of filesystems (Chapter 3.2). The limitations of key importance for secure storage/filesystems are: (i) restricting sub-tree mounts for parallel filesystem (which is not directly supported in Lustre or GPFS), and (ii) segregation of hosts on the storage network and practical complications with dynamic additions to the storage network, e.g., LNET. A challenge for VM based use cases will be to provide efficient IO forwarding of the parallel filessytem from the host to the guest (VM). There are promising options like para-virtualized filesystems to

  5. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  6. Monitoring the drastic growth of ship breaking yards in Sitakunda: a threat to the coastal environment of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hasan Muhammad; Mahboob, M Golam; Banu, Mehmuna R; Seker, Dursun Zafer

    2013-05-01

    The vast coastal and marine resources that occur along the southern edge of Bangladesh make it one of the most productive areas of the world. However, due to growing anthropogenic impacts, this area is under considerable environmental pressure from both physical and chemical stress factors. Ship breaking, or the dismantling and demolition of out-of-service ocean-going vessels, has become increasingly common in many coastal areas. To investigate the extent of ship breaking activities in Bangladesh along the Sitakunda coast, various spatial and non-spatial data were obtained, including remote sensing imagery, statistical records and published reports. Impacts to coastal and marine life were documented. Available data show that ship breaking activities cause significant physical disturbance and release toxic materials into the environment, resulting in adverse effects to numerous marine taxonomic groups such as fish, mammals, birds, reptiles, plants, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. Landsat imagery illustrates that the negatively impacted coastal area has grown 308.7 % from 367 ha in 1989 to 1,133 ha in 2010. Physicochemical and biological properties of coastal soil and water indicate substantially elevated pollution that poses a risk of local, regional and even global contamination through sea water and atmospheric transport. While damage to the coastal environment of Bangladesh is a recognized hazard that must be addressed, the economic benefits of ship breaking through job creation and fulfilling the domestic demand for recycled steel must be considered. Rather than an outright ban on beach breaking of ships, the enterprise must be recognized as a true and influential industry that should be held responsible for developing an economically viable and environmentally proactive growth strategy. Evolution of the industry toward a sustainable system can be aided through reasonable and enforceable legislative and judicial action that takes a balanced

  7. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  8. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  9. DPM — efficient storage in diverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmich, Martin; Furano, Fabrizio; Smith, David; Rocha, Ricardo Brito da; Ayllón, Alejandro Álvarez; Manzi, Andrea; Keeble, Oliver; Calvet, Ivan; Regala, Miguel Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments, including low power devices, cluster file systems and cloud storage, represent an explosion in the possibilities for deploying and managing grid storage. In this paper we present how different technologies can be leveraged to build a storage service with differing cost, power, performance, scalability and reliability profiles, using the popular storage solution Disk Pool Manager (DPM/dmlite) as the enabling technology. The storage manager DPM is designed for these new environments, allowing users to scale up and down as they need it, and optimizing their computing centers energy efficiency and costs. DPM runs on high-performance machines, profiting from multi-core and multi-CPU setups. It supports separating the database from the metadata server, the head node, largely reducing its hard disk requirements. Since version 1.8.6, DPM is released in EPEL and Fedora, simplifying distribution and maintenance, but also supporting the ARM architecture beside i386 and x86 6 4, allowing it to run the smallest low-power machines such as the Raspberry Pi or the CuBox. This usage is facilitated by the possibility to scale horizontally using a main database and a distributed memcached-powered namespace cache. Additionally, DPM supports a variety of storage pools in the backend, most importantly HDFS, S3-enabled storage, and cluster file systems, allowing users to fit their DPM installation exactly to their needs. In this paper, we investigate the power-efficiency and total cost of ownership of various DPM configurations. We develop metrics to evaluate the expected performance of a setup both in terms of namespace and disk access considering the overall cost including equipment, power consumptions, or data/storage fees. The setups tested range from the lowest scale using Raspberry Pis with only 700 MHz single cores and a 100 Mbps network connections, over conventional multi-core servers to typical virtual machine instances in cloud settings. We evaluate the

  10. 19 CFR 24.12 - Customs fees; charges for storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.12 Customs fees; charges for storage... charge and collect a fee of $10.00 for each hour or fraction thereof for time spent by each clerical... working days following the day on which the permit to release or transfer was issued. As to an examination...

  11. Chemical Expansion: Implications for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, S.R.; Marrocchelli, D.; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Many energy-related materials rely on the uptake and release of large quantities of ions, for example, Li+ in batteries, H+ in hydrogen storage materials, and O2− in solid-oxide fuel cell and related materials. These compositional changes often result in large volumetric dilation of the material...

  12. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  13. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  14. Review of theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage in carbon-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meregalli, V.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we review the existing theoretical literature on hydrogen storage in single-walled nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The reported calculations indicate a hydrogen uptake smaller than some of the more optimistic experimental results. Furthermore the calculations suggest that a variety of complex chemical processes could accompany hydrogen storage and release. (orig.)

  15. Fuel treatment effects on tree-based forest carbon storage and emissions under modeled wildfire scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hurteau; M. North

    2009-01-01

    Forests are viewed as a potential sink for carbon (C) that might otherwise contribute to climate change. It is unclear, however, how to manage forests with frequent fire regimes to maximize C storage while reducing C emissions from prescribed burns or wildfire. We modeled the effects of eight different fuel treatments on treebased C storage and release over a century,...

  16. Geological storage of nuclear wastes: Insights following the Fukushima crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, Adrián H.; Matsuzaki, Tomose; Aoki, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    The geological storage of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) has been in the agenda of Japan for several years. Nevertheless, all the research can become meaningless without understanding the public feelings about the disposal. The events at Fukushima in 2011 altered the perception towards nuclear-waste storage in the country. This work investigates the attitude of young Japanese towards the construction of a repository following the Fukushima crisis, and examines how public perception changed after the event. A survey among 545 university students from different regions of Japan addressed three main variables: dread, trust and acceptance. The results suggest that the economy of the country is still the most concerning issue, but there was a dramatic increase of attention towards everything n uclear . Radiation leakage and food contamination are major concerns as well. The distrust towards the government deepened after Fukushima, although more than half of the respondents would accept the repository. In a clear phenomenon of NIMBY (not in my back yard), the acceptance drops to less than 20% if the repository is to be installed near the respondents' residency. Financial incentives would increase the acceptability of the siting, although only a substantial compensation might minimise the NIMBY in potential host communities. - Highlights: • Major factors influencing the attitude towards nuclear waste disposal were examined. • The opinion of the Japanese youth before and after the Fukushima events was compared. • Unemployment and earthquakes are now at the upper end of the thought of dread. • The government and scientists are highly distrusted by the Japanese youth. • People might still accept the repository though the NIMBY phenomenon remains high

  17. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  18. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R.

    2004-01-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication

  19. Storage vessel for radiation contaminated container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakatani, Tadatsugu.

    1996-01-01

    In a storage vessel of the present invention, a plurality of radiation contaminated material containing bodies are vertically stacked in a cell chamber. Then, the storage vessel comprises a containing tube for containing a plurality of the containing bodies, cooling coils wound around the containing tube, a cooling medium circulating system connected to the cooling coils and circulating cooling medium, and a heat exchanger interposed to the cooling medium circulating system for removing heat of the cooling medium. Heat of the radioactive material containing bodies is transferred to cooling air and cooling coils by way of the container tube, thereby cooling the containing bodies. By the operation of circulating pumps in a cooling medium circulation system, the cooling medium circulates through a circulation channel comprising a cooling medium transfer pipes, cooling medium branching tubes, cooling coils and the heat exchanger, then heat of the cooling medium is transferred to a heat utilizing system by way of the heat exchanger to attain effective utilization of the heat. In this case, heat can be taken out stably even when the storage amount fluctuates and heat releasing amount is reduced, and improvement of heat transfer promotes the cooling of the containing bodies, which enables minimization of the size of the storage vessel. (T.M.)

  20. Phenomenological rate process theory for the storage of atomic H in solid Hsub(2)sup(*)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, G.

    1976-01-01

    A phenomenological rate process theory is developed for the storage and rapid recombination of atomic hydrogen fuel radical in a crystalline molecular hydrogen solid at temperatures in the range o.1K(<=)T(<=K. It is shown that such a theory can account quantitatively for the recently observed dependence of the storage time on the storage temperature, for the maximum concentration of trapped H atom, and for the time duration of the energy release in the tritium decay experiments of Webeler

  1. Residual and Solubility trapping during Geological CO2 storage : Numerical and Experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmusson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers mitigates atmospheric release of greenhouse gases. To estimate storage capacity and evaluate storage safety, knowledge of the trapping mechanisms that retain CO2 within geological formations, and the factors affecting these is fundamental. The objective of this thesis is to study residual and solubility trapping mechanisms (the latter enhanced by density-driven convective mixing), specifically in regard to their dependency on ...

  2. Industrial center of gathering, warehousing and storage. Annual report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report first presents the installations of the Cires (industrial center for regrouping, warehousing and storage), its equipment and buildings, its activities (storage of very-low-activity wastes, regrouping and warehousing of non-electronuclear wastes). It reviews the arrangements regarding safety and radiation protection: radioactive waste storage safety, safety of non-electronuclear waste regrouping and warehousing, relationship with the regional directorate of environment, planning and housing (DREAL), quality audits, staff safety, and radiation protection. It addresses the actions undertaken for the monitoring of the environment and of releases by the installations: radiological control in various locations (measurements in soils, waters, underground waters, and atmospheric releases), physical and chemical controls. The next part reports actions regarding transparency and information (visits, conferences, exhibitions, relationship with the local information and control commission)

  3. Industrial center of gathering, warehousing and storage. Annual report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report first presents the installations of the Cires (industrial center for regrouping, warehousing and storage), its equipment and buildings, its activities (storage of very-low-activity wastes, regrouping and warehousing of non-electronuclear wastes). It reviews the arrangements regarding safety and radiation protection: radioactive waste storage safety, safety of non-electronuclear waste regrouping and warehousing, relationship with the regional directorate of environment, planning and housing (DREAL), quality audits, staff safety, and radiation protection. It addresses the actions undertaken for the monitoring of the environment and of releases by the installations: radiological control in various locations (measurements in soils, waters, underground waters, and atmospheric releases), physical and chemical controls. The next part reports actions regarding transparency and information (visits, conferences, exhibitions, relationship with the local information and control commission)

  4. Salinization/sodification of soil and physiological dynamics of sunflower irrigated with saline–sodic water amending by potassium and farm yard manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants were grown with saline–sodic water (SSW by treating with potassium (K @ 100 and 200 mg K2O kg−1 soil and farm yard manure (FYM @ 5 and 10% of soil, w/w. Irrigation with untreated SSW caused soil salinization/sodification, leading to an increase in electrical conductivity (EC of 165% and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR 100% with the subsequent increase of 736% in shoot Na+, a decrease of 52% in shoot K+ and 94% in shoot K+:Na+ratio compared to canal water. SSW also decreased physiological activities: 31% relative water content (RWC, 34% membrane stability index (MSI, 51% protein, 33% chlorophyll and 58% photosynthetic rate compared to canal water. Integrated application of K and FYM, at higher level, decreased soil EC by 54% and SAR 43%, and shoot Na+ 57% with a corresponding improvement in soil organic matter 166%, shoot K+ 360%, shoot K+:Na+ratio 987%, RWC 34%, MSI 37%, protein 60%, photosynthetic rate 102%, superoxide dismutase 92%, peroxidase 78% and catalase 52% compared to SSW without K and/or FYM. In conclusion, exogenous application of K and FYM could be a promising approach to use brackish water in agriculture on a sustainable basis.

  5. Enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes in soil receiving composts derived from swine manure, yard wastes, or food wastes, and evidence for multiyear persistence of swine Clostridium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Drury, Craig F; Reynolds, W Daniel; Topp, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The impact of amendment with swine manure compost (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared with untreated control soil, all 3 amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to 4 years postapplication. The abundance of several gene targets was much higher in soil amended with SMC than in soil receiving either YWC or FWC. The gene target ermB remained higher in the SMC treatment for a decade postapplication. Clostridia were significantly more abundant in the SMC-amended soil throughout the decade following application. Eight percent of Clostridium spp. isolates from the SMC treatment carried ermB. Overall, addition of organic amendments to soils has the potential to increase the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. Amendments of fecal origin, such as SMC, will in addition entrain bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes. Environmentally recalcitrant clostridia, and the antibiotic resistance genes that they carry, will persist for many years under field conditions following the application of SMC.

  6. The dCache scientific storage cloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    For over a decade, the dCache team has provided software for handling big data for a diverse community of scientists. The team has also amassed a wealth of operational experience from using this software in production. With this experience, the team have refined dCache with the goal of providing a "scientific cloud": a storage solution that satisfies all requirements of a user community by exposing different facets of dCache with which users interact. Recent development, as part of this "scientific cloud" vision, has introduced a new facet: a sync-and-share service, often referred to as "dropbox-like storage". This work has been strongly focused on local requirements, but will be made available in future releases of dCache allowing others to adopt dCache solutions. In this presentation we will outline the current status of the work: both the successes and limitations, and the direction and time-scale of future work.

  7. Monitoring of the storage facility Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regenauer, Urban; Wittwer, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The storage facility Asse II is former salt mine near Wolfenbuettel in Niedersachsen. From 1967 to 1978 totally 125787 barrels with low-and medium-level radioactive wastes were disposed in the salt cavern. Since 1988 ingress of saturated brines from the adjoining rocks were observed in the mine. An extensive monitoring concept was installed for the surveillance of possible radionuclides released with the mine air into the surrounding. The report is aimed to n describe the actual situation in the salt mine Asse II with special emphasis to the monitoring concept. The discussion is based on the history of the storage facility that was primarily a research mine. Furthermore a regional accompanying process is described that was created in 2007.

  8. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Rogers, Michael Ray; Judkins, Roddie R.

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  9. Long-term storage of compressed radioactive krypton in cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, D.; Nommensen, O.; Bruecher, H.

    1982-01-01

    The recommendations of the German Radiation Protection Commission necessitate the separation of the radioactive noble gas krypton-85 (Kr-85) produced in large LWR reprocessing plants from the dissolver off-gas. A possible method of removal is a long-term storage of the compressed noble gas above ground in cylinders. The aim of the present study is to develop such a storage concept and evaluate its feasibility under the aspects of safety and cost. After having been filled, the gas cylinders are placed separately into transport racks serving to protect the cylinders. Following this, the cylinders are transferred out of the filling station in a transport cask, conveyed to the storage building and stored there. The storage building protects the gas cylinders against external impacts. The storage cells constitute a second barrier against the release of Kr-85. The heat produced during decay of the Kr-85 in the gas cylinders is carried off by natural convection of the air circulating in the storage cells. To study possible corrosion attack on special steels due to rubidium, experiments were conducted at 200 0 C during test periods up to 3500h. In order to compare properties at elevated temperatures, corrosion experiments were conducted at 500 0 C, which is far above the maximum licensed storage temperature of 200 0 C. Experiments were conducted concerning the adsorption of krypton on various adsorbents, thus reducing the pressure inside the gas cylinder during storage. A cost estimate based on 1980 prices

  10. The Idiosyncrasies of Storage and Implications for Catchment Runoff (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2010-12-01

    Because water goes into storage when it rains, perhaps the entire concept of a direct rainfall-runoff process is erroneous and misleading. Perhaps the runoff generation process is merely the conversion of storage to runoff. Using this perspective as a foundation, it then becomes important to understand how catchments retain water, where this storage is distributed and what controls the distribution of this storage. There is a growing body of observational evidence that the idiosyncrasies of storage in the catchment are crucial for runoff generation. These idiosyncrasies are important enough that some hydrologists are questioning assumptions of steady state, linearity, and topographic control in existing theories and algorithms of runoff generation. For instance, thresholds that control the release of water have been identified at many scales and in many landscapes. Hysteresis in storage-runoff relationships at all scales manifest because of these thresholds. Because storage thresholds at a range of scales are now known to be important for runoff response, connectivity has become an important concept crucial to interpreting catchment runoff response. There appears to be growing acceptance of such ideas as thresholds, hysteresis and connectivity in the hydrological literature. Theoretical development and model parameterization have begun, but there remains much work to resolve these field observations. In particular, our community should strive to investigate the relevance of storage-runoff relationships partly through innovative measurement techniques and the development of model structures appropriate for the requisite testing of these theories in a diversity of landscapes.

  11. 76 FR 4532 - Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W... and South, bank to bank, of position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W, Charenton Drainage and Navigation Canal, St. Mary Parish, LA. This Safety Zone is needed to protect the general public, vessels and...

  12. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  13. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  14. Evaluating Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihang; Udmark, Jonas; Börjesson, Karl; Rodrigues, Rita; Roffey, Anna; Abrahamsson, Maria; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2017-08-10

    Efficient solar energy storage is a key challenge in striving toward a sustainable future. For this reason, molecules capable of solar energy storage and release through valence isomerization, for so-called molecular solar thermal energy storage (MOST), have been investigated. Energy storage by photoconversion of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photothermal couple has been evaluated. The robust nature of this system is determined through multiple energy storage and release cycles at elevated temperatures in three different solvents. In a nonpolar solvent such as toluene, the DHA/VHF system can be cycled more than 70 times with less than 0.01 % degradation per cycle. Moreover, the [Cu(CH 3 CN) 4 ]PF 6 -catalyzed conversion of VHF into DHA was demonstrated in a flow reactor. The performance of the DHA/VHF couple was also evaluated in prototype photoconversion devices, both in the laboratory by using a flow chip under simulated sunlight and under outdoor conditions by using a parabolic mirror. Device experiments demonstrated a solar energy storage efficiency of up to 0.13 % in the chip device and up to 0.02 % in the parabolic collector. Avenues for future improvements and optimization of the system are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Innovative hydrogen storage in hollow glass-microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keding, M.; Schmid, G.; Tajmar, M. [Austrian Research Centers, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen storage technologies are becoming increasingly important for a number of future applications. The Austrian Research Centers (ARC) are developing a unique hydrogen storage system that combines the advantages of both hollow glass microsphere and chemical compound hydrogen storage, but eliminates their respective drawbacks. Water is utilized as a functional liquid to carry the hollow glass microspheres that are loaded with up to 700 bar of hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is then injected together with the glass microspheres into a reaction chamber where the water reacts catalytically with the NaBH{sub 4} producing hydrogen and heat. The heat is then utilized to release the hydrogen from the hollow glass microspheres providing a double hydrogen generation process without any external energy or heat during storage or gas release. The paper described this hydrogen storage system with particular reference to microspheres, the coating process, the experimental facility and NaBH{sub 4} test results. It was concluded that hydrogen storage and production on demand is possible with microspheres and sodium borohydride solution. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  17. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  18. Decontamination for free release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, K A; Elder, G R [Bradtec Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Many countries are seeking to treat radioactive waste in ways which meet the local regulatory requirements, but yet are cost effective when all contributing factors are assessed. In some countries there are increasing amounts of waste, arising from nuclear plant decommissioning, which are categorized as low level waste: however with suitable treatment a large part of such wastes might become beyond regulatory control and be able to be released as non-radioactive. The benefits and disadvantages of additional treatment before disposal need to be considered. Several processes falling within the overall description of decontamination for free release have been developed and applied, and these are outlined. In one instance the process seeks to take advantage of techniques and equipment used for decontaminating water reactor circuits intermittently through reactor life. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  20. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  1. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  2. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  3. The Manche Storage Centre: 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the ANDRA (the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes), this report presents the CSM installations (CSM stands for Centre de Stockage de la Manche, the Manche storage centre), recalls results and actions in the field of nuclear safety and in the field of radioprotection. It indicates incidents and accidents which occurred in the installations, presents data about the Centre's releases. It presents the waste management and evokes other pollution. It indicates the various actions undertaken for information transparency

  4. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  5. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  6. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  7. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  8. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  9. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  10. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  12. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  13. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  14. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  15. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  16. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  17. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  18. Controlled release of tocopherols from polymer blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Noe

    Controlled release packaging has great potential to increase storage stability of foods by releasing active compounds into foods continuously over time. However, a major limitation in development of this technology is the inability to control the release and provide rates useful for long term storage of foods. Better understanding of the factors affecting active compound release is needed to overcome this limitation. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between polymer composition, polymer processing method, polymer morphology, and release properties of active compounds, and to provide proof of principle that compound release is controlled by film morphology. A natural antioxidant, tocopherol was used as a model active compound because it is natural, effective, heat stable, and soluble in most packaging polymers. Polymer blend films were produced from combination of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), or polystyrene (PS) with 3000 ppm mixed tocopherols using conventional blending method and innovative blending method, smart blending with a novel mixer using chaotic advection. Film morphologies were visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Release of tocopherols into 95% ethanol as a food simulant was measured by UV/Visible spectrophotometry or HPLC, and diffusivity of tocopherols in the polymers was estimated from this data. Polymer composition (blend proportions) and processing methods have major effects on film morphology. Four different types of morphologies, dispersed, co-continuous, fiber, and multilayer structures were developed by either conventional extrusion or smart blending. With smart blending of fixed polymer compositions, different morphologies were progressively developed with fixed polymer composition as the number of rod rotations increased, providing a way to separate effects of polymer composition and morphology. The different morphologies

  19. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  20. Assessment of spent WWER-440 fuel performance under long-term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takats, F [TS Enercon Kft. (Hungary)

    2012-07-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia so far. The spent fuel assemblies were shipped back to Russia until 1997 after about 6 years cooling at the plant. A dry storage facility (MVDS type) has been constructed and is operational since then. By 1 January 2008, there were 5107 assemblies in dry storage. The objectives are: 1) Wet AR storage of spent fuel from the NPP Paks: Measurements of conditions for spent fuel storage in the at-reactor (AR) storage pools of Paks NPP (physical and chemical characteristics of pool water, corrosion product data); Measurements and visual control of storage pool component characteristics; Evaluation of storage characteristics and conditions with respect to long-term stability (corrosion of fuel cladding, construction materials); 2) Dry AFR storage at Paks NPP: Calculation and measurement of spent fuel conditions during the transfer from the storage pool to the modular vault dry storage (MVDS) on the site; Calculation and measurement of spent fuel conditions during the preparation of fuel for dry storage (drying process), such as crud release, activity build-up; Measurement of spent fuel conditions during the long-term dry storage, activity data in the storage tubes and amount of crud.

  1. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  2. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  3. Costs of Archival Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2012-01-01

    to determine the costs of establishing and maintaining a preservation solution destined for long-term preservation of digital materials and to develop a tool capable of doing this operation. In order to fulfill the purposes, the project employed a combination of own and external experience as well as the OAIS......This paper presents an analysis of the cost of archival storage. The study is part of a project conducted by The Danish National Archives, The Royal Library, and The State and University Library to develop a generic cost model for digital preservation (CMDP). The purposes of the study were...... Reference Model as a framework to fully understand and identify the cost critical activities of bit-preservation as described in Archival Storage. We found that the costs of Archival Storage are obviously closely linked to the data volume, but also to the required preservation quality, especially...

  4. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  5. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  6. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  7. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Hydrogen Storage Performance in Pd/Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A

    2016-10-05

    We have developed a Pd-graphene nanocomposite for hydrogen storage. The spherically shaped Pd nanoparticles of 5-45 nm in size are homogeneously distributed over the graphene matrix. This new hydrogen storage system has favorable features like desirable hydrogen storage capacity, ambient conditions of hydrogen uptake, and low temperature of hydrogen release. At a hydrogen charging pressure of 50 bar, the material could yield a gravimetric density of 6.7 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. As we increased the applied pressure to 60 bar, the hydrogen uptake capacity reached 8.67 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite and 7.16 wt % in the 5% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. This system allows storage of hydrogen in amounts that exceed the capacity of the gravimetric target announced by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  9. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  10. Electrochemical energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy has become essential in assisting the development of electrical transport and use of renewable energies. French researchers have played a key role in this domain but Asia is currently the market leader. Not wanting to see history repeat itself, France created the research network on electrochemical energy storage (RS2E) in 2011. This book discusses the launch of RS2E, its stakeholders, objectives, and integrated structure that assures a continuum between basic research, technological research and industries. Here, the authors will cover the technological

  11. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  12. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  13. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  14. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, F.

    2007-01-01

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks

  15. Interim Storage of Plutonium in Existing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodsmall, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    reactor building. The storage life is projected to be ten years to allow the preparation of APSF. DOE has stipulated that there be no credible release during storage, since there are no design features in place to mitigate a release of plutonium (i.e. HEPA filters, facility containment boundaries, etc.). This mandate has presented most of the significant challenges to the safety analysis team. The shipping packages are designed to withstand certain accidents and conditions, but in order to take credit for these the storage environment must be strictly controlled. Damages to the packages from exposure to fire, dropping, crushing and other impact accidents have been analyzed, and appropriate preventative design features have been incorporated. Other efforts include the extension of the shipping life (roughly two years) to a suitable storage life of ten years. These issues include the effects of internal pressure increases, seal degradation and the presence of impurities. A process known as the Container Qualification Program has been conducted to address these issues. The KAMS project will be ready to receive the first shipment from Rocky Flats in January 2000. No credible design basis scenarios resulting in the release of plutonium exist. This work has been useful in the effort to provide a safer disposition of plutonium, but also the lessons learned and techniques established by the team will help with the analysis of future facility modifications.'

  16. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  17. Riola release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables

  18. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  19. Olive mill wastewater sludge from evaporation ponds: evolution of physico-chemical parameters during storage and composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Aloui, F; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-02-01

    The evolution of analytical parameters of olive mill waste water sludge stored in evaporation ponds was investigated after one year and two years of storage. It was observed that some of the phenolic monomer compounds resisted removal and the fraction of water soluble phenols was only slightly polymerised. Co-composting of the sludge was carried out with yard trimming as bulking agent ratio and poultry manure to balance the C/N. Three turned piles with three proportions of 35%, 65% and 80% of olive mill waste water sludge were prepared. Co-composting of the sludge was possible in all the cases. Best results were obtained, however, at a proportion of 35% which permitted a shorter composting time, a higher degree of nitrification and a higher rate of total phenols decreasing. A high polymerisation of the fraction of water soluble phenols was observed at the end of composting in all the piles.

  20. Kinetic energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Folini, P.

    1983-09-03

    A flywheel system for the purpose of energy storage in decentral solar- or wind energy plants is introduced. The system comprises a rotor made out of plastic fibre, a motor/generator serving as electro-mechanical energy converter and a frequency-voltage transformer serving as electric adapter. The storable energy quantity amounts to several kWh.

  1. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  2. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -

  3. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  4. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath.

  5. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  6. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel elements comprising a multiplicity of elongated hollow containers of uniform cross-section, preferably square,some of said containers having laterally extending continuous flanges extending between adjacent containers and defining continuous elongated chambers therebetween for the reception of neutron absorbing panels. 18 claims, 7 figures

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  8. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  9. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.J.; Ochoa, R.; Fritz, K.D.; Craig, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  10. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  11. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  12. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  13. New concept for ARS dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszlai, P.G.K.; Johanson, N.W.; Patak, H.N.

    1980-01-01

    The dry fully passive and modular away-from-reactor (AFR) storage concept has been presented before for a size of 1500 to 3000 MTHM. Here it is suggested that the same concept is applicable for a small AR storage facility of 200 MTHM. Detailed investigations and feasibility studies have shown this concept to be economically interesting. Dry storage in the proposed concept has some other inherent advantages: spent fuel is stored in a dry and inert atmosphere, where no corrosion nor determination of cladding is to be expected during extended storage periods; storage canister and the silo concrete are additional barriers against activity release and increase therefore the security for long term safety; there are only passive systems involved where the heat is dissipated by natural convection and there is no need for additional emergency systems or special redundancy; concept of AR storage should be relatively easily licensed, as all requirements or constructions are well known standards of engineering; this storage concept creates no secondary waste nor contamination making decomissioning simple after retransfer of spent fuel canisters; manpower requirements for operation and maintenance is very small; operating costs are estimated to be some 2 US $/kg U (1980); investment costs are calculated to be 96 US $/kg U (May 1980) for a total size of 200 MTHM stored

  14. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  15. TOXRISK, Toxic Gas Release Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.E.; Chanin, D.I.; Shiver, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate are supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses. Upon execution, TOXRISK presents a menu, and the user chooses between the Data Base Manager, the Multiple Case program, and the Probabilistic Study Program. The Data Base Manager provides a convenient means of storing, retrieving, and modifying blocks of data required by the analysis programs. The Multiple Case program calculates resultant gas concentrations inside the control room and presents a summary of information that describes the event for each set of conditions given. Optimally, a time history profile of inside and outside concentrations can also be produced. The Probabilistic Study program provides a means for estimating the annual probability of operator incapacitation due to toxic gas accidents on surrounding transportation routes and storage sites. 2 - Method of solution: Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients

  16. Silo Storage Preconceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie L. Austad; Patrick W. Bragassa; Kevin M Croft; David S Ferguson; Scott C Gladson; Annette L Shafer; John H Weathersby

    2012-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a need to develop and field a low-cost option for the long-term storage of a variety of radiological material. The storage option’s primary requirement is to provide both environmental and physical protection of the materials. Design criteria for this effort require a low initial cost and minimum maintenance over a 50-year design life. In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory-West was tasked with developing a dry silo storage option for the BN-350 Spent Fuel in Aktau Kazakhstan. Argon’s design consisted of a carbon steel cylinder approximately 16 ft long, 18 in. outside diameter and 0.375 in. wall thickness. The carbon steel silo was protected from corrosion by a duplex coating system consisting of zinc and epoxy. Although the study indicated that the duplex coating design would provide a design life well in excess of the required 50 years, the review board was concerned because of the novelty of the design and the lack of historical use. In 2012, NNSA tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with reinvestigating the silo storage concept and development of alternative corrosion protection strategies. The 2012 study, “Silo Storage Concepts, Cathodic Protection Options Study” (INL/EST-12-26627), concludes that the option which best fits the design criterion is a passive cathotic protection scheme, consisting of a carbon steel tube coated with zinc or a zinc-aluminum alloy encapsulated in either concrete or a cement grout. The hot dipped zinc coating option was considered most efficient, but the flame-sprayed option could be used if a thicker zinc coating was determined to be necessary.

  17. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    .0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  18. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  19. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  20. The influence of "host release factor" on carbon release by zooxanthellae isolated from fed and starved Aiptasia pallida (Verrill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S K; Cook, C B

    2001-06-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) typically respond to extracts of host tissue with enhanced release of short-term photosynthetic products. We examined this "host release factor" (HRF) response using freshly isolated zooxanthellae of differing nutritional status. The nutritional status was manipulated by either feeding or starving the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida (Verrill). The release of fixed carbon from isolated zooxanthellae was measured using 14C in 30 min experiments. Zooxanthellae in filtered seawater alone released approximately 5% of photosynthate irrespective of host feeding history. When we used a 10-kDa ultrafiltrate of A. pallida host tissue as a source of HRF, approximately 14% of photosynthate was released to the medium. This increased to over 25% for zooxanthellae from anemones starved for 29 days or more. The cell-specific photosynthetic rate declined with starvation in these filtrate experiments, but the decline was offset by the increased percentage release. Indeed, the total amount of released photosynthate remained unchanged, or even increased, as zooxanthellae became more nutrient deficient. Similar trends were also observed when zooxanthellae from A. pallida were incubated in a 3-kDa ultrafiltrate of the coral Montastraea annularis, suggesting that HRF in the different filtrates operated in a similar manner. Our results support the suggestion that HRF diverts surplus carbon away from storage compounds to translocated compounds such as glycerol.

  1. Storage Policies and Optimal Shape of a Storage System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaerpour, N.; De Koster, René; Yu, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    The response time of a storage system is mainly influenced by its shape (configuration), the storage assignment and retrieval policies, and the location of the input/output (I/O) points. In this paper, we show that the optimal shape of a storage system, which minimises the response time for single

  2. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank (UST) release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of each hydrocarbon release has not been documented, therefore, this report addresses the remedial activities completed for each release site. The hydrocarbon release associated with each tank site within CAU 450 was remediated by excavating the impacted soil. Clean closure of the release was verified through soil sample analysis by an off-site laboratory. All release closure activities were completed following standard environmental and regulatory guidelines. Based upon site observations during the remedial activities and the soil sample analytical results, which indicated that soil concentrations were below the Nevada Administrative code (NAC) Action Level of 100 mg/kg, it is anticipated that each of the release CASs be closed without further action

  3. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  4. Synthetic methane for power storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, G.; Barankin, Michael; Walspurger, S.

    2013-01-01

    With increased share of energy generated from variable renewable sources, storage becomes a critical issue to ensure constantly balanced supply/demand. Methane is a promising vector for energy storage and transport.

  5. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  6. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  7. Solid Aluminum Borohydrides for Prospective Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Safin, Damir A; Tumanov, Nikolay A; Morelle, Fabrice; Moulai, Adel; Černý, Radovan; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2017-12-08

    Metal borohydrides are intensively researched as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. Aluminum is a cheap, light, and abundant element and Al 3+ can serve as a template for reversible dehydrogenation. However, Al(BH 4 ) 3 , containing 16.9 wt % of hydrogen, has a low boiling point, is explosive on air and has poor storage stability. A new family of mixed-cation borohydrides M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], which are all solid under ambient conditions, show diverse thermal decomposition behaviors: Al(BH 4 ) 3 is released for M=Li + or Na + , whereas heavier derivatives evolve hydrogen and diborane. NH 4 [Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], containing both protic and hydridic hydrogen, has the lowest decomposition temperature of 35 °C and yields Al(BH 4 ) 3 ⋅NHBH and hydrogen. The decomposition temperatures, correlated with the cations' ionic potential, show that M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ] species are in the most practical stability window. This family of solids, with convenient and versatile properties, puts aluminum borohydride chemistry in the mainstream of hydrogen storage research, for example, for the development of reactive hydride composites with increased hydrogen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Data storage as a service

    OpenAIRE

    Tomšič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was comparison of interfaces to network attached file systems and object storage. The thesis describes network file system and mounting procedure in Linux operating system. Object storage and distributed storage systems are explained with examples of usage. Amazon S3 is an example of object store with access trough REST interface. Ceph, a system for distributed object storage, is explained in detail, and a Ceph cluster was deployed for the purpose of this thesis. Cep...

  9. Mass storage for microprocessor farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areti, H.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments in high energy physics require high density and high speed mass storage. Mass storage is needed for data logging during the online data acquisition, data retrieval and storage during the event reconstruction and data manipulation during the physics analysis. This paper examines the storage and speed requirements at the first two stages of the experiments and suggests a possible starting point to deal with the problem. 3 refs., 3 figs

  10. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  11. An atoll for the offshore storage of the electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    This project proposes to use for sea the technique of pumped Storage Hydroelectric, implemented in mountain areas. The method stores energy in form of water, pumped from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the stored water is released through turbines. This new concept in pumped storage is to use wind turbines to drive water pumps directly, providing a more efficient process and usefully smooth out the variabilities of energy captured from the wind. (A.L.B.)

  12. Molecular solar thermal energy storage in photoswitch oligomers increases energy densities and storage times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansø, Mads; Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Wang, Zhihang; Erhart, Paul; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2018-05-16

    Molecular photoswitches can be used for solar thermal energy storage by photoisomerization into high-energy, meta-stable isomers; we present a molecular design strategy leading to photoswitches with high energy densities and long storage times. High measured energy densities of up to 559 kJ kg -1 (155 Wh kg -1 ), long storage lifetimes up to 48.5 days, and high quantum yields of conversion of up to 94% per subunit are demonstrated in norbornadiene/quadricyclane (NBD/QC) photo-/thermoswitch couples incorporated into dimeric and trimeric structures. By changing the linker unit between the NBD units, we can at the same time fine-tune light-harvesting and energy densities of the dimers and trimers so that they exceed those of their monomeric analogs. These new oligomers thereby meet several of the criteria to be met for an optimum molecule to ultimately enter actual devices being able to undergo closed cycles of solar light-harvesting, energy storage, and heat release.

  13. Concrete storage cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabemoto, Toyonobu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Shunji; Shionaga, Ryosuke

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and analytical evaluation of the fabrication, non-destructive inspection and structural integrity of reinforced concrete body for storage casks were carried out to demonstrate the concrete storage cask for spent fuel generated from nuclear power plants. Analytical survey on the type of concrete material and fabrication method of the storage cask was performed and the most suitable fabrication method for the concrete body was identified to reduce concrete cracking. The structural integrity of the concrete body of the storage cask under load conditions during storage was confirmed and the long term integrity of concrete body against degradation dependent on environmental factors was evaluated. (author)

  14. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  15. Digital device for synchronous storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23

  16. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  17. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Fusion power production requires energy storage and transfer on short time scales to create confining magnetic fields and for heating plasmas. The theta-pinch Scyllac Fusion Test Reactor (SFTR) requires 480 MJ of energy to drive the 5-T compression field with a 0.7-ms rise time. Tokamak Experimental Power Reactors (EPR) require 1 to 2 GJ of energy with a 1 to 2-s rise time for plasma ohmic heating. The design, development, and testing of four 300-kJ energy storage coils to satisfy the SFTR needs are described. Potential rotating machinery and homopolar energy systems for both the Reference Theta-Pinch Reactor (RTPR) and tokamak ohmic-heating are presented

  18. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.

    1989-01-01

    Recent programmatic developments in Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) have prompted renewed and widespread interest in this field. In mid 1987 the Defense Nuclear Agency, acting for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office issued a request for proposals for the design and construction of SMES Engineering Test Model (ETM). Two teams, one led by Bechtel and the other by Ebasco, are now engaged in the first phase of the development of a 10 to 20 MWhr ETM. This report presents the rationale for energy storage on utility systems, describes the general technology of SMES, and explains the chronological development of the technology. The present ETM program is outlined; details of the two projects for ETM development are described in other papers in these proceedings. The impact of high Tc materials on SMES is discussed

  19. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  20. Optical information storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woike, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm 2 via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10 9 Byte/mm 2 . Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/μsec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr 1-x Ba x Nb 2 O 6 doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs