WorldWideScience

Sample records for release significantly decreased

  1. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  2. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  3. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Breen, Gerome; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-10-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Yusuke; Otsuka, Nao; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of pertactin-lacking Bordetella pertussis isolates has been observed worldwide. In Japan, however, we found that the frequency of pertactin-deficient isolates in 2014–2016 (8%) was significantly lower than the frequency in 2005–2007 (41%), 2008–2010 (35%), and 2011–2013 (25%). This reduction was closely associated with changes in genotypes. PMID:28322702

  5. Heat shock protein 72: release and biological significance during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Martin; Fortes, Matthew Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The cumulative stressors of exercise manifest themselves at a cellular level by threatening the protein homeostasis of the cell. In these conditions, Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) are synthesised to chaperone mis-folded and denatured proteins. As such, the intracellular HSP response is thought to aid cell survival in the face of otherwise lethal cellular stress. Recently, the inducible isoform of the 70 Kda heat shock protein family, Hsp72 has been detected in the extracellular environment. Furthermore, the release of this protein into the circulation has been shown to occur in response to a range of exercise bouts. The present review summarises the current research on the exercise Hsp72 response, the possible mediators and mechanisms of extracellular (e)Hsp72 release, and the possible biological significance of this systemic response. In particular, the possible role of eHsp72 in the modulation of immunity during exercise is discussed.

  6. Upregulating Nonneuronal Cholinergic Activity Decreases TNF Release from Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lv

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonneuronal cholinergic system plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis. It has been proved that endogenous neuronal acetylcholine (ACh could play an anti-inflammatory role, and exogenous cholinergic agonists could weaken macrophages inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation through activation of α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. We assumed that nonneuronal cholinergic system existing in macrophages could modulate inflammation through autocrine ACh and expressed α7nAChR on the cells. Therefore, we explored whether LPS continuous stimulation could upregulate the nonneuronal cholinergic activity in macrophages and whether increasing autocrine ACh could decrease TNF release from the macrophages. The results showed that, in RAW264.7 cells incubated with LPS for 20 hours, the secretion of ACh was significantly decreased at 4 h and then gradually increased, accompanied with the enhancement of α7nAChR expression level. The release of TNF was greatly increased from RAW264.7 cells at 4 h and 8 h exposure to LPS; however, it was suppressed at 20 h. Upregulating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression through ChAT gene transfection could enhance ACh secretion and reduce TNF release from the infected RAW264. 7cells. The results indicated that LPS stimulation could modulate the activity of nonneuronal cholinergic system of RAW264.7 cells. Enhancing autocrine ACh production could attenuate TNF release from RAW264.7 cells.

  7. [Significance of lateral release in the therapy of patellar chondromalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T; Göbel, F; Huschenbett, A; Hein, W

    2002-10-01

    A retrospective study was performed in 26 patients who underwent an operation for femoro-patellar pain due to a patellar chondromalacia with or without minor patellar dislocation/lateral pressure syndrome. The average age of the patients was 28.5 (15-39) years. 22 of the 26 patients revealed minor chondral damages of the stages 1 and 2 according to Outerbridge. In 12 patients ("lavage" group), an arthroscopic joint debridement only was carried out, while an additional open, lateral retinaculum release was made in 14 patients ("lateral release" group). The patella's distance of dislocation according to Hepp was reduced on an average of 3.0 (0-7) mm (p = 0.0019). The results of Bentley's score obtained during the follow-up interval on an average of 30.1 (9 to 60) months were almost identical for both groups. "Good" and "very good" results were achieved in the "lavage" group (83.3 %) and "lateral release" group (78.6 % of the patients). Lateral release should be used in cases of patellar decentration between 5 and 10 mm and adequate pain symptoms. The post-operative distance of dislocation should be less than 5 mm. Under such conditions and with minor chondral damage, a combined approach by using an arthroscopic joint debridement and open lateral release is promising to treat a patellar dislocation/lateral pressure syndrome.

  8. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-08-01

    The concept of enhancing structural integrity of mitochondria has emerged as a novel therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. Flow-induced increase in laminar shear stress is a potent physiological stimulant associated with exercise, which exerts atheroprotective effects in the vasculature. However, the effect of laminar shear stress on mitochondrial remodeling within the vascular endothelium and its related functional consequences remain largely unknown. Using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies, here, we report that aerobic exercise alleviates the release of endothelial microparticles in prehypertensive individuals and that these salutary effects are, in part, mediated by shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Circulating levels of total (CD31(+)/CD42a(-)) and activated (CD62E(+)) microparticles released by endothelial cells were significantly decreased (∼40% for both) after a 6-mo supervised aerobic exercise training program in individuals with prehypertension. In cultured human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress reduced the release of endothelial microparticles, which was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis through a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-dependent mechanism. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, treatment showed similar effects. SIRT1 knockdown using small-interfering RNA completely abolished the protective effect of shear stress. Disruption of mitochondrial integrity by either antimycin A or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α small-interfering RNA significantly increased the number of total, and activated, released endothelial microparticles, and shear stress restored these back to basal levels. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of endothelial mitochondrial integrity in preserving endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, prolonged laminar shear stress, which is systemically elevated during aerobic exercise in the vessel wall, mitigates endothelial dysfunction by promoting

  9. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  10. Decreased atmospheric sulfur deposition across the southeastern U.S.: When will watersheds release stored sulfate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Lynch, Jason A.; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere lead to atmospheric deposition of sulfate (SO42-), which is the dominant strong acid anion causing acidification of surface waters and soils in the eastern United States (U.S.). Since passage of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments, atmospheric deposition of SO2 in this region has declined by over 80%, but few corresponding decreases in stream-water SO42- concentrations have been observed in unglaciated watersheds. We calculated SO42- mass balances for 27 forested, unglaciated watersheds from Pennsylvania to Georgia, by using total atmospheric deposition (wet plus dry) as input. Many of these watersheds still retain SO42-, unlike their counterparts in the northeastern U.S. and southern Canada. Our analysis showed that many of these watersheds should convert from retaining to releasing SO42- over the next two decades. The specific years when the watersheds crossover from retaining to releasing SO42- correspond to a general geographical pattern of later net watershed release from north to south. The single most important variable that explained the crossover year was the runoff ratio, defined as the ratio of annual mean stream discharge to precipitation. Percent clay content and mean soil depth were secondary factors in predicting crossover year. The conversion of watersheds from net SO42- retention to release anticipates more widespread reductions in stream-water SO42- concentrations in this region.

  11. Decreased absorption as a possible cause for the lower bioavailability of a sustained-release propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ogata, H; Warabioka, R; Kashiwada, K; Ohira, M; Someya, K

    1990-03-01

    The influence of sustained absorption on the oral availability of propranolol (P) and the metabolic disposition of P were investigated by obtaining the partial metabolic clearances (CLm) following long-acting P (LA) dosing in comparison with the conventional propranolol tablet (CP). Ten healthy volunteers were given a single oral dose of an LA capsule (60 mg) and CP (20 mg x 3) using a crossover design. Blood and urine samples were collected over 24- and 48-h postdose periods, respectively. Concentrations of P, propranolol glucuronide (PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol (4P), 4-hydroxypropranolol glucuronide (4PG), 4-hydroxypropranolol sulfate (4PS), and naphthoxylactic acid (NLA) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and UV detection. Significant differences were observed between LA and CP in the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUCs) for P, PG, and NLA and in the amounts excreted into urine (Ae) for all measured metabolites (i.e., PG, 4P, 4PG, 4PS, and NLA). The parallel decrease of the AUC for P and the excreted amounts of all measured metabolites following LA dosing resulted in partial metabolic clearances (CLm) and renal clearances (CL) for P and its metabolites that were similar to those observed for CP. Therefore, the hepatic metabolism of P would not be affected by the slower absorption at a single oral dose of 60 mg. These results indicate that the poor absorption of P from the gastrointestinal tract might be one of the factors causing the low bioavailability of P observed after administration of the sustained-release formulation.

  12. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  13. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...... decrease in major congenital malformations was found in the period 1982 to 1986 versus 1977 to 1981 (2.7% vs. 7.4%, p less than 0.05). This decrease was mainly due to a fourfold decline in major congenital malformations in White Classes D and F (p less than 0.01), and consequently a correlation between...... the severity of maternal diabetes and the frequency of congenital malformations was no longer present. In the offspring of a control group of 1715 nondiabetic women, major congenital malformations were found in 1.7% (p greater than 0.05). Seventy-five percent of the diabetic pregnancies were planned...

  14. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Hubbard-Turner, Erik A. Wikstrom, Sophie Guderian, Michael J. Turner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse’s lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011. Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048. The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046 while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028 compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019 and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005. The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately.

  15. Development of the National Transplant Program Has Significantly Decreased but Not Ended Transplant Tourism in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovic, M; Basic Jukic, N; Kastelan, Z; Radunovic, D; Kavaric, P; Brezak, J; Topalovic Grkovic, M; Hudolin, T; Prelevic, V

    2018-06-01

    Organ transplantation has prolonged and improved the lives of many patients around the world. However, a widespread shortage of donors remains the main factor that has led to organ trafficking and transplant tourism. To stop transplant tourism and to provide optimal treatment for its citizens with end-stage renal disease, Montenegro started performing renal transplantations in September 2012. Thirty-five transplantations have been performed since that time, 34 from living donors and only 1 from a deceased donor. This practice has significantly decreased but not ended transplant tourism in Montenegro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  17. Suppressed histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells by ultraviolet B irradiation: decreased diacylglycerol formation as a possible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, K.; Fujii, K.; Tachibana, T.; Toda, K.; Horio, T.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on mast cell functions. Purified mast cells obtained from rat peritoneal cavity were irradiated with UVB and subsequently exposed to a degranulator, compound 48/80, or the calcium ionophore A-23187. The amount of histamine released from mast cells measured by the enzyme isotopic assay was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation (100-400 mJ/cm2). Within this dose range, UVB alone was not cytotoxic to the cells because it did not induce histamine release. The suppression was observed when mast cells were subjected to degranulation without intervals after UVB irradiation, and even after 5 h postirradiation. The wavelength of 300 nm from a monochromatic light source showed the maximum effect. When mast cells prelabeled with [ 3 H]arachidonate were irradiated and challenged by compound 48/80, label accumulation in diacylglycerol produced by the phosphatidylinositol cycle was considerably decreased by UVB irradiation. From these results, we hypothesize that, within an adequate irradiation dose, UVB irradiation suppresses histamine release from mast cells, probably by causing noncytotoxic damage to the membrane phospholipid metabolism, which is tied to the degranulation mechanisms

  18. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  19. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  20. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  1. Adenovirus type 9 enhances differentiation and decreases cytokine release from preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil-Lula, Iwona; Sochocka, Marta; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Szuba, Andrzej; Sawicki, Grzegorz; Woźniak, Mieczysław

    2015-02-01

    The hypothesis was that preadipocytes would have intrinsically elevated propensity to differentiate into mature adipocytes due to AdV9 infection. To test this hypothesis, the metabolic and molecular mechanisms responsible for AdV9-induced adipogenesis were examined. An association between anti-AdV9 antibodies and human obesity was also identified. 3T3L1 cells were used as a surrogate model to analyze the preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. An expression of E4orf1, C/EBP-β, PPAR-γ, GAPDH, aP2, LEP and fatty acid synthase gene, intracellular lipid accumulation and cytokine release were assessed. The presence of anti-AdV antibodies, serum lipids, plasma leptin, and CRP was evaluated in 204 obese and non-obese patients. AdV9-infected cells accumulated more intracellular lipids in comparison to uninfected controls. AdV9 enhanced an expression of C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ leading to an increased differentiation of preadipocytes. Overexpression of aP2 and fatty acid synthase, and decreased expression of leptin confirmed an increased accumulation of intracellular lipids due to AdV infection. Secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 from AdV9-inoculated cells was decreased strongly. About 24.5% of prevalence of anti-AdV9 antibodies was reported in the study group. AdV9-infected subjects presented higher body weights, BMIs, WHR, and central obesity. The presence of anti-AdV9 antibodies was associated with changes in serum lipids level but neither elevated CRP nor decreased leptin levels were related to obesity due to AdV infection. Data obtained from this study provide the evidences that AdV9 is a second adenovirus, which has an influence on differentiation and lipid accumulation of 3T3L1 cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Perioperative use of tamsulosin significantly decreases rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poylin, Vitaliy; Curran, Thomas; Cataldo, Thomas; Nagle, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Urinary retention is a common complication of pelvic surgery, leading to urinary tract infection and prolonged hospital stays. Tamsulosin is an alpha blocker that works by relaxing bladder neck muscles. It is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy and retention. We aim to investigate the potential benefits of preemptive tamsulosin use on rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This is a retrospective review of an institutional colorectal database. All men undergoing pelvic surgery between 2004 and 2013 were included. Patients given 0.4 mg of tamsulosin 3 days prior and after surgery at discretion of surgeon starting in 2007 were compared with patients receiving expectant postoperative management. One hundred eighty-five patients were included in the study (study group: N = 30; control group: N = 155). Study group patients were older (56.8 vs. 50.1 years). Overall urinary retention rate was 22% with significantly lower rates in the study group compared with control (6.7 vs. 25%; p = 0.029). Study group had higher rates of minimally invasive surgery (61 vs. 29.7%); however, this did not impact urinary retention rate (20.6 vs. 22.7% for minimally invasive surgery vs. open surgery; p = 0.85). Independent predictors of urinary retention included lack of preemptive tamsulosin (odds ratio (OR), 7.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-41.7) and cancer location in the distal third of the rectum (OR, 18.8; 95% CI, 2.1-172.8). Preemptive perioperative use of tamsulosin may significantly decrease the incidence of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This may play a role in avoidance of urinary retention, particularly in patients with distal rectal cancer.

  3. Chronic methamphetamine exposure significantly decreases microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven A; Corkill, Beau; Bruster, Matthew C; Roberts, Rick L; Shanks, Ryan A

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis. Increased microglia activity in the striatum confirmed toxic effects of methamphetamine in this brain region using this dosing paradigm. A significant decrease in microglia activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was observed with no effect noted on dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Given the importance of this area in homeostatic and neuroendocrine regulation, the current study highlights the need to more fully understand the systemic effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine use. The novel finding of microglia downregulation after chronic methamphetamine could lead to advances in understanding neuroinflammatory responses towards addiction treatment and protection from psychostimulant-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary investigations of the significance of the ingestion pathway following accidental releases with actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, C.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary accident consequence assessments have been performed with the computer code UFOMOD to study the significance of the ingestion pathway in accidental releases with actinides. The investigation was based on the release category K1 of the 'Risk Oriented Analysis of the SNR 300', in which a higher fraction of actinides is released than in the worst release category for an LWR. The analysis was carried out using the currently implemented food chain transport model WASH-1400/BSU and data from the dynamic model from the MARC methodology. To study the influence of the time of the accident on the food chain-related results, releases in January and July were considered by means of the MARC data. In this report the differences are presented between both food chain transport models for transuranium elements and those which are observed in the potential doses due to ingestion, the areas affected by food-bans and the late health effects when using both models and taking the influence of the season into account. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Fasting Increases Human Skeletal Muscle Net Phenylalanine Release and This Is Associated with Decreased mTOR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Møller, Andreas Buch; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Clasen, Berthil Frederik Forrest; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Aim Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of cell growth. Methods Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days. Results Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ∼50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ∼30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ∼10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation. Conclusions Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth. PMID:25020061

  6. Fasting increases human skeletal muscle net phenylalanine release and this is associated with decreased mTOR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Holm Vendelbo

    Full Text Available Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a key regulator of cell growth.Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days.Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ∼50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ∼30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ∼10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation.Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth.

  7. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  8. Early Decrease in Respiration and Uncoupling Event Independent of Cytochrome c Release in PC12 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghella, Libera; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c is a key molecule in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. It also plays a pivotal role in cell respiration. The switch between these two functions occurs at the moment of its release from mitochondria. This process is therefore extremely relevant for the fate of the cell. Since cytochrome c mediates respiration, we studied the changes in respiratory chain activity during the early stages of apoptosis in order to contribute to unravel the mechanisms of cytochrome c release. We found that, during staurosporine (STS)- induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, respiration is affected before the release of cytochrome c, as shown by a decrease in the endogenous uncoupled respiration and an uncoupling event, both occurring independently of cytochrome c release. The decline in the uncoupled respiration occurs also upon Bcl-2 overexpression (which inhibits cytochrome c release), while the uncoupling event is inhibited by Bcl-2. We also observed that the first stage of nuclear condensation during STS-induced apoptosis does not depend on the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and is a reversibile event. These findings may contribute to understand the mechanisms affecting mitochondria during the early stages of apoptosis and priming them for the release of apoptogenic factors. PMID:22666257

  9. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M.; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D.; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses effects of aerobic exercise training on the release of microparticles from endothelial cells and corroborates these findings using an in vitro experimental exercise stimulant, laminar shear stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis mediates these effects against endothelial cell activation and injury.

  10. The combination of ultrasound with antibiotics released from bone cement decreases the viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria: an in vitro study with clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensing, Geert T; Neut, Daniëlle; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2006-12-01

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are used for the permanent fixation of joint prostheses. Antibiotic-loaded cements significantly decrease the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the viability of bacteria derived from patients with a prosthesis-related infection could be further decreased when antibiotic release from bone cements was combined with application of pulsed ultrasound. Escherichia coli ATCC 10798, Staphylococcus aureus 7323, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS 7368 and CoNS 7391) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5148 were grown planktonically in suspension and as a biofilm on three different bone cements: Palacos R without gentamicin as control, gentamicin-loaded Palacos R-G and gentamicin/clindamycin-loaded Copal. The viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria was measured in the absence and presence of pulsed ultrasound for 40 h. Ultrasound itself did not affect bacterial viability. However, application of pulsed ultrasound in combination with antibiotic release by antibiotic-loaded bone cements yielded a reduction of both planktonic and biofilm bacterial viability compared with antibiotic release without application of ultrasound. This study shows that antibiotic release in combination with ultrasound increases the antimicrobial efficacy further than antibiotic release alone against a variety of clinical isolates. Application of ultrasound in combination with antibiotic release in clinical practice could therefore lead to better prevention or treatment of prosthesis-related infections.

  11. Gemfibrozil Concentrations are Significantly Decreased in the Presence of Lopinavir/ritonavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H.; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of a two-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. Methods: The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a students t test after a single 600 mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before, and after two weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Results: Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well-tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (GMR, 90% CI) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared to baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil AUC0-∞ after lopinavir-ritonavir (range: −6% to −74%). The GMRs for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance (Cl/F) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction. PMID:19648824

  12. Gemfibrozil concentrations are significantly decreased in the presence of lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of a 2-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a Student t test after a single 600-mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before and after 2 weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Fifteen healthy volunteers (eight males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared with baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after lopinavir-ritonavir (range, -6% to -74%). The geometric mean ratios for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance and maximum concentration were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Lopinavir-ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction.

  13. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; pcaffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Osteoblast Differentiation Decreases Hypergravity-Stimulated Release of PGE(sub 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    We determined if progressive differentiation of osteoblasts influences their sensitivity to gravitational loading. Osteoblasts were cultured for 4 days (confluent monolayer), 6 days (prenodules), 9 days (nodules) and 19 days (mineralized nodules), then centrifuged at 10 times gravity (g) or 50-g for 3 hours using the NASA Ames 1-ft. Diameter Centrifuge. Stationary controls were placed in an adjacent incubator. Following centrifugation, conditioned media were collected and analyzed for PGE, by ELISA. Microtubules were fluorescently labeled and analyzed by confocal microscopy to determine microtubule network morphology and height. Centrifugation at 10-g reduced microtubule network height by 15% on d4 and 10% on d6, with variable changes in more mature cultures. No major changes in microtubule morphology were observed. PGE(sub 2) release by d4 cultures increased in a dose-dependent fashion (3-fold at 10-g and 6-fold at 50-g relative to controls). D6 cultures produced a 5-fold increase for both 10-g and 50-g. PGE(sub 2) increased only 1.5-fold by d9, and by d19, PGE(sub 2) was not delectable in either the control or hypergravity-stimulated cells. Thus, as osteoblasts differentiate in culture, responsiveness of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the PGE(sub 2) pathway to hypergravity declines.

  15. Fluoxetine Alleviates Behavioral Depression while Decreasing Acetylcholine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, David T; Rada, Pedro V; Kim, Kay; Kosloff, Rebecca A; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have demonstrated the ability to alleviate behavioral depression in the forced swim test; however, the sites and mechanisms of their actions remain to be further elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that behavioral depression in the swim test is mediated in part by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulating the cholinergic M1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The current study tested whether acute, local, and chronic, subcutaneous fluoxetine treatments increase escape motivation during the swim test while simultaneously lowering extracellular ACh in the NAc shell. Experiment 1: Fluoxetine (1.0 mM) infused unilaterally in the NAc shell for 40 min reduced extracellular ACh while simultaneously increasing swimming time. Experiment 2: Fluoxetine (0.2, 0.5, and 0.75 mM) infused bilaterally in the NAc shell on day 3 dose-dependently decreased immobility and increased the total escape attempts (swimming and climbing) compared with Ringer given on day 2. Experiment 3: Fluoxetine (0.5 mM) infused bilaterally in the NAc for 40 min did not affect activities in an open field. Experiment 4: Chronic systemic fluoxetine treatment decreased immobility scores and increased total escape attempt scores compared with control saline treatment. In all, 14 days after the initial swim test, basal extracellular ACh in the shell was still elevated in the saline-treated group, but not in the fluoxetine-treated group. In summary, these data suggest that one of the potential mechanisms by which fluoxetine alleviates behavioral depression in the forced swim test may be to suppress cholinergic activities in the NAc shell. PMID:21525864

  16. Local application of SCH 39166 reversibly and dose-dependently decreases acetylcholine release in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-11-03

    The effect of local application by reverse dialysis of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist (-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride (SCH 39166) on acetylcholine release was studied in awake, freely moving rats implanted with concentric microdialysis probes in the dorsal striatum. In these experiments, the reversible acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, neostigmine, was added to the perfusion solution at two different concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1 microM. SCH 39166 (1, 5 and 10 microM), in the presence of 0.01 microM neostigmine, reversibly decreased striatal acetylcholine release (1 microM SCH 39166 by 8+/-4%; 5 microM SCH 39166 by 24+/-5%; 10 microM SCH 39166 by 27+/-7%, from basal). Similarly, SCH 39166, applied in the presence of a higher neostigmine concentration (0.1 microM), decreased striatal acetylcholine release by 14+/-4% at 1 microM, by 28+/-8% at 5 microM and by 30+/-5% at 10 microM, in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the existence of a facilitatory tone of dopamine on striatal acetylcholine transmission mediated by dopamine D(1) receptors located on striatal cholinergic interneurons.

  17. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane... insects, the Arundo scale and the Arundo wasp as biological control agents for the non-native and invasive... [[Page 71584

  18. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  19. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  20. Anchoring cationic amphiphiles for nucleotide delivery: significance of DNA release from cationic liposomes for transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Naohide; Minatani, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Yoshifumi; Ohwada, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-06-01

    We have designed and synthesized lithocholic acid-based cationic amphiphile molecules as components of cationic liposomes for gene transfection (lipofection). To study the relationship between the molecular structures of those amphiphilic molecules, particularly the extended hydrophobic appendant (anchor) at the 3-hydroxyl group, and transfection efficiency, we synthesized several lithocholic and isolithocholic acid derivatives, and examined their transfection efficiency. We also compared the physico-chemical properties of cationic liposomes prepared from these derivatives. We found that isolithocholic acid derivatives exhibit higher transfection efficiency than the corresponding lithocholic acid derivatives. This result indicates that the orientation and extension of hydrophobic regions influence the gene transfection process. Isolithocholic acid derivatives showed a high ability to encapsulate DNA in a compact liposome-DNA complex and to protect it from enzymatic degradation. Isolithocholic acid derivatives also facilitated the release of DNA from the liposome-DNA complex, which is a crucial step for DNA entry into the nucleus. Our results show that the transfection efficiency is directly influenced by the ability of the liposome complex to release DNA, rather than by the DNA-encapsulating ability. Molecular modeling revealed that isolithocholic acid derivatives take relatively extended conformations, while the lithocholic acid derivatives take folded structures. Thus, the efficiency of release of DNA from cationic liposomes in the cytoplasm, which contributes to high transfection efficiency, appears to be dependent upon the molecular shape of the cationic amphiphiles.

  1. Release from Xenopus oocyte prophase I meiotic arrest is independent of a decrease in cAMP levels or PKA activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nancy; Courjaret, Raphael; Dib, Maya; Kulkarni, Rashmi P; Machaca, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate oocytes arrest at prophase of meiosis I as a result of high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. In Xenopus, progesterone is believed to release meiotic arrest by inhibiting adenylate cyclase, lowering cAMP levels and repressing PKA. However, the exact timing and extent of the cAMP decrease is unclear, with conflicting reports in the literature. Using various in vivo reporters for cAMP and PKA at the single-cell level in real time, we fail to detect any significant changes in cAMP or PKA in response to progesterone. More interestingly, there was no correlation between the levels of PKA inhibition and the release of meiotic arrest. Furthermore, we devised conditions whereby meiotic arrest could be released in the presence of sustained high levels of cAMP. Consistently, lowering endogenous cAMP levels by >65% for prolonged time periods failed to induce spontaneous maturation. These results argue that the release of oocyte meiotic arrest in Xenopus is independent of a reduction in either cAMP levels or PKA activity, but rather proceeds through a parallel cAMP/PKA-independent pathway. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of the potential for significant ammonia releases from Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.J.; Anderson, C.M.; Chen, G.; Cuta, J.M.; Ferryman, T.A.; Terrones, G.

    1996-07-01

    Ammonia is ubiquitous as a component of the waste stored in the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). Because ammonia is both flammable and toxic, concerns have been raised about the amount of ammonia stored in the tanks and the possible mechanisms by which it could be released from the waste into the head space inside the tanks as well as into the surrounding atmosphere. Ammonia is a safety issue for three reasons. As already mentioned, ammonia is a flammable gas and may contribute to a flammability hazard either directly, if it reaches a high enough concentration in the tank head space, or by contributing to the flammability of other flammable gases such as hydrogen (LANL 1994). Ammonia is also toxic and at relatively low concentrations presents a hazard to human health. The level at which ammonia is considered Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) is 300 ppm (WHC 1993, 1995). Ammonia concentrations at or above this level have been measured inside the head space in a number of SSTs. Finally, unlike hydrogen and nitrous oxide, ammonia is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, and large amounts of ammonia can be stored in the waste as dissolved gas. Because of its high solubility, ammonia behaves in a qualitatively different manner from hydrogen or other insoluble gases. A broader range of scenarios must be considered in modeling ammonia storage and release

  3. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  5. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  6. Decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 in early stage and its clinical significances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Lingyun; Zhao Wei; Zhao Hong; Yu Haiying; Sun Weiwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of CD4 + T Lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 at early stage and figure out its clinical significances on the progress and therapeutic selection of H1N1. Methods: The absolute counts of T lymphocyte subset from the peripheral blood samples of 48 H1N1 patients in first ten days' duration were detected by flow cytometry, and the serial chest CT examinations were performed. Results: In all 48 clinical cases, 28 cases were in normal range of CD4 + lymphocyte absolute count, whose pulmonary lesions were limited and illness condition stayed in the stability, they didn't need steroid. In the other 20 cases with low level of CD4 + , 4 cases' illness presented the progressive development and needed to be treated with steroid and 16 cases with lightly decreased CD4 + level which had a stable condition without treatment with steroid. The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that there were negative correlations between absolute count of CD4 + cells and pulmonary lesions (r=-0.299, P + cell absolute count of H1N1 patients at early stage indicates the worse condition of pulmonary lesions. The patients with remarkable decrease of CD4 + lymphocytes are in need of treatment with steroid. (authors)

  7. Neonatal finasteride administration decreases dopamine release in nucleus accumbens after alcohol and food presentation in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous levels of the neurosteroid (NS) allopregnanolone (AlloP) during neonatal stages are crucial for the correct development of the central nervous system (CNS). In a recent work we reported that the neonatal administration of AlloP or finasteride (Finas), an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase needed for AlloP synthesis, altered the voluntary consumption of ethanol and the ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) levels in adulthood, suggesting that neonatal NS manipulations can increase alcohol abuse vulnerability in adulthood. Moreover, other authors have associated neonatal NS alterations with diverse dopaminergic (DAergic) alterations. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP alter the DAergic response in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during alcohol intake in rats. We administered AlloP or Finas from postnatal day (PND) 5 to PND9. At PND98, we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 12 days. On the last day of consumption, we measured the DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in NAcc in response to ethanol intake. The samples were obtained by means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats, and DA and DOPAC levels were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). The results revealed that neonatal Finas increased ethanol consumption in some days of the consumption phase, and decreased the DA release in the NAcc in response to solutions (ethanol+glucose) and food presentation. Taken together, these results suggest that neonatal NS alterations can affect alcohol rewarding properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts (≥1,600 cm 3 , n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT

  9. The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine increases both catecholamine release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and decreases motivation for reward and "waiting" impulsivity, but increases "stopping" impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, S Mechiel; Prins, Jolanda; Van den Bergh, Filip S; Oosting, Ronald S; Dupree, Rudy; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Westphal, Koen G C; Olivier, Berend; Denys, Damiaan A; Garland, Alexis; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-01-05

    The 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate, however, also increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a significant role in motivation, pleasure, and reward. How eltoprazine affects monoamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the NAc is unknown. It is also unknown whether eltoprazine affects different forms of impulsivity and brain reward mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the effects of eltoprazine in rats in the following sequence: 1) the activity of the monoaminergic systems using in vivo microdialysis, 2) motivation for reward measured using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, and finally, 3) "waiting" impulsivity in the delay-aversion task, and the "stopping" impulsivity in the stop-signal task. The microdialysis studies clearly showed that eltoprazine increased DA and NE release in both the mPFC and OFC, but only increased DA concentration in the NAc. In contrast, eltoprazine decreased 5-HT release in the mPFC and NAc (undetectable in the OFC). Remarkably, eltoprazine decreased impulsive choice, but increased impulsive action. Furthermore, brain stimulation was less rewarding following eltoprazine treatment. These results further support the long-standing hypothesis that "waiting" and "stopping" impulsivity are regulated by distinct neural circuits, because 5-HT 1A/1B -receptor activation decreases impulsive choice, but increases impulsive action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  11. The radiological significance of transuranium radioisotopes released to the environment during operation of the LMFBR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates based on current knowledge and conservative assumptions indicate that release of transuranium elements from the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycle are likely to proaduce population dose commitments small compared to those produced by naturally occurring alpha emitters and globally dispersed transuranium radioisotopes from tests of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Potential health consequences of these releases to current and future generations are estimated to be very small compared to risks associated with the production of energy by fossil fuels. The estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties imposed by lack of knowledge. Some of the uncertainties are not likely to be greatly reduced until LMFBR facilities are designed and operated. Others may be significantly reduced prior to facility design and operation. The paper discusses the sensitivity of the estimates to uncertainties and approches to reducing those uncertainties that strongly influence the estimates. (author)

  12. Low dietary protein is associated with an increase in food intake and a decrease in the in vitro release of radiolabeled glutamate and GABA from the lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B D; Du, F; Higginbotham, D A

    2003-12-01

    Moderately low-protein diets lead to a rapid increase in food intake and body fat. The increase in feeding is associated with a decrease in the concentration of serum urea nitrogen, suggesting that the low-protein-induced increase in food intake may be related to the decreased metabolism of nitrogen from amino acids. We hypothesized that low dietary protein would be associated with a decrease in the synaptic release of two nitrogen-containing neurotransmitters, GABA and glutamate, whose nitrogen can be derived from amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of a low-protein diet (10% casein) in Sprague-Dawley rats on the in vitro release of 3H-GABA and 14C-glutamate from the lateral and medial hypothalamus. The low-protein diet increased food intake by about 25% after one day. After four days, the in vitro release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate was assessed. The calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate from the lateral hypothalamus was decreased in rats fed the low-protein diet. The magnitude of neurotransmitter release from the lateral hypothalamus inversely correlated with food intake. No dietary differences in the release of neurotransmitters from the medial hypothalamus were observed. These results support the contention that alterations in nitrogen metabolism are associated with low-protein-induced feeding.

  13. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  14. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  15. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L.; Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  16. Type 2 diabetes risk allele near CENTD2 is associated with decreased glucose-stimulated insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine; Sparsø, T; Grarup, N

    2011-01-01

    By combining multiple genome-wide association (GWA) studies and comprehensive replication efforts, 12 novel type 2 diabetes associated loci have recently been discovered. Here we evaluate the effect of lead variants of these loci on estimates of insulin release and insulin resistance derived from...

  17. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  18. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    with the glucolipid mixture increased the sialic acid content of the cells, and this increase was attributed to an insertion of gangliosides into the cell membrane. The inhibition of histamine release was abolished by increasing the calcium concentration, which substantiates our previous findings that cell membrane......Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S....... aureus Wood 46 was not affected. It was demonstrated that the inhibitory capacity of the glucolipid mixture could be attributed to the content of gangliosides, since no inhibition was obtained with cerebrosides or with gangliosides from which sialic acid was removed. Preincubation of the cells...

  19. Iontophoresis on minoxidil sulphate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles accelerates drug release, decreasing their targeting effect to hair follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno N. Matos

    Full Text Available The experiments described in this paper tested the hypothesis whether iontophoresis applied on a chitosan nanoparticle formulation could combine the enhanced drug accumulation into the follicular casts obtained using iontophoresis and the sustained drug release, reducing dermal exposure, provided by nanoparticles. Results showed that even though iontophoresis presented comparable minoxidil targeting potential to hair follicles than passive delivery of chitosan-nanoparticles (4.1 ± 0.9 and 5.3 ± 1.0 µg cm-2, respectively, it was less effective on preventing dermal exposure, since chitosan-nanoparticles presented a drug permeation in the receptor solution of 15.3 ± 4.3 µg cm-2 after 6 h of iontophoresis, while drug amounts from passive nanoparticle delivery were not detected. Drug release experiments showed particles were not able to sustain the drug release under the influence of a potential gradient. In conclusion, the application of MXS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles remains the best way to target MXS to the hair follicles while preventing dermal exposure.

  20. Extremely decreased release of prostaglandin E-like activity from chopped lung of ethyl linolenate-supplemented rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Fjalland, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were reared on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). The chop......). The chopped lung preparation was used to illustrate an in vitro prostaglandin formation. PGE-like activity was quantified on rat stomach strip. The release of PGE-like activity expressed as ng PGE-equivalent per g lung tissue (mean±SD) was 23±7,...

  1. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. mTOR inhibition in macrophages of asymptomatic HIV+ persons reverses the decrease in TLR4-mediated TNFα release through prolongation of MAPK pathway activation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Xinbing; Llano, Juliana; Bole, Medhavi; Zhou, Xiuqin; Swan, Katharine; Anandaiah, Asha; Nelson, Benjamin; Patel, Naimish R.; Reinach, Peter S.; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated signaling is significantly impaired in macrophages from HIV+ persons predominantly due to altered MyD88-dependent pathway signaling caused in part by constitutive activation of PI3K. Here we assessed in these macrophages if the blunted increase in TLR4-mediated TNFα release induced by lipid A are associated with PI3K-induced upregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. mTOR inhibition with rapamycin enhanced TLR4-mediated TNFα release, but instead suppressed anti-inflammatory IL-10 release. Targeted gene silencing of mTOR in macrophages resulted in lipid A-induced TNFα and IL-10 release patterns similar to those induced by rapamycin. Rapamycin restored MyD88-IRAK interaction in a dose-dependent manner. Targeted gene silencing of MyD88 (shRNA) and mTOR (RNAi) inhibition resulted in TLR4-mediated p70s6K activation and enhanced TNFα release, whereas IL-10 release was inhibited in both silenced and non-silenced HIV+ macrophages. Furthermore, mTOR inhibition augmented lipid A-induced TNFα release through enhanced and prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 MAP kinases, which was associated with time-dependent MKP-1 destabilization. Taken together, impaired TLR4-mediated TNFα release in HIV+ macrophages is attributable in part to mTOR activation by constitutive PI3K expression in a MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. These changes result in MKP-1 stabilization, which shortens and blunts MAP kinase activation. mTOR inhibition may serve as a potential therapeutic target to upregulate macrophage innate immune host defense responsiveness in HIV+ persons. PMID:22025552

  3. Delayed release formulation of the somatostatin analog RC-160 inhibits the growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing factor-(1-29)NH2 and decreases elevated prolactin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Schally, A V

    1988-10-01

    Recently, we have developed a long-acting delivery system for our somatostatin (SS) analog RC-160 based on injectable microcapsules in poly-(D,L-lactide-coglycolide). We studied the capacity of this formulation to repeatedly block the GH secretion induced by administration of GRF-(1-29)NH2 (GRF) on different days. Male rats anesthetized with pentobarbital were injected iv with 2.5 micrograms/kg BW GRF-(1-29)NH2 or saline. Five minutes later, blood samples were taken for GH measurement, and the animals were injected im with RC-160 microcapsules at a dose calculated to release 25 micrograms/day of the analog for 7 days or with the vehicle. The GRF stimuli were repeated 48 h, 96 h, and 8 days after administration of SS analog in microcapsules. GRF administration increased GH levels at the four times tested (P less than 0.01) in the control group injected with vehicle, while RC-160 microcapsules inhibited the GH response for more than 96 h (P less than 0.01). The GH levels augmented by pentobarbital were also decreased by the RC-160 microcapsules (P less than 0.01). Animals treated with microcapsules showed smaller increases in their body weight than untreated rats (P less than 0.05). We also investigated the effect of RC-160 microcapsules on hyperprolactinemic female rats implanted with pituitary glands under the kidney capsules. High PRL levels in rats bearing pituitary grafts showed a significant decrease when measured 4 days after the administration of RC-160 microcapsules. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the long-acting delivery system of the SS analog RC-160 and suggest the possible clinical usefulness of this formulation for lowering GH and PRL levels.

  4. Neurochemical evidence that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) 55-102 peptide modulates the dopaminergic reward system by decreasing the dopamine release in the mouse nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovska, Angelina; Baranyi, Maria; Windisch, Katalin; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Gagov, Hristo; Kalfin, Reni

    2017-09-01

    CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system. Thus in the present study, we examined the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on the basal, electrical field stimulation-evoked (EFS-evoked) (30V, 2Hz, 120 shocks) and returning basal dopamine (DA) release and on the release of the DA metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetaldehyde (DOPAL), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) as well as on norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine-o-quinone (Daq) in isolated mouse nucleus accumbens, in a preparation, in which any CART peptide effects on the dendrites or soma of ventral tegmental projection neurons have been excluded. We further extended our study to assess the effect of CART (55-102) peptide on basal cocaine-induced release of dopamine and its metabolites DOPAL, DOPAC, HVA, DOPET and 3-MT as well as on NE and Daq. To analyze the amount of [ 3 H]dopamine, dopamine metabolites, Daq and NE in the nucleus accumbens superfusate, a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with electrochemical, UV and radiochemical detections was used. CART (55-102) peptide, 0.1μM, added alone, exerted: (i) a significant decrease in the basal and EFS-evoked levels of extracellular dopamine (ii) a significant increase in the EFS-evoked and returning basal levels of the dopamine metabolites DOPAC and HVA, major products of dopamine degradation and (iii) a significant decrease in the returning basal

  5. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds: relationship to release and degradation in subjects with normal and decreased kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schwartz, T W; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    a significantly higher level of circulating PP than controls (n = 10): median PP = 52 (range 21 to 352) v 20 (6 to 143) pmol/L, respectively (P less than 0.02). Circulating PP was inversely correlated to 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance (r = -0.57, P less than 0.02, n = 14) and directly correlated to serum creatinine...... a progressively increasing rate of PP secretion in subjects with raised circulating PP. No statistically significant difference could be detected between systemic and renal venous PP or across the lung, left adrenal gland, or lower limb. Assuming steady state between secretion and biodegradation, the metabolic...

  8. Fukushima- the aftermath. The japanese power consumption has significantly decreased to adapt to a fading nuclear activity. Enerdata- Energy Efficiency and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the power supply evolution in Japan since Fukushima, which has decreased by 11% of reactors in operation since December 2011. Measures implemented in summer 2011 to adapt demand to a lower supply and their significant impact on the power consumption are also analyzed. (authors)

  9. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  10. Gadolinium released by the linear gadolinium-based contrast-agent Gd-DTPA decreases the activity of human epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepp, Fenja; Bettmer, Joerg; Fronius, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Gadolinium-based-contrast-agents (GBCAs) are used for magnetic-resonance-imaging and associated with renal and cardiovascular adverse reactions caused by released Gd 3+ ions. Gd 3+ is also a modulator of mechano-gated ion channels, including the epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) that is expressed in kidney epithelium and the vasculature. ENaC is important for salt-/water homeostasis and blood pressure regulation and a likely target of released Gd 3+ from GBCAs causing the above-mentioned adverse reactions. Therefore this study examined the effect of Gd 3+ and GBCAs on ENaC's activity. Human αβγENaC was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and exposed to Gd 3+ , linear (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist) or cyclic (Dotarem) GBCAs. Transmembrane ion-currents (I M ) were recorded by the two-electrode-voltage-clamp technique and Gd 3+ -release by Gd-DTPA was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Gd 3+ exerts biphasic effects on ENaC's activity: ≤0.3mmol/l decreased I M which was preventable by DEPC (modifies histidines). Strikingly Gd 3+ ≥0.4mmol/l increased I M and this effect was prevented by cysteine-modifying MTSEA. Linear Gd-DTPA and Magnevist mimicked the effect of ≤0.3mmol/l Gd 3+ , whereas the chelator DTPA showed no effect. Gd 3+ and Gd-DTPA increased the IC 50 for amiloride, but did not affect ENaC's self-inhibition. Interestingly, cyclic Gd-DOTA (Dotarem) increased I M to a similar extent as its chelator DOTA, suggesting that the chelator rather than released Gd 3+ is responsible for this effect. These results confirm Gd 3+ -release from linear Gd-DTPA and indicate that the released Gd 3+ amount is sufficient to interfere with ENaC's activity to provide putative explanations for GBCA-related adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  12. The combination of ultrasound with antibiotics released from bone cement decreases the viability of planktonic and biofilm bacteria : an in vitro study with clinical strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Geert T.; Neut, Danielle; Horn, Jim R. van; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are used for the permanent fixation of joint prostheses. Antibiotic-loaded cements significantly decrease the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the viability of bacteria derived from patients with a

  13. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Early HIV Diagnosis Leads to Significantly Decreased Costs in the First 2 Years of HIV Care in an Urban Charity Hospital in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jason; Katz, Morgan; Pathmanathan, Ishani; Myers, Leann; Van Sickels, Nicholas; Seal, Paula Sereebutra; Richey, Lauren E

    We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with a positive HIV test in the emergency department who were then linked to care. Inpatient, outpatient, and emergency costs were collected for the first 2 years after HIV diagnosis. Fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria; they were predominantly uninsured (73%) and African American (89%). The median total cost for a newly diagnosed patient over the first 2 years was US$36 808, driven predominantly by outpatient costs of US$17 512. Median inpatient and total costs were significantly different between the lowest (499 cells/mm 3 ) CD4 count categories (US$21 878 vs US$6607, P <.05; US$61 378 vs US$18 837, P <.05, respectively). Total costs were significantly different between viral load categories <100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL and ≥100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (US$28 219 vs US$49 482, P <.05). Costs were significantly lower among patients diagnosed earlier in their disease. Decreased cost is another factor supporting early diagnosis and linkage to care for patients with HIV.

  15. Phosphocreatine recovery overshoot after high intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle is associated with extensive muscle acidification and a significant decrease in phosphorylation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Korzeniewski, Bernard; Kulinowski, Piotr; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Jasiński, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot in skeletal muscle is a transient increase of PCr concentration above the resting level after termination of exercise. In the present study [PCr], [ATP], [P(i)] and pH were measured in calf muscle during rest, during plantar flexion exercise until exhaustion and recovery, using the (31)P NMR spectroscopy. A significantly greater acidification of muscle cells and significantly lower phosphorylation potential (DeltaG (ATP)) at the end of exercise was encountered in the group of subjects that evidenced the [PCr] overshoot as well as [ADP] and [P(i)] undershoots than in the group that did not. We postulate that the role of the PCr overshoot-related transiently elevated [ATP]/[ADP(free)] ratio is to activate different processes (including protein synthesis) that participate in repairing numerous damages of the muscle cells caused by intensive exercise-induced stressing factors, such as extensive muscle acidification, a significant decrease in DeltaG (ATP), an elevated level of reactive oxygen species or mechanical disturbances.

  16. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  17. Fatty acid oxidation products ('green odour') released from perennial ryegrass following biotic and abiotic stress, potentially have antimicrobial properties against the rumen microbiota resulting in decreased biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, S A; Scott, M B; Tweed, J K S; Lee, M R F

    2013-11-01

    In this experiment, we investigated the effect of 'green odour' products typical of those released from fresh forage postabiotic and biotic stresses on the rumen microbiota and lipid metabolism. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid (HP), a combination of salicylic and jasmonic acid (T), and a combination of both (HPT) were incubated in vitro in the presence of freeze-dried ground silage and rumen fluid, under rumen-like conditions. 16S rRNA (16S cDNA) HaeIII-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism-based (T-RFLP) dendrograms, canonical analysis of principal coordinates graphs, peak number and Shanon-Weiner diversity indices show that HP, T and HPT likely had antimicrobial effects on the microbiota compared to control incubations. Following 6 h of in vitro incubation, 15.3% of 18:3n-3 and 4.4% of 18:2n-6 was biohydrogenated in control incubations, compared with 1.3, 9.4 and 8.3% of 18:3n-3 for HP, T and HPT treatments, respectively, with negligible 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation seen. T-RFLP peaks lost due to application of HP, T and HPT likely belonged to as yet uncultured bacteria within numerous genera. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid, T and HPT released due to plant stress potentially have an antimicrobial effect on the rumen microbiota, which may explain the decreased biohydrogenation in vitro. These data suggest that these volatile chemicals may be responsible for the higher summer n-3 content of bovine milk. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Genetic myostatin decrease in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy model does not significantly affect the ubiquitin proteasome system despite enhancing the severity of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Steven W; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Wadosky, Kristine M; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that inhibiting the protein myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, may improve outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by enhancing muscle mass. When the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog was bred with whippets having a heterozygous mutation for the myostatin gene, affected GRMD dogs with decreased myostatin (GRippets) demonstrated an accelerated physical decline compared to related affected GRMD dogs with full myostatin. To examine the role of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems in this accelerated decline, we determined the expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, Atrogin-1, RNF25, RNF11, and CHIP: the proteasome subunits PSMA6, PSMB4, and PSME1: and calpain 1/2 by real time PCR in the cranial sartorius and vastus lateralis muscles in control, affected GRMD, and GRippet dogs. While individual affected GRMD and GRippet dogs contributed to an increased variability seen in ubiquitin ligase expression, neither group was significantly different from the control group. The affected GRMD dogs demonstrated significant increases in caspase-like and trypsin-like activity in the cranial sartorius; however, all three proteasome activities in the GRippet muscles did not differ from controls. Increased variability in calpain 1 and calpain 2 expression and activity in the affected GRMD and GRippet groups were identified, but no statistical differences from the control group were seen. These studies suggest a role of myostatin in the disease progression of GRMD, which does not significantly involve key components of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems involved in the protein quality control of sarcomere and other structural skeletal muscle proteins.

  19. Site-Specific Fat-1 Knock-In Enables Significant Decrease of n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs Ratio in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjing Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a fatty acid desaturase which was widely studied due to its beneficial function of converting n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFAs to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs. To date, many fat-1 transgenic animals have been generated to study disease pathogenesis or improve meat quality. However, all of them were generated using a random integration method with variable transgene expression levels and the introduction of selectable marker genes often raise biosafety concern. To this end, we aimed to generate marker-free fat-1 transgenic pigs in a site-specific manner. The Rosa26 locus, first found in mouse embryonic stem cells, has become one of the most common sites for inserting transgenes due to its safe and ubiquitous expression. In our study, the fat-1 gene was inserted into porcine Rosa 26 (pRosa26 locus via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9 system. The Southern blot analysis of our knock-in pigs indicated a single copy of the fat-1 gene at the pRosa26 locus. Furthermore, this single-copy fat-1 gene supported satisfactory expression in a variety of tissues in F1 generation pigs. Importantly, the gas chromatography analysis indicated that these fat-1 knock-in pigs exhibited a significant increase in the level of n-3PUFAs, leading to an obvious decrease in the n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs ratio from 9.36 to 2.12 (***P < 0.0001. Altogether, our fat-1 knock-in pigs hold great promise for improving the nutritional value of pork and serving as an animal model to investigate therapeutic effects of n-3PUFAs on various diseases.

  20. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  1. A Case of Acromegaly in which a Pituitary Gland Tumor was Reduced Significantly by Administering Octreotide Long Acting Release (LAR) and Could Be Removed Surgically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Tadashi; Okada, Yosuke; Uemura, Fumi; Nishizawa, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of acromegaly because she noticed bilateral hand and finger swelling at the age of 43 and plantar thickening, facial changes and unclear articulation at the age of 49. She had prominent brow ridges, mandibular protrusion, and enlargement of the hands, feet, nasal wings, lips and tongue. Her growth hormone (GH) level was 39.8 ng/ml, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was 717 ng/ml, GH level was not suppressed (22.9 ng/ml) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Radiography showed cauliflower-like enlargement of the distal phalanx of the fingers, thickening/enlargement of the plantar soft tissues, and increased antero-posterior diameter of the sella turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass (21×17 mm) growing towards the right suprasellar region and invading the cavernous sinus. She was diagnosed with acromegaly based on the characteristic physical findings, GH excess, high IGF-1, lack of GH suppression during the 75-g OGTT, and the presence of a pituitary tumor. She was started on octreotide long acting release (Oct-LAR) 20 mg/4w for tumor shrinkage. After three doses, her GH and IGF-1 levels decreased to 2.19 ng/ml (1.69 during the 75-g OGTT) and 205 ng/ml, respectively, meeting cure criteria for acromegaly. In this case, a decrease in GH and IGF-1 levels, tumor shrinkage, and resolution of cavernous sinus invasion allowed the patient to undergo surgery with curative intent (the first-line treatment for acromegaly) without postoperative complications. Thus, preoperative Oct-LAR administration has the potential to improve treatment outcomes of acromegaly.

  2. Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizeba, Yustina A; Mirambo, Mariam M; Kayange, Neema; Mhada, Tumaini; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Smart, Luke R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-12-13

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  4. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  5. Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Woo Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeLong-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects.MethodsThis retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate.ResultsSix serious side effects (0.9% were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621. Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy.ConclusionSterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

  6. [The changes of ghrelin, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone and their clinical significances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-song; Bao, Zi-yu; Wang, Zhi-ying; Yang, Guo-jun; Zhu, Dong-fang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Rong-mei

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the changes of plasma ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and gastric ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore their clinical significances. Plasma ghrelin, GH, GHRH, TNFα, IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 40 COPD patients and 20 controls with chronic bronchitis. Correlated factors of plasma ghrelin, TNFα, IL-6, CRP were analyzed. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. The expression of gastric ghrelin in patients with COPD was detected. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(1.78 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.39 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.36 ± 0.39) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma GH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(4.12 ± 0.83) µg/L, (5.17 ± 0.72)µg/L, (6.49 ± 1.13) µg/L, respectively]. Plasma GHRH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(20.43 ± 4.41) ng/L, (23.47 ± 3.97) ng/L, (27.48 ± 10.06) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the controls (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin was positively correlated with TNFα and IL-6 in the underweight patients. The gastric expression of ghrelin showed no evident difference between the patients with COPD and the controls. The plasma GH in COPD patients may not be correlated with ghrelin. The plasma ghrelin level may be a useful indicator for malnutrition in COPD patients. Plasma ghrelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CODP by affecting the body energy metabolism.

  7. The area postrema (AP) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are important sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) to decrease evoked phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Lynda; McCutcheon, James E; Boyle, Christina N; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lutz, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN. To determine whether and how peripheral amylin or sCT affect mesolimbic reward circuitry we utilized fast scan cyclic voltammetry under anesthesia to measure phasic DA release in the NAc evoked by electrical stimulation of the VTA in intact, AP lesioned and bilaterally PBN lesioned rats. Amylin (50μg/kg i.p.) did not change phasic DA responses compared to saline control rats. However, sCT (50μg/kg i.p.) decreased evoked DA release to VTA-stimulation over 1h compared to saline treated control rats. Further investigations determined that AP and bilateral PBN lesions abolished the ability of sCT to suppress evoked phasic DA responses to VTA-stimulation. These findings implicate the AP and the PBN as important sites for peripheral sCT to decrease evoked DA release in the NAc and suggest that these nuclei may influence hedonic and motivational processes to modulate food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ghrelin decreases firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in an estrous cycle and endocannabinoid signaling dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Farkas

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide, ghrelin is known to influence function of GnRH neurons, however, the direct effects of the hormone upon these neurons have not been explored, yet. The present study was undertaken to reveal expression of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R in GnRH neurons and elucidate the mechanisms of ghrelin actions upon them. Ca(2+-imaging revealed a ghrelin-triggered increase of the Ca(2+-content in GT1-7 neurons kept in a steroid-free medium, which was abolished by GHS-R-antagonist JMV2959 (10 µM suggesting direct action of ghrelin. Estradiol (1nM eliminated the ghrelin-evoked rise of Ca(2+-content, indicating the estradiol dependency of the process. Expression of GHS-R mRNA was then confirmed in GnRH-GFP neurons of transgenic mice by single cell RT-PCR. Firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH-GFP neurons were lower in metestrous than proestrous mice. Ghrelin (40 nM-4 μM administration resulted in a decreased firing rate and burst frequency of GnRH neurons in metestrous, but not in proestrous mice. Ghrelin also decreased the firing rate of GnRH neurons in males. The ghrelin-evoked alterations of the firing parameters were prevented by JMV2959, supporting the receptor-specific actions of ghrelin on GnRH neurons. In metestrous mice, ghrelin decreased the frequency of GABAergic mPSCs in GnRH neurons. Effects of ghrelin were abolished by the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1 antagonist AM251 (1µM and the intracellularly applied DAG-lipase inhibitor THL (10 µM, indicating the involvement of retrograde endocannabinoid signaling. These findings demonstrate that ghrelin exerts direct regulatory effects on GnRH neurons via GHS-R, and modulates the firing of GnRH neurons in an ovarian-cycle and endocannabinoid dependent manner.

  9. Decreased release of histamine and sulfidoleukotrienes by human peripheral blood leukocytes after wasp venom immunotherapy is partially due to induction of IL-10 and IFN-gamma production of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierkes, M; Bellinghausen, I; Hultsch, T; Metz, G; Knop, J; Saloga, J

    1999-02-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that venom immunotherapy (VIT) alters the pattern of cytokine production by inducing an allergen-specific T-cell shift in cytokine expression from TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) to TH1 (IFN-gamma) cytokines and also inducing the production of IL-10. This study was carried out to analyze whether these changes in cytokine production of T cells already observed 1 week after the initiation of VIT in subjects with wasp venom allergy also influence the reactivity of effector cells, such as mast cells and basophils. All subjects included in this study had a history of severe systemic allergic reactions to wasp stings and positive skin test responses with venom and venom-specific IgE in the sera. Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated before and after the initiation of VIT (rush therapy reaching a maintenance dose of 100 microg venom injected subcutaneously within 1 week) and preincubated with or without addition of IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-10 + IFN-gamma, anti-IL-10, or anti-IFN-gamma. After stimulation with wasp venom, histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release were assessed by ELISA and compared with spontaneous release and total histamine content. After the induction of VIT, venom-induced absolute and relative histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release were reduced. This was at least partially due to the induction of IFN-gamma and IL-10 production, because (1) neutralization of IL-10 and IFN-gamma by mAbs partially restored the release after the initiation of VIT and (2) the addition of exogenous IFN-gamma and IL-10 caused a statistically significant diminution of the venom-induced histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release before VIT. Depletion of CD2(+) T cells also restored the releasability after VIT. These data indicate that T cells (producing IL-10 and IFN-gamma after VIT) play a key role for the inhibition of histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release of effector cells.

  10. Environmental significance of copper, lead, manganese, uranium and zinc speciation in the event of contaminated waters release from the Ranger Uranium Mining Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, B.N.; Currey, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The likely impact of the accidental release of tailings dam water during the dry season at the Ranger Uranium Mining Complex was examined. A speciation scheme utilising sizing by filtration and ion-exchange with Chelex 100 has given an insight into the likely partitioning of zinc, copper, lead, manganese and uranium following the addition of tailings dam water to samples from waterbodies in the vicinity of the uranium mining/milling complex. The speciation findings are discussed in terms of likely toxic effects on fish

  11. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  12. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and its bioactive component penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose decreased production of reactive oxygen species and inhibited release of leukotriene B4, interleukin-8, elastase, and myeloperoxidase in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Czerwińska, Monika; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2010-09-22

    In this study, we analyzed ex vivo the effect of an aqueous extract of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds on the formation of neutrophil-derived oxidants. For defining active compounds, we also tested lypophilic extract constituents such as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ellagic acid, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and a hydrophilic fraction containing polymeric procyanidins. The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract and compounds was tested by determining the release from activated neutrophils of elastase, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which are considered relevant for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The extract of O. paradoxa defatted seeds displays potent antioxidant effects against both 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-α13-acetate- and formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils with IC50 values around 0.2 μg/mL. All types of polyphenolics present in the extract contributed to the extract antioxidant activity. According to their IC50 values, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose was the more potent constituent of the extract. In cell-free assays, we demonstrated that this effect is partially due to the scavenging of O2- and H2O2 oxygen species. The extract and especially penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose significantly inhibit elastase, myeloperoxidase IL-8, and LTB4 release with an IC50 for penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose of 17±1, 15±1, 6.5±2.5, and around 20 μM, respectively. The inhibition of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose on reactive oxygen species and especially on O2- production, myeloperoxidase, and chemoattractant release may reduce the interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte with the vascular endothelium and by that potentially diminish the risk of progression of atherosclerosis development.

  13. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  14. Clinical benefits of aspirin desensitization in patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease are not related to urinary eicosanoid release and are accompanied with decreased urine creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna S; Olszewska-Ziąber, Agnieszka; Bieńkiewicz, Barbara; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Kurowski, Marcin; Woźniakowski, Bartłomiej; Rotkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Kowalski, Marek L

    2016-05-01

    Treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) after desensitization may be a therapeutic option in patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD). The mechanisms that lead to improvement in rhinosinusitis and asthma symptoms remain unknown. To attribute the documented clinical effects of ASA treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and/or asthma to the release of eicosanoid metabolites in urine. Fourteen patients with NERD were successfully desensitized, and, eventually, eight patients were treated with 650 mg of ASA daily for 3 months. In addition to clinical assessments, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and smell test were performed before and after treatment with ASA. Venous blood and urine were collected before desensitization and after 1 and 3 months of treatment. The levels of urinary leukotrienes (LT) (cysteinyl LT and LTE4) and tetranor PGDM (metabolite of prostaglandin D2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with ASA after desensitization alleviated symptoms of rhinosinusitis, improved nasal patency (mean, 50% decrease in peak nasal inspiratory flow) and sense of smell (fourfold increase in smell test score) in as early as 4 weeks. Clinical improvements were not accompanied by any change in sinonasal mucosa thickness as assessed with nuclear magnetic resonance. Urinary cysteinyl LTs, LTE4, and prostaglandin D2 metabolite remained relatively stable during ASA treatment and did not correlate with clinical improvements. Desensitization was associated with a progressive decrease of urinary creatinine. Clinical improvement in rhinosinusitis and/or asthma after ASA desensitization was not related to concentrations of urinary eicosanoid metabolites. A decrease of urinary creatinine requires further study to determine the renal safety of long-term treatment with ASA after desensitization.

  15. What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Patrícia; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Frigo, Lucio; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Santos, Larissa Aline; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; De Marchi, Thiago; Tairova, Olga; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2014-03-01

    Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm(2); 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-1β and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF DRUG RELEASE FROM BIODEGRADABLE PLG MICROSPHERES: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS, MALCOLM J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERCHANE, NADER S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; CARSON, KENNETH H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RICE-FICHT, ALLISON C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    Piroxicam containing PLG microspheres having different size distributions were fabricated, and in vitro release kinetics were determined for each preparation. Based on the experimental results, a suitable mathematical theory has been developed that incorporates the effect of microsphere size distribution and polymer degradation on drug release. We show from in vitro release experiments that microsphere size has a significant effect on drug release rate. The initial release rate decreased with an increase in microsphere size. In addition, the release profile changed from first order to concave-upward (sigmoidal) as the system size was increased. The mathematical model gave a good fit to the experimental release data.

  17. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  19. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  20. The influence of source term release parameters on health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the influence of source term release parameters on the health effects was examined. This is very useful in identifying the relative importance of release parameters and can be an important factor in developing a strategy for reducing offsite risks. The release parameters investigated in this study are release height, heat content, fuel burnup, release time, release duration, and warning time. The health effects affected by the change of release parameters are early fatalities, cancer fatalities, early injuries, cancer injuries, early fatality risk, population weighted early fatality risk, population weighted cancer fatality risk, effective whole body population dose, population exceeding an early acute red bone marrow dose of 1.5 Sv, and distance at which early fatalities are expected to occur. As release height increases, the values of early health effects such as early fatalities and injuries decrease. However, the release height dose not have significant influences on late health effects. The values of both early and late health effects decrease as heat content increases. The increase fuel burnup, i.e., the increase of core inventories increases the late health effects, however, has small influence on the early health effects. But, the number of early injuries increases as the fuel burnup increases. The effects of release time increase shows very similar influence on both the early and late health effects. As the release time increases to 2 hours, the values of health effects increase and then decrease rapidly. As release duration increases, the values of late health effects increase slightly, however, the values of early health effects decrease. As warning time increases to 2 hours, the values of late health effects decrease and then shows no variation. The number of early injuries decreases rapidly as the warning time increases to 2 hours. However, the number of early fatalities and the early fatality risk increase as the warning time increases

  1. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Policaptil Gel Retard significantly reduces body mass index and hyperinsulinism and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Seminara, Salvatore; Pelosi, Paola; Del Greco, Paolo; Capirchio, Laura; Strano, Massimo; Giglio, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-02-15

    Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p 1) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p 13.2% to 5.6%; p 1) and B (p 1) and B (p obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

  3. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  4. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  5. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  6. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro (Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan))

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  7. Release of Hormones from Conjugates: Chloroplast Expression of β-Glucosidase Results in Elevated Phytohormone Levels Associated with Significant Increase in Biomass and Protection from Aphids or Whiteflies Conferred by Sucrose Esters1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA1 and GA4 levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts. PMID:21068365

  8. Release of hormones from conjugates: chloroplast expression of β-glucosidase results in elevated phytohormone levels associated with significant increase in biomass and protection from aphids or whiteflies conferred by sucrose esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangxia; Kanagaraj, Anderson; Verma, Dheeraj; Lange, Theo; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Transplastomic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants expressing β-glucosidase (Bgl-1) show modified development. They flower 1 month earlier with an increase in biomass (1.9-fold), height (1.5-fold), and leaf area (1.6-fold) than untransformed plants. Trichome density on the upper and lower leaf surfaces of BGL-1 plants increase by 10- and 7-fold, respectively, harboring 5-fold more glandular trichomes (as determined by rhodamine B staining), suggesting that BGL-1 lines produce more sugar esters than control plants. Gibberellin (GA) levels were investigated because it is a known regulator of flowering time, plant height, and trichome development. Both GA(1) and GA(4) levels are 2-fold higher in BGL-1 leaves than in untransformed plants but do not increase in other organs. In addition, elevated levels of other plant hormones, including zeatin and indole-3-acetic acid, are observed in BGL-1 lines. Protoplasts from BGL-1 lines divide and form calli without exogenous hormones. Cell division in protoplasts is enhanced 7-fold in the presence of exogenously applied zeatin-O-glucoside conjugate, indicating the release of active hormones from their conjugates. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and aphid (Myzus persicae) populations in control plants are 18 and 15 times higher than in transplastomic lines, respectively. Lethal dose to kill 50% of the test population values of 26.3 and 39.2 μg per whitefly and 23.1 and 35.2 μg per aphid for BGL-1 and untransformed control exudates, respectively, confirm the enhanced toxicity of transplastomic exudates. These data indicate that increase in sugar ester levels in BGL-1 lines might function as an effective biopesticide. This study provides a novel strategy for designing plants for enhanced biomass production and insect control by releasing plant hormones or sugar esters from their conjugates stored within their chloroplasts.

  9. Blood banking-induced alteration of red blood cell oxygen release ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaojin; Xiong, Yanlian; Wang, Ruofeng; Tang, Fuzhou; Wang, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Current blood banking procedures may not fully preserve red blood cell (RBC) function during storage, contributing to the decrease of RBC oxygen release ability. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of routine cold storage on RBC oxygen release ability. RBC units were collected from healthy donors and each unit was split into two parts (whole blood and suspended RBC) to exclude possible donor variability. Oxygen dissociation measurements were performed on blood units stored at 4 °C during a 5-week period. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fluorescent micrographs of erythrocyte band 3 were also analysed. P50 and oxygen release capacity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks, and then did not change significantly. In contrast, the kinetic properties (PO2-t curve and T*50) of oxygen release changed slowly during the first 3 weeks of storage, but then decreased significantly in the last 2 weeks. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreased quickly during the first 3 weeks of storage to almost undetectable levels. Band 3 aggregated significantly during the last 2 weeks of storage. RBC oxygen release ability appears to be sensitive to routine cold storage. The thermodynamic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability changed mainly in the first 3 weeks of storage, due to the decrease of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, whereas the kinetic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability decreased significantly at the end of storage, probably affected by alterations of band 3.

  10. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-01-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site''s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980''s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility

  11. Significant event of patient radiation protection in radiotherapy (criterion 2.1): declaration and rating on the ASN-SFRO scale - ASN guide nr 16 - Release of the 01/01/2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together all the tools for the management of a significant event in radiation protection concerning a patient in radiotherapy. It contains the declaration form, a model for the reporting of significant events, and the ASN-SFRO scale which allows the event to be rated. After a presentation of the regulatory context and references, of the scope of application, this guide addresses the declaration of a significant event: general principles, definition of the 2.1 criterion, examples, delays and modalities of declaration, addressees of a declaration. It addresses the reporting of a significant event: general principles, sending delays and modalities. It addresses the rating on the ASN-SFRO scale: general principles, scale, and rating process. The last part deals with public information

  12. Significant event of patient radiation protection in radiotherapy (criterion 2.1): declaration and rating on the ASN-SFRO scale - ASN guide no. 16 - Release of 17/07/2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document is an update of the previous version from October 2010. It brings together all the tools for the management of a significant event in radiation protection concerning a patient in radiotherapy. It contains the declaration form, a model for the reporting of significant events, and the ASN-SFRO scale which allows the event to be rated. After a presentation of the regulatory context and references, of the scope of application, this guide addresses the declaration of a significant event: general principles, definition of the 2.1 criterion, examples, delays and modalities of declaration, addressees of a declaration. It addresses the reporting of a significant event: general principles, sending delays and modalities. It addresses the rating on the ASN-SFRO scale: general principles, scale, and rating process. The last part deals with public information

  13. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  14. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  15. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  16. Role of hemolysis in potassium release by iodinated contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.; Nakamura, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that an iodinated contrast medium (CM) causes release of potassium into blood vessel lumina, resulting in an increase in serum potassium. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether this potassium release is due to hemolysis. Fresh human blood was mixed in vitro with CM at a ratio of 10:2. Potassium release rates were determined, and serum haptoglobin and free hemoglobin were measured after 30 min of exposure to CM. To compare the potassium release curve between CM exposure and true hemolysis induced by distilled water, fresh human blood was also mixed with distilled water. The level of serum haptoglobin decreased due to hemodilution. Changes in haptoglobin were not correlated with potassium release rates. The serum free hemoglobin level did not increase significantly, and there was no correlation between changes in the free hemoglobin level and the rate of potassium release. Hemolysis caused by water occurred instantaneously, whereas potassium release caused by CM was a slow response, which was linearly correlated with exposure time. Potassium release from blood cannot be explained by hemolysis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  17. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  18. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  19. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  20. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  1. Photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cuiping; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Cecheng; Lin, Xinyi; Wei, Zuwu; Zheng, Youshi; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle’s stability under light irradiation. In vitro results revealed that this core-shell nanoparticle had excellent light-controlled drug release behavior (76% release with light irradiation versus 10% release without light irradiation). The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results also further demonstrated the light-controlled drug release behavior inside the cancer cells. Furthermore, a CCK8 assay demonstrated that light irradiation could significantly improve the efficiency of killing cancer cells. Meanwhile, whole-animal fluorescence imaging of a tumor-bearing mouse also confirmed that light irradiation could trigger drug release in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that a hybrid nanoparticle could be a novel light controlled drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  2. Setting accelerated dissolution test for PLGA microspheres containing peptide, investigation of critical parameters affecting drug release rate and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, I; Vidis-Millward, A; Mueller-Zsigmondy, M; Cardot, J-M

    2016-05-30

    The objective of this study was development of accelerated in vitro release method for peptide loaded PLGA microspheres using flow-through apparatus and assessment of the effect of dissolution parameters (pH, temperature, medium composition) on drug release rate and mechanism. Accelerated release conditions were set as pH 2 and 45°C, in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) 0.02M. When the pH was changed from 2 to 4, diffusion controlled phases (burst and lag) were not affected, while release rate during erosion phase decreased two-fold due to slower ester bonds hydrolyses. Decreasing temperature from 45°C to 40°C, release rate showed three-fold deceleration without significant change in release mechanism. Effect of medium composition on drug release was tested in PBS 0.01M (200 mOsm/kg) and PBS 0.01M with glucose (380 mOsm/kg). Buffer concentration significantly affected drug release rate and mechanism due to the change in osmotic pressure, while ionic strength did not have any effect on peptide release. Furthermore, dialysis sac and sample-and-separate techniques were used, in order to evaluate significance of dissolution technique choice on the release process. After fitting obtained data to different mathematical models, flow-through method was confirmed as the most appropriate for accelerated in vitro dissolution testing for a given formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  4. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  5. Metal lost and found: dissipative uses and releases of copper in the United States 1975-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifset, Reid J; Eckelman, Matthew J; Harper, E M; Hausfather, Zeke; Urbina, Gonzalo

    2012-02-15

    Metals are used in a variety of ways, many of which lead to dissipative releases to the environment. Such releases are relevant from both a resource use and an environmental impact perspective. We present a historical analysis of copper dissipative releases in the United States from 1975 to 2000. We situate all dissipative releases in copper's life cycle and introduce a conceptual framework by which copper dissipative releases may be categorized in terms of intentionality of use and release. We interpret our results in the context of larger trends in production and consumption and government policies that have served as drivers of intentional copper releases from the relevant sources. Intentional copper releases are found to be both significant in quantity and highly variable. In 1975, for example, the largest source of intentional releases was from the application of copper-based pesticides, and this decreased more than 50% over the next 25 years; all other sources of intentional releases increased during that period. Overall, intentional copper releases decreased by approximately 15% from 1975 to 2000. Intentional uses that are unintentionally released such as copper from roofing, increased by the same percentage. Trace contaminant sources such as fossil fuel combustion, i.e., sources where both the use and the release are unintended, increased by nearly 50%. Intentional dissipative uses are equivalent to 60% of unintentional copper dissipative releases and more than five times that from trace sources. Dissipative copper releases are revealed to be modest when compared to bulk copper flows in the economy, and we introduce a metric, the dissipation index, which may be considered an economy-wide measure of resource efficiency for a particular substance. We assess the importance of dissipative releases in the calculation of recycling rates, concluding that the inclusion of dissipation in recycling rate calculations has a small, but discernible, influence, and should

  6. Ammonia causes decreased brain monoamines in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Patrick J.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperammonemia, arising from variety of disorders, leads to severe neurological dysfunction. The mechanisms of ammonia toxicity in brain are not completely understood. This study investigated the effects of ammonia on monoaminergic systems in brains of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Fish serve as a good model system to investigate hyperammonemic effects on brain function since no liver manipulations are necessary to increase endogenous ammonia concentrations. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, monoamines and some associated metabolites were measured from whole brain homogenate. Adult males were exposed for 48 h to six different concentrations of ammonia (0.01–2.36 mg/l unionized) which bracketed the 96-h LC50 for this species. Ammonia concentration-dependent decreases were found for the catecholamines (norepinephrine and dopamine) and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT). After an initial increase in the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan it too decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations. There were also significant increases in the 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios, often used as measures of turnover. There were no changes in epinephrine (Epi) or monoamine catabolites (DOPAC, 5-HIAA) at any ammonia concentrations tested. Results suggest that ammonia causes decreased synthesis while also causing increased release and degradation. Increased release may underlie behavioral reactions to ammonia exposure in fish. This study adds weight to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that ammonia leads to dysfunctional monoaminergic systems in brain which may underlie neurological symptoms associated with human disorders such as hepatic encephalopathy.

  7. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  8. Effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on regional cerebral blood flow in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, P S; Friberg, L; Sam, I

    1992-01-01

    emission computerized tomograph and inhalation of 133Xe. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone caused a significant mean increase of 3.7% (range -8.8-22.7) in blood flow in a region consistent with the left thalamus compared to placebo (3.2% decrease). In 25 other regions no significant change was detected...

  9. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  10. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most...... the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P

  11. Problems of cleaning of gas releases from heat generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, V.; Burdejnaya, T.

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of flue gases cleaning in the situation of a significant increasing use of fossil fuels in the Russian energy production. Information is given about the methods used in TPPs in different countries for cleaning of the gases released to the atmosphere from SO 2 and NO x . The main ways for solving the problem of decreasing of air pollution are outlined

  12. Effect of WOW process parameters on morphology and burst release of FITC-dextran loaded PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shirui; Xu, Jing; Cai, Cuifang; Germershaus, Oliver; Schaper, Andreas; Kissel, Thomas

    2007-04-04

    Using fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-dextran 40, FD40) as a hydrophilic model compound, microspheres were prepared by a WOW double emulsion technique. Influence of process parameters on microsphere morphology and burst release of FD40 from PLGA microspheres was studied. Internal morphology of microspheres was investigated by stereological method via cryo-cutting technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Drug distribution in microspheres was observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Polymer nature (RG503 and RG503H) had significant influence on the micro-morphology of microspheres. Increase in continuous water phase volume (W2) led to increased surface porosity but decreased internal porosity. By increasing PVA concentration in the continuous phase from 0.1 to 1%, particle size changed marginally but burst release decreased from 12.2 to 5.9%. Internal porosity of microspheres decreased considerably with increasing polymer concentration. Increase in homogenization speed during the primary emulsion preparation led to decreased internal porosity. Burst release decreased with increasing drug loading but increased with drug molecular weight. Drug distribution in microspheres depended on preparation method. The porosity of microspheres decreased with time in the diffusion stage, but internal morphology had no influence on the release behavior in the bioerosion stage. In summary, surface porosity and internal morphology play a significant role in the release of hydrophilic macromolecules from biodegradable microspheres in the initial release phase characterized by pore diffusion.

  13. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanyika, Harrison, E-mail: hwanyika@gmail.com [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Chemistry (Kenya)

    2013-08-15

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil.

  14. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol–gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil

  15. Rab3A Inhibition of Ca2+ -Dependent Dopamine Release From PC12 Cells Involves Interaction With Synaptotagmin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhipan; Tang, Xia; Chen, Jia; Tang, Xiaochao; Wang, Xianchun

    2017-11-01

    Rab3 and synaptotagmin have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and, however, the molecular mechanism has not been completely clear. Here, we studied the effects of Rab3A and synaptotagmin I (Syt I) on dopamine release using PC12 cells as a model system. Rab3A was demonstrated to have effects on both Ca 2+ -independent and Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine releases from the PC12 cells. Application of Rab3A (up to 2500 nM) gradually decreased the amount of Ca 2+ -dependently released dopamine, indicating that Rab3A is a negative modulator that was further supported by the increase in dopamine release caused by Rab3A knockdown. Syt I knockdown weakened the Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release, suggesting that Syt I plays a positive regulatory role in the cellular process. Treatment of the Syt I-knocked down PC12 cells with Rab3A further decreased Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release and, however, the decrease magnitude was significantly reduced compared with that before Syt I knockdown, thus for the first time demonstrating that the inhibitory effect of Rab3A on Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release involves the interaction with Syt I. This work has shed new light on the molecular mechanism for Rab3 and synaptotamin regulation of neurotransmitter release. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3696-3705, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In-vitro Release Study of Carvedilol Phosphate Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decreased while Starch 1500 and lactose monohydrate increased drug release. Drug release mechanism ... case of antihypertensive agents to maintain constant blood levels ... systems because of their low toxicity, pH- independent swelling ...

  17. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  18. Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Eyup; Zhou, Sitong; DeCourcey, James; Wang, Yixuan; Waugh, Richard E; Wan, Jiandi

    2015-09-22

    Piezo proteins (Piezo1 and Piezo2) are recently identified mechanically activated cation channels in eukaryotic cells and associated with physiological responses to touch, pressure, and stretch. In particular, human RBCs express Piezo1 on their membranes, and mutations of Piezo1 have been linked to hereditary xerocytosis. To date, however, physiological functions of Piezo1 on normal RBCs remain poorly understood. Here, we show that Piezo1 regulates mechanotransductive release of ATP from human RBCs by controlling the shear-induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx. We find that, in human RBCs treated with Piezo1 inhibitors or having mutant Piezo1 channels, the amounts of shear-induced ATP release and Ca(2+) influx decrease significantly. Remarkably, a critical extracellular Ca(2+) concentration is required to trigger significant ATP release, but membrane-associated ATP pools in RBCs also contribute to the release of ATP. Our results show how Piezo1 channels are likely to function in normal RBCs and suggest a previously unidentified mechanotransductive pathway in ATP release. Thus, we anticipate that the study will impact broadly on the research of red cells, cellular mechanosensing, and clinical studies related to red cell disorders and vascular disease.

  19. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Miyaji, Akane; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  20. Glucocorticoid regulation of gonadotropin release from gonadotropes of ovine pituitary gland in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nangalama, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of gonadotropin release by the pituitary gland, the short-term effects of cortisol perifusion (1.5 h to 8 hrs) on GnRH-induced LH secretion were investigated. To determine the biochemical mechanism(s) by which cortisol can act to modulate GnRH-induced LH release, the interactions of cortisol and arachidonic acid in GnRH-stimulated LH release were examined. Cortisol perifusion for 1.5 hr had no effect on GnRH-induced LH release, but longer treatment periods (4 hr-8 hrs) significantly reduced GnRH-stimulated LH release (4.0 hr, p -4 M AA was administered for 20 min before a 10 min, 10 -10 M GnRH pulse. Like cortisol, chloroquine also failed to inhibit AA-induced LH release. Perifusion with 10 -6 M cortisol for 6.0 hours significantly (p 3 ]AA release 24% below the basal (100%) [ 3 H]AA secretion. Reduction of [ 3 H]AA release was accompanied by decreased GnRH-stimulated LH secretion

  1. Changes in acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampus under cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatranska, M.; Budai, D.; Gulya, K; Kvetnansky, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim was to study the mechanism of the previously established decrease in acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the rat hippocampus under cold stress. Male rats were exposed for 14 days to cold (5 degree C) or kept (controls) at room temperature (24 degree C). Acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptor binding were investigated in the hippocampus. Cold exposure resulted in a decrease of ACh concentration in the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, the potassium-evoked release of ACh from hippocampal slices was increased and an increase of maximal binding capacity of [ 3 H](-) quinuclidinyl benzilate in the dorsal hippocampus of cold exposed animals was also observed. Thus the decrease of hippocampal ACh concentration under cold exposure is probably due to its increased release. On balance then, our results demonstrate that cold stress in the rat induces significant activation of the hippocampal cholinergic system

  2. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  3. Controlled release from bilayer-decorated magnetoliposomes via electromagnetic heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjing; Bose, Arijit; Bothun, Geoffrey D

    2010-06-22

    Nanoscale assemblies that can be activated and controlled through external stimuli represent a next stage in multifunctional therapeutics. We report the formation, characterization, and release properties of bilayer-decorated magnetoliposomes (dMLs) that were prepared by embedding small hydrophobic SPIO nanoparticles at different lipid molecule to nanoparticle ratios within dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. The dML structure was examined by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, and release was examined by carboxyfluorescein leakage. Nanoparticle heating using alternating current electromagnetic fields (EMFs) operating at radio frequencies provided selective release of the encapsulated molecule at low nanoparticle concentrations and under physiologically acceptable EMF conditions. Without radio frequency heating, spontaneous leakage from the dMLs decreased with increasing nanoparticle loading, consistent with greater bilayer stability and a decrease in the effective dML surface area due to aggregation. With radio frequency heating, the initial rate and extent of leakage increased significantly as a function of nanoparticle loading and electromagnetic field strength. The mechanism of release is attributed to a combination of bilayer permeabilization and partial dML rupture.

  4. Decreasing size of radiosensitive capsules from micro to nano, and its increased antitumor effect and decreasing adverse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, S.; Ehara, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Matsuyama, S.; Sato, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sera, K.; Saito, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We have been developing microcapsules that release anticancer drug with response to radiation. We attempted to decrease the diameter of capsules. Then, two categories were tested in VIVO in C3He mice: (1) the antitumor effect in combination with radiation and subcutaneously injected nanocapsules, (2) the kidnetics of nanocapsules when they were injected intravenously. Microcapsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0 % hyaluronic acid, 2.0 % alginate, 3.0 % H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol carboplatin (Pt containing anticancer drug) onto a mixture of vibrated 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . The antitumor effect was measured by measuring tumor diameter every day. The kinetics of microcapsules were expressed as the numbers of capsules in 5 views (25 x 25 μm) of micro PIXE camera and Pt concentration of quantiative PIXE. The generated microcapsules 752 ± 64 nm, which were significantly downsized relative to previous capsules. The accumulations of capsules in lungs, liver, and kidneys were decreased by downsizing, whereas those of tumors were increased. By adjusting Pt concentration in tumor, there were no significant differences in antitumor effect between not downsized and downsized microcapsules with combination with radiation. Decreased trapping of downsized microcapsules to lungs, liver, and kidneys, also increased trapping in tumors will lead to new targeted chemoradiotherapy via intravenous injection of microcapsules. (author)

  5. Algorithmic complexity of growth hormone release in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prank, K.; Wagner, M.; Brabant, G. [Medical School Hannover (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Most hormones are secreted in an pulsatile rather than in a constant manner. This temporal pattern of pulsatile hormone release plays an important role in the regulation of cellular function and structure. In healthy humans growth hormone (GH) secretion is characterized by distinct pulses whereas patients bearing a GH producing tumor accompanied with excessive secretion (acromegaly) exhibit a highly irregular pattern of GH release. It has been hypothesized that this highly disorderly pattern of GH release in acromegaly arises from random events in the GH-producing tumor under decreased normal control of GH secretion. Using a context-free grammar complexity measure (algorithmic complexity) in conjunction with random surrogate data sets we demonstrate that the temporal pattern of GH release in acromegaly is not significantly different from a variety of stochastic processes. In contrast, normal subjects clearly exhibit deterministic structure in their temporal patterns of GH secretion. Our results support the hypothesis that GH release in acromegaly is due to random events in the GH-producing tumorous cells which might become independent from hypothalamic regulation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  7. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  8. Lateral Cricoarytenoid Release: Development of a Novel Surgical Treatment Option for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia in a Canine Laryngeal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrea M; Paniello, Randal C

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a novel adductor muscle-releasing technique designed to decrease the force of vocal fold adduction, as a potential surgical therapy for patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD). Experimental animal study. A canine laryngeal model was used to assess the acute and sustained efficacy of a lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscle release. A total of 34 canine hemilaryngeal preparations were divided among 7 experimental groups. The LCA muscle was separated from its cricoid cartilage origin via an open, anterior, submucosal approach. The laryngeal adductory pressures (LAP) were assessed pre- and post-muscle release via direct recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation. Measurements were repeated at 1.5, 3, or 6 months postoperatively. Another study evaluated release of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle from its thyroid cartilage origin. Releasing the LCA muscle demonstrated a significant decrease in LAP acutely and was maintained at all 3 time points with the aid of a barrier (P < .05). Without the barrier, the LCA muscle reattached to the cricoid. Acute release of the TA muscle did not significantly decrease the LAP. The proposed LCA release procedure may provide patients with a permanent treatment option for ADSD. However, longer-term studies and human trials are needed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  10. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  11. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Relationship between insulin release and 65zinc efflux from rat pancreatic islets maintained in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formby, B.; Schmid-Formby, F.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    In short-term batch-incubation or perfusion experiments, we studied insulin release and associated 65 Zn efflux from rat pancreatic islets loaded with 65 Zn by 24-h tissue culture in low-glucose medium. The fractional basal insulin release and 65 Zn efflux were 0.4% and 3% of total content/h/islet, respectively. Thus, basal 65 Zn efflux was much greater than that to be accounted for if zinc was released proportionally with insulin release only; extragranular zinc flux was suggested. Two millimolar glucose, with or without 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), affected neither insulin release nor associated 65 Zn efflux. Twenty-five millimolar glucose produced a significant threefold increase in insulin release above baseline, but somewhat decreased 65 Zn efflux at marginal significance. Glucose (25 mM) plus 1 mM IBMX provoked a high increase in insulin release and an associated 30% increase in fractional 65 Zn efflux over basal. Calculations based on previous estimations of 65 Zn distribution and equilibrium with islet zinc indicated that molar zinc efflux was more than sufficient to account for a 2-zinc-insulin hexamer. L-Leucine (2 or 20 mM) plus 1 mM IBMX caused far greater 65 Zn efflux for the amount of insulin released, indicating additional 65 Zn mobilization not directly related to insulin secretion. To evaluate 65 Zn efflux during inhibited insulin secretion, batch incubations were performed in 100% D 2 O or at 27 degrees C, conditions that inhibited insulin release stimulated by high glucose plus IBMX. These agents decreased the 65 Zn efflux far below the basal value (35% and 50%, respectively) and greater than could be accounted for by the attendent inhibition of insulin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Fission-product release during accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Cox, D.S.

    1991-09-01

    One of the aims when managing a reactor accident is to minimize the release of radioactive fission products. Release is dependent not only on the temperature, but also on the partial pressure of oxygen. Strongly oxidizing atmospheres, such as those that occurred during the Chernobyl accident, released semi-volatile elements like ruthenium, which has volatile oxides. At low temperatures, UO 2 oxidization to U 3 O 8 can result in extensive breakup of the fuel, resulting in the release of non-volatile fission products as aerosols. Under less oxidizing conditions, when hydrogen accumulates from the zirconium-water reaction, the resulting low oxygen partial pressure can significantly reduce these reactions. At TMI-2, only the noble gases and volatile fission products were released in significant quantities. A knowledge of the effect of atmosphere as well as temperature on the release of fission products from damaged reactor cores is therefore a useful, if not necessary, component of information required for accident management

  14. Effect of a new drug releasing system on microencapsulated islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Binjie; Gao, Qingkun; Liu, Rui; Ren, Ming; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Zaixing; Zhou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop a novel release system for grafted islets. Materials and methods: A graphene oxide-FTY720 release system was constructed to test the drug loading and releasing capacity. The recipient rats were divided into four groups as following: Experiment group A (EG A) and B (EG B); Control group A (CG A) and B (CG B). In each group, (2000±100) IEQ microencapsulated islets were implanted into the abdominal cavity of the recipients with oral FTY720, local graphene oxide-FTY720 injection, without immunosuppressants, and with graphene oxide-saturated solution respectively. We detected the immunological data, the blood glucose level, and pericapsular overgrowth to show the transplantation effect. Results: 31% of adsorptive FTY720 was released within 6 h, and 82% of FTY720 was released within 48 h. From day 5 to 8, the amount of PBL in EG B was significantly less than those in EG A (PGraphene oxide-FTY720 complex showed a drug releasing effect. Local application of graphene-FTY720 releasing system could decrease the amount of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and the percentage of CD3 and CD8 T lymphocytes in blood for longer time than oral drug application. This releasing system could achieve a better blood glucose control. PMID:26722425

  15. Spray drying of silica microparticles for sustained release application with a new sol-gel precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-30

    A new precursor, tetrakis(2-methoxyethyl) orthosilicate (TMEOS) was used to fabricate microparticles for sustained release application, specifically for biopharmaceuticals, by spray drying. The advantages of TMEOS over the currently applied precursors are its water solubility and hydrolysis at moderate pH without the need of organic solvents or catalyzers. Thus a detrimental effect on biomolecular drug is avoided. By generating spray-dried silica particles encapsulating the high molecular weight model compound FITC-dextran 150 via the nano spray dryer Büchi-90, we demonstrated how formulation parameters affect and enable control of drug release properties. The implemented strategies to regulate release included incorporating different quantities of dextrans with varying molecular weight as well as adjusting the pH of the precursor solution to modify the internal microstructures. The addition of dextran significantly altered the released amount, while the release became faster with increasing dextran molecular weight. A sustained release over 35days could be achieved with addition of 60 kD dextran. The rate of FITC-Dextran 150 release from the dextran 60 containing particles decreased with higher precursor solution pH. In conclusion, the new precursor TMEOS presents a promising alternative sol-gel technology based carrier material for sustained release application of high molecular weight biopharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exhaustive Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress Alteration of Erythrocyte Oxygen Release Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Yueming; Zhao, Yajin; Li, Yaojin; Ren, Yang; Wang, Ruofeng; Zhao, Mingzi; Hao, Yitong; Liu, Haibei; Wang, Xiang

    2018-05-24

    The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of exhaustive running exercise (ERE) in the oxygen release capacity of rat erythrocytes. Rats were divided into sedentary control (C), moderate running exercise (MRE) and exhaustive running exercise groups. The thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the erythrocyte oxygen release process of different groups were tested. We also determined the degree of band-3 oxidative and phosphorylation, anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Biochemical studies suggested that exhaustive running significantly increased oxidative injury parameters in TBARS and methaemoglobin levels. Furthermore, exhaustive running significantly decreased anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that erythrocytes oxygen release ability also significantly increased due to elevated 2,3-DPG level after exhaustive running. Kinetic analysis indicated that exhaustive running resulted in significantly decreased T50 value. We presented evidence that exhaustive running remarkably impacted thermodynamics and kinetics properties of RBCs oxygen release. In addition, changes in 2,3-DPG levels and band-3 oxidation and phosphorylation could be the driving force for exhaustive running induced alterations in erythrocytes oxygen release thermodynamics and kinetics properties.

  17. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  18. Mechanisms of iodine release from iodoapatite in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Immobilization of iodine-129 with waste forms in geological setting is challenging due to its extremely long half-life and high volatility in the environment. To evaluate the long-term performance of waste form, it is imperative to determine the release mechanism of iodine hosted in the waste form materials. This study investigated the iodine released from apatite structured waste form Pb9.85 (VO4)6 I1.7 to understand how diffusion and dissolution control the durability of apatite waste form. A standard semi-dynamic leach test was adopted in this study. Samples were exposed in fresh leachant periodically and the leachant was replaced after each interval. Each experiment was carried out in cap-sealed Teflon vessels under constant temperature (e.g. 90 °C). ICP-MS analysis on the reacted leachates shows that Pb and V were released constantly and congruently with the stoichiometric ratio of Pb/V. However, iodine release is incongruent and time dependent. The iodine release rate starts significantly higher than the corresponding stoichiometric value and gradually decreases, approaching the stoichiometric value. Therefore, a dual-mode mechanism is proposed to account for the iodine release from apatite, which is dominated by short-term diffusion and long-term dissolution processes. Additional tests show that the element release rates depend on a number of test parameters, including sample surface to solution volume ratio (m-1), interval (day), temperature (°C), and solution pH. This study provides a quantitative characterization of iodine release mechanism. The activation energy of iodine leaching 21±1.6 kJ/mol was obtained by varying the test temperature. At the test conditions of to neutral pH and 90 °C, the long-term iodine release rate 3.3 mg/(m2 • day) is projected by normalizing sample surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V) to 1.0 m-1 and interval to 1 day. These findings demonstrate i) the feasibility of our approach to quantify the release mechanism

  19. SNT-1 functions as the Ca2+ sensor for tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Haowen; Wang, Wei; Chandra, Mintu; Collins, Brett M; Hu, Zhitao

    2018-05-14

    Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) binds Ca 2+ through its tandem C2 domains (C2A and C2B) and triggers Ca 2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release. Here we show that snt-1 , the homolog of mammalian Syt1, functions as the Ca 2+ sensor for both tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Mutations that disrupt Ca 2+ binding in double C2 domains of SNT-1 significantly impaired tonic release, whereas disrupting Ca 2+ binding in a single C2 domain had no effect, indicating that the Ca 2+ binding of the two C2 domains is functionally redundant for tonic release. Stimulus-evoked release was significantly reduced in snt-1 mutants, with prolonged release latency as well as faster rise and decay kinetics. Unlike tonic release, evoked release was triggered by Ca 2+ binding solely to the C2B domain. Moreover, we showed that SNT-1 plays an essential role in the priming process in different subpopulations of synaptic vesicles with tight or loose coupling to Ca 2+ entry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We showed that SNT-1 in C. elegans regulates evoked neurotransmitter release through Ca 2+ binding to its C2B domain, a similar way to Syt1 in the mouse CNS and the fly NMJ. However, the largely decreased tonic release in snt-1 mutants argues SNT-1 has a clamping function. Indeed, Ca 2+ -binding mutations in the C2 domains in SNT-1 significantly reduced the frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), indicating that SNT-1 also acts as a Ca 2+ sensor for tonic release. Therefore, revealing the differential mechanisms between invertebrates and vertebrates will provide significant insights into our understanding how synaptic vesicle fusion is regulated. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  20. Dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Ristenpart, William D; Stone, Howard A

    2008-10-28

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a regulatory molecule for many cell functions, both for intracellular and, perhaps less well known, extracellular functions. An important example of the latter involves red blood cells (RBCs), which help regulate blood pressure by releasing ATP as a vasodilatory signaling molecule in response to the increased shear stress inside arterial constrictions. Although shear-induced ATP release has been observed widely and is believed to be triggered by deformation of the cell membrane, the underlying mechanosensing mechanism inside RBCs is still controversial. Here, we use an in vitro microfluidic approach to investigate the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from human RBCs with millisecond resolution. We demonstrate that there is a sizable delay time between the onset of increased shear stress and the release of ATP. This response time decreases with shear stress, but surprisingly does not depend significantly on membrane rigidity. Furthermore, we show that even though the RBCs deform significantly in short constrictions (duration of increased stress <3 ms), no measurable ATP is released. This critical timescale is commensurate with a characteristic membrane relaxation time determined from observations of the cell deformation by using high-speed video. Taken together our results suggest a model wherein the retraction of the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton network triggers the mechanosensitive ATP release and a shear-dependent membrane viscosity controls the rate of release.

  1. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  2. Effects of release procedures on the primary stress response and post-release survival and growth of hatchery-reared spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, T W; Rakocinski, C F; Evans, A N; Blaylock, R B

    2017-03-01

    To help explain the apparent poor post-release success of hatchery-reared (HR) spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, this study examined the effects of handling, transport and release procedures on the stress response of two age classes [48 and 80 day post-hatch (dph)] of HR C. nebulosus, as measured by cortisol concentrations and the post-release survival and growth of 48 and 80 dph HR C. nebulosus. As a proxy for stress, tissue cortisol was measured at various times during the handling, tagging (80 dph), transport, acclimation and release process. To consider the implications of the pre-release stressors, growth and survival were monitored in separate field experiments for each age class of acclimated post-transport C. nebulosus using control C. nebulosus that only experienced anaesthesia, transport, acclimation and a net release v. experimental C. nebulosus that underwent the entire routine procedure, including anaesthesia, tagging, transport, acclimation and gravity release through a pipe. For 48 dph C. nebulosus, mean cortisol varied significantly throughout handling and transport, increasing more than six-fold from controls before decreasing in mean concentration just prior to release. For 80 dph C. nebulosus, cortisol varied throughout handling, tagging and transport, first increasing more than three-fold compared with control C. nebulosus, before decreasing and rising slightly just prior to release. For 48 dph C. nebulosus within field enclosures, survival was high and similar for control and experimental groups; experimental C. nebulosus, however, were shorter, lighter and lower in condition than control C. nebulosus. For 80 dph C. nebulosus within field enclosures, fewer experimental C. nebulosus survived and those that did survive were of lower condition than C. nebulosus from the control group. Small untagged C. nebulosus may survive the release procedure better than larger C. nebulosus carrying a coded-wire tag. These findings document

  3. Oxygen sensitivity of potassium- and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone release by bovine adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickner, R C; Raff, H

    1991-04-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) and extracellular K+, acting through different intracellular mechanisms, stimulate aldosterone release in a synergistic fashion. We have previously shown that decreases in oxygen (O2) within the physiological range inhibit AII, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone release. The present experiment evaluated the effect of various concentrations of O2 on K+-stimulated aldosterone release in the presence and absence of AII. Dispersed bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells were incubated with different concentrations of K+ (0.9-5.4 mmol/l) without and with AII (10 nmol/l) under different concentrations of O2 (0, 5 or 50%); 21% O2 (pO2 = 19.9 +/- 0.5 kPa,n = 9) was used as reference control for comparison. In all cases, increases in K+ stimulated aldosterone release, an effect augmented by AII. Under 0% O2 (pO2 = 8.1 +/- 0.3 kPa, n = 3) and 5% O2 (pO2 = 12.8 +/- 0.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly inhibited compared with that under 21% O2. Conversely, under 50% O2 (pO2 = 36.3 +/- 2.5 kPa, n = 3), aldosterone release stimulated by K+ or K+/AII was significantly augmented. Cortisol secretion was not significantly affected by 5% or 50% O2 but was significantly decreased under 0% O2. The effect of O2 on K+/AII stimulation of aldosterone release, as well as previous experiments with cAMP, progesterone and ACTH, suggest a final common post-receptor oxygen-sensitive component of the aldosterone synthetic pathway. It is suggested that one or more enzymes in the aldosterone synthetic pathway is/are exquisitely sensitive to small changes in O2 within the physiological range.

  4. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    ingredient in the HBA oligomers was chemically bound to the oligomer matrix and a controlled release followed in concert with the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the oligomer systems. Due to the high volatility and high water solubility of the DMA salts, significant amounts of active ingredients were predisposed to be dispersed in the environment. On the other hand, the HBA oligomers exhibit low volatility and low solubility in water, so they tend to exhibit lover migrating rates from the target site. The obtained plots suggested that in the case of the HBA oligomers the effectiveness were delayed in time when compared with the DMA salts. The integral effectiveness of the studied HBA oligomers was practically equivalent to the conventional DMA salts, but the release of the HBA herbicides was delayed in time vs. DMA salts. The mixtures of oligo (R,S)-3-hydroxybutyric acid containing chemically bonded 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA (HBA) were proposed as carriers of active ingredients that could be released to control the sensitive weeds. The synthesized HBA oligomers could be particularly useful in a number of practical applications, because they release the herbicide to plants at a controlled rate and in amounts required over a specified period of time, their degradation products are identical to metabolites formed in plant cells, the physicochemical and operational parameters of the carrier oligomers might be optimized by fine-tuning of synthesis conditions. The decreased vapor pressure and increased lipophilicity of the studied materials could reduce the risk exposure of the operational personnel, as well as, a decrease the environmental pollution. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for supporting this work through the grant No. NN 310 303039. References [1] S. Dubey, V. Jhelum, P.K. Patanjali, Controlled release agrochemical formulations: A review, J. Scientific &Industrial Research (India) 70 (2011) 105-112. [2] W. J

  5. Fluoride release, recharge and flexural properties of polymethylmethacrylate containing fluoridated glass fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, I A; Swain, M V; Naoum, S J; Al-Omari, W M; Martin, E; Ellakwa, A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated glass fillers on fluoride release, recharge and the flexural properties of modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Specimens of PMMA denture base material with various loading of fluoridated glass fillers (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight) were prepared. Flexural properties were evaluated on rectangular specimens (n = 10) aged in deionized water after 24 hours, 1 and 3 months. Disc specimens (n = 10) were aged for 43 days in deionized water and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and fluoride release was measured at numerous intervals. After ageing, specimens were recharged and fluoride re-release was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after recharge. Samples containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% glass fillers showed significantly (p glass fillers specimens. All experimental specimens exhibited fluoride release in both media. The flexural strength of specimens decreased in proportion to the percentage filler inclusion with the modulus of elasticity values remaining within ISO Standard 1567. The modified PMMA with fluoridated glass fillers has the ability to release and re-release fluoride ion. Flexural strength decreased as glass filler uploading increased. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Preliminary studies of plasma growth hormone releasing activity during medical therapy of acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.C.; Lawrence, A.M.; Kirsteins, L.

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro growth hormone releasing activity of plasma obtained from six acromegalic subjects was measured before and during therapy. In five subjects, plasmas were obtained before and during successful medical therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The sixth subject was sampled before and after transphenoidal Sr 90 -induced hypopituitarism. All subjects had a decrement in fasting growth hormone levels with respective therapies (29-88%). The in vitro growth hormone released from Rhesus monkey anterior pituitaries was assessed after incubating one lateral half in control plasma (pre-therapy) and the contralateral pituitary half in plasma obtained during or after therapy. Studies with plasmas obtained from the five patients successfully treated with MPA showed a decrease in growth hormone releasing activity during therapy in all (18-57%). Plasma obtained after Sr 90 pituitary ablation in the sixth subject had 35% more growth hormone releasing activity than obtained before therapy. These results suggest that active acromegalics who respond to MPA with significantly lowered growth hormone levels may actually achieve this response because of a decrease in growth hormone releasing factor measured peripherally. The opposite response in one acromegalic subject, following Sr 90 pituitary ablation and hypopituitarism, suggests that growth hormone releasing factor secretion may increase when growth hormone levels are lowered by ablative therapy. (orig.) [de

  7. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  8. 40 CFR 721.90 - Release to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release to water. 721.90 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.90 Release to water. Whenever a... predict the surface water concentration which will result from the intended release of the substance, if...

  9. Evaluation of hydrophobic materials as matrices for controlled-release drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Rahman, M Sharifur; Karim, M Ziaul; Akter, Sanjida; Awkat, M Talat Bin; Reza, Md Selim

    2003-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different insoluble and erodable wax-lipid based materials and their content level on the release profile of drug from matrix systems. Matrix tablets of theophylline were prepared using carnauba wax, bees wax, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as rate-retarding agents by direct compression process. The release of theophylline from these hydrophobic matrices was studied over 8-hours in buffer media of pH 6.8. Statistically significant difference was found among the drug release profile from different matrices. The release kinetics was found to be governed by the type and content of hydrophobic materials in the matrix. At lower level of wax matrices (25%), a potential burst release was observed with all the materials being studied. Bees wax could not exert any sustaining action while an extensive burst release was found with carnauba wax at this hydrophobic load. Increasing the concentration of fat-wax materials significantly decreased the burst effect of drug from the matrix. At higher hydrophobic level (50% of the matrix), the rate and extent of drug release was significantly reduced due to increased tortuosity and reduced porosity of the matrix. Cetostearyl alcohol imparted the strongest retardation of drug release irrespective of fat-wax level. Numerical fits indicate that the Higuchi square root of time model was the most appropriate one for describing the release profile of theophylline from hydrophobic matrices. The release mechanism was also explored and explained with biexponential equation. Application of this model indicates that Fickian or case I kinetics is the predominant mechanism of drug release from these wax-lipid matrices. The mean dissolution time (MDT) was calculated for all the formulations and the highest MDT value was obtained with cetostearyl matrix. The greater sustaining activity of cetostearyl alcohol can be attributed to some level of

  10. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  11. Modulation of release of [3H]acetylcholine in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, G T; de Groat, W C

    1993-06-01

    Cholinergic modulation of [3H]acetylcholine release evoked by electrical stimulation was studied in the rat major pelvic ganglion, which was prelabeled with [3H]choline. Acetylcholine (ACh) release was independent of the frequency of stimulation; 0.3 Hz produced the same volley output as 10 Hz. Tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or omission of Ca2+ from the medium abolished ACh release. The M1 receptor agonist (4-hydroxy-2-butynyl)-1-trimethylammonium m-chlorocarbanilate chloride (McN-A 343, 50 microM) increased release (by 136%), whereas the M2 muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (1 microM) decreased ACh release (by 22%). The muscarinic antagonists, atropine (1 microM) or pirenzepine (M1 selective, 1 microM), did not change ACh release. However, pirenzepine (1 microM) blocked the facilitatory effect of McN-A 343, and atropine (1 microM) blocked the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine. The cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (1-5 microM), the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP, 10 microM), and the nicotinic antagonist D-tubocurarine (50 microM) did not change ACh release. 4-Aminopyridine, a K+ channel blocker, significantly increased the release (by 146%). Seven days after decentralization of the major pelvic ganglion, the evoked release of ACh was abolished. It is concluded that release of ACh occurs from the preganglionic nerve terminals rather than from the cholinergic cell bodies and is not modulated by actions of endogenous ACh on either muscarinic or nicotinic autoreceptors. These data confirm and extend previous electrophysiological findings indicating that synapses in the major pelvic ganglion have primarily a relay function.

  12. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  13. pH-independent release of propranolol hydrochloride from HPMC-based matrices using organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Propranolol HCl, a widely used drug in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension, is a weak basic drug with pH-dependent solubility that may show release problems from sustained release dosage forms at higher pH of small intestine. This might decrease drug bioavailability and cause variable oral absorption. Preparation of a sustained release matrix system with a pH-independent release profile was the aim of the present study. Methods: Three types of organic acids namely tartaric, citric and fumaric acid in the concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 % were added to the matrices prepared by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and dicalcium phosphate. The drug release studies were carried out at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 separately and mean dissolution time (MDT as well as similarity factor (¦2 were calculated for all formulations. Results and discussion: It was found that incorporation of 5 and 10 % tartaric acid in tablet formulations with 30 % HPMC resulted in a suitable pH-independent release profiles with significant higher ¦2 values (89.9 and 87.6 respectively compared to acid free tablet (58.03. The other two acids did not show the desirable effects. It seems that lower pKa of tartaric acid accompanied by its higher solubility were the main factors in the achievement of pH-independent release profiles.

  14. Depolarization-induced release of amino acids from the vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald A; Sun, Yizhe; Frisch, Christopher; Godfrey, Matthew A; Rubin, Allan M

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence from immunohistochemistry, quantitative microchemistry, and pharmacology for several amino acids as neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), including glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine. However, evidence from measurements of release has been limited. The purpose of this study was to measure depolarization-stimulated calcium-dependent release of amino acids from the VNC in brain slices. Coronal slices containing predominantly the VNC were prepared from rats and perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in an interface chamber. Fluid was collected from the chamber just downstream from the VNC using a microsiphon. Depolarization was induced by 50 mM potassium in either control calcium and magnesium concentrations or reduced calcium and elevated magnesium. Amino acid concentrations in effluent fluid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate release increased fivefold during depolarization in control calcium concentration and twofold in low calcium/high magnesium. These same ratios were 6 and 1.5 for GABA, 2 and 1.3 for glycine, and 2 and 1.5 for aspartate. Differences between release in control and low calcium/high magnesium ACSF were statistically significant for glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamine release decreased during and after depolarization, and taurine release slowly increased. No evidence for calcium-dependent release was found for serine, glutamine, alanine, threonine, arginine, taurine, or tyrosine. Our results support glutamate and GABA as major neurotransmitters in the VNC. They also support glycine as a neurotransmitter and some function for taurine.

  15. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  16. Effects of nutrient enrichment on the release of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen by the scleractinian coral Montipora digitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miyajima, T.

    2010-09-01

    The effects of nutrient enrichment on the release of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON, respectively) from the coral Montipora digitata were investigated in the laboratory. Nitrate (NO3 -) and phosphate (PO4 3-) were supplied to the aquarium to get the final concentrations of 10 and 0.5 μmol l-1, respectively, and the corals were incubated for 8 days. The release rate of DON per unit coral surface area significantly decreased after the nutrient enrichment, while the release rate of DOC was constant. Because the chlorophyll a (chl a) content of zooxanthellae per unit surface area increased, the release rate of DOC significantly decreased when normalized to unit chl a. These results suggested that the incorporation of NO3 - and PO4 3- stimulated the synthesis of new cellular components in the coral colonies and consequently, reduced extracellular release of DOC and DON. Actually, significant increase in N and P contents relative to C content was observed in the coral’s tissue after the nutrient enrichment. The present study has concluded that inorganic nutrient enrichment not only affects coral-algal metabolism inside the colony but also affects a microbial community around the coral because the organic matter released from corals functions as energy carrier in the coral reef ecosystem.

  17. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  18. Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia in the Czech Republic – cause of the significant population decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Žurovcová, Martina; Rychlý, S.; Starý, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 4 (2014), s. 273-280 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/1940 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alien aphid species * anholocyclic populations * aphids overwintering mortality Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12068/pdf

  19. Growth phase significantly decreases the DHA-to-EPA ratio in marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; Van Mastrigt, Audrey; Van De Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Heeres, Hero J.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    Microalgae are the principal producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine ecosystems. Algae are used in aquaculture systems as direct or indirect feed for zooplankton, filter-feeding mollusks and larval

  20. Tacrolimus interaction with nafcillin resulting in significant decreases in tacrolimus concentrations: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wungwattana, Minkey; Savic, Marizela

    2017-04-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is subject to many drug interactions as a result of its metabolism primarily via CYP450 isoenzyme 3A4. Numerous case reports of TAC and CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors have been described including antimicrobials, calcium channel antagonists, and antiepileptic drugs. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and a history of liver transplantation, where subtherapeutic TAC concentrations were suspected to be a result of concomitant TAC and nafcillin (NAF) therapy. The observed drug interaction occurred on two separate hospital admissions, during both of which the patient exhibited therapeutic TAC concentrations prior to exposure to NAF, a CYP3A4 inducer. Upon discontinuation of NAF, TAC concentrations recovered in both instances. This case represents a drug-drug interaction between TAC and NAF that has not previously been reported to our knowledge. Despite the lack of existing reports of interaction between these two agents, this case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring and assessing for any potential drug-drug or drug-food interactions in patients receiving TAC therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  2. Enhancement of nitric oxide release and hemocompatibility by surface chirality of D-tartaric acid grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honghong; Wang, Ke; Fan, Yonghong; Pan, Xiaxin; Huang, Nan; Weng, Yajun

    2017-12-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) generation from endogenous NO-donors catalyzed by diselenide modified biomaterials has been reported. Here we reported surface chirality by L-tartaric acid and D-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost showed a significant impact on diselenide modified biomaterials, which modulated protein adsorption, NO release and anti-platelet adhesion properties. D-tartaric acid grafted surface showed more blood protein adsorption than that of L-surfaces by QCM analysis, however, ELISA analysis disclosed less fibrinogen denatured on the D surfaces. Due to the surface ratio of selenium decreasing, NO release catalyzed by L-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost significantly decreased in comparison to that of only selenocystamine immobilized surfaces. While NO release catalyzed by D-tartaric acid grafting on the outermost didn't decrease and was similar with that of selenocystamine immobilized surfaces. Surface chirality combined with NO release had synergetic effects on platelet adhesion, and it showed the lowest number of platelets adhered on the D-tartaric acid grafted surfaces. Thus surface chirality from D-tartaric acid grafting enhanced hemocompatibility of the surface in this study. Our work provides new insights into engineering novel blood contacting biomaterials by taking into account surface chirality.

  3. Investigation of delayed fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayet, Nicolas

    1996-05-01

    The study of the fission gas release process in the high burnup rig IFA-562 has revealed a particular fuel behaviour: a delay in the fission gas release process. It appeared that an important release of gas was measured by the pressure transducers once the power had decreased, whereas, during steady-state operation, the pressure did not increase very much. After examinations, the gap size has been concluded to be the main parameter involving this delay. However the burnup could have been a potential factor, its role is mainly to close the gap by swelling. The observations of low burnup rods have shown the same delayed fission gas release, the gap being small by design and closed essentially by thermal expansion. The study of the kinetics has demonstrated the time-independency of the phenomenon. Thus the proposed mechanism driving this delayed fission gas release would involve three consecutives stages. During steady-state, the gas is released into the interlinkage network of grain boundary bubbles and cracks. Due to the closed gap, the gas is trapped in some void volumes, unable to escape the pellet. During power reduction, the gap and some old/new cracks open, immediately providing a path for the gas to the pressure transducers and explaining this delay in the fission gas release. (author)

  4. Fuel morphology effects on fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations for the observed differences are offered that relate fuel morphology changes to the releases

  5. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  6. Studies on renin release in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O

    1989-01-01

    1) Measurements of renin secretion from single arterioles at time intervals down to 20 seconds showed that the renin secretion is episodic, the amount of renin released during each episode corresponding to the estimated content of one secretory granule. 2) A decrease in osmolality elicits episodi...

  7. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...... semeiotics and his theory of communication, we account for the formal conditions that have to be present for the release of the significance-effect....

  8. Altered Elementary Calcium Release Events and Enhanced Calcium Release by Thymol in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Szentesi, Péter; Szappanos, Henrietta; Szegedi, Csaba; Gönczi, Monika; Jona, István; Cseri, Julianna; Kovács, László; Csernoch, László

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents. Thymol was found to increase the depolarization-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which could not be attributed to a decreased calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors or altered intramembrane charge movement, but rather to a more efficient coupling of depolarization to channel opening. Thymol increased ryanodine bind...

  9. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  10. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  12. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibres containing conjugated levofloxacin-chitosan for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalvandi, Javid; White, Max; Gao, Yuan; Truong, Yen Bach; Padhye, Rajiv; Kyratzis, Ilias Louis

    2017-01-01

    A range of biodegradable drug-nanofibres composite mats have been reported as drug delivery systems. However, their main disadvantage is the rapid release of the drug immediately after application. This paper reports an improved system based on the incorporation of drug conjugated-chitosan into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The results showed that controlled release of levofloxacin (LVF) could be achieved by covalently binding LVF to low molecular weight chitosan (CS) via a cleavable amide bond and then blending the conjugated CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres prior to electrospinning. PVA/LVF and PVA-CS/LVF nanofibres were fabricated as controls. The conjugated CS-LVF was characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA and 1 H NMR. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the blended CS-PVA nanofibres had a reduced fibre diameter compared to the controls. Drug release profiles showed that burst release was decreased from 90% in the control PVA/LVF electrospun mats to 27% in the PVA/conjugated CS-LVF mats after 8 h in phosphate buffer at 37 °C. This slower release is due to the cleavable bond between LVF and CS that slowly hydrolysed over time at neutral pH. The results indicate that conjugation of the drug to the polymer backbone is an effective way of minimizing burst release behaviour and achieving sustained release of the drug, LVF. - Highlights: • A novel drug delivery system for controlled release of drug was designed. • Composite PVA/conjugated CS-LVF nanofibres was fabricated by electrospinning. • Conjugated chitosan and composite nanofibres were characterized by various techniques. • Release profiles of drug were significantly improved in composite nanofibres containing drug conjugated chitosan.

  14. Involvement of arachidonate metabolism in neurotensin-induced prolactin release in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, P.L.; Speciale, C.; Sortino, M.A.; Scapagnini, U.

    1985-01-01

    Neurotensin increased in a concentration-dependent manner the level of hypophyseal [ 3 H]arachidonic acid in vitro as well as prolactin release from hemipituitary glands. The effect of 1 microM neurotensin on arachidonate release was already present at 2.5 min, maximal at 5, and disappeared after a 10-min incubation. Neurotensin analogues produced an enhancement of hypophyseal arachidonate similar to their relative potencies in other cellular systems, whereas other peptides (somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide) were devoid of any effect on the concentration of the fatty acid in the pituitary. Seventy micromoles RHC 80267, a rather selective inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, completely prevented the neurotensin-stimulated prolactin release and decreased arachidonate release both in basal or in neurotensin-induced conditions. Similar results were obtained with 50 microM quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor. To clarify whether arachidonate released by neurotensin requires a further metabolism through specific pathways to stimulate prolactin release, the authors used indomethacin and BW 755c, two blockers of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. Thirty micromoles indomethacin, a dose active to inhibit cyclooxygenase, did not affect unesterified arachidonate levels either in basal or in neurotensin-induced conditions; moreover, the drug did not modify basal prolactin release but slightly potentiated the stimulatory effect of neurotensin on the release of the hormone. On the other hand, 250 microM BW 755c, an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, significantly inhibited both basal and neurotensin-stimulated prolactin release and further potentiated the increase of the fatty acid concentrations produced by 1 microM neurotensin

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol composite nanofibres containing conjugated levofloxacin-chitosan for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalvandi, Javid, E-mail: Javid.jlv@gmail.com [CSIRO, Manufacturing Flagship, Bayview Ave, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); School of Fashion and Textiles, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, 25 Dawson Street, Brunswick, Victoria 3056 (Australia); White, Max, E-mail: tamrak@bigpond.com [School of Fashion and Textiles, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, 25 Dawson Street, Brunswick, Victoria 3056 (Australia); Gao, Yuan, E-mail: Yuan.Gao@csiro.au [CSIRO, Manufacturing Flagship, Bayview Ave, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Truong, Yen Bach, E-mail: Yen.truong@csiro.au [CSIRO, Manufacturing Flagship, Bayview Ave, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Padhye, Rajiv, E-mail: rajiv.padhye@rmit.edu.au [School of Fashion and Textiles, College of Design and Social Context, RMIT University, 25 Dawson Street, Brunswick, Victoria 3056 (Australia); Kyratzis, Ilias Louis, E-mail: Louis.kyratzis@csiro.au [CSIRO, Manufacturing Flagship, Bayview Ave, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    A range of biodegradable drug-nanofibres composite mats have been reported as drug delivery systems. However, their main disadvantage is the rapid release of the drug immediately after application. This paper reports an improved system based on the incorporation of drug conjugated-chitosan into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The results showed that controlled release of levofloxacin (LVF) could be achieved by covalently binding LVF to low molecular weight chitosan (CS) via a cleavable amide bond and then blending the conjugated CS with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibres prior to electrospinning. PVA/LVF and PVA-CS/LVF nanofibres were fabricated as controls. The conjugated CS-LVF was characterized by FTIR, DSC, TGA and {sup 1}H NMR. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the blended CS-PVA nanofibres had a reduced fibre diameter compared to the controls. Drug release profiles showed that burst release was decreased from 90% in the control PVA/LVF electrospun mats to 27% in the PVA/conjugated CS-LVF mats after 8 h in phosphate buffer at 37 °C. This slower release is due to the cleavable bond between LVF and CS that slowly hydrolysed over time at neutral pH. The results indicate that conjugation of the drug to the polymer backbone is an effective way of minimizing burst release behaviour and achieving sustained release of the drug, LVF. - Highlights: • A novel drug delivery system for controlled release of drug was designed. • Composite PVA/conjugated CS-LVF nanofibres was fabricated by electrospinning. • Conjugated chitosan and composite nanofibres were characterized by various techniques. • Release profiles of drug were significantly improved in composite nanofibres containing drug conjugated chitosan.

  16. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  17. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  18. Vinpocetine inhibits glutamate release induced by the convulsive agent 4-aminopyridine more potently than several antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitges, M; Sanchez-Tafolla, B M; Chiu, L M; Aldana, B I; Guarneros, A

    2011-10-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm 2 area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of resin dental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabiola Galbiatti de; Fucio, Suzana Beatriz Portugal de; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Dental Materials; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Pedriatric Dentistry], e-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on fluoride release and antibacterial activity of FluroShield (FS) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB). Four groups were formed: G1-FS + gamma; G2-FS without gamma; G3-CPB + gamma; G4-CPB without gamma. For fluoride release analysis, 12 disks of each material were prepared and covered with nail polish, except for one side (50.4 mm{sup 2} area). G1 and G3 were sterilized with a 14.5 KGy dose at 27 deg C for 24 h, while G2 and G4 (controls) were not sterilized and were maintained under the same time and temperature conditions. Fluoride release measurements were made in duplicate (n=6) by an ion specific electrode. The antibacterial activity of the CPB and FS against Streptococcus mutans after gamma sterilization was evaluated by the agar-disc diffusion method. The diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition was recorded after 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=5%). Gamma sterilization decreased the fluoride release of FS by approximately 50%, while CPB was not affected. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the antibacterial effect of CPB between gamma and non-gamma sterilization groups. FS presented no antibacterial activity. Gamma irradiation decreased the fluoride release of FS, but did not affect the antibacterial activity of the studied materials. (author)

  1. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  2. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  3. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Patrick, Momal

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report identification and assessment of different types of costs associated with nuclear accidents. They first outline that these cost assessments must be as exhaustive or comprehensive as possible. While referring to past accidents, they define the different categories of costs: on-site costs (decontamination and dismantling, electricity not produced on the site), off-site costs (health costs, psychological costs, farming losses), image-related costs (impact on food and farm product exports, decrease of other exports), costs related to energy production, costs related to contaminated areas (refugees, lands). They give an assessment of a severe nuclear accident (i.e. an accident with important but controlled radiological releases) in France and outline that it would be a national catastrophe which could be however managed. They discuss the possible variations of the estimated costs. Then, they show that a major accident (i.e. an accident with massive radiological releases) in France would be an unmanageable European catastrophe because of the radiological consequences, of high economic costs, and of huge losses

  4. Comparison of the effects of stimulators and inhibitors of resorption on the release of lysosomal enzymes and radioactive calcium from fetal bone in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilon, G.; Raisz, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    The release of lysosomal enzymes, collagenase, and previously incorporated 45 Ca from fetal rat long bones cultured in a chemically defined medium is compared. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and prostaglandin E 2 increased the release of β-glucuronidase, acetylglucosaminidase, and cathepsin D, but showed little effect on collagenase activity in the medium at 48 h. The dose-response relations for β-glucuronidase and 45 Ca release were similar. However, the increase in lysosomal enzyme release was proportionally greater and occurred earlier than the increase in 45 Ca release. PTH also caused a significant increase in total β-glucuronidase activity in bone plus medium. Several agents which stimulate 45 Ca release at an optimal concentration, but not at a higher concentration, including dibutyryl cAMP, isobutylmethylxanthine, and the calcium ionophore, A23187, all increased lysosomal enzyme release at the concentration which increased 45 Ca release. Three inhibitors of bone resorption (calcitonin, cortisol, and colchicine) blocked lysosomal enzyme release at the same time that 45 Ca release decreased. When the bones escaped from calcitonin inhibition, both 45 Ca and lysosomalenzyme release increased. While colchicine blocked both lysosomal enzymes and 45 CA release, it actually increased the release of bone collagenase, and together with PTH or prostaglandin E 2 caused a large increase in free collagenase activity in the medium. These data indicate that lysosomal enzyme release is closely linked to bone resorption and suggest that lysosomal enzymes may have a primary role in initiating resorption, perhaps by acting on noncollagenous matrix or tissue components before mineral removal and collagen degradation

  5. Guidance for Evaluating the Safety of Experimental Releases of Mosquitoes, Emphasizing Mark-Release-Recapture Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark Q; Charlwood, J Derek; Harrington, Laura C; Lounibos, L Philip; Reisen, William K; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2018-01-01

    Experimental releases of mosquitoes are performed to understand characteristics of populations related to the biology, ability to transmit pathogens, and ultimately their control. In this article, we discuss considerations related to the safety of experimental releases of living mosquitoes, applying principles of good practice in vector biology that protect human health and comfort. We describe specific factors of experimental releases of mosquitoes that we believe are critical to inform institutional biosafety committees and similar review boards to which proposals to conduct mosquito release experiments have been submitted. In this study, "experimental releases" means those that do not significantly increase vector capacity or nuisance biting relative to the unperturbed natural baseline. This document specifically does not address releases of mosquitoes for ongoing control programs or trials of new control methods for which broader assessments of risk are required. It also does not address releases of transgenic or exotic (non-native) mosquito species, both of which require particular regulatory approval. Experimental releases may include females and males and evaluation must consider their effects based on the number released, their genotype and phenotype, the environment into which they are released, and postrelease collection activities. We consider whether increases of disease transmission and nuisance biting might result from proposed experimental releases against the backdrop of natural population size variation. We recommend that experimental releases be conducted in a manner that can be reasonably argued to have insignificant negative effects. Reviewers of proposals for experimental releases should expect applicants to provide such an argument based on evidence from similar studies and their planned activities. This document provides guidance for creating and evaluating such proposals.

  6. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  7. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  9. Nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela [101 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Astete, Carlos Ernesto [110 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sabliov, Cristina Mirela [141 E B Doran Building, BAE Department, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: csabliov@lsu.edu

    2008-03-12

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped {alpha}-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of {alpha}-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of {alpha}-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the {alpha}-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% {alpha}-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  10. Nanoparticles with entrapped α-tocopherol: synthesis, characterization, and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigoneanu, Imola Gabriela; Astete, Carlos Ernesto; Sabliov, Cristina Mirela

    2008-01-01

    An emulsion evaporation method was used to synthesize spherical poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with entrapped α-tocopherol. Two different surfactants were used: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). For SDS nanoparticles, the size of the nanoparticles decreased significantly with the entrapment of α-tocopherol in the PLGA matrix, while the size of PVA nanoparticles remained unchanged. The polydispersity index after synthesis was under 0.100 for PVA nanoparticles and around 0.150 for SDS nanoparticles. The zeta potential was negative for all PVA nanoparticles. The entrapment efficiency of α-tocopherol in the polymeric matrix was approximately 89% and 95% for nanoparticles with 8% and 16% α-tocopherol theoretical loading, respectively. The residual PVA associated with the nanoparticles after purification was approximately 6% ( w/w relative to the nanoparticles). The release profile showed an initial burst followed by a slower release of the α-tocopherol entrapped inside the PLGA matrix. The release for nanoparticles with 8% α-tocopherol theoretical loading (86% released in the first hour) was faster than the release for the nanoparticles with 16% α-tocopherol theoretical loading (34% released in the first hour)

  11. Nanostructural control of methane release in kerogen and its implications to wellbore production decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tuan Anh; Criscenti, Louise J.; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-06-01

    Despite massive success of shale gas production in the US in the last few decades there are still major concerns with the steep decline in wellbore production and the large uncertainty in a long-term projection of decline curves. A reliable projection must rely on a mechanistic understanding of methane release in shale matrix-a limiting step in shale gas extraction. Using molecular simulations, we here show that methane release in nanoporous kerogen matrix is characterized by fast release of pressurized free gas (accounting for ~30-47% recovery) followed by slow release of adsorbed gas as the gas pressure decreases. The first stage is driven by the gas pressure gradient while the second stage is controlled by gas desorption and diffusion. We further show that diffusion of all methane in nanoporous kerogen behaves differently from the bulk phase, with much smaller diffusion coefficients. The MD simulations also indicate that a significant fraction (3-35%) of methane deposited in kerogen can potentially become trapped in isolated nanopores and thus not recoverable. Our results shed a new light on mechanistic understanding gas release and production decline in unconventional reservoirs. The long-term production decline appears controlled by the second stage of gas release.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiyah Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa, and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach. Aim: In the present study an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sustained release matrix tablet using wet granulation technique incorporating various polymers like HPMC-E15, Carbopol934, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Materials and Methods: The Formulated tablets were evaluated for different physicochemical properties like rheological properties, weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, in vitro release studies and drug content. Results: Studies revealed that all the physicochemical parameters comply with the official standards. The in vitro release studies exhibits the release up to 90%, over a prolonged period of time which confirms the extended release profile of formulation, having better bioavailability as well as decreased dosing frequency with reduced doses. Conclusion: The sustained release matrix tablets of rabiprazole shown better bioavailability, efficacy and potency, when compared with official standards.

  13. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  14. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  15. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  16. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  17. "Effect of nano-filled surface coating agent on fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement: an in vitro trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S; Nandlal, B

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of glass ionomer cement of sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture contamination the use of surface coating agent is recommended. The search in this area led to invent of use of nanofillers in surface coating agent, but its effect on fluoride release is not clear. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the fluoride release from conventional glass ionomer cement with and without surface coating agent. This in vitro study comprised of total 80 samples (40 samples of each with and without surface coating). Specimens were prepared, G coat plus was applied and light cured. Fluoride release of the sample was measured every 24 h for 7 days and weekly from 7th to 21 st day using Sension4 pH/ISE/MV Meter. Descriptive Statistics, Repeated Measure ANOVA, Paired Sample t-test, Independent Sample t-test, Scheffe post hoc test. Mean values clearly reveal a significant decrease in the fluoride release from day 1 to day 21 for both groups. Non-coated group released significantly more fluoride than surface coated group (Pagent will reduce the amount of fluoride released into oral environment as compared to non-coated group and at the same time releasing fluoride into surrounding cavity walls to create zones of inhibition into the cavity floor to help internal remineralization.

  18. Pressure releasing device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mika.

    1994-01-01

    In the present invention, dose rate to public caused by radioactive rare gases can be decreased. That is, a reactor container contains a reactor pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core. There are disposed a pressure releasing system for releasing the pressure in the reactor pressure vessel to the outside, and a burning device for burning gases released from the pressure releasing system. An exhaustion pipe is disposed to the pressure releasing system. A burning device is disposed to the exhaustion pipe. It is effective to dispose a ventilation port at a portion of the exhaustion pipe upstream of the burning device. In addition, the burning device may preferably be disposed in a multi-stage in the axial direction of the exhaustion pipe. With such procedures, hydrogen in gases discharged along with the release of the pressure in the container is burned. Buoyancy is caused to the exhaustion gases by heat energy upon burning. Since the exhaustion gases can reach a higher level by the buoyancy, the dose rate due to the rare gases can be reduced. (I.S.)

  19. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    decreases thereafter. By the sixth decade of life, the activity of GHRPs is reduced but it is still marked and higher than that of GHRH. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is synergistic with that of GHRH, is not affected by opioid receptor antagonists, such as naloxone, and is only blunted by inhibitory influences, including neurotransmitters, glucose, free fatty acids, gluco corticoids, recombinant human GH and even exogenous somatostatin, which are known to almost abolish the effect of GHRH. GHRPs maintain their GH-releasing effect in somatotrope hypersecretory states such as in acromegaly, anorexia nervosa and hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, their good GH-releasing activity has been shown in some but not in other somatotrope hyposecretory states. In fact, reduced GH responses after GHRP administration have been reported in idiopathic GH deficiency as well as in idiopathic short stature, in obesity and in hypothyroidism, while in patients with pituitary stalk disconnection or Cushing's syndrome the somatotrope responsiveness to GHRPs is almost absent. In short children an increase in height velocity has also been reported during chronic GHRP treatment. Thus, based on their marked GH-releasing effect even after oral administration, GHRPs offer their own clinical usefulness for treatment of some GH hyposecretory states.

  20. Clinical outcomes after arthroscopic release for recalcitrant frozen shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Pour, Mostafa Khalili; Moghadam, Mohammad Hallaj; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2014-09-01

    To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males) with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad, Iran. Before operation, all patients filled out the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), ROWE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain questionnaires. We measured the difference in range of motion between both the normal and the frozen shoulders in each patient. The average age of the patients was 50.8±7.1 years. In 49 patients, the right shoulder was affected and in the remaining 31 the left side was affected. Before surgery, the patients were suffering from this disease on average for 11.7±10.3 months. The average time to follow-up was 47.2±6.8 months (14 to 60 months). Diabetes mellitus (38%) and history of shoulder trauma (23%) were the most common comorbidities in our patients. We did not find any significant differences between baseline characteristics of diabetics patients with non-diabetics ones. After surgery, the average time to achieve maximum pain improvement and range of motion were 3.6±2.1 and 3.6±2 months, respectively. The VAS score, constant shoulder score, Rowe score, UCLA shoulder score, and DASH score showed significant improvement in shoulder function after surgery, and shoulder range of motion improved in all directions compared to pre-operation range of motion. According to our results, arthroscopic release of recalcitrant frozen shoulder is a valuable modality in treating this disease. This method could decrease pain and improve both subjective and objective mid-term outcomes.

  1. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  2. APASS Data Release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Arne A.; Levine, Stephen; Terrell, Dirk; Welch, Douglas L.; Munari, Ulisse; Kloppenborg, Brian K.

    2018-06-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) has been underway since 2010. This survey covers the entire sky from 7.5 knowledge of the optical train distortions. With these changes, DR10 includes many more stars than prior releases. We describe the survey, its remaining limitations, and prospects for the future, including a very-bright-star extension.

  3. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  4. 14C release from failed spent fuel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1989-01-01

    Partially failed containers may provide a meaningful barrier to the release of gaseous 14 CO 2 . A modeling approach is outlined and sample calculations are provided that show the effect on release due to a limited perforation area, to decreasing temperature, and to partial occlusion of the perforated area by corrosion products. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  5. 14C release from failed spent fuel containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1990-01-01

    Partially failed containers may provide a meaningful barrier to the release of gaseous radionuclides. A modeling approach is outlined and sample calculations are provided that show the effects on release due to a limited perforation area, to decreasing temperature, and to the partial occlusion of the perforated area by corrosion products. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  7. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  9. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  10. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  11. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  12. Thermal treating of acrylic matrices as a tool for controlling drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Davood; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Al-Hallak, M H D-Kamal; Soltani, Ghazal; Azarmi, Shirzad

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of thermal-treating on the release of ibuprofen from the granules prepared using aqueous dispersions of Eudragit. To accomplish this goal, different formulations were prepared using wet granulation method containing two different types of Eudragit aqueous dispersions, RS30D, RL30D and Avicel as filler. Tablets were prepared using direct compression method. The prepared tablets were thermally treated at 50 and 70 degrees C for 24 h. The drug release from tablets was assessed before and after thermal-treating. The results of release study showed that, thermally-treating the tablets at the temperatures higher than glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer can decrease the drug release from matrices. For mechanistic evaluation of the effect of thermal-treating, powder X-ray diffraction (XPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and helium pycnometer have been employed. The SEM graphs showed that the tablets have smoother surface with less porosity after thermal-treating. FT-IR spectra showed no change in the spectrum of thermally-treated tablet compared to control. In DSC graphs, no crystalline change was seen in the heat-treated samples of ibuprofen tablets, but decreased and widened peak size were related to the probable formation of solid solution of ibuprofen in Eudragit matrix. The results of helium pycnometer showed a significant decrease in the total porosity of some heat-treated samples. This study revealed the importance of thermal treating on the drug release from sustained release tablets containing Eudragit polymer.

  13. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  14. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  15. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  16. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  17. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  18. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  19. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  20. Dual-release hydrocortisone treatment: glycometabolic profile and health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M Mongioì

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adrenal insufficiency (AI is a chronic condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The treatment of AI in the last years has been object of important changes due to the development of a dual-release preparation of hydrocortisone. It differs from previous therapeutic strategy as it contemplates a once-daily tablet that allows more closely mimicking the physiological circadian cortisol rhythm. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dual-release hydrocortisone treatment on the glycometabolic profile and health-related quality of life of patients with AI. Design and Methods: In this clinical open trial, we enrolled ten patients with primary AI (41 ± 2.67 years and nine patients with AI secondary to hypopituitarism (53.2 ± 17.7 years. We evaluated the glycometabolic profile before and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after dual-release hydrocortisone administration. We also evaluated health-related quality of life, estimated by the AddiQol questionnaire. The mean dose administered of dual-release hydrocortisone was 28.33 ± 6.68 mg/day. Results: One female hypopituitary patient dropped out from the study. After 12 months of treatment, the mean dosage administered of dual-release hydrocortisone was significantly lower (P < 0.05 and all patients reported improved quality of life and well-being. The glycometabolic profile improved and the glycosylated hemoglobin decreased significantly in patients with primary AI (6.25 ± 0.2 vs 5.35 ± 0.17, P < 0.05. In contrast, hypopituitary patients had worse glycometabolic profile and a trend toward hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusions: Dual-release hydrocortisone treatment improved the quality of life of patients with AI, and it allowed a decrease of cortisol dosage administered in the absence of side effects. The glycometabolic profile worsened in hypopituitary patients.

  1. Regulation of serotonin release from enterochromaffin cells of rat cecum mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Ternaux, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The release of endogenous serotonin or previously taken up tritiated serotonin from isolated strips of rat cecum mucosa containing enterochromaffin cells was studied in vitro. Release of tritiated serotonin was increased by potassium depolarization and was decreased by tetrodotoxin, veratridine and the absence of calcium. Endogenous serotonin was released at a lower rate than tritiated serotonin; endogenous serotonin release was stimulated by potassium depolarization but was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, veratridine or the absence of calcium. Carbachol, norepinephrine, clonidine and isoproterenol decreased release of tritiated serotonin but had less or reverse effect on release of endogenous serotonin. The results suggest two different serotoninergic pools within the enterochromaffin cell population

  2. Decontamination for free release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, K A; Elder, G R [Bradtec Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Many countries are seeking to treat radioactive waste in ways which meet the local regulatory requirements, but yet are cost effective when all contributing factors are assessed. In some countries there are increasing amounts of waste, arising from nuclear plant decommissioning, which are categorized as low level waste: however with suitable treatment a large part of such wastes might become beyond regulatory control and be able to be released as non-radioactive. The benefits and disadvantages of additional treatment before disposal need to be considered. Several processes falling within the overall description of decontamination for free release have been developed and applied, and these are outlined. In one instance the process seeks to take advantage of techniques and equipment used for decontaminating water reactor circuits intermittently through reactor life. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  4. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  5. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  6. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  7. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  8. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  9. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  11. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  12. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  13. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  14. Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Somasundaram; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraiswamy; Bannoth Chandra Sekhar, Kothapalli

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the controlled release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water insoluble (indomethacin) drugs derived from Caesalpinia pulcherrima seed Gum isolated from Caesalpinia pulcherrima kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporating diluents such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on caffeine release. In addition the effect the gum's (polysaccharide) partial cross-linking had on release of acetaminophen was examined. Applying the exponential equation, the soluble drugs mechanism of release was found to be anomalous. The insoluble drugs showed a near case II or zero order release mechanism. The rate of release in descending order was caffeine, acetaminophen, theophylline, salicylic acid and indomethacin. An increase in the release kinetics of the drug was observed on blending with diluents. However, the rate of release varied with the type and amount of blend within the matrix. The mechanism of release due to effect of diluents was found to be anomalous. The rate of drug release decreased upon partial cross-linking and the mechanism of release was found to be of super case II.

  15. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  16. Fluoxetine Alleviates Behavioral Depression while Decreasing Acetylcholine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, David T; Rada, Pedro V; Kim, Kay; Kosloff, Rebecca A; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, have demonstrated the ability to alleviate behavioral depression in the forced swim test; however, the sites and mechanisms of their actions remain to be further elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that behavioral depression in the swim test is mediated in part by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulating the cholinergic M1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. The current study tested whether acute, local, and chronic, subc...

  17. Interaction of glutamate- and adenosine-induced decrease of acetylcholine quantal release at frog neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, S.; Shakirzyanova, V.; Malomouzh, A. I.; Naumenko, N. V.; Vyskočil, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2010), s. 803-810 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Endplate potentials * Guanylyl cyclase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  18. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus has a pivotal role in regulation of prolactin release in lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J Z; Kanyicska, B; Nagy, G Y

    1986-08-01

    The affect of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) lesions on PRL secretory response to suckling was studied in adult female rats. Basal levels of PRL were similar in the control and lesioned groups. Substantial decreases in PRL levels occurred after separation of pups from their mothers in the control as well as lesioned animals. When mothers and pups were reunited, the circulating PRL concentrations of the control groups rose immediately from basal values of 50-100 micrograms/liter to reach peaks of 450-550 micrograms/liter. PVN lesions significantly decreased the suckling-induced rise of PRL levels. Furthermore, PVN lesions abolished the high amplitude, episodic pattern of PRL release in continuously lactating rats. These findings are consistent with the view that PVN neurons produce PRL releasing factor(s), which is (are) required for normal secretory patterns of PRL in lactating rats.

  19. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  20. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  2. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  3. Intellectual disability and patient activation after release from prison: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J T; Cumming, C; van Dooren, K; Lennox, N G; Alati, R; Spittal, M J; Brophy, L; Preen, D B; Kinner, S A

    2017-10-01

    Intellectual disability and patient activation may be important drivers of inequities in health service access and health outcomes for people with intellectual disability transitioning from prison to the community. We assessed the association between intellectual disability and patient activation after prison release and examined whether this association varied, depending on whether intellectual disability was identified prior to prison release. Overall, 936 prisoners were screened for intellectual disability by using the Hayes Ability Screening Index and completed the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) within 6 weeks of prison release and again at 1, 3 and 6 months post-release. We estimated the association between intellectual disability status and PAM scores by using a multilevel linear model, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural, health and criminogenic factors. We used propensity score matching to estimate the impact of being identified with intellectual disability prior to release from prison on the change in mean PAM score after prison release. Compared with those who screened negative for intellectual disability, ex-prisoners who screened positive, both with and without prior identification of intellectual disability, had significantly decreased mean PAM scores [(B = -4.3; 95% CI: -6.3, -2.4) and (B = -4.5; 95% CI: -6.8, -2.3), respectively] over 6 months of follow-up. Among those who reported being identified with intellectual disability prior to release from prison, a significant increase in PAM score at the 6-month follow-up interview (B = 5.89; 95% CI: 2.35, 9.42; P = 0.001) was attributable to being identified with intellectual disability prior to release. Ex-prisoners screening positive for possible intellectual disability have decreased patient activation for at least 6 months after release from prison. However, individuals whose possible intellectual disability is unidentified appear to be particularly vulnerable. Incarceration is a

  4. Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C J; Shin, J S; Cha, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 +/- 0.15, 37 degrees C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 x .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco's copper NiTi and Tomy's Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500 degrees C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

  5. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  6. Minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, R.W.; Stobbe, T.J.; Mogensen, J.E.; Jeram, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes procedures for minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases and suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used in the event of such chemical release. How individuals, employees, supervisors, or companies perceive the risks of chemical exposure (risk meaning both probability of exposure and effect of exposure) determines to a great extent what precautions are taken to avoid risk. In Part I, the authors develop and approach which divides the project into three phases: kinds of procedures currently being used; the types of toxic chemical release accidents and injuries that occur; and, finally, integration of this information into a set of recommended procedures which should decrease the likelihood of a toxic chemical release and, if one does occur, will minimize the exposure and its severity to employees. Part II covers the use of personal protective equipment. It addresses the questions: what personal protective equipment ensembles are used in industry in situations where the release of a toxic or dangerous chemical may occur or has occurred; and what personal protective equipment ensembles should be used in these situations

  7. Gas Release as a Deformation Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic noble gases are contained in crustal rock at inter and intra granular sites. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history, fluid phases, and the aging effect by decay of U, Th, and K. The isotopic signature of noble gases found in rocks is vastly different than that of the atmosphere which is contributed by a variety of sources. When rock is subjected to stress conditions exceeding about half its yield strength, micro-cracks begin to form. As rock deformation progresses a fracture network evolves, releasing trapped noble gases and changing the transport properties to gas migration. Thus, changes in gas emanation and noble gas composition from rocks could be used to infer changes in stress-state and deformation. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the effect of deformation/strain rate upon noble gas release. Four triaxial experiments were attempted for a strain rate range of %7E10-8 /s (180,000s) to %7E 10-4/s (500s); the three fully successful experiments (at the faster strain rates) imply the following: (1) helium is measurably released for all strain rates during deformation, this release is in amounts 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that present in the air, and (2) helium gas release increases with decreasing strain rate.

  8. Metal release from coffee machines and electric kettles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frederic D; Hackethal, Christin; Schmidt, Roman; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The release of elemental ions from 8 coffee machines and 11 electric kettles into food simulants was investigated. Three different types of coffee machines were tested: portafilter espresso machines, pod machines and capsule machines. All machines were tested subsequently on 3 days before and on 3 days after decalcification. Decalcification of the machines was performed with agents according to procedures as specified in the respective manufacturer's manuals. The electric kettles showed only a low release of the elements analysed. For the coffee machines decreasing concentrations of elements were found from the first to the last sample taken in the course of 1 day. Metal release on consecutive days showed a decreasing trend as well. After decalcification a large increase in the amounts of elements released was encountered. In addition, the different machine types investigated clearly differed in their extent of element release. By far the highest leaching, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was found for the portafilter machines. With these products releases of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr and Zn were in the range and beyond the release limits as proposed by the Council of Europe. Therefore, a careful rinsing routine, especially after decalcification, is recommended for these machines. The comparably lower extent of release of one particular portafilter machine demonstrates that metal release at levels above the threshold that triggers health concerns are technically avoidable.

  9. Growth Hormone-Releaser Diet Attenuates Cognitive Dysfunction in Klotho Mutant Mice via Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Activation in a Genetic Aging Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Joo Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has been recognized that a defect in klotho gene expression accelerates the degeneration of multiple age-sensitive traits. Accumulating evidence indicates that aging is associated with declines in cognitive function and the activity of growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1.MethodsIn this study, we examined whether a GH-releaser diet could be effective in protecting against cognitive impairment in klotho mutant mice.ResultsThe GH-releaser diet significantly induced the expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in the hippocampus of klotho mutant mice. Klotho mutant mice showed significant memory impairments as compared with wild-type mice. In addition, the klotho mutation significantly decreased the expression of cell survival/antiapoptotic factors, including phospho-Akt (p-Akt/phospho-glycogen synthase kinase3β (p-GSK3β, phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK, and Bcl-2, but significantly increased those of cell death/proapoptotic factors, such as phospho-c-jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 in the hippocampus. Treatment with GH-releaser diet significantly attenuated both decreases in the expression of cell survival/antiapoptotic factors and increases in the expression of cell death/proapoptotic factors in the hippocampus of klotho mutant mice. In addition, klotho mutation-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by the GH-releaser diet. Consequently, a GH-releaser diet significantly improved memory function in the klotho mutant mice. GH-releaser diet-mediated actions were significantly reversed by JB-1, an IGF-1 receptor antagonist.ConclusionThe results suggest that a GH-releaser diet attenuates oxidative stress, proapoptotic changes and consequent dysfunction in klotho mutant mice by promoting IGF-1 expression and IGF-1 receptor activation.

  10. Continuous-release formulation for environmental doses to moving receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion models frequently assume a puff release or several puff releases, each of which are described separately. A dispersion model should better describe a continuous release as more puffs are assumed, but the computational cost and bookkeeping difficulty increases with additional puffs. A new formulism is derived in this work which replaces the puff approximation. With the new continuous release formulation, radioactive dose calculations to moving receptors are more accurately calculated without any great additional computation. There are several advantages of a continuous release formulation. With this formulation, a dose rate to a moving receptor is calculated as a function of time. The dose-rate will increase (decrease) as the bulk of the release gets closer (farther) to (from) the receptor which is at position x(t), y(t). The receptor may follow any x, y trajectory as a function of time, and the dose rate will be calculated along the path

  11. Leptin inhibits and ghrelin augments hypothalamic noradrenaline release after stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Akio; Okada, Nobukazu; Rokkaku, Kumiko; Honda, Kazufumi; Ishibashi, Shun; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2008-09-01

    Metabolic conditions affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal responses to stressful stimuli. Here we examined effects of food deprivation, leptin and ghrelin upon noradrenaline release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations after stressful stimuli. Food deprivation augmented both noradrenaline release in the PVN and the increase in plasma ACTH concentration following electrical footshocks (FSs). An intracerebroventricular injection of leptin attenuated the increases in hypothalamic noradrenaline release and plasma ACTH concentrations after FSs, while ghrelin augmented these responses. These data suggest that leptin inhibits and ghrelin facilitates neuroendocrine stress responses via noradrenaline release and indicate that a decrease in leptin and an increase in ghrelin release after food deprivation might contribute to augmentation of stress-induced ACTH release in a fasting state.

  12. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  13. Riola release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables

  14. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  15. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  16. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  17. Antimicrobial beeswax coated polylactide films with silver control release capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abad, Antonio; Lagarón, Jose Maria; Ocio, María Jose

    2014-03-17

    Although the application of silver based antimicrobial systems is a widespread technology, its implementation in areas such as food packaging is still challenging. The present paper describes the fabrication of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coated with beeswax with controlled release properties for sustained antimicrobial performance. Release of silver ions from the polymers was monitored voltammetrically under various conditions (surface contact, immersion in various liquid media and at different pH values) throughout at least 7days. A higher release was noted with decreasing pH while surface release was much slower than the release when immersed in liquid medium. While uncoated films demonstrated a high burst release which in some instances implied surpassing some current migration restrictions (food), the addition of a beeswax layer allowed a sustained release of the antimicrobial compound. Increasing the thickness of the beeswax layer resulted in an increase in the water barrier properties of the films while reducing the relatively constant values of sustained release. Antimicrobial performance was correlated with the release of silver ions, indicating threshold concentrations for biocide action of films displayed a strong bactericidal effect against Salmonella enterica. The application of this functional barrier thus offers the possibility of tuning the release profiles of the films to suit a specific application and puts forth the possible suitability of these materials for food packaging or other migration sensitive applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  19. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  20. Release of sICAM-1 in oocytes and in vitro fertilized human embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Borgatti

    Full Text Available During the last years, several studies have reported the significant relationship between the production of soluble HLA-G molecules (sHLA-G by 48-72 hours early embryos and an increased implantation rate in IVF protocols. As consequence, the detection of HLA-G modulation was suggested as a marker to identify the best embryos to be transferred. On the opposite, no suitable markers are available for the oocyte selection.The major finding of the present paper is that the release of ICAM-1 might be predictive of oocyte maturation. The results obtained are confirmed using three independent methodologies, such as ELISA, Bio-Plex assay and Western blotting. The sICAM-1 release is very high in immature oocytes, decrease in mature oocytes and become even lower in in vitro fertilized embryos. No significant differences were observed in the levels of sICAM-1 release between immature oocytes with different morphological characteristics. On the contrary, when the mature oocytes were subdivided accordingly to morphological criteria, the mean sICAM-I levels in grade 1 oocytes were significantly decreased when compared to grade 2 and 3 oocytes.The reduction of the number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos represents the main target of assisted reproductive medicine. We propose sICAM-1 as a biochemical marker for oocyte maturation and grading, with a possible interesting rebound in assisted reproduction techniques.

  1. Role of hemolysis in red cell adenosine triphosphate release in simulated exercise conditions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairbäurl, Heimo; Ruppe, Florian A; Bärtsch, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from red blood cells has been discussed as a possible mediator controlling microcirculation in states of decreased tissue oxygen. Because intravascular hemolysis might also contribute to plasma ATP, we tested in vitro which portion of ATP release is due to hemolysis in typical exercise-induced strains to the red blood cells (shear stress, deoxygenation, and lactic acidosis). Human erythrocytes were suspended in dextran-containing media (hematocrit 10%) and were exposed to shear stress in a rotating Couette viscometer at 37°C. Desaturation (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin ∼20%) was achieved by tonometry with N2 before shear stress exposure. Cells not exposed to shear stress were used as controls. Na lactate (15 mM), lactic acid (15 mM, pH 7.0), and HCl (pH 7.0) were added to simulate exercise-induced lactic acidosis. After incubation, extracellular hemoglobin was measured to quantify hemolysis. ATP was measured with the luciferase assay. Shear stress increased extracellular ATP in a stress-related and time-dependent manner. Hypoxia induced a ∼10-fold increase in extracellular ATP in nonsheared cells and shear stress-exposed cells. Lactic acid had no significant effect on ATP release and hemolysis. In normoxic cells, approximately 20%-50% of extracellular ATP was due to hemolysis. This proportion decreased to less than 10% in hypoxic cells. Our results indicate that when exposing red blood cells to typical strains they encounter when passing through capillaries of exercising skeletal muscle, ATP release from red blood cells is caused mainly by deoxygenation and shear stress, whereas lactic acidosis had only a minor effect. Hemolysis effects were decreased when hemoglobin was deoxygenated. Together, by specific release and hemolysis, extracellular ATP reaches values that have been shown to cause local vasodilatation.

  2. Asthma causes inflammation of human pulmonary arteries and decreases vasodilatation induced by prostaglandin I2 analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudi, Nabil; Badi, Aouatef; Amrane, Mounira; Hodroj, Wassim

    2017-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular events. This study assesses the presence of inflammation and the vascular reactivity of pulmonary arteries in patients with acute asthma. Rings of human pulmonary arteries obtained from non-asthmatic and asthmatic patients were set up in organ bath for vascular tone monitoring. Reactivity was induced by vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. Protein expression of inflammatory markers was detected by western blot. Prostanoid releases and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were quantified using specific enzymatic kits. Protein expression of cluster of differentiation 68, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 was significantly increased in arteries obtained from asthmatic patients. These effects were accompanied by an alteration of vasodilatation induced by iloprost and treprostinil, a decrease in cAMP levels and an increase in prostaglandin (PG) E 2 and PGI 2 synthesis. The use of forskolin (50 µmol/L) has restored the vasodilatation and cAMP release. No difference was observed between the two groups in reactivity induced by norepinephrine, angiotensin II, PGE 2 , KCl, sodium nitroprusside, and acetylcholine. Acute asthma causes inflammation of pulmonary arteries and decreases vasodilation induced by PGI 2 analogs through the impairment of cAMP pathway.

  3. Validation of software releases for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The CMS software stack currently consists of more than 2 Million lines of code developed by over 250 authors with a new version being released every week. CMS has setup a validation process for quality assurance which enables the developers to compare the performance of a release to previous releases and references. The validation process provides the developers with reconstructed datasets of real data and MC samples. The samples span the whole range of detector effects and important physics signatures to benchmark the performance of the software. They are used to investigate interdependency effects of all CMS software components and to find and fix bugs. The release validation process described here is an integral part of CMS software development and contributes significantly to ensure stable production and analysis. It represents a sizable contribution to the overall MC production of CMS. Its success emphasizes the importance of a streamlined release validation process for projects with a large code basis and significant number of developers and can function as a model for future projects.

  4. Comparison of metal release from various metallic biomaterials in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu; Gotoh, Emiko

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the metal release of each base and alloying elements in vitro, SUS316L stainless steel, Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy, commercially pure Ti grade 2, and Ti-6Al-4V, V-free Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloys were immersed in various solutions, namely, alpha-medium, PBS(-), calf serum, 0.9% NaCl, artificial saliva, 1.2 mass% L-cysteine, 1 mass% lactic acid and 0.01 mass% HCl for 7d. The difference in the quantity of Co released from the Co-Cr-Mo casting alloy was relatively small in all the solutions. The quantities of Ti released into alpha-medium, PBS(-), calf serum, 0.9% NaCl and artificial saliva were much lower than those released into 1.2% L-cysteine, 1% lactic acid and 0.01% HCl. The quantity of Fe released from SUS316L stainless steel decreased linearly with increasing pH. On the other hand, the quantity of Ti released from Ti materials increased with decreasing pH, and it markedly attenuated at pHs of approximately 4 and higher. The quantity of Ni released from stainless steel gradually decreased with increasing pH. The quantities of Al released from the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys gradually decreased with increasing pH. A small V release was observed in calf serum, PBS(-), artificial saliva, 1% lactic acid, 1.2% l-cysteine and 0.01% HCl. The quantity of Ti released from the Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy was smaller than those released from the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys in all the solutions. In particular, it was approximately 30% or smaller in 1% lactic acid, 1.2% L-cysteine and 0.01% HCl. The quantity of (Zr + Nb + Ta) released was also considerably lower than that of (Al + Nb) or (Al + V) released. Therefore, the Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy with its low metal release in vitro is considered advantageous for long-term implants. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  6. Investigating the in vitro drug release kinetics from controlled release diclofenac potassium-ethocel matrix tablets and the influence of co-excipients on drug release patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shefaat Ullah; Shah, Kifayat Ullah; Rehman, Asimur; Khan, Gul Majid

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate controlled release polymeric tablets of Diclofenac Potassium for the release rate, release patterns and the mechanism involved in the release process of the drug. Formulations with different types and grades of Ethyl Cellulose Ether derivatives in several drug-to-polymer ratios (D:P) were compressed into tablets using the direct compression method. In vitro drug release studies were performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) as dissolution medium by using USP Method-1 (Rotating Basket Method). Similarity factor f2 and dissimilarity factor f1 were applied for checking the similarities and dissimilarities of the release profiles of different formulations. For the determination of the release mechanism and drug release kinetics various mathematical/kinetic models were employed. It was found that all of the Ethocel polymers could significantly slow down the drug release rate with Ethocel FP polymers being the most efficient, especially at D:P ratios of 10:03 which lead towards the achievement of zero or near zero order release kinetics.

  7. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members

  8. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  9. Phosphorus Solubilizing and Releasing Bacteria Screening from the Rhizosphere in a Natural Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic phosphorus (P-solubilizing bacteria (IPSB and organic P-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB were isolated from bacteria that were first extracted from the rhizosphere soil of a natural wetland and then grown on either tricalcium phosphate or lecithin medium. The solubilizing of inorganic P was the major contribution to P availability, since the isolated bacteria released much more available P from inorganic tricalcium phosphate than lecithin. IPSB No. 5 had the highest P release rate, that is, 0.53 mg·L−1·h−1 in 96 h, and R10′s release rate was 0.52 mg·L−1·h−1 in 10 days. The bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas knackmussii, respectively. R10 released as much as 125.88 mg·L−1 dissolved P from tricalcium phosphate medium, while R4 released the most dissolved P from organic P medium among the isolates, with a concentration of 1.88 mg·L−1 and a releasing rate of 0.0078 mg·L−1·h−1 in ten days. P releasing increased with a pH decrease only when it was from inorganic P, not organic lecithin, and there was no significant correlation between the culture pH and P solubilizing. High-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the dominant phylum in the studied wetland rhizosphere consisted of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi, accounting for 34.9%, 34.2%, 8.8% and 4.8%, respectively.

  10. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaleemullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2 value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and

  11. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleemullah, M; Jiyauddin, K; Thiban, E; Rasha, S; Al-Dhalli, S; Budiasih, S; Gamal, O E; Fadli, A; Eddy, Y

    2017-07-01

    Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor ( f 2 ) value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f 2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and T50% with p

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tablet formulations showed a percent drug release ranging from 92.54 ± 1.02 to 98.56 ± 1.26 % at the end of 12 h. Using the spinal injury rat model, ... very common and significant problem. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ... animal studies, its mechanism of action involves depressing polysynaptic reflexes ...

  13. Anabolic Steroids Reduce Muscle Degeneration Associated With Rotator Cuff Tendon Release in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christian; Meyer, Dominik C; Flück, Martin; Benn, Mario C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Wieser, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Chronic rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with irreversible atrophy, fatty infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis of the corresponding muscle. Anabolic steroids can prevent musculotendinous degeneration during retraction and/or can reverse these changes after operative repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. The infraspinatus tendon was released in 18 alpine sheep. All sheep underwent repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit after 16 weeks and were sacrificed after 22 weeks; 6 sheep served as controls, 6 sheep were treated with weekly intramuscular injection of 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate after infraspinatus (ISP) repair (group N6W), and 6 sheep were treated with 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate immediately after tendon release (group N22W). Muscle biopsy specimens were taken before tendon release and after 16 and 22 weeks. Muscle volume and fatty infiltration (on MRI), myotendinous retraction, and muscle density (on computed tomography) were measured immediately after ISP release, after 6 weeks, and before ISP repair and sacrifice. Muscle volume on MRI decreased to a mean (±SD) of 80% ± 8% of the original volume after 6 weeks, remained stable at 78% ± 11% after 16 weeks, and decreased further to 69% ± 9% after 22 weeks in the control group. These findings were no different from those in group N22W (72% ± 9% at 6 weeks, 73% ± 6% at 16 weeks, and 67% ± 5% at 22 weeks). Conversely, the N6W group did not show a decrease in ISP volume after repair; this finding differed significantly from the response in the control and N22W groups. Fatty infiltration (on MRI) continuously increased in the control group (12% ± 4% at tendon release, 17% ± 4% after 6 weeks, 50% ± 9% after 16 weeks, and 60% ± 8% after 22 weeks) and the N6W group. However, application of anabolic steroids at the time of tendon release (N22W group) significantly reduced fatty infiltration after 16 (16% ± 5%; P anabolic steroids starting

  14. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  15. Release of powdered material from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Peiffer, F.; Seehars, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Possible incidents in the operational phase of the planned German repository KONRAD for radioactive waste with negligible heat production were investigated to assess the radiological consequences. For these investigations release fractions of the radioactive materials are required. This paper deals with the determination of the release of powdered material from waste packages under mechanical stress. These determinations were based on experiments. The experimental procedure and the process parameters chosen in accordance with the conditions in the planned repository will be described. The significance of the experimental results is discussed with respect to incidents in the planned repository. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  17. Composite poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl acetate electrospun nanofibrous mats as a novel wound dressing matrix for controlled release of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannesari M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Marziyeh Jannesari1, Jaleh Varshosaz2, Mohammad Morshed1, Maedeh Zamani11Department of Textile Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to develop novel biomedicated nanofiber electrospun mats for controlled drug release, especially drug release directly to an injury site to accelerate wound healing. Nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA, poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc, and a 50:50 composite blend, loaded with ciprofloxacin HCl (CipHCl, were successfully prepared by an electrospinning technique for the first time. The morphology and average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction studies indicated an amorphous distribution of the drug inside the nanofiber blend. Introducing the drug into polymeric solutions significantly decreased solution viscosities as well as nanofiber diameter. In vitro drug release evaluations showed that both the kind of polymer and the amount of drug loaded greatly affected the degree of swelling, weight loss, and initial burst and rate of drug release. Blending PVA and PVAc exhibited a useful and convenient method for electrospinning in order to control the rate and period of drug release in wound healing applications. Also, the thickness of the blend nanofiber mats strongly influenced the initial release and rate of drug release.Keywords: biodegradable polymers, drug delivery, controlled release, electrospun nanofibers, wound dressing

  18. Effects of NSAIDs on the Release of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Prostaglandin E2 from Rat Trigeminal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Vellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are frequently used to treat migraine, but the mechanisms of their effects in this pathology are not fully elucidated. The trigeminal ganglia and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. The release of CGRP and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 from freshly isolated rat trigeminal ganglia was evaluated after oral administration of nimesulide, etoricoxib, and ketoprofen, NSAIDs with different pharmacological features. Thirty minutes after oral administration, nimesulide, 10 mg/Kg, decreased the GCRP release induced by an inflammatory soup, while the other NSAIDs were ineffective at this point in time. Two hours after oral nimesulide (5 and 10 mg/Kg and ketoprofen (10 mg/Kg, but not of etoricoxib, a significant decrease in the CGRP release was observed. All drugs reduced PGE2, although with some differences in timing and doses, and the action on CGRP does not seem to be related to PGE2 inhibition. The reduction of CGRP release from rat trigeminal ganglia after nimesulide and ketoprofen may help to explain the mechanism of action of NSAIDs in migraine. Since at 30 minutes only nimesulide was effective in reducing CGRP release, these results suggest that this NSAID may exert a particularly rapid effect in patients with migraine.

  19. Controlled drug release from bifunctionalized mesoporous silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wujun; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan; Shen, Wanling; Deng, Feng

    2008-10-01

    Serial of trimethylsilyl-carboxyl bifunctionalized SBA-15 (TMS/COOH/SBA-15) have been studied as carriers for controlled release of drug famotidine (Famo). To load Famo with large capacity, SBA-15 with high content of carboxyl groups was successfully synthesized by one-pot synthesis under the assistance of KCl. The mesostructure of carboxyl functionalized SBA-15 (COOH/SBA-15) could still be kept even though the content of carboxyl groups was up to 57.2%. Increasing carboxyl content could effectively enhance the loading capacity of Famo. Compared with pure SBA-15, into which Famo could be hardly adsorbed, the largest drug loading capacity of COOH/SBA-15 could achieve 396.9 mg/g. The release of Famo from mesoporous silica was studied in simulated intestine fluid (SIF, pH=7.4). For COOH/SBA-15, the release rate of Famo decreased with narrowing pore size. After grafting TMS groups on the surface of COOH/SBA-15 with hexamethyldisilazane, the release of Famo was greatly delayed with the increasing content of TMS groups.

  20. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  1. Release of dissolved 85Kr by standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Norikatsu; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Tsukui, Kohei

    1986-01-01

    The experiments on the release of dissolved 85 Kr by standing at room temperature were carried out to examine the influence of liquid level in a sampler and properties of solvent on the release efficiency. Six kinds of organic solvents as well as water were taken as solvents. The half-life period in case of the decrease in concentration of the dissolved 85 Kr which was used as an index of release efficiency, was proportional to the liquid level in the sampler and was inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient of Kr gas in solvent. For organic solvents belonging to homologous series, the half-life period became longer with increasing the carbon number of solvent molecule. From the relationship between the half-life period and the carbon number, the release efficiency in the dissolved 85 Kr can be predicted for any commonly used solvent as a practical application. This method was found to be an effective means of removing the dissolved 85 Kr of low level though it takes rather long time. (author)

  2. Role of fission gas release in reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The release of fission gases from oxide pellets to the fuel rod internal voidage (gap) is reviewed with regard to the required safety analysis in reactor licensing. Significant analyzed effects are described, prominent gas release models are reviewed, and various methods used in the licensing process are summarized. The report thus serves as a guide to a large body of literature including company reports and government documents. A discussion of the state of the art of gas release analysis is presented

  3. Rapid decreases in preoptic aromatase activity and brain monoamine concentrations after engaging in male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, C A; Dalla, C; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Baillien, M; Dejace, C; Ball, G F; Balthazart, J

    2005-09-01

    In Japanese quail, as in rats, the expression of male sexual behavior over relatively long time periods (days to weeks) is dependent on the local production of estradiol in the preoptic area via the aromatization of testosterone. On a short-term basis (minutes to hours), central actions of dopamine as well as locally produced estrogens modulate behavioral expression. In rats, a view of and sexual interaction with a female increase dopamine release in the preoptic area. In quail, in vitro brain aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylations that are likely to occur in vivo as a result of changes in neurotransmitter activity. Furthermore, an acute estradiol injection rapidly stimulates copulation in quail, whereas a single injection of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole rapidly inhibits this behavior. We hypothesized that brain aromatase and dopaminergic activities are regulated in quail in association with the expression of male sexual behavior. Visual access as well as sexual interactions with a female produced a significant decrease in brain AA, which was maximal after 5 min. This expression of sexual behavior also resulted in a significant decrease in dopaminergic as well as serotonergic activity after 1 min, which returned to basal levels after 5 min. These results demonstrate for the first time that AA is rapidly modulated in vivo in parallel with changes in dopamine activity. Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior.

  4. Membrane properties involved in calcium-stimulated microparticle release from the plasma membranes of S49 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauryl E; Nelson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2014-01-01

    This study answered the question of whether biophysical mechanisms for microparticle shedding discovered in platelets and erythrocytes also apply to nucleated cells: cytoskeletal disruption, potassium efflux, transbilayer phospholipid migration, and membrane disordering. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton of S49 lymphoma cells and produced rapid release of microparticles. This release was significantly inhibited by interventions that impaired calcium-activated potassium current. Microparticle release was also greatly reduced in a lymphocyte cell line deficient in the expression of scramblase, the enzyme responsible for calcium-stimulated dismantling of the normal phospholipid transbilayer asymmetry. Rescue of the scrambling function at high ionophore concentration also resulted in enhanced particle shedding. The effect of membrane physical properties was addressed by varying the experimental temperature (32-42°C). A significant positive trend in the rate of microparticle release as a function of temperature was observed. Fluorescence experiments with trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene and Patman revealed significant decrease in the level of apparent membrane order along that temperature range. These results demonstrated that biophysical mechanisms involved in microparticle release from platelets and erythrocytes apply also to lymphocytes.

  5. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Degassing, gas retention and release in Fe(0) permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Aki S; Jekel, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Corrosion of Fe(0) has been successfully utilized for the reductive treatment of multiple contaminants. Under anaerobic conditions, concurrent corrosion leads to the generation of hydrogen and its liberation as a gas. Gas bubbles are mobile or trapped within the irregular pore structure leading to a reduction of the water filled pore volume and thus decreased residence time and permeability (gas clogging). With regard to the contaminant transport to the reactive site, the estimation of surface properties of the reactive material indicated that individual gas bubbles only occupied minor contact areas of the reactive surface. Quantification of gas entrapment by both gravimetrical and tracer investigations revealed that development of preferential flow paths was not significant. A novel continuous gravimetrical method was implemented to record variations in gas entrapment and gas bubble releases from the reactive filling. Variation of grain size fractions revealed that the pore geometry had a significant impact on gas release. Large pores led to the release of comparably large gas amounts while smaller volumes were released from finer pores with a higher frequency. Relevant processes are explained with a simplified pictorial sequence that incorporates relevant mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The release of dissolved nutrients and metals from coastal sediments due to resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnejais, Linda H.; Martin, William R.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal sediments in many regions are impacted by high levels of contaminants. Due to a combination of shallow water depths, waves, and currents, these sediments are subject to regular episodes of sediment resuspension. However, the influence of such disturbances on sediment chemistry and the release of solutes is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to quantify the release of dissolved metals (iron, manganese, silver, copper, and lead) and nutrients due to resuspension in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, USA. Using a laboratory-based erosion chamber, a range of typical shear stresses was applied to fine-grained Harbor sediments and the solute concentration at each shear stress was measured. At low shear stress, below the erosion threshold, limited solutes were released. Beyond the erosion threshold, a release of all solutes, except lead, was observed and the concentrations increased with shear stress. The release was greater than could be accounted for by conservative mixing of porewaters into the overlying water, suggesting that sediment resuspension enhances the release of nutrients and metals to the dissolved phase. To address the long-term fate of resuspended particles, samples from the erosion chamber were maintained in suspension for 90. h. Over this time, 5-7% of the particulate copper and silver was released to the dissolved phase, while manganese was removed from solution. Thus resuspension releases solutes both during erosion events and over a longer timescale due to reactions of suspended particles in the water column. The magnitude of the annual solute release during erosion events was estimated by coupling the erosion chamber results with a record of bottom shear stresses simulated by a hydrodynamic model. The release of dissolved copper, lead, and phosphate due to resuspension is between 2% and 10% of the total (dissolved plus particulate phase) known inputs to Boston Harbor. Sediment resuspension is responsible for transferring a significant

  8. Gravitational vacuum and energy release in microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, V.N.; Nikolaev, Yu.M.; Stanyukovich, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that gravitati.onal interaction can be connected with the processes of energy release in microworld. Suggested is a planckeon model within the frames of which gradual production of the observed substance of the Universe during the whole evolution is explained. Burst processes in nuclei of the Galaxy are explained. It is concluded that the theory of gravitational vacuum creates preconditions for developing the general theory of the field explaining the basic peculiarities of the micro- and macroworld, reveals significant applications in the physics of elementary particles and atomic nucleus. The process of 235 U fission is considered for testing the hypothesis that the coefficient of energy release depends on the nature of the reaction in different processes of energy release in the micro- and macroworld [ru

  9. Effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on rat growth hormone release induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Ohgo, S; Iwasaki, Y; Maeda, K

    1976-06-01

    The effect of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was investigated in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats under urethane anesthesia. In euthyroid control rats, intravenous injection of TRH (200 ng/100 g BW) resulted in a significant increase in both plasma GH and TSH. In rats made hypothyroid by treatment with propylthiouracil or by thyroidectomy, basal GH and TSH levels were significantly elevated with exaggerated responses to TRH. In contrast, plasma GH and TSH responses to TRH were both significantly inhibited in rats made hyperthyroid by L-thyroxine (T4) treatment. These results suggest that altered thyroid status influences GH release as well as TSH secretion induced by TRH in rats.

  10. Succession of microbial functional communities in response to a pilot-scale ethanol-blended fuel release throughout the plume life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jie; Deng, Ye; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2015-01-01

    GeoChip, a comprehensive gene microarray, was used to examine changes in microbial functional gene structure throughout the 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume, including 2-year continuous released followed by plume disappearance after source removal. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and Mantel tests showed that dissolved O 2 (which was depleted within 5 days of initiating the release and rebounded 194 days after source removal) was the most influential environmental factor on community structure. Initially, the abundance of anaerobic BTEX degradation genes increased significantly while that of aerobic BTEX degradation genes decreased. Gene abundance for N fixation, nitrification, P utilization, sulfate reduction and S oxidation also increased, potentially changing associated biogeochemical cycle dynamics. After plume disappearance, most genes returned to pre-release abundance levels, but the final functional structure significantly differed from pre-release conditions. Overall, observed successions of functional structure reflected adaptive responses that were conducive to biodegradation of ethanol-blend releases. - Highlights: • GeoChip discerned microbial functional changes through an ethanol blend plume. • The release increased gene abundance for anaerobic BTEX degradation. • The release changed key biogeochemical (N, P, C, and S) cycling gene abundance. • The functional structure did not recover 4 months after the plume attenuated. • Dissolved O 2 was the most influential factor shaping community structure. - Geochip analysis discerned adaptive shifts in microbial functional structure and controlling environmental factors throughout a 4-year life cycle of a pilot-scale ethanol blend plume

  11. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  12. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  13. Released radioactivity reducing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yumi.

    1995-01-01

    A water scrubber is disposed in a scrubber tank and a stainless steel fiber filter is disposed above the water scrubber. The upper end of the scrubber tank is connected by way of a second bent tube to a capturing vessel incorporating a moisture removing layer and an activated carbon filter. The exit of the capturing vessel is connected to a stack. Upon occurrence of an accident of a BWR-type power plant, gases containing radioactive materials released from a reactor container are discharged into the water scrubber from a first bent tube through a venturi tube nozzle, and water soluble and aerosol-like radioactive materials are captured in the water. Aerosol and splashes of water droplets which can not be captured thoroughly by the water scrubber are captured by the stainless steel fiber filter. Gases passing through the scrubber tank are introduced to a capturing vessel through a second bent tube, and organic iodine is captured by the activated carbon filter. (I.N.)

  14. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  15. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  16. Release of mineral ions in dental plaque following acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Margolis, H C

    1999-03-01

    The release of appreciable amounts of calcium, phosphate and fluoride found in whole plaque into the plaque-fluid phase, following bacterial acid production, can potentially reduce the driving force for tooth demineralization. However, limited information is available on this topic, particularly on the release of fluoride. This study sought to determine the change in calcium, phosphate and fluoride concentrations in plaque fluid after sucrose exposure. 48 h overnight-fasted supragingival plaque samples were collected from all tooth surfaces (with the exception of the lower lingual anterior teeth) of one half of an individual mouth, following a 1 min water rinse. Plaque samples were then collected from the other half of the same mouth, following a 292 mM sucrose rinse. Plaque fluid was isolated by centrifugation and analysed for total calcium and phosphate (ion chromatography) and for free fluoride (ion-specific electrode). Samples were collected from seven individuals. Following sucrose exposure, plaque-fluid pH decreased significantly from 6.5+/- 0.3 to 5.4+/-0.2; calcium concentrations (mmol/l) also increased significantly (p Fluoride and phosphate concentrations in plaque fluid, however, did not increase significantly after sucrose exposure: mean concentrations (mmol/l) of fluoride after the water and sucrose rinses were 0.006+/-0.003 and 0.005+/-0.002, respectively, and mean phosphate concentrations (mmol/l) were 11.0+/-2.0 and 12.0+/-3.0, respectively. When results were expressed per wet plaque weight, phosphate concentrations were also found to increase significantly. The same trends were observed when additional plaque samples were treated in vitro with sucrose: fluoride-ion activity did not increase in plaque under in vivo-like conditions.

  17. Anoxia stimulates microbially catalyzed metal release from Animas River sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saup, Casey M; Williams, Kenneth H; Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Cerrato, José M; Johnston, Michael D; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-04-19

    The Gold King Mine spill in August 2015 released 11 million liters of metal-rich mine waste to the Animas River watershed, an area that has been previously exposed to historical mining activity spanning more than a century. Although adsorption onto fluvial sediments was responsible for rapid immobilization of a significant fraction of the spill-associated metals, patterns of longer-term mobility are poorly constrained. Metals associated with river sediments collected downstream of the Gold King Mine in August 2015 exhibited distinct presence and abundance patterns linked to location and mineralogy. Simulating riverbed burial and development of anoxic conditions, sediment microcosm experiments amended with Animas River dissolved organic carbon revealed the release of specific metal pools coupled to microbial Fe- and SO 4 2- -reduction. Results suggest that future sedimentation and burial of riverbed materials may drive longer-term changes in patterns of metal remobilization linked to anaerobic microbial metabolism, potentially driving decreases in downstream water quality. Such patterns emphasize the need for long-term water monitoring efforts in metal-impacted watersheds.

  18. Anoxia stimulates microbially catalyzed metal release from Animas River sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saup, Casey M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Cerrato, José M.; Johnston, Michael D.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The Gold King Mine spill in August 2015 released 11 million liters of metal-rich mine waste to the Animas River watershed, an area that has been previously exposed to historical mining activity spanning more than a century. Although adsorption onto fluvial sediments was responsible for rapid immobilization of a significant fraction of the spill-associated metals, patterns of longer-term mobility are poorly constrained. Metals associated with river sediments collected downstream of the Gold King Mine in August 2015 exhibited distinct presence and abundance patterns linked to location and mineralogy. Simulating riverbed burial and development of anoxic conditions, sediment microcosm experiments amended with Animas River dissolved organic carbon revealed the release of specific metal pools coupled to microbial Fe- and SO 4 2- reduction. Results suggest that future sedimentation and burial of riverbed materials may drive longer-term changes in patterns of metal remobilization linked to anaerobic microbial metabolism, potentially driving decreases in downstream water quality. Such patterns emphasize the need for long-term water monitoring efforts in metal-impacted watersheds.

  19. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  20. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  1. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  2. Effect of bioceramic functional groups on drug binding and release kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Christopher

    DI water for 2 days and the concentrations of dissolved silicate and phosphate ions released from the surface of Cris were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma -- Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The phosphate ions released from the material activated the surface and exposed the silicate functional groups as indicated by the FTIR analysis. Pre-immersed Cris particles and control non-immersed samples (200 mg, n=5 for each sample) of particle size 90-150 mum were immersed in 2 mL of vancomycin (Vanc) solution (8 mg/ml) in PBS on an orbital shaker at 37°C for 24 hours. The amount of drug bound to the material was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Control non-immersed Cris samples P-0 and P-39.1 adsorbed a comparable amount of drug. While there was a statistically significant lower amount of drug adsorbed onto P-78.2 than that adsorbed onto P-39.1 (p P-165.5 > P-331; p HPLC and FTIR analyses showed that ceramics that had higher content of O-Si-O bending (at ~498 cm-1 and ~620 cm-1) bands facilitated Vanc adsorption. On the other hand surfaces with a higher content of nu 4 PO4/O-P-O bending (at ~557 cm-1) and P=O stretching (at ~1343.9 cm-1) bands did not enhance Vanc adsorption. Drug loaded pre-immersed and control non-immersed Cris samples (each 200 mg, n=5 for each sample) were immersed in 2 mL of PBS on an orbital shaker at 37°C, and a 0.5 mL aliquot was removed from the solution and replenished at 1, 3, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hour, and every 48 hour intervals to 22 days thereafter. Drug concentration released from Cris samples after each time point was measured using HPLC. The drug release kinetics demonstrated a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the cumulative and percent of Vanc released from control non-immersed Cris samples P-0 (1.521 +/- .026 mg; 37.66 +/- .89 %) to P-331 (1.276 +/- .016 mg; 33.46 +/- .77 %) of Vanc, respectively. Additionally, release kinetics also demonstrated statistically significant increase

  3. Radiocarbon Releases from the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Sheng; Cook, Gordon T.; Cresswell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    the accident in 2011. High-resolution 14C analysis of the 2011 ring indicated 14C releases during the Fukushima accident. The resulted 14C activity decreased with increasing distance from the plant. The maximum 14C activity released during the period of the accident was measured 42.4 Bq kg-1 C above...... the natural ambient 14C background. Our findings indicate that, unlike other Fukushima-derived radionuclides, the 14C released during the accident is indistinguishable from ambient background beyond the local environment (~30 km from the plant). Furthermore, the resulting dose to the local population from...

  4. Minimizing lead release levels in secondary smelters slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenkler, E.S.; Graham, S.; Ghosh, R.; Greenhut, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Five lead-containing slags and four mattes were analyzed to reveal microstructure, semi-quantitative microchemistry, and phases present. To determine if the slags could be incorporated as a glass so that lead release levels could be stabilized, glass batches were formulated based on slag compositions. Leaching tests showed that all materials that were fritted in a glass batch had lower lead release levels than non-adjusted materials, and all could satisfy EPA test requirements. The mole ratio of glass modifiers to glass formers played an important role in the extent of lead release. Small additions of phosphate to a batch had a significant effect on lowering lead release levels

  5. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  6. Development and evaluation of sustained release losartan potassium matrix tablet using kollidon SR as release retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Sarwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to develop sustained release (SR matrix tablets of losartan potassium, an angiotensin-II antagonist for the treatment of hypertension. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method, along with Kollidon SR as release retardant polymer. The amount of losartan potassium remains fixed (100 mg for all the three formulations whereas the amounts of Kollidon SR were 250 mg, 225 mg, and 200 mg for F-1, F-2, and F-3 respectively. The evaluation involves three stages: the micromeritic properties evaluation of granules, physical property studies of tablets, and in-vitro release kinetics studies. The USP apparatus type II was selected to perform the dissolution test, and the dissolution medium was 900 mL phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The test was carried out at 75 rpm, and the temperature was maintained at 37 ºC ± 0.5 ºC. The release kinetics was analyzed using several kinetics models. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. At lower polymeric level, the rate and extent of drug release were enhanced. All the formulations followed Higuchi release kinetics where the Regression co-efficient (R² values are 0.958, 0.944, and 0.920 for F-1, F-2, and F-3 respectively, and they exhibited diffusion dominated drug release. Statistically significant (PO presente estudo foi realizado para desenvolver (SR matriz de comprimidos de liberação sustentada de losartana, um antagonista da angiotensina II, para o tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Os comprimidos foram preparados pelo método de compressão direta com Kollidon SR como polímero de liberação lenta. A quantidade de losartana potássica permanece fixa (100 mg para todas as três formulações enquanto que as quantidades de Kollidon SR foram de 250 mg, 225 mg e 200 mg para F-1, F-2 e F-3, respectivamente. A avaliação envolve três etapas- propriedades micromeríticas dos grânulos, estudo das propriedades físicas dos comprimidos e

  7. Volatile release from self-assembly structured emulsions: effect of monoglyceride content, oil content, and oil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2013-02-20

    Monoglycerides (MGs) can form self-assembled structures in emulsions, which can be used to control volatile release. In this study, initial headspace concentrations (C(initial)), maximum headspace concentrations (C(max)), release rates, and partition coefficients of propanol, diacetyl, hexanal, and limonene were determined in MG structured oil-in-water emulsions using dynamic and static headspace analyses. For all of the volatile compounds, C(initial) values above structured emulsions were significantly lower than those above unstructured emulsions and decreased with increasing MG contents (p triglyceride emulsions than in soybean oil emulsions (p structured emulsions than in unstructured emulsions (p structured emulsions can be potentially used as delivery systems to modulate volatile release.

  8. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular structural differences between low methoxy pectins induced by pectin methyl esterase II: effects on texture, release and perception of aroma in gels of similar modulus of elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang; Kim, Young-Suk; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2014-02-15

    Six low-methoxy pectins with different degrees of methylesterification and amidation, and molecular weights were used to prepare gels with similar moduli of elasticity by varying the concentrations of pectin and calcium phosphate. Five aroma compounds were added to the gels and their sensory textural properties, release and perception of aromas were investigated. Sensory firmness, springiness, adhesiveness, chewiness and cohesiveness differed according to the gel type, even though the moduli of elasticity were not significantly different (ppectin exhibited the lowest release and perception for all the aroma compounds, while pectin-methylesterase-treated pectin gels exhibited relatively higher aroma release and perception. These results showed that the structural properties of pectins and gelling factors that increase the non-polar character of the gel matrices could decrease the release and perception of aromas in pectin gel systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycobacteria attenuate nociceptive responses by formyl peptide receptor triggered opioid peptide release from neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Rittner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In inflammation, pain is regulated by a balance of pro- and analgesic mediators. Analgesic mediators include opioid peptides which are secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, leading to activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In humans, local opioids and opioid peptides significantly downregulate postoperative as well as arthritic pain. In rats, inflammatory pain is induced by intraplantar injection of heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum, a component of complete Freund's adjuvant. We hypothesized that mycobacterially derived formyl peptide receptor (FPR and/or toll like receptor (TLR agonists could activate neutrophils, leading to opioid peptide release and inhibition of inflammatory pain. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the paw were quantified (Hargreaves and Randall-Selitto methods, respectively. Withdrawal time to heat was decreased following systemic neutrophil depletion as well as local injection of opioid receptor antagonists or anti-opioid peptide (i.e. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin antibodies indicating an increase in pain. In vitro, opioid peptide release from human and rat neutrophils was measured by radioimmunoassay. Met-enkephalin release was triggered by Mycobacterium butyricum and formyl peptides but not by TLR-2 or TLR-4 agonists. Mycobacterium butyricum induced a rise in intracellular calcium as determined by FURA loading and calcium imaging. Opioid peptide release was blocked by intracellular calcium chelation as well as phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition. The FPR antagonists Boc-FLFLF and cyclosporine H reduced opioid peptide release in vitro and increased inflammatory pain in vivo while TLR 2/4 did not appear to be involved. In summary, mycobacteria activate FPR on neutrophils, resulting in tonic secretion of opioid peptides from neutrophils and in a decrease in inflammatory pain. Future therapeutic strategies may aim

  11. Effect of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity: long-term attenuation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Hwang, Se Hwan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) produces high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. The effect of MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on METH-induced changes in DA transporter (DAT) and DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge was evaluated in rodent striatum using [{sup 3}H] WIN 38,428 ex vivo auto-radiography and in vivo microdialysis. Four injections of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.), each given 2 h apart, produced 71% decrease in DAT levels in mouse striatum 3 d after administration. Pretreatment with MK-801 (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) 15 min before each of the four METH injections protected completely against striatal DAT depletions. Four injections of MK-801 alone did not significantly change striatal DAT levels. Striatal DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge (4mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 d after repeated administration of METH in rats was decreased but significant compared with controls, which was attenuated by repeated pretreatment with MK-801. Also, repeated injections of MK-801 alone attenuated acute METH-induced striatal DA release 3 d after administration. These results suggest that repeated administration of MK-801 may exert a preventive effect against METH-induced DA terminal injury through long-term attenuation of DA release induced by METH and other stimuli.

  12. Effect of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity: long-term attenuation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Hwang, Se Hwan

    2001-01-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) produces high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. The effect of MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on METH-induced changes in DA transporter (DAT) and DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge was evaluated in rodent striatum using [ 3 H] WIN 38,428 ex vivo auto-radiography and in vivo microdialysis. Four injections of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.), each given 2 h apart, produced 71% decrease in DAT levels in mouse striatum 3 d after administration. Pretreatment with MK-801 (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) 15 min before each of the four METH injections protected completely against striatal DAT depletions. Four injections of MK-801 alone did not significantly change striatal DAT levels. Striatal DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge (4mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 d after repeated administration of METH in rats was decreased but significant compared with controls, which was attenuated by repeated pretreatment with MK-801. Also, repeated injections of MK-801 alone attenuated acute METH-induced striatal DA release 3 d after administration. These results suggest that repeated administration of MK-801 may exert a preventive effect against METH-induced DA terminal injury through long-term attenuation of DA release induced by METH and other stimuli

  13. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  14. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  15. Clinical Outcomes after Arthroscopic Release for Recalcitrant Frozen Shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To explain the role of arthroscopic release in intractable frozen shoulders. We used different questionnaires and measuring tools to understand whether arthroscopic release is the superior modality to treat patients with intractable frozen shoulders. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, in a prospective study, we enrolled 80 patients (52 females and 28 males with recalcitrant frozen shoulder, who underwent arthroscopic release at Ghaem Hospital, a tertiary referral center, in Mashhad, Iran. Before operation, all patients filled out the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH, Constant, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA, ROWE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain questionnaires. We measured the difference in range of motion between both the normal and the frozen shoulders in each patient. Results: The average age of the patients was 50.8±7.1 years. In 49 patients, the right shoulder was affected and in the remaining 31 the left side was affected. Before surgery, the patients were suffering from this disease on average for 11.7±10.3 months.  The average time to follow-up was 47.2±6.8 months (14 to 60 months. Diabetes mellitus (38% and history of shoulder trauma (23% were the most common comorbidities in our patients. We did not find any significant differences between baseline characteristics of diabetics patients with non-diabetics ones. After surgery, the average time to achieve maximum pain improvement and range of motion were 3.6±2.1 and 3.6±2 months, respectively. The VAS score, constant shoulder score, Rowe score, UCLA shoulder score, and DASH score showed significant improvement in shoulder function after surgery, and shoulder range of motion improved in all directions compared to pre-operation range of motion. Conclusions: According to our results, arthroscopic release of recalcitrant frozen shoulder is a valuable modality in treating this disease. This method could decrease pain and improve both subjective and

  16. Subcellular fractionation on Percoll gradient of mossy fiber synaptosomes: evoked release of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamate decarboxylase activity in control and degranulated rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, P; Ben-Ari, Y; Roisin, M P

    1994-05-02

    Using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation in isotonic Percoll sucrose, we have characterized two subcellular fractions (PII and PIII) enriched in mossy fiber synaptosomes and two others (SII and SIII) enriched in small synaptosomes. These synaptosomal fractions were compared with those obtained from adult hippocampus irradiated at neonatal stage to destroy granule cells and their mossy fibers. Synaptosomes were viable as judged by their ability to release aspartate, glutamate and GABA upon K+ depolarization. After irradiation, compared to the control values, the release of glutamate and GABA was decreased by 57 and 74% in the PIII fraction, but not in the other fractions and the content of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was also decreased in PIII fraction by 62, 44 and 52% respectively. These results suggest that mossy fiber (MF) synaptosomes contain and release glutamate and GABA. Measurement of the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase, exhibited no significant difference after irradiation, suggesting that GABA is not synthesized by this enzyme in mossy fibers.

  17. The role of reactive oxygen species in methamphetamine self-administration and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Young; Yang, Chae Ha; Hedges, David M; Kim, Soo Phil; Lee, Jun Yeon; Ekins, Tyler G; Garcia, Brandon T; Kim, Hee Young; Nelson, Ashley C; Kim, Nam Jun; Steffensen, Scott C

    2017-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) markedly increases dopamine (DA) release in the mesolimbic DA system, which plays an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of METH. METH-induced DA release results in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative damage. We have recently reported that ROS are implicated in behavior changes and DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following cocaine administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of ROS in METH-induced locomotor activity, self-administration and enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Systemic administration of a non-specific ROS scavenger, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN; 0, 50 and 75 mg/kg, IP) or a superoxide-selective scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL; 0, 50 and 100 mg/kg, IP), attenuated METH-induced locomotor activity without affecting generalized behavior in METH-naïve rats. PBN and TEMPOL significantly attenuated METH self-administration without affecting food intake. Increased oxidative stress was found in neurons, but not astrocytes, microglia or oligodendrocytes, in the NAc of METH self-administering rats. In addition, TEMPOL significantly decreased METH enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Taken together, these results suggest that enhancement of ROS in the NAc contributes to the reinforcing effect of METH. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. The radiological significance of beta emitting hot particles released from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Martonen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess radiological hazards associated with inhalation of beta emitting hot particles detected in fall-out from the Chernobyl incident, radiation doses and lung cancer risk are calculated for a hot particle composed entirely of 103 Ru. Lung cancer risk estimates are based upon an initiation-promotion model of carcinogenesis. In the immediate vicinity of a hot particle, calculations indicate that doses may be extremely high, so that all cells are killed and no tumour will arise. At intermediate distances, however, the probability for lung cancer induction exhibits a distinct maximum. Risk enhancement factors, computed relative to a uniform radionuclide distribution of equal activity, are highest for intermediate activities and hot particles moving in the lung. While the risk from inhalation of 103 Ru hot particles might, indeed, exceed that from all other exposure pathways of the Chernobyl fall-out, it still lies within normal fluctuations of radon progeny induced lung cancer risk. (author)

  19. The significance of ground contamination following an accidental release of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1977-07-01

    The reasons for extending the analysis of hypothetical accidents to include ground contamination as a route to radiation dosage in man are discussed. Models and data available for such an assessment of ground contamination are examined with reference to the deposition of radionuclides from the atmosphere and dosage by direct γ-irradiation, ingestion of radionuclides in milk and inhalation of a resuspended aerosol. Dosage through these routes is then compared with that which arises directly from the plume emitted in a hypothetical accident. The assessment methods are subject to uncertainty, so that in some cases only an upper limit to dose or an estimate within an order of magnitude can be obtained. Areas where further research could lead to a reduction of this uncertainty are identified. (author)

  20. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  1. Controlled release system for ametryn using polymer microspheres: Preparation, characterization and release kinetics in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson do Espirito Santo; Ferreira Silva de Melo, Nathalie; Porto, Raquel Martins; Feitosa, Leandro Oliveira; Tonello, Paulo Sergio; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a modified release system for the herbicide ametryn by encapsulating the active substance in biodegradable polymer microparticles produced using the polymers poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV), in order to both improve the herbicidal action and reduce environmental toxicity. PHB or PHBV microparticles containing ametryn were prepared and the efficiencies of herbicide association and loading were evaluated, presenting similar values of approximately 40%. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the average sizes of the PHB and PHBV microparticles were 5.92 ± 0.74 μm and 5.63 ± 0.68 μm, respectively. The ametryn release profile was modified when it was encapsulated in the microparticles, with slower and more sustained release compared to the release profile of pure ametryn. When ametryn was associated with the PHB and PHBV microparticles, the amount of herbicide released in the same period of time was significantly reduced, declining to 75% and 87%, respectively. For both types of microparticle (PHB and PHBV) the release of ametryn was by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport (governed by diffusion and relaxation of the polymer chains), which did not follow Fick's laws of diffusion. The results presented in this paper are promising, in view of the successful encapsulation of ametryn in PHB or PHBV polymer microparticles, and indications that this system may help reduce the impacts caused by the herbicide, making it an environmentally safer alternative.

  2. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  3. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  4. Conductive plastics: comparing alternative nanotechnologies by performance and life cycle release probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel, E-mail: wendel.wohlleben@basf.com [Material Physics, GMC/R, BASF SE (Germany); Tomović, Željko, E-mail: zeljko.tomovic@basf.com [BASF Polyurethanes GmbH, GMP/LS (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Nanocomposites can be considered safe during their life cycle as long as the nanofillers remain embedded in the matrix. Therefore, a possible release of nanofillers has to be assessed before commercialization. This report addresses possible life cycle release scenarios for carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene, and carbon black (CB) from a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix. The content of each nanofiller was adjusted to achieve the same conductivity level. The nanofillers reduced the rate of nanoscale releases during mechanical processing with decreasing release in the order neat TPU, TPU-CNT, TPU-graphene, and TPU-CB. Released fragments were dominated by the polymer matrix with embedded or surface-protruding nanofillers. During electron microscopy analysis, free CB was observed, however, there was no free CNT or graphene. Quantitatively, the presence of free nanofillers remained below the detection limit of <0.01% of generated dust. Further, both the production process and type of mechanical processing showed a significant impact with higher release rates for injection-molded compared to extruded and sanded compared to drilled materials. Due to its optimal performance for further development, extruded TPU-CNT was investigated in a combined, stepwise worst case scenario (mechanical processing after weathering). After weathering by simulated sunlight and rain, CNT were visible at the surface of the nanocomposite; after additional sanding, fragments showed protruding CNT, but free CNT were not detected. In summary, this preliminary exposure assessment showed no indication that recommended occupational exposure limits for carbonaceous nanomaterials can be exceeded during the life cycle of the specific TPU nanocomposites and conditions investigated in this study.

  5. Preparation and release study of Triclosan in polyethylene/Triclosan anti-bacterial blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalipour, Jamshid; Masoomi, Mahmood; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2016-09-01

    In this study, medium density polyethylene (MDPE) incorporated with Triclosan antibacterial substance has been prepared and Triclosan release rate was investigated. The crystallinity level and matrix polarity, as two significant parameters in antibacterial release control, were studied. Triclosan, a well-established widespread antibacterial agent, was incorporated into medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and Maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MA) was used to change the polarity of the MDPE matrix. A masterbatch of 10wt% Triclosan incorporated with the MDPE and various PE-g-MA concentrations were prepared using an internal mixer. Then the masterbatch was diluted in the MDPE matrix to produce compounds with 0.1, 0.5, and1wt% Triclosan via twin screw extruder. The compounds were molded by compression molding method and then were cooled in three different cooling rate methods: isothermal cooling (I), quenching (Q),and moderate 5-10°C/min cooling rate (M). Cooling rate effects on crystallinity level were investigated applying sample density measurement. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the release of Triclosan. Antibacterial properties of the compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The results showed that by addition of PE-g-MA, Triclosan release rate was increased. It was confirmed that the sample crystallinity was decreased by the cooling rate enhancement. The results also showed that quenched samples indicated higher release of Triclosan. Cooling rate reduction and raising the polarity increased the release of Triclosan and improved the antibacterial properties of the compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  7. Drug Release and Skin Permeation from Lipid Liquid Crystalline Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Balogh, F. O.; Sparr, E.; Sousa, J. J. S.; Pais, A. A. C. C.

    We have studied drug release and skin permeation from several different liquid crystalline lipid formulations that may be used to control the respective release rates. We have studied the release and permeation through human skin of a water-soluble and amphiphilic drug, propranolol hydrochloride, from several formulations prepared with monoolein and phytantriol as permeation enhancers and controlled release excipients. Diolein and cineol were added to selected formulations. We observed that viscosity decreases with drug load, wich is compatible with the occurrence of phase changes. Diolein stabilizes the bicontinuous cubic phases leading to an increase in viscosity and sustained release of the drug. The slowest release was found for the cubic phases with higher viscosity. Studies on skin permeation showed that these latter formulations also presented lower permeability than the less viscous monoolein lamellar phases. Formulations containing cineol originated higher permeability with higher enhancement ratios. Thus, the various formulations are adapted to different circumstances and delivery routes. While a slow release is usually desired for drug sustained delivery, the transdermal route may require a faster release. Lamellar phases, which are less viscous, are more adapted to transdermal applications. Thus, systems involving lamellar phases of monoolein and cineol are good candidates to be used as skin permeation enhancers for propranolol hydrochloride.

  8. Investigation of tritium release and retention in lithium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Tistchenko, S.; Botter, F.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium release from lithium aluminate, although previously investigated by both in-reactor and ex-reactor experiments, remains poorly understood. Agreement between experiments is lacking, and the mechanisms responsible for tritium release from lithium aluminate are under debate. In an effort to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of tritium release from lithium ceramics, we have investigated tritium release from pure lithium aluminate and lithium aluminate doped with impurities. The results of these experiments on large grain size material indicate that after anneals at low temperature, a large fraction of the tritium present before the anneal remains in the sample. We have modeled this behavior based on first-order release from three types of sites. At the lowest temperature, the release is dominated by one site, while the tritium in the other sites is retained in the solid. Adding magnesium dopant to the ceramic appears to alter the distribution of tritium between the sites. This addition decreases the fraction of tritium released at 777 degree C, while increasing the fractions released at 538 and 950 degree C. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Effect of rocuronium on the level and mode of pre-synaptic acetylcholine release by facial and somatic nerves, and changes following facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jinghua; Xu, Jing; Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2015-01-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show differential sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves. The evoked electromyography (EEMG) response is also proportionally reduced after facial nerve injury. This forms the theoretical basis for proper utilization of muscle relaxants to balance EEMG monitoring and immobility under general anesthesia. (1) To observe the relationships between the level and mode of acetylcholine (ACh) release and the duration of facial nerve injury, and the influence of rocuronium in an in vitro rabbit model. (2) To explore the pre-synaptic mechanisms of discrepant responses to a muscle relaxant. Quantal and non-quantal ACh release were measured by using intracellular microelectrode recording in the orbicularis oris 1 to 42 days after graded facial nerve injury and in the gastrocnemius with/without rocuronium. Quantal ACh release was significantly decreased by rocuronium in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius, but significantly more so in gastrocnemius. Quantal release was reduced after facial nerve injury, which was significantly correlated with the severity of nerve injury in the absence but not in the presence of rocuronium. Non-quantal ACh release was reduced after facial nerve injury, with many relationships observed depending on the extent of the injury. The extent of inhibition of non-quantal release by rocuronium correlated with the grade of facial nerve injury. These findings may explain why EEMG amplitude might be diminished after acute facial nerve injury but relatively preserved after chronic injury and differential responses in sensitivity to rocuronium.

  10. Clinical significance of the radioimmunological determination of C-peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.; Waldhaeusl, W.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of metabolic control to insulinogenic reserve in insulin-dependent diabetics. Thus, the secretory reserve of the pancreatic beta cell was estimated in insulin-dependent diabetics by measuring changes in peripheral serum immunoreactive C-peptide (IRCP) concentrations in response to intravenous arginine (n = 19; 0.5 g/kg,t = 30 min) or glibenclamide-glucose (n = 6; 2 mg HB 419 - 0.33 g/kg intravenously). In the majority of ''stable'' diabetics a small secretory reserve of the beta cell was demonstrated, but both the absolute and relative increase in IRCP was reduced after intravenous arginine or glibenclamide-glucose in comparison with normal controls. In ''unstable'' diabetics a decreased basal concentration of IRCP, significantly smaller than that seen in ''stable'' diabetics (p < 0.01), was accompanied by a complete lack of IRCP release on intravenous arginine administration. Thus, we conclude that the radioimmunological determination of IRCP is of clinical interest in assessing the residual secretory capacity of the beta cell in insulin-dependent diabetics. In revealing a lack of insulin this diagnostic tool seems to detect a group of potentially ''unstable'' diabetics in need of strict observation, which would minimize the risks of bad metabolic control. (author)

  11. Clinical significance of the radioimmunological determination of C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudczak, R; Waldhaeusl, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). 1. Medizinische Klinik

    1979-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of metabolic control to insulinogenic reserve in insulin-dependent diabetics. Thus, the secretory reserve of the pancreatic beta cell was estimated in insulin-dependent diabetics by measuring changes in peripheral serum immunoreactive C-peptide (IRCP) concentrations in response to intravenous arginine (n = 19; 0.5 g/kg,t = 30 min) or glibenclamide-glucose (n = 6; 2 mg HB 419 - 0.33 g/kg intravenously). In the majority of stable diabetics a small secretory reserve of the beta cell was demonstrated, but both the absolute and relative increase in IRCP was reduced after intravenous arginine or glibenclamide-glucose in comparison with normal controls. In unstable diabetics a decreased basal concentration of IRCP, significantly smaller than that seen in stable diabetics (p < 0.01), was accompanied by a complete lack of IRCP release on intravenous arginine administration. Thus, we conclude that the radioimmunological determination of IRCP is of clinical interest in assessing the residual secretory capacity of the beta cell in insulin-dependent diabetics. In revealing a lack of insulin this diagnostic tool seems to detect a group of potentially unstable diabetics in need of strict observation, which would minimize the risks of bad metabolic control.

  12. Stress hormone release is a key component of the metabolic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): studies in hypopituitary and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... but not in HP. LPS increased whole body palmitate fluxes (3-fold) and decreased palmitate specific activity 40-50 % in CTR, but not in HP. G(0)/G(1) Switch Gene 2 (G0S2 - an inhibitor of lipolysis) adipose tissue mRNA was decreased in CTR. LPS increased phenylalanine fluxes significantly more in CTR, whereas...

  13. Exercise Increases Cystathionine-γ-lyase Expression and Decreases the Status of Oxidative Stress in Myocardium of Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiping; Wang, Yujun; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ni, Xin; Lu, Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Exercise could be a therapeutic approach for cardiovascular dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency. Our previous study has shown that estrogen maintains cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression and inhibits oxidative stress in the myocardium of female rats. In the present study, we investigated whether exercise improves CSE expression and oxidative stress status and ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac damage in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The results showed that treadmill training restored the ovariectomy-induced reduction of CSE and estrogen receptor (ER)α and decrease of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and increase of malondialdehyde (MDA). The level of CSE was positively correlated to T-AOC and ERα while inversely correlated to MDA. OVX rats showed increases in the serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult compared to sham rats. Exercise training significantly reduced the serum levels of LDH and CK and the percentage of TUNEL staining in myocardium upon ISO insult in OVX rats. In cultured cardiomyocytes, ISO treatment decreased cell viability and increased LDH release, while overexpression of CSE increased cell viability and decreased LDH release in the cells upon ISO insult. The results suggest that exercise training improves the oxidative stress status and ameliorates the cardiac damage induced by oxidative stress in OVX rats. The improvement of oxidative stress status by exercise might be at least partially due to upregulation of CSE/H2S signaling.

  14. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  15. Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens core, but not shell, increases during signaled food reward and decreases during delayed extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesdorf, C; Wang, A-L; Topic, B; Petri, D; Milani, H; Huston, J P; de Souza Silva, M A

    2015-09-01

    Microdialysis studies in rat have generally shown that appetitive stimuli release dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core. Here we examined the release of DA in the NAc during delivery of reward (food) and during extinction of food reward in the freely moving animal by use of in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. Fifty-two male Wistar rats were trained to receive food reward associated with appearance of cue-lights in a Skinner-box during in vivo microdialysis. Different behavioral protocols were used to assess the effects of extinction on DA and its metabolites. Results Exp. 1: (a) During a 20-min period of cued reward delivery, DA increased significantly in the NAc core, but not shell subregion; (b) for the next 60min period half of the rats underwent immediate extinction (with the CS light presented during non-reward) and the other half did not undergo extinction to the cue lights (CS was not presented during non-reward). DA remained significantly increased in both groups, providing no evidence for a decrease in DA during extinction in either NAc core or shell regions. (c) In half of the animals of the group that was not subjected to extinction, the cue lights were turned on for 30min, thus, initiating extinction to cue CS at a 1h delay from the period of reward. In this group DA in the NAc core, but not shell, significantly decreased. Behavioral analysis showed that while grooming is an indicator of extinction-induced behavior, glances toward the cue-lights (sign tracking) are an index of resistance to extinction. Results Exp. 2: (a) As in Exp. 1, during a 30-min period of cued reward delivery, DA levels again increased significantly in the NAc core but not in the NAc shell. (b) When extinction (the absence of reward with the cue lights presented) was administered 24h after the last reward session, DA again significantly decreased in the NAc core, but not in the NAc shell. (a) These results confirm the importance of DA release in the NAc for

  16. Aroma release in the oral cavity after wine intake is influenced by wine matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Muñoz-González, Carolina; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, María; Pozo-Bayón, María Ángeles

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study has been to investigate if wine matrix composition might influence the interaction between odorants and oral mucosa in the oral cavity during a "wine intake-like" situation. Aroma released after exposing the oral cavity of three individuals to different wines (n=12) previously spiked with six target aromas was followed by an -in vivo intra-oral SPME approach. Results showed a significant effect of wine matrix composition on the intra-oral aroma release of certain odorants. Among the wine matrix parameters, phenolic compounds showed the largest impact. This effect was dependent on their chemical structure. Some phenolic acids (e.g. hippuric, caffeic) were associated to an increase in the intra-oral release of certain odorants (e.g. linalool, β-ionone), while flavonoids showed the opposite effect, decreasing the intra-oral release of aliphatic esters (ethyl hexanoate). This work shows for the first time, the impact of wine composition on oral-mucosa interactions under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carboxylic Terminated Thermo-Responsive Copolymer Hydrogel and Improvement in Peptide Release Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Kun Rao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the release profile of peptide drugs, thermos-responsive triblock copolymer poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone-b-poly (ethylene glycol-b-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone (PECP was prepared and end capped by succinic anhydride to give its carboxylic terminated derivative. Both PCEP block copolymer and its end group modified derivative showed temperature-dependent reversible sol-gel transition in water. The carboxylic end group could significantly decrease the sol-gel transition temperature by nearly 10 °C and strengthen the gel due to enhanced intermolecular force among triblock copolymer chains. Furthermore, compared with the original PECP triblock copolymer, HOOC–PECP–COOH copolymer displayed a retarded and sustained release profile for leuprorelin acetate over one month while effectively avoiding the initial burst. The controlled release was believed to be related to the formation of conjugated copolymer-peptide pair by ionic interaction and enhanced solubility of drug molecules into the hydrophobic domains of the hydrogel. Therefore, carboxyl terminated HOOC–PECP–COOH hydrogel was a promising and well-exhibited sustained release carrier for peptide drugs with the advantage of being able to develop injectable formulation by simple mixing.

  18. Compressional, mechanical and release properties of a novel gum in paracetamol tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedokun Musiliu O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p > 0.05 exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.

  19. Zinc and Copper Release Kinetics in a Calcareous Soil amended with Manure and Vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza motaghian

    2017-02-01

    -order, First-order, Parabolic diffusion, Simplified Elovich, and Power function. Results and Discussion: Results showed that released Zn in soils amended with manure and vermicompost compared to control soil significantly increased (p0.05 and released Cu in soil amended with vermicompost decreased significantly (p

  20. Biodegradable polyesters reinforced with triclosan loaded polylactide micro/nanofibers: Properties, release and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. del Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties and drug release behavior were studied for three biodegradable polyester matrices (polycaprolactone, poly(nonamethylene azelate and the copolymer derived from 1,9-nonanediol and an equimolar mixture of azelaic and pimelic acids reinforced with polylactide (PLA fibers. Electrospinning was used to produce suitable mats constituted by fibers of different diameters (i.e. from micro- to nanoscale and a homogeneous dispersion of a representative hydrophobic drug (i.e. triclosan. Fabrics were prepared by a molding process, which allowed cold crystallization of PLA micro/nanofibers and hot crystallization of the polyester matrices. The orientation of PLA molecules during electrospinning favored the crystallization process, which was slightly enhanced when the diameter decreased. Incorporation of PLA micro/nanofibers led to a significant increase in the elastic modulus and tensile strength, and in general to a decrease in the strain at break. The brittle fracture was clearer when high molecular weight samples with high plastic deformation were employed. Large differences in the release behavior were detected depending on the loading process, fiber diameter size and hydrophobicity of the polyester matrix. The release of samples with the drug only loaded into the reinforcing fibers was initially fast and then became slow and sustained, resulting in longer lasting antimicrobial activity. Biocompatibility of all samples studied was demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays using HEp-2 cell cultures.

  1. Glucose metabolism determines resistance of cancer cells to bioenergetic crisis after cytochrome-c release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huber, Heinrich J

    2011-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs activate caspases via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Activation of this pathway triggers a concomitant bioenergetic crisis caused by the release of cytochrome-c (cyt-c). Cancer cells are able to evade these processes by altering metabolic and caspase activation pathways. In this study, we provide the first integrated system study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and apoptosis signalling and examine the role of mitochondrial cyt-c release in these events. In accordance with single-cell experiments, our model showed that loss of cyt-c decreased mitochondrial respiration by 95% and depolarised mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨ(m) from -142 to -88 mV, with active caspase-3 potentiating this decrease. ATP synthase was reversed under such conditions, consuming ATP and stabilising ΔΨ(m). However, the direction and level of ATP synthase activity showed significant heterogeneity in individual cancer cells, which the model explained by variations in (i) accessible cyt-c after release and (ii) the cell\\'s glycolytic capacity. Our results provide a quantitative and mechanistic explanation for the protective role of enhanced glucose utilisation for cancer cells to avert the otherwise lethal bioenergetic crisis associated with apoptosis initiation.

  2. Fouling Release Coatings Based on Polydimethylsiloxane with the Incorporation of Phenylmethylsilicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Ba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, phenylmethylsilicone oil (PSO with different viscosity was used for research in fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The surface properties and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated, while the leaching behavior of PSO from the coatings was studied. Subsequently, the antifouling performance of the coatings was investigated by the benthic diatom adhesion test. The results showed that the coatings with high-viscosity PSO exhibited high levels of hydrophobicity and PSO leaching, while the high PSO content significantly decreased the elastic modulus of the coatings and prolonged the release time of PSO. The antifouling results indicated that the incorporation of PSO into coatings enhanced the antifouling performance of the coating by improving the coating hydrophobicity and decreasing the coating elastic modulus, while the leaching of PSO from the coatings improved the fouling removal rate of the coating. This suggests a double enhancement effect on the antifouling performance of fouling release coatings based on PDMS with PSO incorporated.

  3. NMDAR-mediated calcium transients elicited by glutamate co-release at developing inhibitory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Kalmbach

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Before hearing onset, the topographic organization of the inhibitory sound localization pathway from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB to the lateral superior olive (LSO is refined by means of synaptic silencing and strengthening. During this refinement period MNTB-LSO synapses not only release GABA and glycine but also release glutamate. This co-released glutamate can elicit postsynaptic currents that are predominantly mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs. To gain a better understanding of how glutamate contributes to synaptic signaling at developing MNTB-LSO inhibitory synapse, we investigated to what degree and under what conditions NMDARs contribute to postsynaptic calcium responses. Our results demonstrate that MNTB-LSO synapses can elicit compartmentalized calcium responses along aspiny LSO dendrites. These responses are significantly attenuated by the NMDARs antagonist APV. APV, however, has no effect on somatically recorded electrical postsynaptic responses, indicating little, if any, contribution of NMDARs to spike generation. Small NMDAR-mediated calcium responses were also observed under physiological levels of extracellular magnesium concentrations indicating that MNTB-LSO synapses activate magnesium sensitive NMDAR on immature LSO dendrites. In Fura-2 AM loaded neurons, blocking GABAA and glycine receptors decreased NMDAR contribution to somatic calcium responses suggesting that GABA and glycine, perhaps by shunting backpropagating action potentials, decrease the level of NMDAR activation under strong stimulus conditions.

  4. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  5. Redox regulation of calcium release in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA HIDALGO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, specific isoforms of the Ryanodine receptor channels mediate Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These channels are highly susceptible to redox modifications, which regulate channel activity. In this work, we studied the effects of Ca2+ (endogenous agonist and Mg2+ (endogenous inhibitor on the kinetics of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal or cardiac mammalian muscle. Native skeletal vesicles exhibited maximal stimulation of release kinetics by 10-20 µM [Ca2+], whereas in native cardiac vesicles, maximal stimulation of release required only 1 µM [Ca2+]. In 10 µM [Ca2+], free [Mg2+] < 0.1 mM produced marked inhibition of release from skeletal vesicles but free [Mg2+] ­ 0.8 mM did not affect release from cardiac vesicles. Incubation of skeletal or cardiac vesicles with the oxidant thimerosal increased their susceptibility to stimulation by Ca2+ and decreased the inhibitory effect of Mg2+ in skeletal vesicles. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents fully reversed the effects of thimerosal. The endogenous redox species, glutathione disulfide and S-nitrosoglutathione, also stimulated release from skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. In 10 µM [Ca2+], 35S-nitrosoglutathione labeled a protein fraction enriched in release channels through S-glutathiolation. Free [Mg2+] 1 mM or decreasing free [Ca2+] to the nM range prevented this reaction. Possible physiological and pathological consequences of redox modification of release channels on Ca2+ signaling in heart and muscle cells are discussed

  6. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshkunov, K.A., E-mail: moshkunov@gmail.co [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmid, K.; Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurnaev, V.A.; Gasparyan, Yu.M. [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-30

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D{sub 2}O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of {approx}300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  7. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshkunov, K.A.; Schmid, K.; Mayer, M.; Kurnaev, V.A.; Gasparyan, Yu.M.

    2010-01-01

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D 2 O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of ∼300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  8. Air exposure and sample storage time influence on hydrogen release from tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkunov, K. A.; Schmid, K.; Mayer, M.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Gasparyan, Yu. M.

    2010-09-01

    In investigations of hydrogen retention in first wall components the influence of the conditions of the implanted target storage prior to analysis and the storage time is often neglected. Therefore we have performed a dedicated set of experiments. The release of hydrogen from samples exposed to ambient air after irradiation was compared to samples kept in vacuum. For air exposed samples significant amounts of HDO and D 2O are detected during TDS. Additional experiments have shown that heavy water is formed by recombination of releasing D and H atoms with O on the W surface. This water formation can alter hydrogen retention results significantly, in particular - for low retention cases. In addition to the influence of ambient air exposure also the influence of storage time in vacuum was investigated. After implantation at 300 K the samples were stored in vacuum for up to 1 week during which the retained amount decreased significantly. The subsequently measured TDS spectra showed that D was lost from both the high and low energy peaks during storage at ambient temperature of ˜300 K. An attempt to simulate this release from both peaks during room temperature storage by TMAP 7 calculations showed that this effect cannot be explained by conventional diffusion/trapping models.

  9. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  10. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  11. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  12. Estimating the consequences of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    A simple model is proposed for investigating the possibility of significant fracture flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model allows an estimate of the number of flowing fractures at Yucca Mountain based on the size of the fractures and the yearly volume of infiltrating water. Given the number of flowing fractures, the number of waste containers they contact is estimated by a geometric argument. Preliminary results indicate that the larger the flowing fractures, the lower the releases of radionuclides. Also, even with significant fracture flow, releases could be well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency

  13. Radioactive release during nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Ain Sulaiman, Siti; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Ab

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accidents that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima have initiated many research interests to understand the cause and mechanism of radioactive release within reactor compound and to the environment. Common types of radionuclide release are the fission products from the irradiated fuel rod itself. In case of nuclear accident, the focus of monitoring will be mostly on the release of noble gases, I-131 and Cs-137. As these are the only accidents have been rated within International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) Level 7, the radioactive release to the environment was one of the critical insights to be monitored. It was estimated that the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere due to Fukushima accident was approximately 10% of the Chernobyl accident. By referring to the previous reports using computational code systems to model the release rate, the release activity of I-131 and Cs-137 in Chernobyl was significantly higher compare to Fukushima. The simulation code also showed that Chernobyl had higher release rate of both radionuclides on the day of accident. Other factors affecting the radioactive release for Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents such as the current reactor technology and safety measures are also compared for discussion.

  14. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  15. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  16. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  17. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  18. Release enhancement of tritium from graphite by addition of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Masakatsu; Masaki, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    The release behavior of tritium from graphite was studied in pure He and He + H 2 atmosphere. The release from powdered graphite was significantly enhanced in hydrogen environment. Apparent diffusion coefficients of tritium in graphite also became much higher in an atmosphere containing hydrogen than values obtained in pure helium atmosphere. A careful investigation of the release processes resulted in the conclusion that the most important process of tritium behaviour in graphite was diffusion, but the desorption process of tritium from the surface played a significant role. The enhancement of the desorption process was controlled by atomic hydrogen. (orig.)

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D

    2000-04-01

    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  20. Gaseous release of radioactive iodine from decaying plants. I. Release following foliar and root uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene; Grauby, Andre

    1975-12-01

    Iodine uptake by plants is a significant link in the contamination of the food chain. Long half-live iodine was studied considering foliar and root uptake, loss by rain scavenging, residue decay or outgassing in order to assess two aspects of the problem: the importance of outgassing and the effect of the route of transfer on iodine losses. It appeared that iodine release was a function of the vegetal type, there were differences according to the pattern of absorption (via leaf or root) and the processes of iodine release were usually related to biochemical mechanisms [fr

  1. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The SR dosage forms that release drugs pH independently in .... were determined; Post compression parameters such as weight variation test, hardness, ... Based on the ICH guidelines 12, the stability studies were carried out ...

  3. Altered elementary calcium release events and enhanced calcium release by thymol in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentesi, Péter; Szappanos, Henrietta; Szegedi, Csaba; Gönczi, Monika; Jona, István; Cseri, Julianna; Kovács, László; Csernoch, László

    2004-03-01

    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents. Thymol was found to increase the depolarization-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which could not be attributed to a decreased calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors or altered intramembrane charge movement, but rather to a more efficient coupling of depolarization to channel opening. Thymol increased ryanodine binding to heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, with a half-activating concentration of 144 micro M and a Hill coefficient of 1.89, and the open probability of the isolated and reconstituted ryanodine receptors, from 0.09 +/- 0.03 to 0.22 +/- 0.04 at 30 micro M. At higher concentrations the drug induced long-lasting open events on a full conducting state. Elementary calcium release events imaged using laser scanning confocal microscopy in the line-scan mode were reduced in size, 0.92 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.70 +/- 0.01, but increased in duration, 56 +/- 1 vs. 79 +/- 1 ms, by 30 micro M thymol, with an increase in the relative proportion of lone embers. Higher concentrations favored long events, resembling embers in control, with duration often exceeding 500 ms. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the opening of a single release channel will generate an ember, rather than a spark, in mammalian skeletal muscle.

  4. Effects of various catalysts on hydrogen release and uptake characteristics of LiAlH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resan, Mirna; Hampton, Michael D.; Lomness, Janice K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816-2366 (United States); Slattery, Darlene K. [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Rd., Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The effects of various catalysts on the hydrogen release characteristics of LiAlH{sub 4} were studied. The catalysts were incorporated into the alanate by ball milling. The catalysts studied included elemental titanium, TiH{sub 2}, TiCl{sub 4}, TiCl{sub 3}, AlCl{sub 3}, FeCl{sub 3}, elemental iron, elemental nickel, elemental vanadium, and carbon black. Dehydriding/rehydriding properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with pressure measurement and X-ray diffraction. The addition of TiCl{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4} to LiAlH{sub 4} eliminated the first step of hydrogen evolution and significantly lowered decomposition temperature of the second step. Doping with elemental iron caused only a slight decrease in the amount of hydrogen released and did not eliminate the first step of hydrogen evolution. Ball milling in the absence of the catalyst was found to decrease the release temperature of hydrogen, while doping with elemental iron did not have any additional effect on the temperature of hydrogen release of LiAlH{sub 4}. (author)

  5. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  6. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  7. Effect of non-cross-linked calcium on characteristics, swelling behaviour, drug release and mucoadhesiveness of calcium alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaty, Adnan Al; Karam, Ayman; Najlah, Mohammad; Alany, Raid G; Khoder, Mouhamad

    2016-04-20

    In this study, ibuprofen-loaded calcium alginate beads (CABs) with varying amounts of non-cross-linked calcium (NCL-Ca) were prepared using different washing methods. The influence of NCL-Ca on beads properties was investigated. Increasing the number or duration of washes led to significant decreases in the amount of NCL-Ca whereas the impact of the volume of washes was not significant. Approximately 70% of the initial amount of Ca(2+) was NCL-Ca which was removable by washing while only 30% was cross-linked (CL-Ca). Ca(2+) release from the CABs was bimodal; NCL-Ca was burst-released followed by a slower release of CL-Ca. Washing methods and the amount of NCL-Ca had significant influences on the encapsulation efficiency, beads weight, beads swelling, drug release profile and the mucoadhesiveness of CABs. This study highlighted the importance of washing methods and the amount of NCL-Ca to establish CABs properties and understand their behaviour in the simulated intestinal fluids (SIFs). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucagon releases Ca2+ from a FCCP-sensitive pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Friedmann, N.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of physiological levels of glucagon on Ca 2+ efflux were examined in the perfused rat liver. Two methods were used to estimate Ca 2+ efflux: (1) prior labeling of the Ca 2+ pools with 45 Ca 2+ , and (2) measurement of perfusate Ca 2+ with atomic absorption. According to both methods, glucagon administration at the physiological level evoked Ca 2+ release. In order to identify the hormone-sensitive Ca 2+ pool, a method employed by several laboratories was used. In this method, mitochondrial Ca 2+ is released by FCCP, (carbonyl-cyanide 4 (trifluoro/methoxy) phenylhydrazone), a mitochondrial uncoupler. The effect of hormones on Ca 2+ release after such uncoupler administration is measured. A decreased release is taken as an indication that the pool is entirely or partially mitochondrial. FCCP released 90 +/- 29 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver. Glucagon (5 x 10 -9 M) released 107 +/- 45 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver before and 26 +/- 9 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver after FCCP. These data indicate that glucagon releases Ca 2+ mostly from the mitochondria

  9. Stimuli-Responsive Materials for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. To address this outstanding problem, the design and fabrication of stimuli-responsive materials are pursued to guarantee the controlled release of cargo at a specific time and with an accurate amount. Upon applying different stimuli such as light, magnetic field, heat, pH change, enzymes or redox, functional materials change their physicochemical properties through physical transformation or chemical reactions, allowing the release of payload agents on demand. This dissertation studied three stimuli-responsive membrane systems for controlled release from films of macro sizes to microcapsules of nano sizes. The first membrane system is a polymeric composite film which can decrease and sustain diffusion upon light irradiation. The photo-response of membranes is based on the photoreaction of cinnamic derivatives. The second one is composite membrane which can improve diffusion upon heating. The thermo-response of membranes comes from the volume phase transition ability of hydrogels. The third one is microcapsule which can release encapsulated agents upon light irradiation. The photo-response of capsules results from the photoreaction of nitrobenzyl derivatives. The study on these membrane systems reveals that stimuli-responsive release can be achieved by utilizing different functional materials on either macro or micro level. Based on the abundant family of smart materials, designing and fabricating stimuli-responsive systems shall lead to various advanced release processes on demand for biomedical applications.

  10. Decreased adrenoceptor stimulation in heart failure rats reduces NGF expression by cardiac parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib; Smith, Peter G

    2014-04-01

    Postganglionic cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves are physically proximate in atrial cardiac tissue allowing reciprocal inhibition of neurotransmitter release, depending on demands from central cardiovascular centers or reflex pathways. Parasympathetic cardiac ganglion (CG) neurons synthesize and release the sympathetic neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), which may serve to maintain these close connections. In this study we investigated whether NGF synthesis by CG neurons is altered in heart failure, and whether norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons promotes NGF synthesis. NGF and proNGF immunoreactivity in CG neurons in heart failure rats following chronic coronary artery ligation was investigated. NGF immunoreactivity was decreased significantly in heart failure rats compared to sham-operated animals, whereas proNGF expression was unchanged. Changes in neurochemistry of CG neurons included attenuated expression of the cholinergic marker vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and increased expression of the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. To further investigate norepinephrine's role in promoting NGF synthesis, we cultured CG neurons treated with adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists. An 82% increase in NGF mRNA levels was detected after 1h of isoproterenol (β-AR agonist) treatment, which increased an additional 22% at 24h. Antagonist treatment blocked isoproterenol-induced increases in NGF transcripts. In contrast, the α-AR agonist phenylephrine did not alter NGF mRNA expression. These results are consistent with β-AR mediated maintenance of NGF synthesis in CG neurons. In heart failure, a decrease in NGF synthesis by CG neurons may potentially contribute to reduced connections with adjacent sympathetic nerves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical properties and drug release of venlafaxine HCl solid mini matrices prepared by hot-melt extrusion and hot or ambient compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Theodoros; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Panagopoulou, Athanasia; Malamataris, Stavros; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Nikolakakis, Ioannis

    2018-02-01

    Objective/significance: To elucidate the role of plasticizers in different mini matrices and correlate mechanical properties with drug release. Cylindrical pellets were prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and mini tablets by hot (HC) and ambient compression (AC). Venlafaxine HCl was the model drug, Eudragit ® RSPO the matrix former and citric acid or Lutrol ® F127 the plasticizers. The matrices were characterized for morphology, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. The influence of plasticizer's type and content on the extrusion pressure (P e ) during HME and ejection during tableting was examined and the mechanical properties were correlated with drug release parameters. Resistance to extrusion and tablet ejection force were reduced by Lutrol ® F127 which also produced softer and weaker pellets with faster release, but harder and stronger HC tablets with slower release. HME pellets showed greater tensile strength (T) and 100 times slower release than tablets. P e correlated with T and resistance to deformation of the corresponding pellets (r 2  = 0.963 and 0.945). For both HME and HC matrices the decrease of drug release with T followed a single straight line (r 2  = 0.990) and for HME the diffusion coefficient (D e ) and retreat rate constant (k b ) decreased linearly with T (r 2  = 0.934 and 0.972). Lutrol ® F127 and citric acid are efficient plasticizers and Lutrol ® F127 is a thermal binder/lubricant in HC compression. The different bonding mechanisms of the matrices were reflected in the mechanical strength and drug release. Relationships established between T and drug release parameters for HME and HC matrices may be useful during formulation work.

  12. Pivagabine decreases stress-related hormone secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Stomati, M; Bersi, C; Luisi, S; Fedalti, M; Santuz, M; Esposito, G; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    2000-09-01

    Stress-induced neuroendocrine activities influence the regulation of endocrine glands and axes. Weight loss-related hypothalamic amenorrhea is a typical stress-induced physiopathological condition. It is characterized by increased adrenal cortex activation and by reduced GH, LH, FSH and gonadal steroid hormone levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pivagabine, a neurotropic drug (1800 mg/day for 7 days) or placebo administration on ACTH, cortisol, GH, LH, FSH and PRL plasma levels in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea related to weight loss. Hormonal parameters and the pulsatile release of cortisol (6-hour pulsatility, sampling every 10 minutes) were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment. Pivagabine administration significantly reduced mean plasma ACTH (from 21.7+/-1.7 to 15.4+/-1.2 pg/ml, p<0.05) and cortisol levels (from 12.2+/-0.7 to 9.7+/-0.7 ng/ml, p<0.05) and increased GH levels (from 1.4+/-0.5 to 3.0+/-0.9 ng/ml, p<0.05). A significant reduction of cortisol pulse amplitude was observed (p<0.01) while no change in pulse frequency occurred. No changes were observed in placebo-treated subjects. LH, FSH and PRL levels were not modified by placebo or pivagabine administration. In conclusion, in patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea related to weight loss pivagabine induced a significant decrease of cortisol secretion and an increase of GH release by pivagabine administration, suggesting that this drug exerts a specific neuroendocrine modulatory role.

  13. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  14. Hydraulic running and release tool with mechanical emergency release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a setting tool for connection in a well string to position a tubular member in a well bore. It comprises: a mandrel adapted to be connected to the well string; an outer sleeve surrounding the mandrel and releasably secured thereto; a latch nut releasably connected to the outer sleeve; piston means sealingly engaging the mandrel; shear means releasably securing the piston to the latch nut to maintain the latch nut releasably connected to the tubular member; the mandrel having port means for conducting fluid pressure from the well string to release the piston means from and the latch nut; cooperating engageable surfaces on the piston and latch nut to reengage them together after the piston moves a predetermined longitudinal distance relative to the latch nut; and additional cooperating engageable surfaces on the latch nut and the outer sleeve which are engageable when the piston and engaged latch nut are moved a predetermined additional longitudinal distance by fluid pressure to secure the engaged piston and latch nut with the outer sleeve for retrieval along with the mandrel from the well bore

  15. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  16. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  17. Population of Tuta absoluta and natural enemies after releasing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... The decrease of egg and larva numbers of T. absoluta were higher in plots released T. ..... four generations in a greenhouse of tomato production in .... Arno J, Sorribas R, Prat M, Montse M, Pozo C, Rodriguez D, Garreta A,.

  18. Manual of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Abrol, V [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-07-01

    The problem of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases is reduced to simple arithmetic by giving tables of concentrations and time integrated concentrations for instantaneous plumes and long time (1 year), sector averaged plumes for distances upto 10 km, effective release heights of upto 200 m and the six Pasquill stability classes. Correction factors for decay, depletion due to deposition and rainout are also given. Inhalation doses, immersion doses and contamination levels can be obtained from these by using multiplicative factors tabulated for various isotopes of significance. Tables of external gamma doses from plume are given separately for various gamma energies. Tables are also given to evaluate external beta and gamma dose rates from contaminated surfaces. The manual also discusses the basic diffusion model relevant to the problem. (author)

  19. Tritium release reduction and radiolysis gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batifol, G.; Douche, Ch.; Sejournant, Ch. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-15

    At CEA Valduc, the usual tritiated waste container is the steel drum. It allows good release reduction performance for middle activity waste but in some cases tritium outgassing from the waste drums is too high. It was decided to over-package each drum in a tighter container called the over-drum. According to good safety practices it was also decided to measure gas composition evolution into the over-drum in order to defect hydrogen formation over time. After a few months, a significant release reduction was observed. Additionally there followed contamination reduction in the roof storage building rainwater. However hydrogen was also observed in some over-drums, in addition to other radiolysis products. Catalyst will be added to manage the hydrogen risk in the over-drums. (authors)

  20. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Nieto, Jose Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12–16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2–4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of freshwater releases on the acidic Tinto river

  1. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canovas, Carlos Ruiz, E-mail: carlos.ruiz@dgeo.uhu.es [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC). c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, University of Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olias, Manuel [Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide. Ctra.de Utrera km 1, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Vazquez-Sune, Enric; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC). c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the influence of freshwater releases on the

  2. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  3. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  4. Externally controlled triggered-release of drug from PLGA micro and nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hua

    Full Text Available Biofilm infections are extremely hard to eradicate and controlled, triggered and controlled drug release properties may prolong drug release time. In this study, the ability to externally control drug release from micro and nanoparticles was investigated. We prepared micro/nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin (CIP and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid PLGA. Both micro/nanoparticles were observed to have narrow size distributions. We investigated and compared their passive and externally triggered drug release properties based on their different encapsulation structures for the nano and micro systems. In passive release studies, CIP demonstrated a fast rate of release in first 2 days which then slowed and sustained release for approximately 4 weeks. Significantly, magnetic nanoparticles containing systems all showed ability to have triggered drug release when exposed to an external oscillating magnetic field (OMF. An experiment where the OMF was turned on and off also confirmed the ability to control the drug release in a pulsatile manner. The magnetically triggered release resulted in a 2-fold drug release increase compared with normal passive release. To confirm drug integrity following release, the antibacterial activity of released drug was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. CIP maintained its antimicrobial activity after encapsulation and triggered release.

  5. Externally controlled triggered-release of drug from PLGA micro and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xin; Tan, Shengnan; Bandara, H M H N; Fu, Yujie; Liu, Siguo; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm infections are extremely hard to eradicate and controlled, triggered and controlled drug release properties may prolong drug release time. In this study, the ability to externally control drug release from micro and nanoparticles was investigated. We prepared micro/nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin (CIP) and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA. Both micro/nanoparticles were observed to have narrow size distributions. We investigated and compared their passive and externally triggered drug release properties based on their different encapsulation structures for the nano and micro systems. In passive release studies, CIP demonstrated a fast rate of release in first 2 days which then slowed and sustained release for approximately 4 weeks. Significantly, magnetic nanoparticles containing systems all showed ability to have triggered drug release when exposed to an external oscillating magnetic field (OMF). An experiment where the OMF was turned on and off also confirmed the ability to control the drug release in a pulsatile manner. The magnetically triggered release resulted in a 2-fold drug release increase compared with normal passive release. To confirm drug integrity following release, the antibacterial activity of released drug was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in vitro. CIP maintained its antimicrobial activity after encapsulation and triggered release.

  6. Effects of membrane composition on release of model hydrophilic compound from osmotic delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, N; Ozalp, Y; Ozkan, Y

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effects of surface-active agents in different types and concentrations, added into the coating solution, on release of model hydrophilic compound have been examined. For this purpose, the tablets, prepared with the use of methylene blue as a model substance, were coated by spray coating technique with cellulose acetate solution containing polyethylene glycol 400 as a plasticizer. In addition, cetylpyridinium chloride as cationic surface-active agent and sodium lauryl sulphate as anionic surface-active agent were added into coating solution in different concentrations. After creating a delivery orifice by a microdrill on the tablets, release of model hydrophilic compound was tested by the USP paddle method. The data obtained were evaluated according to the different kinetics and the mechanism of release from the preparations was examined. The surface properties of the coating material were investigated by scanning electron microscope taken before and after the contact with medium fluid, as well as the mechanical properties by tensile tests. In conclusion, it has been found that the cationic surface active agent, cetylpyridinium chloride reduced the lag time, observed during the release of model hydrophilic compound, as a result of its enhancing effect on wettability of tablets by reducing the contact angle between the medium fluid and the coating material. On the other hand, the anionic surface active agent, sodium lauryl sulphate has been inactivated possibly due to the interaction with model hydrophilic compound that has cationic properties and/or substances contained in membrane composition; thus, the lag time has not decreased and furthermore, a significant decrease in the delivery rate of model hydrophilic compound has been observed.

  7. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B.

    2007-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells

  8. Enhanced basophil histamine release and neutrophil chemotactic activity predispose grain dust-induced airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Jung, K; Kang, K; Nahm, D; Cho, S; Kim, Y

    1999-04-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of grain dust (GD)-induced occupational asthma (OA) remains unclear. To understand further the mechanism of GD-induced OA. Fifteen employees working in a same GD industry, complaining of work-related respiratory symptoms, were enrolled and were divided into two groups according to the GD-bronchoprovocation test (BPT) result: six positive responders were grouped as group III, nine negative responders as group II and five healthy controls as group I. Serum GD-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E (sIgE), specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Basophil histamine release was measured by the autofluorometric method, and changes of serum neutrophil chemotactic activity were observed by the Boyden chamber method. For clinical parameters such as degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, duration of respiratory symptoms, exposure duration, and prevalences of serum sIgE, sIgG and sIgG4 antibodies, there were no significant differences between group II and III (P > 0.05, respectively). Serum neutrophil chemotactic activity increased significantly at 30 min and decreased at 240 min after the GD-BPT in group III subjects (P 0.05). Basophil histamine release induced by GD was significantly higher in group III than those of group I or group II (P < 0.05, respectively), while minimal release of anti-IgG4 antibodies was noted in all three groups. These results suggest that enhanced basophil histamine release and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity might contribute to the development of GD-induced occupational asthma.

  9. Acute Whole Body Vibration Decreases the Glucose Levels in Elderly Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Florentino Pessoa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (TIIDM is characterized by high levels of blood glucose followed by excessive insulin release so that the target cells become less sensitive, developing insulin resistance and maintaining hyperglycemic levels. Physical activity is the strongest element to prevent and to manage the TIIDM, and the majority of patients do not remain in regularly active levels, because the premature fatigue in these patients decreases the adherence to the training. Contrastingly, the whole body vibration (WBV training may improve the glucose metabolism in diabetic patients, reducing the peripheral blood sugar, decreasing the physical discomfort and perceived exertion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of an acute WBV session as therapy to promote fasting decreases in insulin levels in peripheral blood in TIIDM when compared to healthy elderly. For this, fifteen healthy elderly women and fourteen diabetic elderly women, all sedentary, were allocated in diabetic or control groups, and we made an acute whole body session composed of 10 bouts lasting 2 minutes each one, separated by a 30-second rest period. The WBV was executed in a triaxial platform MY3 Power Plate® at 35 hertz and has been chosen a peak-to-peak displacement of 4 millimeters. After the protocol, both groups decreased the glycemic levels and increased lactate production in relation to the basal levels and when compared diabetic and control, where the most important results have been shown in diabetic women. This study revealed that WBV training in TIIDM has had significant beneficial effects on the control of glucose levels, still in an acute session. So that, the complete training probably will show better results about glycemic control and this finding could be especially important when prescribing exercise for elderly who are unable or unwilling to use traditional loads or who show poor exercise compliance.

  10. Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles as a platform to decrease ulcerogenic potential of piroxicam: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habashy, Salma E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have long gained significant interest for their use in various drug formulations in order to increase bioavailability, prolong drug release, and decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of ethyl cellulose-based NPs (EC-NPs) to modulate the release and reduce ulcerogenicity of piroxicam (PX) after oral administration. PX-loaded EC-NPs were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using different stabilizers at three concentration levels. Morphological examination of selected formulas confirmed the formation of spherical NPs with slightly porous surface. Formulation containing poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2), having a particle size of 240.26±29.24 nm, polydispersity index of 0.562±0.030, entrapment efficiency of 85.29%±1.57%, and modulated release of PX (88% after 12 hours), was selected as the optimum formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated the presence of PX in an amorphous form in the NPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the possible formation of hydrogen bond and the absence of chemical interaction. In vivo study, evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, evaluation of gastric irritation potential, and histological examination were conducted after administration of the selected formulation. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration, t max, of poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs was significantly higher than that of Feldene(®) 20 mg capsules (P≤0.001). Encapsulation of the acidic, gastric offender PX into NPs managed to significantly suppress gastric ulceration potential in rats (P≤0.05) as compared to that of PX suspension. A reduction of 66% in mean ulcer index was observed. In conclusion, poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2) had a significant potential of offsetting deleterious side effects common in PX use.

  11. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  12. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  13. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  14. Ultrasound stimulated release of gallic acid from chitin hydrogel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Huixin; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) stimulated drug release was examined in this study using a chitin hydrogel matrix loaded with gallic acid (GA), a drug used for wound healing and anticancer. Using phase inversion, GA-chitin hydrogels were prepared from chitin-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/lithium chloride (LiCl) solution in the presence of GA, with 24 h exposure of the solution to water vapor. The GA release from the GA-chitin hydrogel was examined under different US powers of 0–30 W at 43 kHz. The effects of GA loading amounts in the hydrogels (0.54, 0.43, and 0.25 mg/cm 3 ) and chitin concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the release behaviors were recorded under 43 kHz US exposure at 30 W. Results show that US accelerated the release efficiencies for all samples. Furthermore, the release efficiency increased concomitantly with increasing US power, GA loading amount, and decrease of the chitin concentration. The highest release rate of 0.74 μg/mL·min was obtained from 0.54 mg/cm 3 of GA-loaded hydrogel fabricated from a 0.1 wt% chitin mixture solution under 43 kHz US exposure at 30 W: nine times higher than that of the sample without US exposure. The hydrogel viscoelasticity demonstrated that the US irradiation rigidified the material. FT-IR showed that US can break the hydrogen bonds in the GA-chitin hydrogels. - Highlights: • Ultrasound (US) stimulated Gallic acid (GA) release from chitin hydrogel was studied. • The release efficiency of GA from chitin hydrogel increased nine times when irradiated by 43 kHz US compared with the sample without US. • Generalized 2D correlation and deconvolution study of FT-IR showed that US could promote the GA release by breaking hydrogen bonds.

  15. Ultrasound stimulated release of gallic acid from chitin hydrogel matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huixin; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) stimulated drug release was examined in this study using a chitin hydrogel matrix loaded with gallic acid (GA), a drug used for wound healing and anticancer. Using phase inversion, GA-chitin hydrogels were prepared from chitin-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/lithium chloride (LiCl) solution in the presence of GA, with 24 h exposure of the solution to water vapor. The GA release from the GA-chitin hydrogel was examined under different US powers of 0–30 W at 43 kHz. The effects of GA loading amounts in the hydrogels (0.54, 0.43, and 0.25 mg/cm{sup 3}) and chitin concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the release behaviors were recorded under 43 kHz US exposure at 30 W. Results show that US accelerated the release efficiencies for all samples. Furthermore, the release efficiency increased concomitantly with increasing US power, GA loading amount, and decrease of the chitin concentration. The highest release rate of 0.74 μg/mL·min was obtained from 0.54 mg/cm{sup 3} of GA-loaded hydrogel fabricated from a 0.1 wt% chitin mixture solution under 43 kHz US exposure at 30 W: nine times higher than that of the sample without US exposure. The hydrogel viscoelasticity demonstrated that the US irradiation rigidified the material. FT-IR showed that US can break the hydrogen bonds in the GA-chitin hydrogels. - Highlights: • Ultrasound (US) stimulated Gallic acid (GA) release from chitin hydrogel was studied. • The release efficiency of GA from chitin hydrogel increased nine times when irradiated by 43 kHz US compared with the sample without US. • Generalized 2D correlation and deconvolution study of FT-IR showed that US could promote the GA release by breaking hydrogen bonds.

  16. Simulated food effects on drug release from ethylcellulose: PVA-PEG graft copolymer-coated pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschert, Susanne; Siepmann, Florence; Leclercq, Bruno; Carlin, Brian; Siepmann, Juergen

    2010-02-01

    Food effects might substantially alter drug release from oral controlled release dosage forms in vivo. The robustness of a novel type of controlled release film coating was investigated using various types of release media and two types of release apparatii. Importantly, none of the investigated conditions had a noteworthy impact on the release of freely water-soluble diltiazem HCl or slightly water-soluble theophylline from pellets coated with ethylcellulose containing small amounts of PVA-PEG graft copolymer. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of fats, carbohydrates, surfactants, bile salts, and calcium ions in the release medium did not alter drug release. Furthermore, changes in the pH and differences in the mechanical stress the dosage forms were exposed to did not affect drug release from the pellets. The investigated film coatings allowing for oral controlled drug delivery are highly robust in vitro and likely to be poorly sensitive to classical food effects in vivo.

  17. GEWEX SRB Shortwave Release 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The new Release 4 uses the newly processed ISCCP HXS product as its primary input for cloud and radiance data. The ninefold increase in pixel number compared to the previous ISCCP DX allows finer gradations in cloud fraction in each grid box. It will also allow higher spatial resolutions (0.5 degree) in future releases. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made since Release 3. These include recalculated atmospheric transmissivities and reflectivities yielding a less transmissive atmosphere. The calculations also include variable aerosol composition, allowing for the use of a detailed aerosol history from the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC). Ocean albedo and snow/ice albedo are also improved from Release 3. Total solar irradiance is now variable, averaging 1361 Wm-2. Water vapor is taken from ISCCP's nnHIRS product. Results from GSW Release 4 are presented and analyzed. Early comparison to surface measurements show improved agreement.

  18. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  19. Percutaneous carpal tunnel release compared with mini-open release using ultrasonographic guidance for both techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Ken-ichi; Tachibana, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Seizo; Ida, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    To compare the outcomes of percutaneous carpal tunnel release (PCTR) and mini-open carpal tunnel release (mini-OCTR) using ultrasonographic guidance for both techniques. We included 74 hands of 65 women with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (age, 52-71 y; mean, 58 y). Thirty-five hands of 29 women had the PCTR (release with a device consisting of an angled blade, guide, and holder, along a line midway between the median nerve and ulnar artery (safe line) under ultrasonography (incision, 4 mm), and 39 hands of 36 women had the mini-OCTR (release along the safe line, distally under direct vision (incision, 1-1.5 cm) and proximally under ultrasonography, using a device consisting of a basket punch and outer tube. Assessments at 3, 6, 13, 26, 52, and 104 weeks showed no significant differences in neurologic recovery between the groups (p > .05). The PCTR group had significantly less pain, greater grip and key-pinch strengths, and better satisfaction scores at 3 and 6 weeks (p < .05), and less scar sensitivity at 3, 6, and 13 weeks (p < .05). There were no complications. The PCTR provides the same neurologic recovery as does the mini-OCTR. The former leads to less postoperative morbidity and earlier functional return and achievement of satisfaction. Therapeutic III. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Instant release of fission products in leaching experiments with high burn-up nuclear fuels in the framework of the Euratom project FIRST- Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmens, K., E-mail: klemmens@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); González-Robles, E.; Kienzler, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Curti, E. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept., Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Serrano-Purroy, D. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre - JRC, Directorate G - Nuclear Safety & Security, Department G.III, PO Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sureda, R.; Martínez-Torrents, A. [CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Roth, O. [Studsvik, Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nyköping (Sweden); Slonszki, E. [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont (MTA EK), PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mennecart, T. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Günther-Leopold, I. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept., Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hózer, Z. [Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Energiatudományi Kutatóközpont (MTA EK), PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-02-15

    The instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels and one MOX fuel was investigated by means of leach tests. The samples covered PWR and BWR fuels at average rod burn-up in the range of 45–63 GWd/t{sub HM} and included clad fuel segments, fuel segments with opened cladding, fuel fragments and fuel powder. The tests were performed with sodium chloride – bicarbonate solutions under oxidizing conditions and, for one test, in reducing Ar/H{sub 2} atmosphere. The iodine and cesium release could be partially explained by the differences in sample preparation, leading to different sizes and properties of the exposed surface areas. Iodine and cesium releases tend to correlate with FGR and linear power rating, but the scatter of the data is significant. Although the gap between the fuel and the cladding was closed in some high burn-up samples, fissures still provide possible preferential transport pathways. - Highlights: • Leach tests were performed to study the instant release of fission products from high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuels and one MOX fuel. • In these tests, the fission gas release given by the operator was a pessimistic estimator of the iodine and cesium release. • Iodine and cesium release is proportional to linear power rating beyond 200 W cm{sup −1}. • Closure of the fuel-cladding gap at high burn-up slows down the release. • The release rate decreases following an exponential equation.

  1. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  2. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  3. PHEBUS FP release analysis using a microstructure-based code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.

    1992-03-01

    The results of pre-test fission-product (FP) release analyses of the first two PHEBUS FP experiments, FPT0 and FPT1, indicate that the FREEDOM microstructure-based code predicts significant differences in both the timing and percent of gaseous FP releases for the two tests. To provide an indication of its predictive capability, FREEDOM was also used to model the high-burnup fuel tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experiments VI-2 and VI-3. For these, the code was found to overpredict releases during the early stages of the tests and to underpredict releases during the later stages. The release kinetics in both tests were reasonably predicted, however. In view of the above, it is likely that the FREEDOM predictions of the final cumulative releases for the first two PHEBUS FP tests are lower-bound estimates. However, the significant difference in the predicted timing of initial releases for the two tests is felt to be indicative of what will occur. Therefore, this difference should be considered in the planning and conduct of the two tests, particularly aspects related to on-line measurements

  4. The effect of release liner materials on adhesive contaminants, paper recycling and recycled paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Venditti; Richard Gilbert; Andy Zhang; Said Abubakr

    2000-01-01

    Release liner waste material is found in post-consumer waste streams and is also a significant component of the preconsumer waste stream generated in the manufacturing of adhesive products. To date, very little has been reported pertaining to the behavior of release liner in paper recycling. In this study, the effect of the release liner material on the behavior of...

  5. Releasing Content to Deter Cheating: An Analysis of the Impact on Candidate Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Gerrow, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cheating prevention strategy employed for a professional credentialing exam that involved releasing over 7,000 active and retired exam items. This study evaluated: 1) If any significant differences existed between examinee performance on released versus non-released items; 2) If item…

  6. The introduction of sialendoscopy has significantly contributed to a decreased number of excised salivary glands in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rye Rasmussen, Eva; Lykke, Eva; Wagner, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Excision has been the treatment of choice in benign non-tumorous obstructive disorders of the major salivary glands, when symptoms persisted in spite of conservative measures. Unfortunately surgical resection has been associated with a relatively high rate of adverse effects. To meet the need for...

  7. Nuclear 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase decreases amyloidogenic APP metabolism in neurons from APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Shawn; Inthathirath, Fatima; Gill, Sandeep K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Jaworski, Ewa; Wong, Daisy Y L; Gros, Robert; Rylett, R Jane

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with increased amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to β-amyloid peptides (Aβ), cholinergic neuron loss with decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and cognitive dysfunction. Both 69-kDa ChAT and 82-kDa ChAT are expressed in cholinergic neurons in human brain and spinal cord with 82-kDa ChAT localized predominantly to neuronal nuclei, suggesting potential alternative functional roles for the enzyme. By gene microarray analysis, we found that 82-kDa ChAT-expressing IMR32 neural cells have altered expression of genes involved in diverse cellular functions. Importantly, genes for several proteins that regulate APP processing along amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways are differentially expressed in 82-kDa ChAT-containing cells. The predicted net effect based on observed changes in expression patterns of these genes would be decreased amyloidogenic APP processing with decreased Aβ production. This functional outcome was verified experimentally as a significant decrease in BACE1 protein levels and activity and a concomitant reduction in the release of endogenous Aβ1-42 from neurons cultured from brains of AD-model APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The expression of 82-kDa ChAT in neurons increased levels of GGA3, which is involved in trafficking BACE1 to lysosomes for degradation. shRNA-induced decreases in GGA3 protein levels attenuated the 82-kDa ChAT-mediated decreases in BACE1 protein and activity and Aβ1-42 release. Evidence that 82-kDa ChAT can enhance GGA3 gene expression is shown by enhanced GGA3 gene promoter activity in SN56 neural cells expressing this ChAT protein. These studies indicate a novel relationship between cholinergic neurons and APP processing, with 82-kDa ChAT acting as a negative regulator of Aβ production. This decreased formation of Aβ could result in protection for cholinergic neurons, as well as protection of other cells in the vicinity that are sensitive to

  8. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded...

  9. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  10. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  11. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  12. Determination of accident related release data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Nolte, O.; Lange, F.; Martens, R.

    2004-01-01

    For accident safety analyses, for the assessment of potential radiological consequences, for the review of current requirements of the Transport Regulations and for their possible further development as well as for the demonstration that radioactive materials such as LDM candidate material fulfil the regulatory requirements reliable release data following mechanical impact are required. This is definitely one of the demanding issues in the field of transport safety of radioactive materials. In this context special attention has to be paid to radioactive wastes immobilised in brittle materials, e.g. cement/concrete, glass, ceramics or other brittle materials such as fresh and spent fuel. In this presentation we report on a long-term experimental program aiming at improving the general physical understanding of the release process as well as the quantity and the quality of release data. By combining laboratory experiments using small scale test specimens with a few key scaling experiments with large scale test objects significant progress was achieved to meet this objective. The laboratory equipment enables the in-situ determination of the amount and aerodynamic size distribution of the airborne particles generated upon impact of the test specimen on a hard target. Impact energies cover the range experienced in transport accidents including aircraft accidents. The well defined experimental boundary conditions and the good reproducibility of the experimental procedure allowed for systematic studies to exactly measure the amount and aerodynamic size distribution of the airborne release and to quantify its dependence on relevant parameters such as energy input, material properties, and specimen geometry. The experimental program was performed within the scope of various national and international (e.g. EU-funded) projects. The small scale experiments with brittle materials revealed a pronounced universality of the airborne release in view of the material properties and

  13. Large methane releases lead to strong aerosol forcing and reduced cloudiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurten, T.; Zhou, L.; Makkonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The release of vast quantities of methane into the atmosphere as a result of clathrate destabilization is a potential mechanism for rapid amplification of global warming. Previous studies have calculated the enhanced warming based mainly on the radiative effect of the methane itself, with smaller...... is predicted to significantly decrease hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations, while moderately increasing ozone (O-3). These changes lead to a 70% increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an 18% decrease in global mean cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC). The CDNC change causes a radiative...... forcing that is comparable in magnitude to the long-wave radiative forcing ("enhanced greenhouse effect") of the added methane. Together, the indirect CH4-O-3 and CH4-OHaerosol forcings could more than double the warming effect of large methane increases. Our findings may help explain the anomalously...

  14. Study on the rheological properties and volatile release of cold-set emulsion-filled protein gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2014-11-26

    Emulsion-filled protein gels (EFP gels) were prepared through a cold-set gelation process, and they were used to deliver volatile compounds. An increase in the whey protein isolate (WPI) content from 4 to 6% w/w did not show significant effect on the gelation time, whereas an increase in the oil content from 5 to 20% w/w resulted in an earlier onset of gelation. Gels with a higher WPI content had a higher storage modulus and water-holding capacity (WHC), and they presented a higher force and strain at breaking, indicating that a more compact gel network was formed. An increase in the oil content contributed to gels with a higher storage modulus and force at breaking; however, this increase did not affect the WHC of the gels, and gels with a higher oil content became more brittle, resulting in a decreased strain at breaking. GC headspace analysis showed that volatiles released at lower rates and had lower air-gel partition coefficients in EFP gels than those in ungelled counterparts. Gels with a higher WPI content had lower release rates and partition coefficients of the volatiles. A change in the oil content significantly modified the partition of volatiles at equilibrium, but it produced a minor effect on the release rate of the volatiles. The findings indicated that EFP gels could be potentially used to modulate volatile release by varying the rheological properties of the gel.

  15. Assessment of endogenous dopamine release by methylphenidate challenge using iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Korn, P.; Linszen, D.H.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed pharmacologically induced endogenous dopamine (DA) release in healthy male volunteers (n=12). Changes in endogenous DA release after injection of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate were evaluated by single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and constant infusion of iodine-123 iodobenzamide ([ 123 I[IBZM), a D 2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA release. Methylphenidate induced displacement of striatal [ 123 I[IBZM binding, resulting in a significantly decrease in the specific to non-specific [ 123 I[IBZM uptake ratio (average: 8.6%) in comparison with placebo (average: -1.9%). Moreover, injection of methylphenidate induced significant behavioural responses on the following items: excitement, anxiety, tension, and mannerisms and posturing. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using constant infusion of [ 123 I[IBZM and SPET imaging to measure endogenous DA release after methylphenidate challenge and to investigate neurochemical aspects of behaviour. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronheim, S.; Sheppard, M.C.; Pimstone, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  17. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie

    2014-01-01

    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...... reporting that biomasses with a lower chlorine content release a higher fraction of chlorine during the pyrolysis process. A significant sulfur release (about 60%) was observed from the six biomasses investigated at 350 degrees C. The initial sulfur content in the biomass did not influence the fraction...

  18. Strategies for decreasing nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [AB-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    Following the Kyoto Conference of 1997, declaring the urgency of implementing strategies for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there are several valid arguments to examine the opportunities for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture. This paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art of emission reduction, discusses two strategies for decreasing emissions and identifies various gaps in current knowledge in this field and the need for relevant scientific research. The two strategies discussed are (1) increasing the nitrogen use efficiency toward the goal of lowering total nitrogen input, and (2) decreasing the release of nitrous oxide per unit of nitrogen from the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency is thought to be the most effective strategy. To that end, the paper discusses several practical actions and measures based on decisions at tactical and operational management levels. Knowledge gaps identified include (1) incomplete understanding of nitrogen cycling in farming systems, (2) incomplete quantitative understanding of emission controlling factors, (3) information gap between science and policy, and (4) information gap between science and practice. Appropriate research needs are suggested for each of these areas. It is suggested that the highest priority should be given to improving the understanding of emission controlling factors in the field and on the farm. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  19. pH-triggered echogenicity and contents release from liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahire, Rahul; Hossain, Rayat; Patel, Rupa; Paul, Shirshendu; Meghnani, Varsha; Ambre, Avinash H; Gange, Kara N; Katti, Kalpana S; Leclerc, Estelle; Srivastava, D K; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2014-11-03

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%).

  20. Limited Releases of Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Kovac, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Krsko Nuclear Power Plant is about 700 MW Pressurised Water Reactor plant located in Slovenia close to the border with Croatia. The authorised limit for the radioactive releases is basically set to 50 μSv effective dose per year to the members of the public. There is also additional limitation of total activities released in a year and concentration. The poster presents the effluents of the year 2000 and evaluated dose referring to the limits and to the natural and other sources of radiation around the plant. (author)

  1. The diabetic frozen shoulder: arthroscopic release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie-Harris, D J; Myerthall, S

    1997-02-01

    Seventeen patients who were diabetics developed frozen shoulders which failed to respond to conservative management. They had persistent pain, stiffness, and limited function. An arthroscopic release was performed by progressively releasing the anterior structures from superior to inferior. Starting from the interval area we progressed to the anterior superior glenohumeral ligament, the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the anterior capsule, and the inferior capsule. Postoperatively physiotherapy was carried out daily to maintain the range of movement. At a follow up of 1 to 5 years the patients were assessed using the American Shoulder Society scheme. In addition the patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively on four criteria; pain, external rotation, abduction, and function. We found that the patients were statistically significantly improved in all four categories. Thirteen of the 17 patients had no pain, full range of motion compared with the opposite side, and full function. There was one poor result with no improvement. The remaining three patients had improved but still had residual abnormalities. We consider arthroscopic release to be an effective treatment for the resistant diabetic frozen shoulder.

  2. POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES AS DRUG CARRIERS:: RELEASE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  3. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  4. Chronic ethanol consumption decreases adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Cai, Y.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Coleman, L.; Piper, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Increased alcohol consumption by adolescents and teenagers has heightened awareness of potential endocrine and developmental alterations. The current study was designed to determine whether chronic ethanol intake alters pituitary and adrenal function in the developing rat. One month old male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 6% ethanol in drinking water. After one month of treatment animals were sacrificed and blood, pituitary and adrenal glands collected. Plasma was assayed for ACTH and corticosterone (CS) by radioimmunossay (RIA). Five anterior pituitary glands per group were challenged with 100 μM corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) for 90 min at 37C under 95% air / 5% CO 2 . Media were analyzed for either ACTH (pituitary) or CS (adrenal) by RIA. Plasma ACTH and CS were unaffected by ethanol consumption. Pituitary response to CRF was not altered by ethanol. The lack of difference in ACTH release was not due to differences in pituitary content of ACTH. However, chronic ethanol consumption did decrease adrenal responsiveness to ACTH stimulation. In vitro corticosterone production was 1.21 ± 0.14 μg/adrenal in controls and 0.70 ± 0.06 μg/adrenal in ethanol consuming rats

  5. Effect of etorphine on the spontaneous and field stimulation-mediated release of norepinephrine and total tritium from perfused guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated guinea pig hearts were prelabeled with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) and perfused with modified Krebs-bicarbonate solution at 37 0 C. Spontaneous release of total 3 H and field stimulation-mediated (supramax. V., 1 Hz, 2 msec duration for a total of 60 pulses) overflow of NE and 3 H-NE were measured in the absence or presence of etorphine. Etorphine (0.1 - 100 μM) was added to the perfusion fluid 15 min. before the stimulation. To study the effect of etorphine on spontaneous release of total 3 H, etorphine was added cumulatively without stimulation. Etorphine (1.0 - 100 μM) caused a significant decrease in the stimulation-mediated overflow of NE and the inhibition was dose-related. The overflow of NE was 5.1 +/- 0.3 ng in the absence and 4.0 +/- 0.2 ng in the presence of etorphine (1.0 μM). Low concentrations of etorphine (0.1 - 1.0 μM) had no effect on the spontaneous release of total 3 H while 10 μM and 100 μM caused a 3 and 6-fold increase respectively. The results show that etorphine inhibited neuronal release of NE at a dose which had no effect on spontaneous release. It is suggested that opiate receptors might be involved in the prejunctional modulation of the release of NE in the guinea pig heart

  6. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Raut, P P; Prasanth, K V; Prasad, R G

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 3(2) factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported.

  7. A multifunctional multimaterial system for on-demand protein release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncaboylu, Deniz Ceylan; Friess, Fabian; Wischke, Christian; Lendlein, Andreas

    2018-06-15

    In order to provide best control of the regeneration process for each individual patient, the release of protein drugs administered during surgery may need to be timely adapted and/or delayed according to the progress of healing/regeneration. This study aims to establish a multifunctional implant system for a local on-demand release, which is applicable for various types of proteins. It was hypothesized that a tubular multimaterial container kit, which hosts the protein of interest as a solution or gel formulation, would enable on-demand release if equipped with the capacity of diameter reduction upon external stimulation. Using devices from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) networks, it could be demonstrated that a shape-memory effect activated by heat or NIR light enabled on-demand tube shrinkage. The decrease of diameter of these shape-memory tubes (SMT) allowed expelling the payload as demonstrated for several proteins including SDF-1α, a therapeutically relevant chemotactic protein, to achieve e.g. continuous release with a triggered add-on dosing (open tube) or an on-demand onset of bolus or sustained release (sealed tube). Considering the clinical relevance of protein factors in (stem) cell attraction to lesions and the progress in monitoring biomarkers in body fluids, such on-demand release systems may be further explored e.g. in heart, nerve, or bone regeneration in the future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of compost age on the release of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal B. Al-Bataina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Composted organic materials are applied to help restore disturbed soils, speed revegetation, and control erosion; these changes are generally beneficial for stormwater quality. Ensuring that nutrient release from compost is adequate for plant needs without degrading stormwater quality is important since composts release nitrogen at variable rates (1–3% of total N/yr and the leaching process can extend for many years. The aim of this work was to understand the effect of compost age on the extent and rates of nitrogen release by conducting detailed rainfall simulation studies of one compost type at three different ages. Models describing temporal changes in nitrogen release to runoff during a single storm and across multiple storms were developed and applied to the runoff data. Nitrogen content (% and bulk density of compost increased with the increase in compost age and total nitrogen release decreased with increasing compost age. The three rain simulations (storms performed on each of the three compost ages show that nitrogen release declined each day of the repeated daily storms. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the amount of nitrogen remaining on compost after several storms.

  9. Fission gas release of MOX with heterogeneous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, N.; Akiyama, H.; Kamimura, K; Delville, R.; Jutier, F.; Verwerft, M.; Miura, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-01-01

    It is very useful for fuel integrity evaluation to accumulate knowledge base on fuel behavior of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel used in light water reactors (LWRs). Fission gas release is one of fuel behaviors which have an impact on fuel integrity evaluation. Fission gas release behavior of MOX fuels having heterogeneous structure is focused in this study. MOX fuel rods with a heterogeneous fuel microstructure were irradiated in Halden reactor (IFA-702) and the BR-3/BR-2 CALLISTO Loop (CHIPS program). The 85 Kr gamma spectrometry measurements were carried out in specific cycles in order to examine the concerned LHR (Linear Heat Rate) for fission gas release in the CHIPS program. The concerned LHR is defined in this paper to be the LHR at which a certain additional fission gas release thermally occurs. Post-irradiation examination was performed to understand the fission gas release behavior in connection with the pellet microstructure. The followings conclusions can be made from this study. First, the concerned LHR for fission gas release is estimated to be in the range of 20-23 kW/m with burnup over 37 GWd/tM. It is moreover guessed that the concerned LHR for fission gas release tends to decrease with increasing burnup. Secondly It is observed that FGR (fission gas release rate) is positively correlated with LHR when the LHR exceeds the concerned value. Thirdly, when burnup dependence of fission gas release is discussed, effective burnup should be taken into account. The effective burnup is defined as the burnup at which the LHR should be exceed the concerned value at the last time during all the irradiation period. And fourthly, it appears that FGR inside Pu spots is higher than outside and that retained (not released) fission gases mainly exist in the fission gas bubbles. Since fission gases in bubbles are considered to be easily released during fuel temperature increase, this information is very important to estimate fission gas release behavior

  10. Estimation of cobalt release from feed water heater tubes of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Kitamura, M.; Ozawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the release source of cobalt from heater tubes of the feed water line, release rate measurements were carried out by detecting 60 Co released from irradiated stainless steel in contact with neutral water at an oxygen concentration of 20 ppb. The dependences of cobalt release rate on temperature, flow velocity and exposure time were studied after 670 hours of release experiments, and an empirical equation (which is presented) was obtained in the temperature range from 150 to 240 deg C. A decrease in the cobalt release rate above 250 deg C was considered due to the formation of a protective oxide layer. From these data, the amount of cobalt released from individual feed water heaters was evaluated. It was demonstrated that low cobalt containing stainless steel was economically applied only in the higher temperature region of the heater (20% of the total surface) to reduce cobalt feed rate into the reactor (to approx. 1/2). (author)

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  15. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  16. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  17. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  18. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  19. Controlled Release from Zein Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Jacob; Belton, Peter; Venema, Paul; Linden, Van Der Erik; Vries, De Renko; Qi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In earlier studies, the corn protein zein is found to be suitable as a sustained release agent, yet the range of drugs for which zein has been studied remains small. Here, zein is used as a sole excipient for drugs differing in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point: indomethacin,

  20. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  1. Guilt decreasing marketing communication: an unexplored appeal

    OpenAIRE

    B. BUSACCA; SOSCIA I; PITRELLI E

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption situations and practitioners around the world have continued to use it as a communication appeal. Marketing literature demonstrated that guilt as a distinct emotion can be aroused by advertising. Nevertheless, the capacity of advertising to decrease guilt was neglected by marketing scholars and the aim of this research is to assess the role of the guilt decreasing appeal in reducing anticipated guilt. Findings demonstrate the eff...

  2. Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; R. Sam Williams; Patricia Lebow

    2003-01-01

    The release of arsenic from wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can be decreased by application of wood finishes, but little is known about the types of finishes that are best suited for this purpose. This study evaluated the effects of finish water repellent content and ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the release of arsenic, copper, and chromium...

  3. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  4. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83... Release planning. (a) All grants of parole shall be conditioned on the development of a suitable release... parole date for purposes of release planning for up to 120 days without a hearing. If efforts to...

  5. [Effect of nociceptin on histamine and serotonin release in the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Melinda; Hantos, Mónika; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Korniléa

    2006-01-01

    Role in pain sensation of both nociceptin (NC), the bioactive heptadecapeptide sequence of preproorphaninFQ and of histamine has been widely evidenced in the central nervous system (CNS). In the current series of experiments effect of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered NC (5.5 nmol/rat) on histamine and serotonin levels in blood plasma, CSF and brain areas (hypothalamus and hippocampus) was studies and compared to the effect of the mast cell degranulator Compound 48/80(100microg/kg, i.c.v.) and the neuroactive peptide Substance P (50nmol/rat, i.c.v.). It was found that all the three compounds increased the histamine level in the CNS, however their activity concerning the mast cell-, and neuronal histamine release is different. NC could release histamine from both the mast cells and the neurons and it decreased CNS serotonin levels. Substance P was found the most potent in increasing CNS histamine levels. Compound 48/80 treatment resulted in elevated histamine levels both in the CNS and blood plasma. It is concluded that the histamine releasing effects of i.c.v. administered NC and SP are limited to the CNS, but in the effect of Compound 48/80 its blood-brain barrier impairing activity is also involved. Data also demonstrate that NC has significant effect on both the histaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the CNS.

  6. Fundamental Study of Disposition and Release of Methane in a Shale Gas Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Xiong, Yongliang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Repository Performance; Criscenti, Louise J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Ho, Tuan Ahn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Storage and Transportation Technology; Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Matteo, Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Kruichak, Jessica N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Mills, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geomechanics; Gordon, Margaret E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials, Devices and Energy Technologies; Akkutlu, Yucel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2016-09-01

    The recent boom in shale gas production through hydrofracturing has reshaped the energy production landscape in the United States. Wellbore production rates vary greatly among the wells within a single field and decline rapidly with time, thus bring up a serious concern with the sustainability of shale gas production. Shale gas production starts with creating a fracture network by injecting a pressurized fluid in a wellbore. The induced fractures are then held open by proppant particles. During production, gas releases from the mudstone matrix, migrates to nearby fractures, and ultimately reaches a production wellbore. Given the relatively high permeability of the induced fractures, gas release and migration in low-permeability shale matrix is likely to be a limiting step for long-term wellbore production. Therefore, a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of methane disposition and release in shale matrix is crucial for the development of new technologies to maximize gas production and recovery. Shale is a natural nanocomposite material with distinct characteristics of nanometer-scale pore sizes, extremely low permeability, high clay contents, significant amounts of organic carbon, and large spatial heterogeneities. Our work has shown that nanopore confinement plays an important role in methane disposition and release in shale matrix. Using molecular simulations, we show that methane release in nanoporous kerogen matrix is characterized by fast release of pressurized free gas (accounting for ~ 30 - 47% recovery) followed by slow release of adsorbed gas as the gas pressure decreases. The first stage is driven by the gas pressure gradient while the second stage is controlled by gas desorption and diffusion. The long-term production decline appears controlled by the second stage of gas release. We further show that diffusion of all methane in nanoporous kerogen behaves differently from the bulk phase, with much smaller diffusion coefficients. The MD

  7. Controlled-release tablet formulation of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Kulkarni, K; Talwar, N

    1992-04-01

    Guar (GG) and Karaya gums (KG) alone and in combination with hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated as release retarding materials to formulate a controlled-release tablet dosage form of isoniazid (1). In vitro release of 1 from tablets followed non-Fickian release profile with rapid initial release. Urinary excretion studies in normal subjects showed steady-state levels of 1 for 13 h. In vitro and in vivo data correlated (r = 0.9794). The studies suggested the potentiality of GG and KG as release retarding materials in formulating controlled-release tablet dosage forms of 1.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was reported in Parkinson's disease and this contributes to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism such as multiple system atrophy. However, decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare MIBG uptake of the thyroid among Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and controls. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease, 11 patients with multiple system atrophy and 14 controls were examined in this study. Planar images were taken 15 minutes (early images) and 3 hours (late images) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123 I-MIBG. MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p<0.0001) and multiple system atrophy (p=0.018). MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly also in multiple system atrophy compared to controls (p=0.027). On late images, thyroid uptake differed significantly only between Parkinson's disease and controls (p=0.010). Our study is the first to demonstrate decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid in Parkinson's disease. Sympathetic nervous denervation of Parkinson's disease occurred not only in the heart but also in the thyroid. (author)

  7. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  8. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.