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Sample records for release frequency evaluations

  1. Study on large release frequency of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Song Wei; Li Chaojun; Fu Zhiwei; Wang Zhe; Zuo Jiaxu; Tong Jiejuan

    2014-01-01

    There are several definitions of large release frequency of nuclear power plant. This paper reviews the meanings of large release and requirement of large release frequency provided by IAEA, NRC and WENRA, analyses the relationship between the meanings of large release, compares the calculations of several large release frequencies, It is different frequency that the definition of LRF is not same. Last we discuss the difference between large release frequency and large early release frequency and explore the suitable definitions of LRF for nuclear power plants in China. (authors)

  2. Simplified approach for estimating large early release frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, W.T.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.; Brown, T.; Gregory, J.

    1998-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Policy Statement related to Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) encourages greater use of PRA techniques to improve safety decision-making and enhance regulatory efficiency. One activity in response to this policy statement is the use of PRA in support of decisions related to modifying a plant's current licensing basis (CLB). Risk metrics such as core damage frequency (CDF) and Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) are recommended for use in making risk-informed regulatory decisions and also for establishing acceptance guidelines. This paper describes a simplified approach for estimating LERF, and changes in LERF resulting from changes to a plant's CLB

  3. Frequency limitations on reactor release derived from radiological criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1976-05-01

    Acceptable frequencies are suggested with which a number of defined individual and collective dose criteria are met. This has enabled a relationship to be proposed between the frequency and any event leading to release of radioactive material and the dose commitment to the hypothetical individual at the site boundary. The philosphy developed is generally applicable, but in this instance it has been demonstrated for an SGHW Reactor located at Sizewell. The results are derived on the basis of an acceptable level of risk of fatality to the most exposed individual and the application of the methodology to other reactor types and sites is demonstrated. (author)

  4. Estimation of large early release frequency for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Thangamani, I.; Shrivastava, A.; Vinod, Gopika; Verma, Vishnu; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) examines severe accidents through a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approaches, in order to determine the release of radionuclides from containment, including the physical processes that are involved in the loss of structural integrity of the reactor core. The probabilistic part focuses on the reliability evaluation of containment systems and the deterministic part focuses on the analysis of the physical processes of an accident (timing and magnitude of radioactivity release), and the response of the containment. The important tasks involved are: (i) grouping and categorization of accident sequences into plant damage states (PDSs) (ii) development of a containment event trees (CETs) (iii) development of CET top event definitions and quantification of failure probabilities, and (iv) assigning the release categories and estimation of large early release frequency (LERF). LERF is defined as the frequency of those accidents leading to rapid, unmitigated release of airborne fission products from the containment to the environment occurring before the effective implementation of offsite emergency response and protective actions such that there is the potential for early health effects. Such accidents generally include unscrubbed releases associated with early containment failure shortly after vessel breach, containment bypass events, and loss of containment isolation. Preliminary assessment of LERF, based on release categorization from qualitative expert judgement, has been carried out and the estimated LERF is found to be 1e-13/yr. The dominant contributors are: (a) LB LOCA with the failure of prompt shutdown coupled with containment isolation failure, (b) containment bypass event from main steam line break outside containment coupled with failure of main steam isolation valves, and (c) LB LOCA with complete failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and loss of moderator cooling

  5. Negative feedback governs gonadotrope frequency-decoding of gonadotropin releasing hormone pulse-frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lim

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the gonadotropin subunits is directed by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH from the hypothalamus, with the frequency of GnRH pulses governing the differential expression of the common alpha-subunit, luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta. Three mitogen-activated protein kinases, (MAPKs, ERK1/2, JNK and p38, contribute uniquely and combinatorially to the expression of each of these subunit genes. In this study, using both experimental and computational methods, we found that dual specificity phosphatase regulation of the activity of the three MAPKs through negative feedback is required, and forms the basis for decoding the frequency of pulsatile GnRH. A fourth MAPK, ERK5, was shown also to be activated by GnRH. ERK5 was found to stimulate FSHbeta promoter activity and to increase FSHbeta mRNA levels, as well as enhancing its preference for low GnRH pulse frequencies. The latter is achieved through boosting the ultrasensitive behavior of FSHbeta gene expression by increasing the number of MAPK dependencies, and through modulating the feedforward effects of JNK activation on the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R. Our findings contribute to understanding the role of changing GnRH pulse-frequency in controlling transcription of the pituitary gonadotropins, which comprises a crucial aspect in regulating reproduction. Pulsatile stimuli and oscillating signals are integral to many biological processes, and elucidation of the mechanisms through which the pulsatility is decoded explains how the same stimulant can lead to various outcomes in a single cell.

  6. Manual of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Abrol, V [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-07-01

    The problem of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases is reduced to simple arithmetic by giving tables of concentrations and time integrated concentrations for instantaneous plumes and long time (1 year), sector averaged plumes for distances upto 10 km, effective release heights of upto 200 m and the six Pasquill stability classes. Correction factors for decay, depletion due to deposition and rainout are also given. Inhalation doses, immersion doses and contamination levels can be obtained from these by using multiplicative factors tabulated for various isotopes of significance. Tables of external gamma doses from plume are given separately for various gamma energies. Tables are also given to evaluate external beta and gamma dose rates from contaminated surfaces. The manual also discusses the basic diffusion model relevant to the problem. (author)

  7. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  8. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEEDING FREQUENCIES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEEDING FREQUENCIES ON GROWTH .... using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ... SGR = Specific Growth Rate, FCR = Food Conversion Ratio, K = Condition Factor and SR = Survival Rate.

  9. Can comodulation masking release occur when frequency changes could promote perceptual segregation of the on-frequency and flanking bands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko L; Epp, Bastian; Stasiak, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    A common characteristic of natural sounds is that the level fluctuations in different frequency regions are coherent. The ability of the auditory system to use this comodulation is shown when a sinusoidal signal is masked by a masker centred at the signal frequency (on-frequency masker, OFM......) and one or more off-frequency components, commonly referred to as flanking bands (FBs). In general, the threshold of the signal masked by comodulated masker components is lower than when masked by masker components with uncorrelated envelopes or in the presence of the OFM only. This effect is commonly...... referred to as comodulation masking release (CMR). The present study investigates if CMR is also observed for a sinusoidal signal embedded in the OFM when the centre frequencies of the FBs are swept over time with a sweep rate of one octave per second. Both a common change of different frequencies...

  10. Nitric oxide donors enhance the frequency dependence of dopamine release in nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Henrike; Threlfell, Sarah; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2011-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is critically involved in normal as well as maladaptive motivated behaviors including drug addiction. Whether the striatal neuromodulator nitric oxide (NO) influences DA release in NAc is unknown. We investigated whether exogenous NO modulates DA transmission in NAc core and how this interaction varies depending on the frequency of presynaptic activation. We detected DA with cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in mouse NAc in slices following stimuli spanning a full range of DA neuron firing frequencies (1-100 Hz). NO donors 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1) or z-1-[N-(3-ammoniopropyl)-N-(n-propyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PAPA/NONOate) enhanced DA release with increasing stimulus frequency. This NO-mediated enhancement of frequency sensitivity of DA release was not prevented by inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), DA transporters, or large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and did not require glutamatergic or GABAergic input. However, experiments to identify whether frequency-dependent NO effects were mediated via changes in powerful acetylcholine-DA interactions revealed multiple components to NO modulation of DA release. In the presence of a nicotinic receptor antagonist (dihydro-β-erythroidine), NO donors increased DA release in a frequency-independent manner. These data suggest that NO in the NAc can modulate DA release through multiple GC-independent neuronal mechanisms whose net outcome varies depending on the activity in DA neurons and accumbal cholinergic interneurons. In the presence of accumbal acetylcholine, NO promotes the sensitivity of DA release to presynaptic activation, but with reduced acetylcholine input, NO will promote DA release in an activity-independent manner through a direct action on dopaminergic terminals.

  11. Modeling drug release from functionalized magnetic nanoparticles actuated by non-heating low frequency magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Y., E-mail: nano@tsutmb.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, School of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovin, D. [G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University (Russian Federation); Klyachko, N.; Majouga, A.; Kabanov, A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, School of Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Various plausible acceleration mechanisms of drug release from nanocarriers composed of a single-domain magnetic nanoparticle core with attached long macromolecule chains activated by low frequency non-heating alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed. The most important system characteristics affecting the AMF exposure impact are determined. Impact of several reasonable mechanisms is estimated analytically or obtained using numerical modeling. Some conditions providing manifold release acceleration as a result from exposure in AMF are found.

  12. Modeling drug release from functionalized magnetic nanoparticles actuated by non-heating low frequency magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, Y.; Golovin, D.; Klyachko, N.; Majouga, A.; Kabanov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Various plausible acceleration mechanisms of drug release from nanocarriers composed of a single-domain magnetic nanoparticle core with attached long macromolecule chains activated by low frequency non-heating alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed. The most important system characteristics affecting the AMF exposure impact are determined. Impact of several reasonable mechanisms is estimated analytically or obtained using numerical modeling. Some conditions providing manifold release acceleration as a result from exposure in AMF are found.

  13. Compliance of the Vaalputs national radioactive waste disposal facility to a frequency-magnitude release criterion as required for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.W.W.; Gerber, H.H.; Kruger, J.; Weygand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Accidental releases of radioactivity from the Vaalputs nuclear waste repository have been quantified and release frequencies have been attached to a number of accident scenarios of human or natural origin. These have then been compared to a frequency-magnitude release criterion according to South African licensing requirements. It was shown that the criterion was applicable in three release bands. In two of these the criterion was met by some orders of magnitude. In the third band the permitted release frequency was a factor 55 below the limit in spite of pessimistic release assumptions

  14. Guidance for Evaluating the Safety of Experimental Releases of Mosquitoes, Emphasizing Mark-Release-Recapture Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Mark Q; Charlwood, J Derek; Harrington, Laura C; Lounibos, L Philip; Reisen, William K; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2018-01-01

    Experimental releases of mosquitoes are performed to understand characteristics of populations related to the biology, ability to transmit pathogens, and ultimately their control. In this article, we discuss considerations related to the safety of experimental releases of living mosquitoes, applying principles of good practice in vector biology that protect human health and comfort. We describe specific factors of experimental releases of mosquitoes that we believe are critical to inform institutional biosafety committees and similar review boards to which proposals to conduct mosquito release experiments have been submitted. In this study, "experimental releases" means those that do not significantly increase vector capacity or nuisance biting relative to the unperturbed natural baseline. This document specifically does not address releases of mosquitoes for ongoing control programs or trials of new control methods for which broader assessments of risk are required. It also does not address releases of transgenic or exotic (non-native) mosquito species, both of which require particular regulatory approval. Experimental releases may include females and males and evaluation must consider their effects based on the number released, their genotype and phenotype, the environment into which they are released, and postrelease collection activities. We consider whether increases of disease transmission and nuisance biting might result from proposed experimental releases against the backdrop of natural population size variation. We recommend that experimental releases be conducted in a manner that can be reasonably argued to have insignificant negative effects. Reviewers of proposals for experimental releases should expect applicants to provide such an argument based on evidence from similar studies and their planned activities. This document provides guidance for creating and evaluating such proposals.

  15. Design and evaluation of nicorandil extended-release tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate extended-release formulations of a model drug, nicorandil, in order to achieve the desired steady-state plasma concentration of drug in vivo. Simulation was employed to estimate optimum dissolution and absorption rate of nicorandil. The dissolution test was employed using pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 buffer solution, or water, to measure the in vitro release behaviors of nicorandil formulations. A single dose (15 mg of each formulation was orally administered to four beagle dogs under fasted conditions, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The in vitro/in vivo relationship of the extended-release formulation was confirmed using in vitro dissolution profiles and plasma concentrations of drug in beagle dogs. Nicorandil was released completely within 30 min from the immediate-release tablets and released for 24 h from the extended-release tablets. The nicorandil plasma concentration could be modified by adjusting the drug release rate from the extended-release formulation. The release rate of nicorandil was the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption of drug from the extended-release formulations. These results highlight the potential of a nicorandil extended-release formulation in the treatment of angina pectoris.

  16. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A coating layer was then applied with a mixture of HPMC, ethylcellulose, shellac, and HPMC phthalate. The effect of several formulation variables on in vitro drug release was studied; furthermore, the drug release kinetics of the optimized formulation was evaluated. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation ...

  17. Frequency of indeterminate results from an interferon-gamma release assay among HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and factors associated with indeterminate interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA results in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Methods: We tested 81 PLWHA in the central-west region of Brazil, using the tuberculin skin test and an IGRA. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables was gathered through the use of questionnaires and from medical records. The association of those variables with indeterminate results was analyzed by calculating the adjusted ORs in a multivariate logistic regression model. Concordance was evaluated by determining the kappa statistic. Results: Among the 81 patients evaluated, the tuberculin skin test results were positive in 18 (22.2% of the patients, and the IGRA results were positive in 10 (12.3%, with a kappa of 0.62. The IGRA results were indeterminate in 22 (27.1% of the patients (95% CI: 17.8-38.1%. The odds of obtaining indeterminate results were significantly higher in smokers (adjusted OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4-26.7 and in samples stored for less than 35 days (adjusted OR = 14.0; 95% CI: 3.1-64.2. Patients with advanced immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/mm3 were at a higher risk for indeterminate results (OR adjusted for smoking and inadequate duration of sample storage = 4.7; 95% CI: 0.91-24.0, although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The high prevalence of indeterminate results can be a major limitation for the routine use of IGRAs in PLWHA. The need to repeat the test increases its costs and should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness studies. The processing of samples can significantly alter the results.

  18. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  19. Magnetoliposomes for controlled drug release in the presence of low-frequency magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Nappini, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of a low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LF-AMF) on the permeability of magnetoliposomes, i.e. liposomes including magnetic nanoparticles within their water pool. Large unilamellar liposomes loaded with magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe 2O4) have been prepared and characterized. Structural characterization of the liposomal dispersion has been performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The enhancement of liposome permeability upon exposure to LF-AMF has been measured as the self-quenching decrease of a fluorescent hydrophilic molecule (carboxyfluorescein, CF) entrapped in the liposome pool. Liposome leakage has been monitored as a function of field frequency, time of exposure and concentration, charge and size of the embedded nanoparticles. The results show that CF release from magnetoliposomes is strongly promoted by LF-AMF, reasonably as a consequence of nanoparticle motions in the liposome pool at the applied frequency. CF release as a function of time in magnetoliposomes unexposed to magnetic field follows Fickian diffusion, while samples exposed to LF-AMF show zero-order kinetics, consistently with an anomalous transport, due to an alteration of the bilayer permeability. These preliminary results open up new perspectives in the use of these systems as carriers in targeted and controlled release of drugs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  20. Controlled drug release under a low frequency magnetic field: effect of the citrate coating on magnetoliposomes stability

    KAUST Repository

    Nappini, Silvia; Bonini, Massimo; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli; Pineider, Francesco; Sangregorio, Claudio; Baglioni, Piero; Nordè n, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of a low-frequency alternating magnetic field (LF-AMF) on the permeability and release properties of large (LUVs) and giant (GUVs) unilamellar vesicles loaded with citrate coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs). The citrate shell allows a high loading of NPs in lipid vesicles without modifying their magnetic properties. The increase of magnetic LUVs permeability upon exposure to LF-AMF has been evaluated as the fluorescence self-quenching of carboxyfluorescein (CF) entrapped inside the liposome aqueous pool. Liposome leakage has been monitored as a function of field frequency, time exposure and concentration of the citrate coated NPs. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) experiments performed on magnetic GUVs labeled with the fluorescent probe DiIC18 and loaded with Alexa 488-C5-maleimide fluorescent dye provided insights on the release mechanism induced by LF-AMF. The results show that LF-AMF strongly affects vesicles permeability, suggesting the formation of pores in the lipid bilayer due to both hyperthermic effects and nanoparticle oscillations in the vesicles pool at the applied frequency. The behaviour of these magnetic vesicles in the presence of LF-AMF makes this system a good candidate for controlled drug delivery. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. The role of high-frequency envelope fluctuations for speech masking release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM; Jørgensen and Dau, 2011; Jørgensen et al., 2013) was shown to successfully predict speech intelligibility in conditions with stationary and fluctuating interferers, reverberation, and spectral subtraction. The key element in the model...... was the multi-resolution estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv) at the output of a modulation filterbank. The simulations suggested that mainly modulation filters centered in the range from 1-8 Hz contribute to speech intelligibility in the case of stationary maskers whereas...... modulation filters tuned to frequencies above 16 Hz might be important in the case of fluctuating maskers. In the present study, the role of high-frequency envelope fluctuations for speech masking release was further investigated in conditions of speech-on-speech masking. Simulations were compared to various...

  2. The role of high-frequency envelope fluctuations for speech masking release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM; Jørgensen and Dau (2011), Jørgensen et al. (2013)] was shown to successfully predict speech intelligibility in conditions with stationary and fluctuating interferers, reverberation, and spectral subtraction. The key element in the model...... was the multi-resolution estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv) at the output of a modulation filterbank. The simulations suggested that mainly modulation filters centered in the range from 1 to 8 Hz contribute to speech intelligibility in the case of stationary maskers whereas...... modulation filters tuned to frequencies above 16 Hz might be important in the case of fluctuating maskers. In the present study, the role of high-frequency envelope fluctuations for speech masking release was further investigated in conditions of speech-on-speech masking. Simulations were compared to various...

  3. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Release Retardant Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of release retardant matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium for 24 h by wet granulation technique using different combinations and ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (sodium CMC), sodium alginate and cetostearyl alcohol was carried out. The tablets were evaluated ...

  4. Poa secunda local collections and commercial releases: A genotypic evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna N Shaw

    Full Text Available The genetics of native plants influence the success of ecological restoration, yet genetic variability of local seed collections and commercial seed releases remains unclear for most taxa. Poa secunda, a common native grass species in Intermountain West grasslands and a frequent component of restoration seed mixes, is one such species. Here, we evaluate the genetic variation of local Poa secunda collections in the context of wild populations and commercial seed releases. We evaluated AFLP markers for seven Poa secunda collections made over a 4000-hectare area and four commercial releases (High Plains, MT-1, Opportunity, and Sherman. We compare the genetic distance and distribution of genetic variation within and between local collections and commercial releases. The extent and patterns of genetic variation in our local collections indicate subtle site differences with most variation occurring within rather than between collections. Identical genetic matches were usually, but not always, found within 5 m2 collection sites. Our results suggest that the genetic variation in two Poa secunda releases (High Plains and MT-1 is similar to our local collections. Our results affirm that guidelines for Poa secunda seed collection should follow recommendations for selfing species, by collecting from many sites over large individual sites.

  5. Evaluation and surveillance of radioactive releases of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The two days organised by the section Environment of the SFRP have to objective to connect experts in radiation protection in order to debate around the following questions: the actual evaluations modes of releases impacts from nuclear installations, the organisation of the surveillance, to favour the implication of local actors in the evaluation and surveillance around nuclear facilities, the evolutions to envisage. (N.C.)

  6. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiyah Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa, and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach. Aim: In the present study an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Rabeprazole sustained release matrix tablet using wet granulation technique incorporating various polymers like HPMC-E15, Carbopol934, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Materials and Methods: The Formulated tablets were evaluated for different physicochemical properties like rheological properties, weight variation, thickness, hardness, % friability, in vitro release studies and drug content. Results: Studies revealed that all the physicochemical parameters comply with the official standards. The in vitro release studies exhibits the release up to 90%, over a prolonged period of time which confirms the extended release profile of formulation, having better bioavailability as well as decreased dosing frequency with reduced doses. Conclusion: The sustained release matrix tablets of rabiprazole shown better bioavailability, efficacy and potency, when compared with official standards.

  7. Masking release with changing fundamental frequency: Electric acoustic stimulation resembles normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Alice Barbara; Riss, Dominik; Liepins, Rudolfs; Rader, Tobias; Keck, Tilman; Keintzel, Thomas; Kaider, Alexandra; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    It has been shown that patients with electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) perform better in noisy environments than patients with a cochlear implant (CI). One reason for this could be the preserved access to acoustic low-frequency cues including the fundamental frequency (F0). Therefore, our primary aim was to investigate whether users of EAS experience a release from masking with increasing F0 difference between target talker and masking talker. The study comprised 29 patients and consisted of three groups of subjects: EAS users, CI users and normal-hearing listeners (NH). All CI and EAS users were implanted with a MED-EL cochlear implant and had at least 12 months of experience with the implant. Speech perception was assessed with the Oldenburg sentence test (OlSa) using one sentence from the test corpus as speech masker. The F0 in this masking sentence was shifted upwards by 4, 8, or 12 semitones. For each of these masker conditions the speech reception threshold (SRT) was assessed by adaptively varying the masker level while presenting the target sentences at a fixed level. A statistically significant improvement in speech perception was found for increasing difference in F0 between target sentence and masker sentence in EAS users (p = 0.038) and in NH listeners (p = 0.003). In CI users (classic CI or EAS users with electrical stimulation only) speech perception was independent from differences in F0 between target and masker. A release from masking with increasing difference in F0 between target and masking speech was only observed in listeners and configurations in which the low-frequency region was presented acoustically. Thus, the speech information contained in the low frequencies seems to be crucial for allowing listeners to separate multiple sources. By combining acoustic and electric information, EAS users even manage tasks as complicated as segregating the audio streams from multiple talkers. Preserving the natural code, like fine-structure cues in

  8. IN VITRO EVALUATION OF FLUORIDE RELEASE OF JELTRATE® DENTAL ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate of fluoride release from Jeltrate alginate®. Materials and Methods: Four Trademarks of alginate were divided in four groups: conventional Jeltrate®, Plus Jeltrate®, Chromatic Jeltrate® and Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate®. The alginates were handled following the guidelines of the manufacturers. After this was followed by the construction of evidence bodies using silicone molds of the dimensions of 4 mm in diameter and 4mm in height. After take prey, the evidence bodies were removed from the molds and placed in container with 10 ml of ultra purified water, for 2 min. The fluoride release was measured by selective ion electrode connected to an analyzer of ions. Results: The Plus Jeltrate® showed a higher releasing fluoride 247.85 µg/cm2 followed by Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate® (217.83 µg/cm2, Chromatic Jeltrate ® (138.21 µg/cm2 and Jeltrate® (79.61 µg/cm2. Conclusion: Plus Jeltrate® had the best performance in releasing fluoride, followed by Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate®, Chromatic Jeltrate® and conventional Jeltrate®..

  9. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  10. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  11. Release of the 2008 Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hoffman, R; Kelley, K; Navratil, P; Pruet, J; Summers, N; Thompson, I; Vogt, R

    2009-05-08

    Livermore's N-Division is now releasing the first version of a major new nuclear data library. This includes some 500 evaluations (roughly four times the number in the previous standard) and many physics improvements important for calculating weapon performance, output effects, attribution signatures, key radiochemical diagnostics and performance of conventional and hybrid fission/fusion reactors. As this library is more extensive and on a much firmer nuclear physics footing than the previous ENDL99 it should become, after a period of trial use by the applied community, the new standard for programmatic applications at Livermore. This work was supported by ASC-PEM and Campaign 4. Our basic philosophy in this release was to adopt the best work of the world's different nuclear data efforts. We have drawn heavily from the U.S. ENDF project (led by Brookhaven), the Japanese JENDL project (JAEA), and the European JEFF project (NEA). Because those efforts tend to focus on reactor applications they do not include an account of the charged particles emitted following a reaction. To enable broader applications we have used theory-based calculations to add a complete description of charged particles in all evaluations in the new library. This release also includes results from the last ten years of theory and experimental work here at Livermore. Some of the most important results include the surrogate campaign for unstable uranium isotopes, the LLNL/LANL 239Pu(n,2n) evaluation, the 241Am(n,2n) evaluation validated by the recent Livermore-led experiments, and measurements of 48Ti(n,2n). As well, we have adopted more than a hundred theory-based evaluations for radiochemical diagnostics completed by R. Hoffman and M. Mustafa and that use improved optical models, level densities, and decay scheme evaluations from the theory effort. These were extended to be transport complete (they now include a description of all of the particles emitted in reactions) to enable their

  12. Release of the 2008 Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.; Descalle, M.; Hoffman, R.; Kelley, K.; Navratil, P.; Pruet, J.; Summers, N.; Thompson, I.; Vogt, R.

    2009-01-01

    Livermore's N-Division is now releasing the first version of a major new nuclear data library. This includes some 500 evaluations (roughly four times the number in the previous standard) and many physics improvements important for calculating weapon performance, output effects, attribution signatures, key radiochemical diagnostics and performance of conventional and hybrid fission/fusion reactors. As this library is more extensive and on a much firmer nuclear physics footing than the previous ENDL99 it should become, after a period of trial use by the applied community, the new standard for programmatic applications at Livermore. This work was supported by ASC-PEM and Campaign 4. Our basic philosophy in this release was to adopt the best work of the world's different nuclear data efforts. We have drawn heavily from the U.S. ENDF project (led by Brookhaven), the Japanese JENDL project (JAEA), and the European JEFF project (NEA). Because those efforts tend to focus on reactor applications they do not include an account of the charged particles emitted following a reaction. To enable broader applications we have used theory-based calculations to add a complete description of charged particles in all evaluations in the new library. This release also includes results from the last ten years of theory and experimental work here at Livermore. Some of the most important results include the surrogate campaign for unstable uranium isotopes, the LLNL/LANL 239Pu(n,2n) evaluation, the 241Am(n,2n) evaluation validated by the recent Livermore-led experiments, and measurements of 48Ti(n,2n). As well, we have adopted more than a hundred theory-based evaluations for radiochemical diagnostics completed by R. Hoffman and M. Mustafa and that use improved optical models, level densities, and decay scheme evaluations from the theory effort. These were extended to be transport complete (they now include a description of all of the particles emitted in reactions) to enable their use in

  13. Spatial Release From Masking in Simulated Cochlear Implant Users With and Without Access to Low-Frequency Acoustic Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Williges

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For normal-hearing listeners, speech intelligibility improves if speech and noise are spatially separated. While this spatial release from masking has already been quantified in normal-hearing listeners in many studies, it is less clear how spatial release from masking changes in cochlear implant listeners with and without access to low-frequency acoustic hearing. Spatial release from masking depends on differences in access to speech cues due to hearing status and hearing device. To investigate the influence of these factors on speech intelligibility, the present study measured speech reception thresholds in spatially separated speech and noise for 10 different listener types. A vocoder was used to simulate cochlear implant processing and low-frequency filtering was used to simulate residual low-frequency hearing. These forms of processing were combined to simulate cochlear implant listening, listening based on low-frequency residual hearing, and combinations thereof. Simulated cochlear implant users with additional low-frequency acoustic hearing showed better speech intelligibility in noise than simulated cochlear implant users without acoustic hearing and had access to more spatial speech cues (e.g., higher binaural squelch. Cochlear implant listener types showed higher spatial release from masking with bilateral access to low-frequency acoustic hearing than without. A binaural speech intelligibility model with normal binaural processing showed overall good agreement with measured speech reception thresholds, spatial release from masking, and spatial speech cues. This indicates that differences in speech cues available to listener types are sufficient to explain the changes of spatial release from masking across these simulated listener types.

  14. HOTSPOT, Field Evaluation of Radiation Release from Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides, calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground survey measurements, and screening of plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Version 8 allows users to add their own custom radionuclide library and to create custom radionuclide mixtures. It also includes wet deposition to approximate the enhanced plume depletion and ground deposition due to the effects of rain. Additional release geometry options for TRITIUM RELEASE and GENERAL PLUME were added, as well as several other enhancements and improvements. See info (f1) from the main HOTSPOT menu for additional

  15. Evaluating Frequency Quality of Nordic System using PMU data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysing frequency quality of Nordic power system using measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). The PMU data of one year long period is used which has very high time resolution (20 ms per sample) and is able to provide detailed information in evaluating frequency...

  16. Development and evaluation of sustained release losartan potassium matrix tablet using kollidon SR as release retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Sarwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to develop sustained release (SR matrix tablets of losartan potassium, an angiotensin-II antagonist for the treatment of hypertension. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method, along with Kollidon SR as release retardant polymer. The amount of losartan potassium remains fixed (100 mg for all the three formulations whereas the amounts of Kollidon SR were 250 mg, 225 mg, and 200 mg for F-1, F-2, and F-3 respectively. The evaluation involves three stages: the micromeritic properties evaluation of granules, physical property studies of tablets, and in-vitro release kinetics studies. The USP apparatus type II was selected to perform the dissolution test, and the dissolution medium was 900 mL phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The test was carried out at 75 rpm, and the temperature was maintained at 37 ºC ± 0.5 ºC. The release kinetics was analyzed using several kinetics models. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. At lower polymeric level, the rate and extent of drug release were enhanced. All the formulations followed Higuchi release kinetics where the Regression co-efficient (R² values are 0.958, 0.944, and 0.920 for F-1, F-2, and F-3 respectively, and they exhibited diffusion dominated drug release. Statistically significant (PO presente estudo foi realizado para desenvolver (SR matriz de comprimidos de liberação sustentada de losartana, um antagonista da angiotensina II, para o tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Os comprimidos foram preparados pelo método de compressão direta com Kollidon SR como polímero de liberação lenta. A quantidade de losartana potássica permanece fixa (100 mg para todas as três formulações enquanto que as quantidades de Kollidon SR foram de 250 mg, 225 mg e 200 mg para F-1, F-2 e F-3, respectivamente. A avaliação envolve três etapas- propriedades micromeríticas dos grânulos, estudo das propriedades físicas dos comprimidos e

  17. Evaluation of cephalogram using multi-objective frequency processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Sakae; Takizawa, Tsutomu; Osako, Miho; Kaneda, Takashi; Kasai, Kazutaka [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry at Matsudo

    2002-12-01

    A diagnosis with cephalogram is important for orthodontic treatment. Recently, computed radiography (CR) has been performed to the cephalogram. However, evaluation of multi-objective frequency processing (MFP) for cephalograms has been received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cephalogram using MFP CR. At first, 450 lateral cephalograms were made, from 50 orthodontic patients, with 9 possible spatial frequency parameter combinations and a contrast scale held fixed in images processing. For each film, the clarity of radiographic images were estimated and scored with respect to landmark identification (total 26 points, 20 points of hard tissue and 6 points of soft tissue). A specific combination of spatial frequency scales (multi-frequency balance types (MRB) F-type, multi-frequency enhancement (MRE) 8) was proved to be adequate to achieve the optimal image quality in the cephalogram. (author)

  18. Evaluation of cephalogram using multi-objective frequency processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Sakae; Takizawa, Tsutomu; Osako, Miho; Kaneda, Takashi; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2002-01-01

    A diagnosis with cephalogram is important for orthodontic treatment. Recently, computed radiography (CR) has been performed to the cephalogram. However, evaluation of multi-objective frequency processing (MFP) for cephalograms has been received little attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cephalogram using MFP CR. At first, 450 lateral cephalograms were made, from 50 orthodontic patients, with 9 possible spatial frequency parameter combinations and a contrast scale held fixed in images processing. For each film, the clarity of radiographic images were estimated and scored with respect to landmark identification (total 26 points, 20 points of hard tissue and 6 points of soft tissue). A specific combination of spatial frequency scales (multi-frequency balance types (MRB) F-type, multi-frequency enhancement (MRE) 8) was proved to be adequate to achieve the optimal image quality in the cephalogram. (author)

  19. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles as a New Delivery System for Sustained 5-Fluorouracil Release: Characterization and Evaluation of Drug Release Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. El-Kady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles were synthesized and tested for the first time as a new delivery system for sustained 5-fluorouracil (5-FU release. They were characterized by TEM, DTA, TGA, and FT-IR. The porosity % and specific surface area of glass nanoparticles were 85.59% and 378.36 m2/g, respectively. The in vitro bioactivity evaluation confirmed that bioactive glass disks prepared from these nanoparticles could induce hydroxyapatite layer over their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The in vitro drug release experiment indicated that glass nanoparticles could serve as long-term local delivery vehicles for sustained 5-FU release. The release profile of 5-FU showed an initial fast release stage followed by a second stage of slower release. The initial burst release of 5-FU in the first day was about 23% (28.92 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU, while the final cumulative percentage of the 5-FU released after 32 days was about 45.6% (57.31 mg·L−1 of the total amount of loaded 5-FU. The application of different mathematical models indicated that 5-FU was released by diffusion controlled mechanism and suggested that its release rate was dependent on glass particles dissolution, changes of surface area as well as diameter of glass particles, and concentration of loaded drug.

  20. Comparison of intensity discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the envelope and audio-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.

    In the audio-frequency domain, the envelope apparently plays an important role in detection of intensity increments and in comodulation masking release (CMR). The current study addressed the question whether the second-order envelope ("venelope") contributes similarly for comparable experiments i...

  1. The structuring of GMO release and evaluation in EU law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kries, Caroline; Winter, Gerd

    2012-04-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their behavior in the environment are complex and can only be assessed if the different components are distinguished. This article examines, how by EU law the real causation processes from the GMO release to various endpoints are dissected, individually analysed and then again viewed in their entirety. In addition, the articles includes, how the intellectual process of assessment is divided into the steps of tiered generation, shared submission and structured evaluation of relevant knowledge. The framework proposed for such an examination allows to identify strengths and weaknesses of GMO risk assessment in the EU. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Detection, Properties, and Frequency of Local Calcium Release from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in Teleost Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Llach, Anna; Molina, Cristina E.; Alvarez Lacalle, Enrique; Tort, Lluis; Benítez, Raul; Hove, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a central role in the regulation of cardiac contraction and rhythm in mammals and humans but its role is controversial in teleosts. Since the zebrafish is an emerging model for studies of cardiovascular function and regeneration we here sought to determine if basic features of SR calcium release are phylogenetically conserved. Confocal calcium imaging was used to detect spontaneous calcium release (calcium sparks and waves) from...

  3. Experimental evaluation of structural integrity of scram release electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patri, Sudheer; Ruhela, S.P.; Punniyamoorthy, R.; Vijayashree, R.; Chandramouli, S.; Kumar, P. Madan; Rajendraprasad, R.; Rao, P. Vijayamohana; Narmadha, S.; Sreedhar, B.K.; Rajan, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural integrity of scram release electromagnet is evaluated against thermal shocks. • A simple test facility, employed for simulating the thermal shocks in a typical FBR, is presented. • The cold shock experienced by electromagnet during scram is simulated. • The testing qualified electromagnet for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR), under construction at Kalpakkam, India, plays an important role in the commercialisation of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in India. It consists of two independent, fast acting and diverse shutdown systems. An electromagnet (EM) immersed in sodium acts as scram release device for the second shutdown system of prototype fast breeder reactor. The inside of EM is sealed from the sodium to achieve the required response time and to prevent the exposure of EM coil to sodium. As the EM response time is an important parameter for reactor safety, the integrity of EM is to be maintained under all anticipated loadings. The EM experiences thermal shocks and thermal stresses during reactor transients such as scram. The dissimilar weld joint present in EM is more susceptible to fatigue failure due to these thermal stresses. Failure of weld joint results in the entry of sodium into the EM, increasing its response time with associated safety implications. In this connection, the structural integrity of EM against thermal shocks was experimentally evaluated in Thermal Shock Test Facility. The EM was subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal shocks, which constitutes 29% of total number of shocks required to qualify the EM for 40 years of reactor operation, thus qualifying it for 11.6 yr of reactor operation. The testing has enhanced the confidence level for safe and reliable operation of EM of DSRDM in PFBR. The testing not only qualified the EM for use in reactor but also provided input for licensing the erection of DSRDM on reactor pile. Moreover, it provided a direction for

  4. Evaluation of the Frequencies for Canister Inspections for SCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802042, “Evaluate the Frequencies for Canister Inspections for SCC” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. It reviews the current state of knowledge on the potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of dry storage canisters and evaluates the implications of this state of knowledge on the establishment of an SCC inspection frequency. Models for the prediction of SCC by the Japanese Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), the United States (U.S.) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are summarized, and their limitations discussed.

  5. High and low spatial frequencies in website evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Meinald T; Hirschfeld, Gerrit

    2010-08-01

    Which features of websites are important for users' perceptions regarding aesthetics or usability? This study investigates how evaluations of aesthetic appeal and usability depend on high vs. low spatial frequencies. High spatial frequencies convey information on fine details, whereas low spatial frequencies convey information about the global layout. Participants rated aesthetic appeal and usability of 50 website screenshots from different domains. Screenshots were presented unfiltered, low-pass filtered with blurred targets or high-pass filtered with high-pass filtered targets. The main result is that low spatial frequencies can be seen to have a unique contribution in perceived website aesthetics, thus confirming a central prediction from processing fluency theory. There was no connection between low spatial frequencies and usability evaluations, whereas strong correlations were found between ratings of high-pass filtered websites and those of unfiltered websites in aesthetics and usability. This study thus offers a new perspective on the biological basis of users' website perceptions. This research links ergonomics to neurocognitive models of visual processing. This paper investigates how high and low spatial frequencies, which are neurologically processed in different visual pathways, independently contribute to users' perceptions of websites. This is very relevant for theories of website perceptions and for practitioners of web design.

  6. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  7. Sustained release nimesulide microparticles: evaluation of release modifying property of ethy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Ahmed, M.; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Madni, A.U.; Aamir, M.N.; Murtaza, G.

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated controlled-release preparations of nimesulide were formulated. Microparticles were prepared by modified phase separation (non-solvent addition) technique using different ratios of ethylcellulose. The microparticles (M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/) were yellow, free flowing and spherical in shape with the particle size varying from 93.62 +- 14.15 to 104.19 +- 18.15 mu m. The t/sub 60%/of nimesulide release from microparticles was found to be 3 +- 0.6, 5 +- 0.6 and 8 +- 0.8 h for formulations M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/, respectively. FT-IR, XRD, and thermal analysis were done which showed that there is no interaction between the polymer and drug. The mechanism of drug release from nimesulide microparticles was studied by using Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The value of coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) for M/sub 1/, M/sub 2/, and M/sub 3/ indicates anomalous and case-II transport release mechanism. The dissolution data of designed system verified its ability to maintain plasma concentration without the need of frequent dosing. The Nimesulide microparticles prolonged drug release for 12 hours or longer. Based on the results of release studies, M/sub 3/ was opted as a suitable microparticulate formulation allowing the controlled release of nimesulide over a prolonged period of time. Moreover, its encapsulation efficiency was also comparable to the other two formulations (M/sub 1/ and M/sub 2/). In conclusion, the influence of polymer concentration should be considered during formulation development. (author)

  8. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of several formulation variables on in ... The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation was compared ... Results: The core tablets exhibited extended release consisting of drug release from the embedded ... important factor in medical treatment with respect ... The solvents for high-performance liquid.

  9. Evaluation of radiological releases from the Tomsk-7 accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussie, W.G.

    1995-10-01

    On April 6, 1993, there was an uncontrolled release of radioactive material from the fuel reprocessing plant at the Siberian Chemical Combine in Tomsk. The release resulted from the rupture of an over-pressurized feed adjustment tank and subsequent explosion that destroyed the walls and roof of the operating gallery. Radioactive material was released through a 150 meter stack, as well as through the destroyed walls and roof. Relatively stable atmospheric conditions prevailed and a light snow was falling. The radiation release was not excessive, but the spread of radioactive material was compounded by the explosion. Radiation was detected about 26 km from the source. This paper summarizes the information available in the US regarding the release and, using reasonable assumptions, compares the calculated ground activity and radiation levels with the reported measured values.

  10. Evaluation of radiological releases from the Tomsk-7 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussie, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    On April 6, 1993, there was an uncontrolled release of radioactive material from the fuel reprocessing plant at the Siberian Chemical Combine in Tomsk. The release resulted from the rupture of an over-pressurized feed adjustment tank and subsequent explosion that destroyed the walls and roof of the operating gallery. Radioactive material was released through a 150 meter stack, as well as through the destroyed walls and roof. Relatively stable atmospheric conditions prevailed and a light snow was falling. The radiation release was not excessive, but the spread of radioactive material was compounded by the explosion. Radiation was detected about 26 km from the source. This paper summarizes the information available in the US regarding the release and, using reasonable assumptions, compares the calculated ground activity and radiation levels with the reported measured values

  11. Comparison of level discrimination, increment detection, and comodulation masking release in the audio- and envelope-frequency domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul C.; Ewert, Stephan; Carney, Laurel H.

    2007-01-01

    In general, the temporal structure of stimuli must be considered to account for certain observations made in detection and masking experiments in the audio-frequency domain. Two such phenomena are (1) a heightened sensitivity to amplitude increments with a temporal fringe compared to gated level......-frequency domain. Pure-tone carrier amplitude-modulation (AM) depth-discrimination thresholds were found to be similar using both traditional gated stimuli and using a temporally modulated fringe for a fixed standard depth (ms=0.25) and a range of AM frequencies (4-64 Hz). In a second experiment, masked sinusoidal...... AM detection thresholds were compared in conditions with and without slow and regular fluctuations imposed on the instantaneous masker AM depth. Release from masking was obtained only for very slow masker fluctuations (less than 2 Hz). A physiologically motivated model that effectively acts...

  12. Development and evaluation of accelerated drug release testing methods for a matrix-type intravaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externbrink, Anna; Eggenreich, Karin; Eder, Simone; Mohr, Stefan; Nickisch, Klaus; Klein, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Accelerated drug release testing is a valuable quality control tool for long-acting non-oral extended release formulations. Currently, several intravaginal ring candidates designed for the long-term delivery of steroids or anti-infective drugs are being in the developing pipeline. The present article addresses the demand for accelerated drug release methods for these formulations. We describe the development and evaluation of accelerated release methods for a steroid releasing matrix-type intravaginal ring. The drug release properties of the formulation were evaluated under real-time and accelerated test conditions. Under real-time test conditions drug release from the intravaginal ring was strongly affected by the steroid solubility in the release medium. Under sufficient sink conditions that were provided in release media containing surfactants drug release was Fickian diffusion driven. Both temperature and hydro-organic dissolution media were successfully employed to accelerate drug release from the formulation. Drug release could be further increased by combining the temperature effect with the application of a hydro-organic release medium. The formulation continued to exhibit a diffusion controlled release kinetic under the investigated accelerated conditions. Moreover, the accelerated methods were able to differentiate between different prototypes of the intravaginal ring that exhibited different release profiles under real-time test conditions. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that both temperature and hydro-organic release media are valid parameters for accelerating drug release from the intravaginal ring. Variation of either a single or both parameters yielded release profiles that correlated well with real-time release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetoliposomes for controlled drug release in the presence of low-frequency magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Nappini, Silvia; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli; Bonini, Massimo; Nordè n, Bengt; Baglioni, Piero

    2010-01-01

    -AMF has been measured as the self-quenching decrease of a fluorescent hydrophilic molecule (carboxyfluorescein, CF) entrapped in the liposome pool. Liposome leakage has been monitored as a function of field frequency, time of exposure and concentration

  14. Design and evaluation of lornoxicam bilayered tablets for biphasic release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songa Ambedkar Sunil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop bilayered tablets of lornoxicam to achieve biphasic release pattern. A bilayered tablet, consisting of an immediate and controlled release layer, was prepared by direct compression technique. The controlled release effect was achieved by using various hydrophilic natural, semi synthetic and synthetic controlled release polymers such as xanthan gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyethylene oxide (PEO to modulate the release of the drug. The in vitro drug release profiles showed the biphasic release behavior in which the immediate release (IR layer containing the lornoxicam was released within 15 minutes, whereas the controlled release (CR layer controlled the drug release for up to 24 h. All the bilayered tablets formulated have followed the zero order release with non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst release. FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers used in the study. Statistical analysis (ANOVA showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver comprimidos bicamada de lornoxicam para atingir padrão de liberação bifásica. Preparou-se, por compressão direta, comprimido bicamada, consistindo de uma camada de liberação imediata e uma de liberação controlada. A liberação controlada foi obtida pelo uso de vários polímeros naturais hidrofílicos, semi-sintéticos e sintéticos, tais como goma xantana, hidroxipropilmetil celulose (HPMC e óxido de polietileno (PEO para modular a liberação do fármaco. Os perfis de liberação in vitro mostraram comportamento bifásico em que a camada de liberação imediata (IR contendo lornoxicam foi liberada em 15 minutos, enquanto a camada de liberação controlada (CR liberou o fármaco em mais de 24 horas, Todos os comprimidos bicamada

  15. Manipulating Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Plasmas: Compression, Frequency Shifting, and Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avitzour, Yoav; Shvets, Gennady

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to manipulating the duration and frequency of microwave pulses using magnetized plasmas is demonstrated. The plasma accomplishes two functions: (i) slowing down and spatially compressing the incident wave, and (ii) modifying the propagation properties (group velocity and frequency) of the wave in the plasma during a uniform in space adiabatic in time variation of the magnitude and/or direction of the magnetic field. The increase in the group velocity results in the shortening of the temporal pulse duration. Depending on the plasma parameters, the frequency of the outgoing compressed pulse can either change or remain unchanged. Such dynamic manipulation of radiation in plasma opens new avenues for manipulating high power microwave pulses

  16. Evaluation of olibanum and its resin as rate controlling matrix for controlled release of diclofenac

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdary KPR; Mohapatra P; Murali Krishna M

    2006-01-01

    Olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions were evaluated as rate controlling matrix materials in tablets for controlled release of diclofenac. Diclofenac matrix tablets were formulated employing olibanum and its resin and carbohydrate fractions in different concentrations and the tablets were evaluated for various tablet characters including drug release kinetics and mechanism. Olibanum and its resin component exhibited excellent retarding effect on drug release from the matrix tablet...

  17. Risk assessment methodology for evaluating releases of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities are expected to be required in the near future in association with license termination of nuclear power facilities and cleanup efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) weapons production facilities. In advance of these D ampersand D activities, it is becoming increasingly urgent that standards be established for the release of materials with residual radioactive contamination. The only standards for unrestricted release that currently exist address surface contamination. The methods used to justify those standards were developed some 20 yr ago and may not satisfy today's criteria. Furthermore, the basis of setting standards has moved away from the traditional open-quotes instrumentation-basedclose quotes concept toward a open-quotes risk-basedclose quotes approach. Therefore, as new release standards are developed, it will be necessary that risk assessment methodology consistent with modern concepts be incorporated into the process. This paper discusses recent developments in risk methodology and issues and concerns regarding the future development of standards for the release of radioactively contaminated materials

  18. Comparative evaluation of carbamazepine release from single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the release rate and kinetics of carbamazepine as a model drug from various single and bi-polymeric matrices were studied. Matrices containing different percentages of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit RS (EuRS) or various ratios of polymer blends based on HPMC ...

  19. Natural gum as mucoadhesive controlled release carriers: evaluation of cefpodoxime proxetil by D-optimal design technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish H; Talele, Gokul S

    2014-03-01

    The present study deals with the development of mucoadhesive controlled release tablets of Cefpodoxime Proxetil to increase the gastric residence time and thus prolong drug release, reduce dosing frequency and improve oral bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using sodium alginate and karaya gum, a natural polymer, with a synthetic polymer hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (K100LV) and Karaya gum with HPMC K100LV in various ratios to optimize the drug release profile using D-Optimal technique. Pre- and post-compression parameters of tablets prepared with various formulations (S1-S9, C1-C9) were evaluated. The FTIR and DSC studies revealed that no physiochemical interaction between excipients and drug. The formulation S7 showed prolonged drug release, and the mechanism of drug release from the optimized formulation was confirmed using the Korsmeyer-Peppas model to be non-Fickian release transport and n value was found 0.605 indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. The optimized formulation showed mucoadhesive strength >35 g. An in vivo study was performed on rabbits using an X-ray imaging technique. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets adheres (more than 10 hours) to a rabbit's stomach. No significant changes were found in the physical appearance, drug content, mucoadhesive study and in vitro dissolution pattern after storage at 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 3 months.

  20. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: A case study in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Ma, W.C.; Chen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10 -4 , 10 -5 -10 -4 and 10 -6 -10 -5 per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10 -6 per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment.

  1. Evaluation of the coat quality of sustained release pellets by individual pellet dissolution methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Liew, Celine Valeria; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-15

    This study explored the application of 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 for individual pellet dissolution methodology by a design of experiment approach and compared its capability with that of the USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 for differentiating the coat quality of sustained release pellets. Drug loaded pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization from powder blends comprising 50%, w/w metformin, 25%, w/w microcrystalline cellulose and 25%, w/w lactose, and then coated with ethyl cellulose to produce sustained release pellets with 8% and 10%, w/w coat weight gains. Various pellet properties were investigated, including cumulative drug release behaviours of ensemble and individual pellets. When USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 were used for drug release study of the sustained release pellets prepared, floating and clumping of pellets were observed and confounded the release profiles of the ensemble pellets. Hence, the release profiles obtained did not characterize the actual drug release from individual pellet and the applicability of USP dissolution apparatus 1 and 2 to evaluate the coat quality of sustained release pellets was limited. The cumulative release profile of individual pellet using the 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 was found to be more precise at distinguishing differences in the applied coat quality. The dip speed and dip interval of the reciprocating holder were critical operational parameters of 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 that affected the drug release rate of a sustained release pellet during the individual dissolution study. The individual dissolution methodology using the 400-DS dissolution apparatus 7 is a promising technique to evaluate the individual pellet coat quality without the influence of confounding factors such as pellet floating and clumping observed during drug release test with dissolution apparatus 1 and 2, as well as to facilitate the elucidation of the actual drug release mechanism conferred by the applied sustained

  2. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  3. Evaluation and mitigation of accidental releases of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruessermann, K.

    1982-12-01

    One result of the workshop was, that even in the case of severe accident sequences in modern nuclear power plants (other facilities were not discussed), there will be enough time to take active measures in order to lower the emissions and to diminish the consequences inside and outside of the plant. On the whole, new evidence from Harrisburg show that previously estimated accidental emissions, especially of radiologically relevant nuclides, have been rather conservative and that much lower emissions are possible, if the above measures are considered. Under accident conditions, models to predict radiation exposure must be applied under the event of a short-term release. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended- Release Tablet of Zolpidem Tartrate by Wet Granulation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Pourhashem; Mohammad Reza Avadi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to design and evaluate extended - release system of the hypnotic agent, Zolpidem tartrate usefulness for the treatment of insomnia. The half-life of this drug is about 1.9 - 3 hours that indicating it a candidate for the extended release formulation. Our investigation relates to development of extended drug delivery system based on Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK4M) as release retardant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP k30) as binder and Magnesium S...

  5. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Yerramsetty; J. Vijaya Ratna; Venkata Ramana Reddy; Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by usin...

  6. Formulation and Evaluation of Extended- Release Tablet of Zolpidem Tartrate by Wet Granulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pourhashem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to design and evaluate extended - release system of the hypnotic agent, Zolpidem tartrate usefulness for the treatment of insomnia. The half-life of this drug is about 1.9 - 3 hours that indicating it a candidate for the extended release formulation. Our investigation relates to development of extended drug delivery system based on Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMCK4M as release retardant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP k30 as binder and Magnesium Stearate using Factorial design. In vitro release study of matrix tablets was carried out in 0.01N HCl for 2 hours. All prepared matrix tablets were evaluated for physicochemical evaluation and drug content. The formulation that had release profile according to United State Pharmacopoeia selected for stability study according to ICH guidelines.

  7. Gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis evaluated for aroma release from rehydrated French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.; Cozijnsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The technique of gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis was evaluated for studying the release of aroma compounds from rehydrated diced French beans. The aroma compounds 2-—methylbutanal and hexanal were released at a constant rate over time. An identical selection of odour active compounds was

  8. Experimental evaluation of mercury release from molten lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutu, N.K.; Greene, G.A.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the worst impact of an extremely improbable accident in an accelerator target for producing tritium, an event scenario was developed and analyzed, and an experiment was Performed to resolve an important question raised by the analysis. The target, known as SILC for ''Spallation Induced Lithium Conversion,'' contains approximately 22 metric tons of Pb, with small inventories of potentially hazardous radionuclides which continue to accumulate as the production cycle continues. Analysis of a scenario involving several failures in the normal, backup, and emergency cooling systems is presented, including event simulation by BNL indicating when and how long the Pb continues to melt, and a summary of SNL estimates of the releases of potentially hazardous spallation products is given. Finally, a recent experiment is described in which it was shown that virtually no mercury is likely to escape from the molten Pb, a result having significant impact on the potential risk of such worst-case scenarios

  9. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Dopamine Release by Nicotine and Dopamine D1 Receptor Ligands: An In Vitro Fast Cyclic Voltammetry Study in Rat Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Lowry, J P; McCreary, A C; O'Connor, J J

    2016-05-01

    Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts this effect partially through the modulation of dopamine release and increasing extracellular dopamine in regions such as the brain reward systems. Nicotine acts in these regions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The effect of nicotine on the frequency dependent modulation of dopamine release is well established and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) ligands have an influence on this. Using fast cyclic voltammetry and rat corticostriatal slices, we show that D1R ligands are able to modulate the effect of nicotine on dopamine release. Nicotine (500 nM) induced a decrease in dopamine efflux at low frequency (single pulse or five pulses at 10 Hz) and an increase at high frequency (100 Hz) electrical field stimulation. The D1R agonist SKF-38393, whilst having no effect on dopamine release on its own or on the effect of nicotine upon multiple pulse evoked dopamine release, did significantly prevent and reverse the effect of nicotine on single pulse dopamine release. Interestingly similar results were obtained with the D1R antagonist SCH-23390. In this study we have demonstrated that the modulation of dopamine release by nicotine can be altered by D1R ligands, but only when evoked by single pulse stimulation, and are likely working via cholinergic interneuron driven dopamine release.

  10. Evaluation of the impact and the releases of operating nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of nuclear installations releases, the associated impacts evaluation and the radiation monitoring of the environment are of an increase interest since the last ten years. Theses two days, organized by the environment section of the SFRP (French Society of Radiation Protection), aim to discuss the following topics: the development of the methods to improve radioactive elements and toxic substances releases in the environment; the structure of the environment control and the objectives of this control; the association of the local actors to the releases monitoring and to the environment control; the perspectives of evolution in matter of nuclear facilities releases management. (A.L.B.)

  11. Evaluating tamsulosin hydrochloride-released microparticles prepared using single-step matrix coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shinoda, Tatsuki; Ito, Naoki; Baba, Keizo; Oku, Naoto; Mizumoto, Takao

    2011-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum composition for sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride from microparticles intended for orally disintegrating tablets. Microparticles were prepared from an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Aquacoa®), and an aqueous copolymer based on ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate dispersion (Eudragit®) NE30D), with microcrystalline cellulose as core particles with a fluidized bed coating process. Prepared microparticles were about 200 μm diameter and spherical. The microparticles were evaluated for in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption to assess bioequivalence in a commercial product, Harnal® pellets. The optimum ratio of Aquacoat® and Eudragit® NE30D in the matrix was 9:1. We observed similar drug release profiles in microparticles and Harnal® pellets. Higuchi model analysis of the in vitro drug release from microparticles was linear up to 80% release, typical of Fickian diffusion sustained-release profile. The in vivo absorption properties from microparticles were comparable to Harnal® pellets, and there was a linear relationship between in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release. In conclusion, this development produces microparticles in single-step coating, that provided a sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride comparable to Harnal® pellets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets using cross-linked natural gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Qurratul Ain; Masood, Muhammad Irfan; Jamil, Muhammad Nauman; Masood, Imran; Iqbal, Shahid Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Polysaccharide gums because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-immunogenic properties are considered as the best choice for preparing sustained release tablets as compared to their synthetic counterpart. The cross linking of natural gums in matrix tablets increase the sustained release property of matrix tablets. Isoniazid is a first line therapy of tuberculosis, belongs to BCS I with half-life of 3-4 hours. These characteristics make isoniazid a good candidate for sustained release dosage form. Karaya gum crossed linked with trisodium tri metaphosphate was used as release rate retardant for preparing isoniazid cross-linked matrix tablet. Total 8 sustained release formulations were prepared. Both granules and tablets were evaluated under in vitro condition against different parameters. Dissolution studies were performed with all eight formulations for 12 hours using USP apparatus I. Four formulations designated as F1, F2, F3, F4 have drug and karaya gum while other four formulations F5, F6, F7, F8 have drug and crossed linked polymer in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 respectively. Dissolution data was analyzed by using different kinetic models. Best fit model for most efficient formulation was zero order while release mechanism was super case I. Formulation 8 showed sufficiently slow release kinetics and about 83% of drug was released in 10 hours, indicating that cross-linked karaya gum proved efficient in preparing sustained release tablets.

  13. Evaluation of cholesteatoma frequency in patients with chronic otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amad Meimaneh Jahromi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: Chronic otitis media (COM is regarded as one of the disabling diseases which have a great influence on the quality of life. Because of the surgical approach of cholesteatoma, timely diagnosis is very important in management of patients with COM. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of cholesteatoma in patients with COM, demographic factors and disease related factors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of 100 patients with COM who had surgery since 2005 to 2009 in Imam Reza Hospital were selected. Patients’ age, gender, duration of COM, clinical manifestations, location of perforation of tympanic membrane and presence or absence of cholesteatoma were analyzed by SPSS statistical software and some tables and graphs were planned. Results: patients   included 70 males and 30 females with an average age of 23.08 ± 11.35. Mean of COM duration was 8.04 ± 7.14 years. The most common manifestations of the disease were otorrhea (92% and hearing loss (80%. The most frequent type of tympanic perforation was total perforation. Frequency of cholesteatoma was 42% and it was more common in males than females (42.9% and 40%. Presence of choleasteatoma was related to gender, age, location of tympanic perforation, presence of otorrhea and hearing loss. Conclusion: Prevalence of cholesteatoma in patients  with COM  in  Mashhad  is more than  other  cites of Iran and  also other  countries, but it is less than prevalence of non cholesteatomatos COM. It is very important to pay more attention to patients with COM who are evaluated about presence of cholesteatoma, specially those with otorrhea, hearing loss, total perforation of tympanic membrane or male gender.

  14. Evaluating decadal predictions of northern hemispheric cyclone frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kruschke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mid-latitudinal cyclones are a key factor for understanding regional anomalies in primary meteorological parameters such as temperature or precipitation. Extreme cyclones can produce notable impacts on human society and economy, for example, by causing enormous economic losses through wind damage. Based on 41 annually initialised (1961–2001 hindcast ensembles, this study evaluates the ability of a single-model decadal forecast system (MPI-ESM-LR to provide skilful probabilistic three-category forecasts (enhanced, normal or decreased of winter (ONDJFM extra-tropical cyclone frequency over the Northern Hemisphere with lead times from 1 yr up to a decade. It is shown that these predictions exhibit some significant skill, mainly for lead times of 2–5 yr, especially over the North Atlantic and Pacific. Skill for intense cyclones is generally higher than for all detected systems. A comparison of decadal hindcasts from two different initialisation techniques indicates that initialising from reanalysis fields yields slightly better results for the first forecast winter (month 10–15, while initialisation based on an assimilation experiment provides better skill for lead times between 2 and 5 yr. The reasons and mechanisms behind this predictive skill are subject to future work. Preliminary analyses suggest a strong relationship of the model's skill over the North Atlantic with the ability to predict upper ocean temperatures modulating lower troposphere baroclinicity for the respective area and time scales.

  15. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qunyou; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Meiling; Liu, Guodong; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino)-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide), a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid) microcapsules (PPNMCs) were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine. Methods The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium. Results The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid) concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm. Compared with free pyridostigmine, PPNMCs showed an initial burst release and a subsequent very slow release in vitro. The release profiles for the PPNMCs in four different types of dissolution medium were fitted to the Ritger-Peppas and Weibull models. The similarity between pairs of dissolution profiles for the PPNMCs in different types of medium was statistically significant, and the difference between the release curves for PPNMCs and free pyridostigmine was also statistically significant. Conclusion PPNMCs prepared by the optimized protocol described here were in the nanometer range and had good uniformity

  16. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  17. Evaluation of Radionuclide Release from Aluminum-Based SNF in Basin Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Burke, S.D.; Howell, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an evaluation of the release rates of radionuclides from breached A1-SNF assemblies and evaluates the effect of direct storage of breached fuel at a conservative upper bound reference condition on the SRS basin water activity levels

  18. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  20. The release behavior and kinetic evaluation of tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked Ter polymeric hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malana, Muhammad A; Zohra, Rubab

    2013-01-18

    Hydrogels, being stimuli responsive are considered to be effective for targeted and sustained drug delivery. The main purpose for this work was to study the release behavior and kinetic evaluation of Tramadol HCl from chemically cross linked ter polymeric hydrogels. Ter-polymers of methacrylate, vinyl acetate and acrylic acid cross linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization. The drug release rates, dynamic swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of hydrogels ranging in composition from 1-10 mol% EGDMA were studied. Tramadol HCl was used as model drug substance. The release behavior was investigated at pH 8 where all formulations exhibited non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Absorbency was found to be more than 99% indicating good drug loading capability of these hydrogels towards the selected drug substance. Formulations designed with increasing amounts of EGDMA had a decreased equilibrium media content as well as media penetrating velocity and thus exhibited a slower drug release rate. Fitting of release data to different kinetic models indicate that the kinetic order shifts from the first to zero order as the concentration of drug was increased in the medium, showing gradual independency of drug release towards its concentration. Formulations with low drug content showed best fitness with Higuchi model whereas those with higher concentration of drug followed Hixson-Crowell model with better correlation values indicating that the drug release from these formulations depends more on change in surface area and diameter of tablets than that on concentration of the drug. Release exponent (n) derived from Korse-Meyer Peppas equation implied that the release of Tramadol HCl from these formulations was generally non-Fickian (n > 0.5 > 1) showing swelling controlled mechanism. The mechanical strength and controlled release capability of the systems indicate that these co-polymeric hydrogels have a great potential to

  1. In vitro evaluation of extemporaneously compounded slow-release capsules containing morphine sulfate or oxycodone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowiak, Dana L; Green, Julie L; Bowman, Bill J

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro performance of extemporaneously compounded morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride slow-release capsules was evaluated. Capsules containing varying amoutns of morphine sulfate (15, 60, 200 mg) or oxycodone hydrochloride (10, 80, 200 mg) were prepared and provided by a Phoenix, Arizona, pharmacy. The capsules also contained 40% Methocel E4M Premium to slow the release of their active ingredient and sufficient lactose to fill the capsules. Three batches of each capsule strength were prepared, and replicates from each batch were evlauated using United Stated Pharmacopeia dissolution apparatus II. Samples were taken at regular time intervals over 24 hours. After 1 hour the pH of the dissolution medium was adjusted form 1.2 to 4.0, and after 2 hours the pH was adjusted to 6.8. The amount of drug released at each time point was determined spectrophotometrically. The compounded capsules released 14% to 23%, 67% to 85% and 93% to 98% of their active ingredient after 0.5, 4 and 12 hours, respectively. The relative standard deviations between the replicates from each batch were less than 10% for most time points. The percent of drug released over the first 4 hours was linear (r squared = 0.9409-0.9999) when plotted versus time 1/2, indicating adherence to the simplified Higuchi model. Statistical analysis of the Higuchi dissolution constants indicated a significant difference (P less than 0.05) between batch No.3 and the other two batches of 200-mg oxycodone hydrochloride capsules. There was also a statistical difference between most of the Higuchi dissolution constants for the different-strength slow-release capsules and most slow-release capsules and equivalent strength controlled-release manufactured tablets (P less than 0.05). Using 40% Methocel E4M Premium slowed the release of morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride from extemporaneously compounded capsules. The in vitro performance of the slow-release capsules showed little intrabatch variation

  2. Electric ignition energy evaluation and the energy distribution structure of energy released in electrostatic discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingming; Huang Jinxiang; Shao Huige; Zhang Yunming

    2017-01-01

    Ignition energy is one of the important parameters of flammable materials, and evaluating ignition energy precisely is essential to the safety of process industry and combustion science and technology. By using electric spark discharge test system, a series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor-stored energy in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The evaluation method for energy consumed by electric spark, wire, and switch during capacitor discharge process has been studied respectively. The resistance of wire, switch, and plasma between electrodes has been evaluated by different methods and an optimized evaluation method has been obtained. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch, and electric spark-induced plasma between electrodes were obtained and the energy structure of capacitor-released energy was analyzed. The dynamic process and the characteristic parameters (the maximum power, duration of discharge process) of electric spark discharge process have been analyzed. Experimental results showed that, electric spark-consumed energy only accounts for 8%–14% of the capacitor-released energy. With the increase of capacitor-released energy, the duration of discharge process becomes longer, and the energy of plasma accounts for more in the capacitor-released energy. The power of electric spark varies with time as a damped sinusoids function and the period and the maximum value increase with the capacitor-released energy. (paper)

  3. The application and evaluation of insulin release test and quantitative parameter in diabetic type II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenggang; Chen Xiaoyan; Guan Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the curve of Insulin Release Test (IRT) about the patients whit type II diabetes, to evaluate β-cell function and the sensitivity of body to Insulin using Insulin Release Index (IRI) and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), and to probe the value for clinical therapy. Methods: 1) Have a IRT of 396 cases with type II diabetes and 17 normal bodies and acquire the IRT curve, 2) Design the count methods about IRI and ISI, IRI = Ins max/Ins FBI x Δ Ins max/T max (minute), ISI=(Ins max-Ins FBI)/(Ins 180'-Ins FBI), 3) Compare IRI Changes of before and after treatment for 12 cases with no insulin release and 9 cases with less insulin release. Results: IRT curve type (No release type 21.0%, less release type 33.3%, peak delay type 36.9%, high insulin type 6.0%, release delay type 2.8%); respective IRI, ISI compared to normal, P<0.01; IRI of before and after treatment with insulin P<0.01. Conclusions: IRT Curve combining IRI and ISI can reflect accurately β-cell function with type II diabetes and the sensitivity of body to insulin, Also it has some reference value for clinical therapy

  4. Evaluation of tecniques for controlling UF6 release clouds in the GAT environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies designed to characterize the reaction between UF 6 and atmospheric moisture, evaluate environmental variables of UF 6 cloud formation and ultimate cloud fate, and UF 6 release cloud control procedure have been conducted in the 1200 cu. ft. GAT environmental chamber. In earlier chamber experiments, 30 separate UF 6 release tests indicated that variations of atmospheric conditions and sample sizes had no significant effect on UO 2 F 2 particle size distribution, release cloud formation, or cloud settling rates. During the past year, numerous procedures have been evaluated for accelerating UF 6 cloud knockdown in a series of 37 environmental chamber releases. Knockdown procedures included: coarse water spray; air jet; steam spray (electrostatically charged and uncharged); carbon dioxide; Freon-12; fine water mist (uncharged); boric acid mist (charged and uncharged); and an ionized dry air stream. UF 6 hydrolysis cloud settling rates monitored by a laser/powermeter densitometer, indicated the relative effectiveness of various cloud knockdown techniques. Electrostatically charged boric acid/water mist, and electrostatically ionized dry air were both found to be very effective, knocking down the UO 2 F 2 release cloud particles in two to five minutes. Work to adapt these knockdown techniques for use under field conditions is continuing, taking into account recovery of the released uranium as well as nuclear criticality constraints

  5. Development and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride controlled-release pellets by fluid bed coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkilineni Bhanu Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop controlled-release pellets of diltiazem HCl with ethyl cellulose and hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose phthalate as the release rate retarding polymers by fluid bed coating technique. The prepared pellets were evaluated for drug content, particle size, subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Differential Scanning Calori metry (DSC, and evaluated for in vitro release. Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulations for a period of 3 months. The drug content was in the range of 97%-101%. The mean particle size of the drug-loaded pellets was in the range 700-785 μm. The drug release rate decreased as the concentration of ethyl cellulose increased in the pellet formulations. Among the prepared formulations, FDL10 and FDL11 showed 80% drug release in 16 h, matching with USP dissolution test 6 for diltiazem HCl extended-release capsules. SEM photographs confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature with a smooth surface. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug-loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC studies. Stability studies indicated that the pellets were stable.

  6. Artificial Neural Networks in Evaluation and Optimization of Modified Release Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Djurić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM is the one most frequently used. Progress of computer science has had an impact on pharmaceutical development as well. Simultaneous with the implementation of statistical methods, machine learning tools took an important place in drug formulation. Twenty years ago, the first papers describing application of artificial neural networks in optimization of modified release products appeared. Since then, a lot of work has been done towards implementation of new techniques, especially Artificial Neural Networks (ANN in modeling of production, drug release and drug stability of modified release solid dosage forms. The aim of this paper is to review artificial neural networks in evaluation and optimization of modified release solid dosage forms.

  7. Evaluation of hydrophobic materials as matrices for controlled-release drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Rahman, M Sharifur; Karim, M Ziaul; Akter, Sanjida; Awkat, M Talat Bin; Reza, Md Selim

    2003-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different insoluble and erodable wax-lipid based materials and their content level on the release profile of drug from matrix systems. Matrix tablets of theophylline were prepared using carnauba wax, bees wax, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as rate-retarding agents by direct compression process. The release of theophylline from these hydrophobic matrices was studied over 8-hours in buffer media of pH 6.8. Statistically significant difference was found among the drug release profile from different matrices. The release kinetics was found to be governed by the type and content of hydrophobic materials in the matrix. At lower level of wax matrices (25%), a potential burst release was observed with all the materials being studied. Bees wax could not exert any sustaining action while an extensive burst release was found with carnauba wax at this hydrophobic load. Increasing the concentration of fat-wax materials significantly decreased the burst effect of drug from the matrix. At higher hydrophobic level (50% of the matrix), the rate and extent of drug release was significantly reduced due to increased tortuosity and reduced porosity of the matrix. Cetostearyl alcohol imparted the strongest retardation of drug release irrespective of fat-wax level. Numerical fits indicate that the Higuchi square root of time model was the most appropriate one for describing the release profile of theophylline from hydrophobic matrices. The release mechanism was also explored and explained with biexponential equation. Application of this model indicates that Fickian or case I kinetics is the predominant mechanism of drug release from these wax-lipid matrices. The mean dissolution time (MDT) was calculated for all the formulations and the highest MDT value was obtained with cetostearyl matrix. The greater sustaining activity of cetostearyl alcohol can be attributed to some level of

  8. Preparation and evaluation of Vinpocetine self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqi; Zhang, Shiming; Cui, Shuxia; Chen, Fen; Jia, Lianqun; Wang, Shu; Gai, Xiumei; Li, Pingfei; Yang, Feifei; Pan, Weisan; Yang, Xinggang

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a pH gradient release pellet with self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), which could not only improve the oral bioavailability of Vinpocetine (VIN), a poor soluble drug, but reduce the fluctuation of plasma concentration. First, the liquid VIN SEDDS formulation was prepared. Then the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets were prepared by extrusion spheronization technique, and formulation consisted by the liquid SEDDS, absorbent (colloidal silicon dioxide), penetration enhancer (sodium chloride), microcrystalline cellulose, ethyl alcohol, and three coating materials (HPMC, Eudragit L30D55, Eudragit FS30D) were eventually selected. Three kinds of coated pellets were mixed in capsules with the mass ratio of 1:1:1. The release curves of capsules were investigated in vitro under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In addition, the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of VIN self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets, commercial tablets and liquid VIN SEDDS were evaluated in Beagle dogs. The oral bioavailability of self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets was about 149.8% of commercial VIN tablets, and it was about 86% of liquid VIN SEDDS, but there were no significant difference between liquid SEDDS and self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets. In conclusion, the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellets could significantly enhance the absorption of VIN and effectively achieve a pH gradient release. And the self-emulsifying pH gradient release pellet was a promising method to improve bioavailability of insoluble drugs.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to prepare controlled release matrix mucoadhesive tablets of domperidone using Salvia plebeian gum as natural polymer. Tablets were formulated by direct compression technology employing the natural polymer in different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w. The prepared batches were evaluated for drug assay, diameter, thickness, hardness and tensile strength, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength (using texture analyzer and subjected to in vitro drug release studies. Real-time stability studies were also conducted on prepared batches. In vitro drug release data were fitted in various release kinetic models for studying the mechanism of drug release. Tensile strength was found to increase from 0.808 ± 0.098 to 1.527 ± 0.10 mN/cm 2 and mucoadhesive strength increased from 13.673 ± 1.542 to 40.378 ± 2.345 N, with an increase in the polymer concentration from 5 to 20% (A1 to A4. Swelling index was reported to increase with both increase in the concentration of gum and the time duration. The in vitro drug release decreased from 97.76 to 83.4% (A1 to A4 with the increase in polymer concentration. The drug release from the matrix tablets was found to follow zero-order and Higuchi models, indicating the matrix-forming potential of natural polymer. The value of n was found to be between 0.5221 and 0.8992, indicating the involvement of more than one drug release mechanism from the formulation and possibly the combination of both diffusion and erosion. These research findings clearly indicate the potential of S. plebeian gum to be used as binder, release retardant and mucoadhesive natural material in tablet formulations.

  10. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-01-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. - Highlights: • Dynamic tritium concentration in the air and human body evaluated on the time scale. • Different intake forms and relevant radiation dose assessed to find out the potential relationships. • HT and HTO release amount limits for arbitrary accidents proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit

  11. Evaluation of random temperature fluctuation problems with frequency response approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeail, Yves; Kasahara, Naoto

    2000-01-01

    Since thermal striping is a coupled thermohydraulic and thermomechanical phenomenon, sodium mock-up tests were usually required to confirm structural integrity. Authors have developed the frequency response function to establish design-by-analysis methodology for this phenomenon. Applicability of this method to sinusoidal fluctuation was validated through two benchmark problems with FAENA and TIFFSS facilities under EJCC contract. This report describes the extension of the frequency response method to random fluctuations. As an example of application, fatigue strength of a Tee junction of PHENIX secondary piping system was investigated. (author)

  12. Lyophilized sustained release mucoadhesive chitosan sponges for buccal buspirone hydrochloride delivery: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2015-06-01

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive lyophilized chitosan sponges of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. Chitosan sponges were prepared using simple casting/freeze-drying technique according to 3(2) factorial design where chitosan grade was set at three levels (low, medium, and high molecular weight), and concentration of chitosan solution at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2%). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h), and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal chitosan sponge were prepared to achieve uni-directional BH release toward the buccal mucosa. Sponges were evaluated in terms of drug content, surface pH, scanning electron microscopy, swelling index, mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, and in vitro drug release. Cup and core sponge (HCH 0.5E) were able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8 h. It showed Q8h of 68.89% and exhibited a uni-directional drug release profile following Higuchi diffusion model.

  13. Evaluation of the dose assessment models for routine radioactive releases to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1998-05-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the needs of development concerning the dose calculation models for routine releases and application of the models for exceptional release situations at the NPP plants operated by Imatran Voima Ltd. and Teollisuuden Voima Ltd. in Finland. First, the differences of the calculation models concerning input data, models themselves and output are considered. Subsequently some single features like importance of nuclides in exposure pathways due to change of the release composition, dose calculation for children and importance of time period of particle releases are considered. The existing dose calculation model used by the radiation safety authorities is aimed at a tool for checking the results from calculations of doses arising from routine releases by the power companies. Characteristics of an independent, foreign model and its suitability for safety authorities for dose calculations of releases in normal operation is also assessed. The needs of improvements in the existing calculation models and characteristics of a comprehensive model for safety authorities are discussed as well

  14. Performance Evaluation of A Developed Variable Frequency Drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the performance characteristics of a developed variable frequency drive (VFD) adaptable for operation of ac machines speed control. The VFD developed is robust, durable, cheap and have low maintenance cost compared to conventional VFDs. The controlled asynchronous ac motor was operated to ...

  15. Evaluation and Analysis of Frequency of Transformer Failures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The frequency of failed distribution transformers in Power Holding Company of Nigeria Plc, Akpakpava Business Unit network, Benin City, for a period of two years have been investigated in this work. The frequent power outages recorded in our communities resulting in customers dissatisfactions, economic losses, ...

  16. Formulation And Evaluation Of Bilayer Tablet for Bimodal Release of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munira eMomin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of venlafexine hydrochloride for bimodal drug release. In the present investigation authors have tried to explore Fenugreek Mucilage (FNM for bioadhesive sustained release layer. The attempt has been made to combine FNM with well studied bioahesive polymers like Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Carbopol and Xanthan Gum. The formulations were evaluated for swelling Index, ex-vivo bioadhesion, water uptake studies, in-vitro drug release and dissolution kinetics was studied. Substantial bioadhesion force (2.4±0.023 gms and tablet adhesion retention time (24±2 hrs was observed with FNM and HPMC combination at 80:20 ratio. The dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model (R2 =0.9913 via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst. The 32 full factorial design was employed in the present study. The type of polymers used in combination with FNM (X1 and percent polymer replaced with FNM (X2 were taken as independent formulations variables. The selected responses, bioadhesion force (0.11-0.25±0.023gm, amount of drug released in 10 h, Y10 (78.20–95.78±1.24 % and bioadhesive strength, (19-24±2hrs presented good correlation with the selected independent variables. Statistical analysis (ANOVA of the optimized bilayer formulations showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05 in the amount of drug released after 1 hr till 12 h from optimized formulations was observed. The natural mucilage like FNM could be successfully incorporated into tablet with only 20% replacement with HPMC and it showed good bioadhesiveness and sustained drug release.

  17. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaleemullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2 value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and

  18. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleemullah, M; Jiyauddin, K; Thiban, E; Rasha, S; Al-Dhalli, S; Budiasih, S; Gamal, O E; Fadli, A; Eddy, Y

    2017-07-01

    Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor ( f 2 ) value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f 2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and T50% with p

  19. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  20. An evaluation of nodalization/decay heat/ volatile fission product release models in ISAAC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong Mann; Park, Soo Yong; Kim, Dong Ha

    2003-03-01

    An ISAAC computer code, which was developed for a Level-2 PSA during 1995, has developed mainly with fundamental models for CANDU-specific severe accident progression and also the accident-analyzing experiences are limited to Level-2 PSA purposes. Hence the system nodalization model, decay model and volatile fission product release model, which are known to affect fission product behavior directly or indirectly, are evaluated to both enhance understanding for basic models and accumulate accident-analyzing experiences. As a research strategy, sensitivity studies of model parameters and sensitivity coefficients are performed. According to the results from core nodalization sensitivity study, an original 3x3 nodalization (per loop) method which groups horizontal fuel channels into 12 representative channels, is evaluated to be sufficient for an optimal scheme because detailed nodalization methods have no large effect on fuel thermal-hydraulic behavior, total accident progression and fission product behavior. As ANSI/ANS standard model for decay heat prediction after reactor trip has no needs for further model evaluation due to both wide application on accident analysis codes and good comparison results with the ORIGEN code, ISAAC calculational results of decay heat are used as they are. In addition, fission product revaporization in a containment which is caused by the embedded decay heat, is demonstrated. The results for the volatile fission product release model are analyzed. In case of early release, the IDCOR model with an in-vessel Te release option shows the most conservative results and for the late release case, NUREG-0772 model shows the most conservative results. Considering both early and late release, the IDCOR model with an in-vessel Te bound option shows mitigated conservative results.

  1. Release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 Evaluated Nuclear Data File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David

    2012-06-30

    The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) released the ENDF/B-VII.1 library on December 22, 2011. The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is CSEWG's latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0, including: many new evaluation in the neutron sublibrary (423 in all and over 190 of these contain covariances), new fission product yields and a greatly improved decay data sublibrary. This summary barely touches on the five years worth of advances present in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. We expect that these changes will lead to improved integral performance in reactors and other applications. Furthermore, the expansion of covariance data in this release will allow for better uncertainty quantification, reducing design margins and costs. The ENDF library is an ongoing and evolving effort. Currently, the ENDF data community embarking on several parallel efforts to improve library management: (1) The adoption of a continuous integration system to provide evaluators 'instant' feedback on the quality of their evaluations and to provide data users with working 'beta' quality libraries in between major releases. (2) The transition to new hierarchical data format - the Generalized Nuclear Data (GND) format. We expect GND to enable new kinds of evaluated data which cannot be accommodated in the legacy ENDF format. (3) The development of data assimilation and uncertainty propagation techniques to enable the consistent use of integral experimental data in the evaluation process.

  2. Formulation and In Vitro, In Vivo Evaluation of Effervescent Floating Sustained-Release Imatinib Mesylate Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Sabeti, Bahareh; Chung, Lip Yong; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Imatinib mesylate is an antineoplastic agent which has high absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Conventional imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels and requires frequent administration to keep the plasma drug level at an effective range. This might cause side effects, reduced effectiveness and poor therapeutic management. Therefore, floating sustained-release Imatinib tablets were developed to allow the tablets to be released in the upper part of the GIT and overcome the inadequacy of conventional tablets. Methodology Floating sustained-release Imatinib mesylate tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablets were formulated using Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M), with Sodium alginate (SA) and Carbomer 934P (CP) as release-retarding polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as the effervescent agent and lactose as a filler. Floating behavior, in vitro drug release, and swelling index studies were conducted. Initial and total drug release duration was compared with a commercial tablet (Gleevec) in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours. Tablets were then evaluated for various physical parameters, including weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and drug content. Consequently, 6 months of physical stability studies and in vitro gastro-retentive studies were conducted. Results and Discussion Statistical data analysis revealed that tablets containing a composition of 14.67% w/w HPMC K4M, 10.67%, w/w Na alginate, 1.33%, w/w Carbomer 934P and 9.33%, w/w NaHCO3 produced the most favorable formulation to develop 24-hour sustained-release tablets with optimum floating behavior and satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, in vitro release study revealed that the formulated SR tablet had significantly lower Cmax and higher Tmax compared to the conventional tablet (Gleevec). Thus, formulated SR tablets preserved persistent

  3. Formulation and in vitro, in vivo evaluation of effervescent floating sustained-release imatinib mesylate tablet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kadivar

    Full Text Available Imatinib mesylate is an antineoplastic agent which has high absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Conventional imatinib mesylate (Gleevec tablets produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels and requires frequent administration to keep the plasma drug level at an effective range. This might cause side effects, reduced effectiveness and poor therapeutic management. Therefore, floating sustained-release Imatinib tablets were developed to allow the tablets to be released in the upper part of the GIT and overcome the inadequacy of conventional tablets.Floating sustained-release Imatinib mesylate tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Tablets were formulated using Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, with Sodium alginate (SA and Carbomer 934P (CP as release-retarding polymers, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 as the effervescent agent and lactose as a filler. Floating behavior, in vitro drug release, and swelling index studies were conducted. Initial and total drug release duration was compared with a commercial tablet (Gleevec in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2 at 37 ± 0.5°C for 24 hours. Tablets were then evaluated for various physical parameters, including weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and drug content. Consequently, 6 months of physical stability studies and in vitro gastro-retentive studies were conducted.Statistical data analysis revealed that tablets containing a composition of 14.67% w/w HPMC K4M, 10.67%, w/w Na alginate, 1.33%, w/w Carbomer 934P and 9.33%, w/w NaHCO3 produced the most favorable formulation to develop 24-hour sustained-release tablets with optimum floating behavior and satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. Furthermore, in vitro release study revealed that the formulated SR tablet had significantly lower Cmax and higher Tmax compared to the conventional tablet (Gleevec. Thus, formulated SR tablets preserved persistent concentration of plasma up to 24 hours

  4. Evaluation Of Radioactivity Of Released Air During Postirradiation Examination At The RMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno, B.; Eko, Pudjadi

    1998-01-01

    Radioactivity evaluation of released air during post-irradiation examination at RMI has been done since january 1993 to december 1996. The released air radioactivity has been observed during post-irradiation examinations of irradiated fuels and structure materials in the hot cell. Analysis method employed has been by air sampling and measurement of the alpha and beta activities by using alpha beta aerosol LB 150 D model. Air release from RMI was sucked by using an air pump having 40 m3/hour capacity which is equipped with a 200 mm diameter filter paper. The filter paper is automatically counted by the detector of the instrument. The average of the daily maximum counting result in a month has been used as monthly data. It has been shown that there have been increase in the released air radioactivity caused by the post-irradiation examination activity. The data of the released air activity obtained have been used to calculate the radioactivity concentration and radioactivity on the soil surface based on Gauss Plumes. The calculation result have shown that the alpha and beta radioactivity concentration at stacks and on the soil surface are less then the set maximum permissible concentration (MPC)

  5. General misincorporation frequency: Re-evaluation of the fidelity of DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Bianbian; Liu, Xiaoying; Tang, Hong; Zhuang, Xiyao; Yang, Mingqi; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Huidong; Yang, Chun

    2018-02-19

    DNA replication in cells is performed in the presence of four dNTPs and four rNTPs. In this study, we re-evaluated the fidelity of DNA polymerases using the general misincorporation frequency consisting of three incorrect dNTPs and four rNTPs but not using the traditional special misincorporation frequency with only the three incorrect dNTPs. We analyzed both the general and special misincorporation frequencies of nucleotide incorporation opposite dG, rG, or 8-oxoG by Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage 1 (PaP1) DNA polymerase Gp90 or Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Both misincorporation frequencies of other DNA polymerases published were also summarized and analyzed. The general misincorporation frequency is obviously higher than the special misincorporation frequency for many DNA polymerases, indicating the real fidelity of a DNA polymerase should be evaluated using the general misincorporation frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation of new multiple-unit levodopa sustained-release floating dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goole, J; Vanderbist, F; Amighi, K

    2007-04-04

    This work relates to the development and the in vitro evaluation of sustained-release minitablets (MT), prepared by melt granulation and subsequent compression, which are designed to float over an extended period of time. Levodopa was used as a model drug. The importance of the composition and manufacturing parameters of the MT on their floating and dissolution properties was then examined. The investigation showed that MT composition and MT diameter had the greatest influence on drug release, which was sustained for more than 8h. By using the same formulation, the best floating properties were obtained with 3mm MT prepared at low compression forces ranging between 50 and 100N. Their resultant-weight (RW) values were always higher than those obtained with a marketed HBS dosage form within 13h. When they were filled into gelatin capsules, no sticking was observed. By evaluating the dissolution profiles of levodopa at different pH values, it was found that dissolution profiles depend more on the prolonged-release ability of Methocel K15M than on the pH-dependent solubility of levodopa. Finally, the robustness of the floating MT was assessed by testing the drug release variability in function of the stirring conditions during dissolution tests.

  7. Characterization of biochars from different sources and evaluation of release of nutrients and contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Aragão de Figueredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biochar, product of pyrolysis of organic waste, has been used as a soil conditioner and alternative on solid waste management. However, the raw material and pyrolysis temperature used influence the quantity and dynamics of release of nutrients and contaminants from the biochar. The objective was to evaluate the use of waste sugarcane bagasse, eucalyptus and sewage sludge for production of biochar and determine the chemical, physical, mineralogical properties and acid extraction of these materials produced at 350 °C and 500 °C. Were evaluated the proportion of C, H, N, O; ashes; macro and micronutrients, plus some contaminants; characterization of mineral phases by diffractometry of X- rays; functional groups by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR. Moreover, it was determined the release of nutrients and contaminants for the extraction in increasing concentration of HNO3 (0,01 - 2,0 mol L-1. The O/C and H/C relations decreased with increasing temperature of pyrolysis, which define a greater stability of the C of biochars. Sewage sludge biochar (BC-L had the highest nutrient release rates and contaminant metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Acid extraction of other biochars was very low (<20% of the total content. The results indicate that the carbon fraction of biochar contributes to the low rate of release of the elements in acid place.

  8. Evaluating the Readability of Radio Frequency Identification for Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghan Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which was originally introduced to improve material handling and speed production as part of supply chain management, has become a globally accepted technology that is now applied on many construction sites to facilitate real-time information visibility and traceability. This paper describes a senior undergraduate project for a Construction Management (CM program that was specifically designed to give the students a greater insight into technical research in the CM area. The students were asked to determine whether it would be possible to utilize an RFID system capable of tracking tagged equipment, personnel and materials across an entire construction site. This project required them to set up an experimental program, execute a series of experiments, analyze the results and summarize them in a report. The readability test was performed using an active Ultra-High frequency (UHF, 433.92 MHz RFID system with various construction materials, including metal, concrete, wood, plastic, and aluminum. The readability distance distances are measured for each of the six scenarios. The distance at which a tag was readable with no obstructions was found to be an average of 133.9m based on three measurements, with a standard deviation of 3.9m. This result confirms the manufacturer’s claimed distance of 137.2m. The RFID tag embedded under 50.8mm of concrete was readable for an average distance of only 12.2m, the shortest readable distance of any of the scenarios tested. At the end of the semester, faculty advisors held an open discussion session to gather feedback and elicit the students’ reflections on their research experiences, revealing that the students’ overall impressions of their undergraduate research had positively affected their postgraduate education plans.

  9. Evaluation of fuel release rate and mechanism tests under RBCB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.G.

    1981-09-01

    This task includes theoretical evaluation of fuel/fission product release behavior from failed LMFBR fuel elements as well as an on-going experimental investigation of the mechanism of oxide fuel dispersal into flowing liquid sodium. The primary objectives of this work are to develop a fuel source term that can be used in predictive models for primary heat transfer system contamination and to understand the separate influences of important system variables (such as flow rate, oxygen impurity level) on this source term. The present report is written in two parts: the first, in condensed form, is an updated evaluation of fuel (U,Pu) and fission product release data, and the second describes the current status of supporting experimental work at General Electric's Vallecitos Laboratory

  10. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer programs at SRL to evaluate environmental effects SRP operations and postulated accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.E.

    1975-09-01

    Savannah River Plant operations unavoidably result in the release of some chemical and radioactive effluents to the environs. The most environmentally significant releases are gaseous effluents to the atmosphere; computer codes dealing with these atmospheric releases are discussed in this report. There is a wide variety of effluents, both chemical and radioactive, to be considered, and each must be correlated with meteorological dispersion data as a function of time to estimate the environmental effects. In addition, large inventories of toxic and radioactive materials in some facilities represent a potential for accidental releases. Accidents are postulated for these facilities, and the environmental effects of resulting releases are again evaluated by correlating with meteorological dispersion data. In accordance with AEC Regulatory Guide 23, a 2-year meteorological data base is used in performing all analyses. Due to the diversity of possible releases and the large meteorological data base, the environmental analyses are necessarily performed with the aid of a large computer facility. Several computer programs have been written to facilitate these analyses according to the type of analysis desired. The computer programs described in this report are basically of three categories: probability distributions of estimated concentrations or doses as a function of distance from a point of origin, estimates of average concentrations or doses over a specified time period such as annual averages, and some miscellaneous programs in support of the first two categories to optimize the use of the computing facility. A complete documentation of each program is included with a program listing and sample input-output

  12. Technical committee meeting on evaluation of radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Technical Committee Meeting was to review the activities of research on radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors in each of the participating countries. It covered: out-of-pile experiments and analysis codes on source term; in-pile experiments on source term; core disruptive accidents; sodium leak experience in liquid metal fast reactors; evaluation of sodium fire; and aerosol behaviour

  13. EQUATIONS FOR GAS RELEASING PROCESS FROM PRESSURIZED VESSELS IN ODH EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JIA, L.X.; WANG, L.

    2001-01-01

    IN THE EVALUATION OF ODH, THE CALCULATION OF THE SPILL RATE FROM THE PRESSURIZED VESSEL IS THE CENTRAL TASK. THE ACCURACY OF THE ENGINEERING ESTIMATION BECOMES ONE OF THE SAFETY DESIGN ISSUES. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION CALCULATION IN DIFFERENT CASES, AND DISCUSSES THE EQUATIONS FOR THE GAS RELEASE PROCESS CALCULATION BOTH FOR THE HIGH-PRESSURE GAS TANK AND THE LOW-TEMPERATURE LIQUID CONTAINER

  14. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  15. Technical committee meeting on evaluation of radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of the Technical Committee Meeting was to review the activities of research on radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors in each of the participating countries. It covered: out-of-pile experiments and analysis codes on source term; in-pile experiments on source term; core disruptive accidents; sodium leak experience in liquid metal fast reactors; evaluation of sodium fire; and aerosol behaviour.

  16. 2011 Release of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2011.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beck, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Descalles, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mattoon, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Navratil, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nobre, G. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ormand, W. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Summers, N. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barnowski, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-12

    LLNL’s Computational Nuclear Physics Group and Nuclear Theory and Modeling Group have collaborated to produce the last of three major releases of LLNL’s evaluated nuclear database, ENDL2011. ENDL2011 is designed to support LLNL’s current and future nuclear data needs by providing the best nuclear data available to our programmatic customers. This library contains many new evaluations for radiochemical diagnostics, structural materials, and thermonuclear reactions. We have made an effort to eliminate all holes in reaction networks, allowing in-line isotopic creation and depletion calculations. We have striven to keep ENDL2011 at the leading edge of nuclear data library development by reviewing and incorporating new evaluations as they are made available to the nuclear data community. Finally, this release is our most highly tested release as we have strengthened our already rigorous testing regime by adding tests against IPPE Activation Ratio Measurements, many more new critical assemblies and a more complete set of classified testing (to be detailed separately).

  17. OVERVIEW OF THE 2009 RELEASE OF THE EVALUATED NUCLEAR DATA LIBRARY (ENDL2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.; Beck, B.; Descalle, M.; Hoffman, R.; Ormand, E.; Navratil, P.; Summers, N.; Thompson, I.; Vogt, R.; Younes, W.; Barnowski, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Physics Division has produced the next iteration of LLNL's evaluated nuclear database, ENDL2009. ENDL2009 is the second in a series of major ENDL library releases designed to support LLNL's current and future nuclear data needs. This library includes 585 distinct transport-ready evaluations in the neutron sub-library and many physics improvements for stockpile stewardship, attribution signatures, key radiochemical diagnostics and performance of conventional and hybrid fission/fusion reactors. In building this library, we adopted the best of the world's nuclear data efforts: 46% of the library is from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library, 10% is from the JENDL libraries and 8% from other libraries. The remaining 36% of the neutron sub-library and all of the charged-particle sub-libraries consist of new evaluations developed at LLNL for the ENDL2009 library. In addition, ENDL2009 supports new features such as energy-dependent Q values from fission, support for unresolved resonances and average momentum deposition. Finally, this release is our most highly tested release as we have strengthened our already rigorous testing regime by adding tests against LANL Activation Ratio Measurements and more than 1200 new critical assemblies. Our testing is now being incorporated into our development process and is serving to guide database improvements.

  18. Evaluation of elastic constants of materials using the frequency spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Ramiro J. da; Baroni, Douglas B.; Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of materials made with the support of non-destructive techniques has great importance in industrial applications. The ultrasonic techniques are distinguished by good resolution to measure small variations of wave velocities as a result of changes in the character suffered by a particular material. In general these ultrasonic techniques are studied in the time domain, which represents an experimental difficulties when thin materials are analyzed, as well as to attenuate the ultrasonic signal drastically. An ultrasonic technique that uses the frequency domain is used in this study aiming to provide good time measurements to calculate the elastic constants of the first order in an aluminum alloy 6351. With the aid of a statistical approach was possible to have good results of tests performed when compared by a time domain technique already well explored in Ultrasound works produced in the Nuclear Engineering Institute Laboratory (LABUS / IEN) and also presented in most of the package, in good agreement with the theoretical model established in literature and used to validate the experiment, which was found in the results with good approximation. The relevance of this work in the nuclear area is associated with the interest to know the mechanical properties of structural components of the nuclear industry, which is currently studied as a rule, resorting to the computer simulations or previously during the operation of the system. (author)

  19. Evaluation of elastic constants of materials using the frequency spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Ramiro J. da; Baroni, Douglas B.; Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q., E-mail: ramirobd@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais Nucleares. Laboratorio de Ultrassom

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of materials made with the support of non-destructive techniques has great importance in industrial applications. The ultrasonic techniques are distinguished by good resolution to measure small variations of wave velocities as a result of changes in the character suffered by a particular material. In general these ultrasonic techniques are studied in the time domain, which represents an experimental difficulties when thin materials are analyzed, as well as to attenuate the ultrasonic signal drastically. An ultrasonic technique that uses the frequency domain is used in this study aiming to provide good time measurements to calculate the elastic constants of the first order in an aluminum alloy 6351. With the aid of a statistical approach was possible to have good results of tests performed when compared by a time domain technique already well explored in Ultrasound works produced in the Nuclear Engineering Institute Laboratory (LABUS / IEN) and also presented in most of the package, in good agreement with the theoretical model established in literature and used to validate the experiment, which was found in the results with good approximation. The relevance of this work in the nuclear area is associated with the interest to know the mechanical properties of structural components of the nuclear industry, which is currently studied as a rule, resorting to the computer simulations or previously during the operation of the system. (author)

  20. In vitro evaluation of fluoride release of Jeltrate® dental alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Santiago Vaitsman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate of fluoride release from Jeltrate alginate®. Materials and Methods: Four Trademarks of alginate were divided in four groups: conventional Jeltrate®, Plus Jeltrate®, Chromatic Jeltrate® and Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate®. The alginates were handled following the guidelines of the manufacturers. After this was followed by the construction of evidence bodies using silicone molds of the dimensions of 4 mm in diameter and 4mm in height. After take prey, the evidence bodies were removed from the molds and placed in container with 10 ml of ultra purified water, for 2 min. The fluoride release was measured by selective ion electrode connected to an analyzer of ions. Results: The Plus Jeltrate® showed a higher releasing fluoride 247.85 μg/cm2 followed by Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate® (217.83 μg/cm2, Chromatic Jeltrate ® (138.21 μg/cm2 and Jeltrate® (79.61 μg/cm2. Conclusion: Plus Jeltrate® had the best performance in releasing fluoride, followed by Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate®, Chromatic Jeltrate® and conventional Jeltrate®.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Scent Transfer Unit (STU) for Organic Compound Collection and Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckenrode, Brian A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation; Ramsey, Scott A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation; StockhamMFS, Rex A. [Federal Bureau of Investigation; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Asano, Keiji G [ORNL; Wolf, Dennis A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The Scent Transfer UnitTM (STU-100) is a portable vacuum that uses airflow through a sterile gauze pad to capture a volatiles profile over evidentiary items for subsequent canine presentation to assist law enforcement personnel. This device was evaluated to determine its ability to trap and release organic compounds at ambient temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses using a five-component volatiles mixture in methanol injected directly into a capture pad indicated that compound release could be detected initially and three days after time of collection. Additionally, fifteen compounds of a 39-component toxic organics gaseous mixture (10-1,000 ppbv) were trapped, released, and detected in the headspace of a volatiles capture pad after being exposed to this mixture using the STU-100 with analysis via GC-MS. Component release efficiencies at ambient temperature varied with the analyte; however, typical values of approximately 10 percent were obtained. Desorption at elevated temperatures of reported human odor/scent chemicals and colognes trapped by the STU-100 pads was measured and indicated that the STU-100 has a significant trapping efficiency at ambient temperature. Multivariate statistical analysis of subsequent mass spectral patterns was also performed.

  2. Performance evaluation of the Scent Transfer Unit (STU-100) for organic compound collection and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Brian A; Ramsey, Scott A; Stockham, Rex A; Van Berkel, Gary J; Asano, Keiji G; Wolf, Dennis A

    2006-07-01

    The Scent Transfer Unit (STU-100) is a portable vacuum that uses airflow through a sterile gauze pad to capture a volatiles profile over evidentiary items for subsequent canine presentation to assist law enforcement personnel. This device was evaluated to determine its ability to trap and release organic compounds at ambient temperature under controlled laboratory conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses using a five-component volatiles mixture in methanol injected directly into a capture pad indicated that compound release could be detected initially and 3 days after the time of collection. Additionally, 15 compounds of a 39-component toxic organic gaseous mixture (10-1000 parts per billion by volume [p.p.b.(v)]) were trapped, released, and detected in the headspace of a volatiles capture pad after being exposed to this mixture using the STU-100 with analysis via GC-MS. Component release efficiencies at ambient temperature varied with the analyte; however, typical values of c. 10% were obtained. Desorption at elevated temperatures of reported human odor/scent chemicals and colognes trapped by the STU-100 pads was measured and indicated that the STU-100 has a significant trapping efficiency at ambient temperature. Multivariate statistical analysis of subsequent mass spectral patterns was also performed.

  3. Evaluation of particle release from montmorillonite gel by flowing groundwater based on the DLVO theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Susumu; Nagasaki, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical study has been performed to clarify the ability of colloid release form the montmorillonite gel by the flowing groundwater. Evaluation of montmorillonite colloidal particles release from the bentonite buffer material is important for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal because the colloids may influence the radionuclide transport. In this study, the minimum groundwater flow rate required to tear off montmorillonite particles from surface of bentonite buffer was estimated from the shear stress on the gel front, which was calculated by the DLVO theory. The estimated shear force was converted to corresponding groundwater velocity by using Stoke's equation. The results indicated that groundwater velocity in a range of about 10 -5 to 10 -4 m/s would be necessary to release montmorillonite particles. This range is higher than the groundwater flow velocity found generally in deep geological media in Japan. This study suggests that the effect of montmorillonite particles release from the bentonite buffer on radionuclide transport is likely to be negligible in the performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. (author)

  4. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  5. REITP3-Hazard evaluation program for heat release based on thermochemical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Kawakatsu, Yuichi. [Oji Paper Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, Tadao. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Engineering

    1999-06-30

    REITP3-A hazard evaluation program for heat release besed on thermochemical calculation has been developed by modifying REITP2 (Revised Estimation of Incompatibility from Thermochemical Properties{sup 2)}. The main modifications are as follows. (1) Reactants are retrieved from the database by chemical formula. (2) As products are listed in an external file, the addition of products and change in order of production can be easily conducted. (3) Part of the program has been changed by considering its use on a personal computer or workstation. These modifications will promote the usefulness of the program for energy hazard evaluation. (author)

  6. Quality evaluation of extemporaneous delayed-release liquid formulations of lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkoumov, Alexandre; Soukrati, Amina; Elkin, Igor; Forest, Jean-Marc; Hildgen, Patrice; Leclair, Grégoire

    2011-11-01

    The quality attributes of extemporaneous delayed-release liquid formulations of lansoprazole for oral administration were evaluated. A novel liquid formulation (3 mg/mL) of Prevacid FasTab in an Ora-Blend vehicle was prepared and compared with the Prevacid FasTab 30 mg and Prevacid-sodium bicarbonate 1 M formulation (3 mg/mL). The latter formulation was combined with hydrochloric acid 0.1 N, and the remaining lansoprazole content was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A batch of delayed-release liquid formulation was prepared to evaluate content uniformity. For content assay, three samples were prepared for each evaluated condition and each sample was analyzed in triplicate by HPLC. The lansoprazole in the sodium bicarbonate formulation was extensively degraded by quantities of hydrochloric acid 0.1 N in excess of 100 mL. Storage time and temperature had a significant effect on lansoprazole stability in the Ora-Blend formulation. The drug remained stable for seven days when the formulation was stored at 4.5-5.5 °C, but storage at 21-22 °C or the reduction of pH with citric acid accelerated lansoprazole degradation. The amount of lansoprazole released from the Ora-Blend formulation during the buffer stage of the dissolution test decreased with increases in formulation storage time, in formulation storage temperature, and in the amount of lansoprazole released and degraded during the acid stage of the test. An extemporaneous formulation consisting of lansoprazole microgranules in Ora-Blend maintained acceptable quality attributes when stored for three days at 4.5-5.5 °C.

  7. Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations.

  8. Formulation development and optimization of sustained release matrix tablet of Itopride HCl by response surface methodology and its evaluation of release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anirbandeep; Wong, Tin Wui; Singh, Navjot

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this present investigation was to develop and formulate sustained release (SR) matrix tablets of Itopride HCl, by using different polymer combinations and fillers, to optimize by Central Composite Design response surface methodology for different drug release variables and to evaluate drug release pattern of the optimized product. Sustained release matrix tablets of various combinations were prepared with cellulose-based polymers: hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and polyvinyl pyrolidine (pvp) and lactose as fillers. Study of pre-compression and post-compression parameters facilitated the screening of a formulation with best characteristics that underwent here optimization study by response surface methodology (Central Composite Design). The optimized tablet was further subjected to scanning electron microscopy to reveal its release pattern. The in vitro study revealed that combining of HPMC K100M (24.65 MG) with pvp(20 mg)and use of LACTOSE as filler sustained the action more than 12 h. The developed sustained release matrix tablet of improved efficacy can perform therapeutically better than a conventional tablet.

  9. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel hydrogen sulfide releasing capsaicin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxiang; Li, Jinyu; Nie, Cunbin; Song, Beibei; Yan, Lin; Qian, Hai

    2018-05-15

    Capsaicin (CAP), the prototypical TRPV1 agonist, is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, its use is limited by the low bioavailability and irritating quality. In this study, for improving the activity of CAP and alleviating its irritating effects, a series of H 2 S-releasing CAPs were designed and synthesized by combining capsaicin and dihydro capsaicin with various hydrogen sulfide donors. The resulting compounds were evaluated their TRPV1 agonist activity, analgesic activity, anticancer activities, H 2 S-releasing ability, and gastric mucosa irritation. Biological evaluation indicated that the most active compound B 9 , containing 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione moiety as H 2 S donor, had better analgesic activity and displayed more potent cytotoxic effects on the test cell lines than the lead compound CAP. Furthermore, the preferred compound, B 9 reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. Notably, the improved properties of this derivative are associated with its H 2 S-releasing capability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation of gas release modelling approaches as to their applicability in fuel behaviour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.J.; Sairanen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The release of fission gas from uranium oxide fuel to the voids in the fuel rod affects in many ways the behaviour of LWR fuel rods both during normal operating conditions including anticipated transients and during off-normal and accident conditions. The current trend towards significantly increased discharge burnup of LWR fuel will increase the importance of fission gas release considerations both from the design and safety viewpoints. In the paper fission gas release models are classified to 5 categories on the basis of complexity and physical sophistication. For each category, the basic approach common to the models included in the category is described, a few representative models of the category are singled out and briefly commented in some cases, the advantages and drawbacks of the approach are listed and discussed and conclusions on the practical feasibility of the approach are drawn. The evaluation is based on both literature survey and our experience in working with integral fuel behaviour models. The work has included verification efforts, attempts to improve certain features of the codes and engineering applications. The classification of fission gas release models regarding their applicability in fuel behaviour codes can of course be done only in a coarse manner. The boundaries between the different categories are vague and a model may be well refined in a way which transfers it to a higher category. Some current trends in fuel behaviour research are discussed which seem to motivate further extensive efforts in fission product release modelling and are certain to affect the prioritizing of the efforts. (author)

  11. Experimental composite guidance conduits for peripheral nerve repair: An evaluation of ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.F. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Coughlan, A. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); O' Shea, H. [Department of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering Design and Innovation Centre, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY. 14802 (United States); Kehoe, S., E-mail: sharonkehoe@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Boyd, D., E-mail: d.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - Pluronic F127 - glass composites have demonstrated excellent potential, from the perspective of controlled mechanical properties and cytocompatibility, for peripheral nerve regeneration. In addition to controlling the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity for such composite devices, the glass component may mediate specific responses upon implantation via degradation in the physiological environment and release of constituent elements. However, research focused on quantifying the release levels of such therapeutic ions from these experimental medical devices has been limited. To redress the balance, this paper explores the ion release profiles for Si{sup 4+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Ce{sup 4+} from experimental composite nerve guidance conduits (CNGC) comprising PLGA (at 12.5, and 20 wt.%), F127 (at 0, 2.5 and 5 wt.%) and various loadings of Si-Ca-Na-Zn-Ce glass (at 20 and 40 wt.%) for incubation periods of up to 28 days. The concentration of each ion, at various time points, was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (Perkin Elmer Optima 3000). It was observed that the Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} release from CNGCs in this study ranged from 0.22 to 6.477 ppm, 2.307 to 3.277 ppm, 40 to 119 ppm, and 45 to 51 ppm, respectively. The Ce{sup 4+} concentrations were under the minimum detection limits for the ICP instrument utilized. The results indicate that the ion release levels may be appropriate to mediate therapeutic effects with respect to peripheral nerve regeneration. The data generated in this paper provides requisite evidence to optimize composition for pre-clinical evaluation of the experimental composite. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time-dependent degradation studies of PLGA/glass composite nerve guidance conduits (NGCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si{sup 4+}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} release levels for the

  12. Reasons for 2011 Release of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2011.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Luu, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ormand, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Summers, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-22

    LLNL's Computational Nuclear Physics Group and Nuclear Theory and Modeling Group have collaborated to create the 2011 release of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2011). ENDL2011 is designed to sup- port LLNL's current and future nuclear data needs. This database is currently the most complete nuclear database for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport of neutrons and charged particles, surpassing ENDL2009.0 [1]. The ENDL2011 release [2] contains 918 transport-ready eval- uations in the neutron sub-library alone. ENDL2011 was assembled with strong support from the ASC program, leveraged with support from NNSA science campaigns and the DOE/Offce of Science US Nuclear Data Pro- gram.

  13. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride using processed Aloe vera mucilage as release modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural gums and mucilage which hydrates and swells on contact with aqueous media are used as additives in the formulation of hydrophilic drug delivery system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a new monolithic matrix system for complete delivery of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (HCl, in a zero-order manner over an extended time period using processed Aloe vera gel mucilage (PAG as a release modifier. Materials and Methods: The matrices were prepared by dry blending of selected ratios of polymer and ingredients using direct compression technique. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of A. vera were studied. Various formulations of pioglitazone HCl and A. vera mucilage were prepared using different drug: Polymer ratios viz., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 for PAG by direct compression technique. Results: The formulated matrix tablets were found to have better uniformity of weight and drug content with low statistical deviation. The swelling behavior and in vitro release rate characteristics were also studied. Conclusion: The study proved that the dried A. vera mucilage can be used as a matrix forming material for controlled release of Pioglitazone HCl matrix tablets.

  15. Frequency of Evaluation as a Measure of Links Between Levels in School Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utande, Emmanuel A.; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    The frequency of evaluation across organizational levels (i.e., evaluation of inferiors by superiors) is related to three variables: the existence of bureaucratic rules, availability of information across levels, and interaction among participants. In a processual perspective, as opposed to a structural one, evaluation is viewed as a key mechanism…

  16. Structural health monitoring methods for the evaluation of prestressing forces and pre-release cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Abdel-Jaber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete bridges currently account for 45% of bridges built in the last five years in the United States. This has resulted in an increase in the number of deficient bridges composed of prestressed concrete, which requires a better understanding of the on-site performance of this building material. The use of new materials, such as high performance concrete, in conjunction with prestressing provides additional motivation for the creation of structural health monitoring (SHM methods for prestressed concrete. This paper identifies two parameters relevant to prestressed concrete, along with methods for their evaluation. The parameters evaluated are the prestressing force value at transfer and the width of pre-release cracks, both of which are indicators of structural performance. Improper transfer of the prestressing force can result in tensile stresses in the concrete that exceed capacity and result in cracks and/or excessive deflections. Pre-release cracks occur in the concrete prior to transfer of the prestressing force and are mainly caused by autogenous shrinkage and thermal gradients. Closure of the cracks is expected by virtue of prestressing force transfer. However, the extent of crack closure is important in order to guarantee durability and structural integrity. This paper presents an integral overview of two novel methods for the statistical evaluation of the two monitored parameters: prestressing forces and the width of pre-release cracks. Validation of the methods is performed through application to two structures, both of which are components of Streicker Bridge on the Princeton University campus. Uncertainties are evaluated and thresholds for unusual behavior are set through the application.

  17. Release of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during: Wood Combustion. Part 1: Development and Evaluation of Quantification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Alonso-Ramírez, Violeta; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2006-01-01

    During wood combustion, inorganic elements such as alkali metals, sulfur, chlorine, and some heavy metals are partly released to the gas phase, which may cause problems in combustion facilities because of deposit formation and corrosion. Furthermore, it may cause harmful emissions of gases......) in this reactor, whereas methods B and C involved initial pyrolysis and combustion, respectively, of a large fuel sample (~5 kg) in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at 500 C. The methods were evaluated by comparing the data on the release of Cl, S, K, Na, Zn, and Pb from fiber board obtained by the three methods...

  18. Evaluating conditional release in not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees: a prospective follow-up study in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J; Vauter, Rebecca; Erickson, Steven K; Ragatz, Laurie

    2014-08-01

    Detailed research on treatment and risk management approaches with not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees (NGRI) during their conditional release is needed as states increasingly use community-based services for these individuals. Grounded in case law, and supported by follow-up studies demonstrating low recidivism rates, states have been encouraged in their efforts to conditionally release NGRI acquittees. The authors evaluated a state-wide sample of 127 NGRI acquittees released into the community after spending a mean of 61.63 months (SD = 76.54) in the hospital. One hundred individuals were committed to the hospital for lengthier treatment (M hospital time = 77.23 months, SD = 79.84), but 27 individuals were released to the community after a relatively short hospital stay (M hospital time = 5.60 months, SD = 3.01). Regarding release, 96 individuals (75.6%) maintained their conditional release. After evaluating a host of demographic and standardized risk data, the following variables predicted revocation on conditional release: previous failure on conditional release, nonadherence with hospital treatment, dangerousness to others, and previous violent charges. A multivariate survival analysis determined criminal behavior and previous failure on conditional release predicted time to revocation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering standardized risk variables in the community-based management of forensic patients. In addition, the data are supportive of continued attempts at moving insanity acquittees from the hospital to the community via conditional release.

  19. A method to evaluate fission gas release during irradiation testing of spherical fuel - HTR2008-58184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Merwet, H.; Venter, J.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of fission gas release from spherical fuel during irradiation testing is critical to understand expected fuel performance under real reactor conditions. Online measurements of Krypton and Xenon fission products explain coated particle performance and contributions from graphitic matrix materials used in fuel manufacture and irradiation rig materials. Methods that are being developed to accurately evaluate fission gas release are described here together with examples of evaluations performed on irradiation tests HFR-K5, -K6 and EU1bis. (authors)

  20. Mapping of lichen frequencies as a tool in evaluating intensity of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, M

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the intensity of air pollution by evaluating the frequency of lichen species growing on the trunks of trees. The lichens growing on the trunks of isolated trees in the surroundings of factories or other pollutants have been investigated. A ladder enclosing the panels is used to determine the frequency: the calculation is made electronically and permits statistical statements about the quantity of the lichens to be made. The numerical material evaluated consists of reproduceable data obtained by a standardized method that appears to be suitable for routine use. Pollution zones can be recognized by changes in frequency of the various sensitive species.

  1. Evaluation of Release-05 GRACE time-variable gravity coefficients over the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chambers

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The latest release of GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment gravity field coefficients (Release-05, or RL05 are evaluated for ocean applications. Data have been processed using the current methodology for Release-04 (RL04 coefficients, and have been compared to output from two different ocean models. Results indicate that RL05 data from the three Science Data Centers – the Center for Space Research (CSR, GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL – are more consistent among themselves than the previous RL04 data. Moreover, the variance of residuals with the output of an ocean model is 50–60% lower for RL05 data than for RL04 data. A more optimized destriping algorithm is also tested, which improves the results slightly. By comparing the GRACE maps with two different ocean models, we can better estimate the uncertainty in the RL05 maps. We find the standard error to be about 1 cm (equivalent water thickness in the low- and mid-latitudes, and between 1.5 and 2 cm in the polar and subpolar oceans, which is comparable to estimated uncertainty for the output from the ocean models.

  2. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-01-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form.

  3. Sustained Release and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Carbon Nanotube-Mediated Drug Delivery System for Betulinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been widely utilized as a novel drug carrier with promising future applications in biomedical therapies due to their distinct characteristics. In the present work, carboxylic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs were used as the starting material to react with anticancer drug, BA to produce f-SWCNTs-BA conjugate via π-π stacking interaction. The conjugate was extensively characterized for drug loading capacity, physicochemical properties, surface morphology, drug releasing characteristics, and cytotoxicity evaluation. The results indicated that the drug loading capacity was determined to be around 20 wt% and this value has been verified by thermogravimetric analysis. The binding of BA onto the surface of f-SWCNTs was confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Powder XRD analysis showed that the structure of the conjugate was unaffected by the loading of BA. The developed conjugate was found to release the drug in a controlled manner with a prolonged release property. According to the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, the conjugate was not toxic in a standard fibroblast cell line, and anticancer activity was significantly higher in A549 than HepG2 cell line. This study suggests that f-SWCNTs could be developed as an efficient drug carrier to conjugate drugs for pharmaceutical applications in cancer chemotherapies.

  4. Evaluation of the influence of UV/IR radiation on iron release from ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzkov, M.; Kochev, V.; Vladimirova, L

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the influence of UV/IR radiation on the iron-releasing process from ferritin is investigated. The ferritins are a family of iron-storing proteins playing a key role in the biochemical reactions between iron and oxygen-processes of exclusive importance for the existence of all living organisms. The iron is stored within the ferritin core in the form of insoluble crystals containing Fe(III). Therefore for its release, the mineral matrix has to be decomposed, usually through a reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Our study considers the action of UV/IR radiation on the structure of the protein molecule. Eventual changes in the ferritin conformation under the irradiation could result in the change of channel forming regions responsible for the iron efflux. This can be assess by the quantity of Fe (II) obtained in a subsequent mobilization procedure evoked by exogenous reducing agents. In our case the content of the reduced iron is determined electrochemically by the method of potentiometric titration. As already was shown, this method promises to become highly useful for quantitative evaluation of released Fe 2+ . (Author)

  5. Development and evaluation of controlled-release buccoadhesive verapamil hydrochloride tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami J.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Verapamil hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker which is used in the control of supraventricular arrhythmia, hypertension and myocardial infraction. There are considerable inter-individual variations in serum concencentration of verpamil due to variation in the extent of hepatic metabolism. In this study controlled-release buccoadhesive tablets of verapamil hydrochloride (VPH were prepared in order to achieve constant plasma concentrations, to improve the bioavailability by the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to prevent frequent administration. Materials and methods: Tablets containing fixed amount of VPH were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbomer (CP, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC in various combination and ratios and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, drug release and possible interaction between ingredients. Results: All tablets were acceptable with regard to thickness, weight variation, hardness, and drug content. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with a combination of CP-NaCMC followed by CP-HPMC and NaCMC-HPMC.  Decreasing the content of CP in CP-HPMC tablets or NaCMC in CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC systems resulted in decrease in detachment forces. Lower release rates were observed by lowering the content of CP in CP-HPMC containing formulations or NaCMC in tablets which contained CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC. The release behavior was non-Fickian controlled by a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation mechanisms and best fitted zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: The buccoadhesive VPH tablets containing 53% CP and 13.3% HPMC showed suitable release kinetics (n = 0.78, K0 zero order release = 4.11 mg/h, MDT = 5.66 h and adhesive properties and did not show any interaction between polymers and drug based on

  6. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-01-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies

  7. Ni-Cr based dental alloys; Ni release, corrosion and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reclaru, L., E-mail: lucien.reclaru@pxgroup.com [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J. [Institute for Pathology, REPAIR Lab, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr.1, D-55101 Mainz (Germany); Susz, C.; Eschler, P.-Y.; Zuercher, M.-H. [PX Holding S.A., Dep R and D Corrosion and Biocompatibility Group, Bd. des Eplatures 42, CH-2304 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Antoniac, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Luethy, H. [Institute of Dental Materials Science and Technology, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 3, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    In the last years the dental alloy market has undergone dramatic changes for reasons of economy and biocompatibility. Nickel based alloys have become widely used substitute for the much more expensive precious metal alloys. In Europe the prevalence of nickel allergy is 10-15% for female adults and 1-3% for male adults. Despite the restrictions imposed by the EU for the protection of the general population in contact dermatitis, the use of Ni-Cr dental alloys is on the increase. Some questions have to be faced regarding the safety risk of nickel contained in dental alloys. We have collected based on many EU markets, 8 Ni-Cr dental alloys. Microstructure characterization, corrosion resistance (generalized, crevice and pitting) in saliva and the quantities of cations released in particular nickel and CrVI have been evaluated. We have applied non parametric classification tests (Kendall rank correlation) for all chemical results. Also cytotoxicity tests and an evaluation specific to TNF-alpha have been conducted. According to the obtained results, it was found that their behavior to corrosion was weak but that nickel release was high. The quantities of nickel released are higher than the limits imposed in the EU concerning contact with the skin or piercing. Surprisingly the biological tests did not show any cytotoxic effect on Hela and L929 cells or any change in TNF-alpha expression in monocytic cells. The alloys did not show any proinflammatory response in endothelial cells as demonstrated by the absence of ICAM-1 induction. We note therefore that there is really no direct relationship between the in vitro biological evaluation tests and the physico-chemical characterization of these dental alloys. Clinical and epidemiological studies are required to clarify these aspects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel released was higher than the limits imposed in EU in contact with the skin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No direct relationship between the

  8. Oral matrix tablet formulations for concomitant controlled release of anti-tubercular drugs: design and in vitro evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Praveen S; Saha, Ranendra N

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to develop controlled release (C.R.) matrix tablet formulations of rifampicin and isoniazid combination, to study the design parameters and to evaluate in vitro release characteristics. In the present study, a series of formulations were developed with different release rates and duration using hydrophilic polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC). The duration of rifampicin and isoniazid release could be tailored by varying the polymer type, polymer ratio and processing techniques. Further, Eudragit L100-55 was incorporated in the matrix tablets to compensate for the pH-dependent release of rifampicin. Rifampicin was found to follow linear release profile with time from HPMC formulations. In case of formulations with HPC, there was an initial higher release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) followed by zero order release profiles in simulated intestinal fluid (SIFsp) for rifampicin. The release of isoniazid was found to be predominantly by diffusion mechanism in case of HPMC formulations, and with HPC formulations release was due to combination of diffusion and erosion. The initial release was sufficiently higher for rifampicin from HPC thus ruling out the need to incorporate a separate loading dose. The initial release was sufficiently higher for isoniazid in all formulations. Thus, with the use of suitable polymer or polymer combinations and with the proper optimization of the processing techniques it was possible to design the C.R. formulations of rifampicin and isoniazid combination that could provide the sufficient initial release and release extension up to 24h for both the drugs despite of the wide variations in their physicochemical properties.

  9. Effects of head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-90 minutes to complete. Head motion of the subject increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine (DA) release in the striatum were investigated. [ 11 C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a monetary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (rest: 30-50 min, game: 70-90 min) were realigned to the first frame at resting condition. Intra-condition registration between the frames during both the rest and game condition were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered with each other again (inter-condition registration). Resting PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the other one. Volumes of interest (VOl) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DA release was calculated as the percent change of BP after the video game. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scan were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at resting condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during the video game and DA release (PU: 29.2→3.9%, CA: 57.4→14.1%, ST: 17.7→0.6%) were significantly changed after the correction. The results suggest that overestimation of the DA release caused by the head motion during PET scan and misalignment of MRI-based VOl and the striatum in PET image was remedied by the data-driven head motion correction

  10. Effects of head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine release in striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Neuroreceptor PET studies require 60-90 minutes to complete. Head motion of the subject increases the uncertainty in measured activity. In this study, the effects of the data-driven head motion correction on the evaluation of endogenous dopamine (DA) release in the striatum were investigated. [{sup 11}C]raclopride PET scans on 4 normal volunteers acquired with bolus plus constant infusion protocol were retrospectively analyzed. Following the 50 min resting period, the participants played a video game with a monetary reward for 40 min. Dynamic frames acquired during the equilibrium condition (rest: 30-50 min, game: 70-90 min) were realigned to the first frame at resting condition. Intra-condition registration between the frames during both the rest and game condition were performed, and average image for each condition was created and registered with each other again (inter-condition registration). Resting PET image was then co-registered to own MRI of each participant and transformation parameters were reapplied to the other one. Volumes of interest (VOl) for dorsal putamen (PU) and caudate (CA), ventral striatum (VS), and cerebellum were defined on the MRI. Binding potential (BP) was measured and DA release was calculated as the percent change of BP after the video game. Changes in position and orientation of the striatum during the PET scan were observed before the head motion correction. BP values at resting condition were not changed significantly after the intra-condition registration. However, the BP values during the video game and DA release (PU: 29.2{yields}3.9%, CA: 57.4{yields}14.1%, ST: 17.7{yields}0.6%) were significantly changed after the correction. The results suggest that overestimation of the DA release caused by the head motion during PET scan and misalignment of MRI-based VOl and the striatum in PET image was remedied by the data-driven head motion correction.

  11. Evaluation of release amount of radioactivity from Chernobyl accident and of resulting radiological consequence in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxing

    1987-01-01

    Three kinds of methods are used to evaluate the release amount from Chernoby1 RBMK-1000 reactor accident, i.e. (1) estimation by comparison with Windscale accident; (2) estimation in terms of the stock in the core; and (3) estimation according to the available monitoring data form adjacent countries such as Poland and Finland. The results obtained are as follows: the release of I-131 was 0.1-1.5 EBq, which is approximately 4-50% of the stock in the core; the release amount of Ru-103 was comparable to that of Cs-137, both approximately 5-10% of that of I-131; the volatile nuclides such as Mo-99, Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-137 etc., were in the order of 0.4 EBq; involatile nuclides were 0.2 EBq; noble gases and other fission products 10 EBq; and the total amount released was about 20 EBq, which taken together 8% of the stock in the core. The radioactive cloud cluster passed through over the area of China in the beginning of May. It was estimated that the total amount of I-131 in air over China area was about 1.6 PB q , Cs-137 about 0.3 PB q , Ru-103 about 0.2 PB q ; the total fallout in the area of China was about 3 PB q for I-131, about 0.1 PB q for Cs-137, about 0.3 PB q for Ru-103. The resulting effective dose equavalent commitment to critical group individual was about 60 μSv, collective effective dose equavalent commitment received by the population of China was about 1 x 10 4 man.Sv

  12. Evaluation of the release behavior of the dexamethasone embedded in polycarbonate polyurethane membranes: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kang, Sung Gwon; Lee, Chul Gab; Park, Sang Soo; Lee, Don Haeng; Lee, Gyu Baek; Song, Ho Young

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the release behavior of dexamethasone embedded in a polycarbonate polyurethane membrane. Both water-soluble and water-insoluble dexamethasone were tested, and the release behavior of five water-insoluble dexamethasone films of different thickness (78 to 211 μm) was also evaluated. The amount of dexamethasone used was 10% of the total weight of the polyurethan film mass. Each film was placed in a centrifuge tube containing 25 ml of 0.1-M neutral phosphate buffer, and the tubes were placed in a shaking incubator to quantify the amount of drug released into the buffer, absorption spectroscopy (λ max=242 nm) was employed. In the test involving water-soluble dexamethasone, 60%, of the drug was released during the first two hours of the study. Films containing water-insoluble dexamethasone, on the other hand, released 40%, 60% and 75% of the dexamethasone in one, three and seven days, respectively. Both types of film maintained low-dose drug release for 28 days. When release behavior was compared between water-insoluble films of different thickness, thicker film showed less initial burst and more sustained release. Dexamethasone release behavior varies according to drug solubility and membrane thickness, and may thus be conrolled

  13. Evaluating Steam Generator Tubing Corrosion through Shutdown Nickel and Cobalt Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Chuck; Little, Mike; Krull, Peter; Dennis Hussey; Kenny Epperson

    2012-09-01

    During power operation in PWRs, steam generator tubing corrodes. In PWRs with nickel alloy steam generator tubing this leads to the release of nickel into the coolant. While not structurally significant, this process leads to corrosion product deposition on the fuel surfaces that can threaten fuel integrity, provide a site for boron precipitation, and, through activation and subsequent release, lead to increased out-of-core radiation fields. During shutdown, decreases in temperature and pH and an increase in the oxidation potential lead to dissolution of some corrosion products from the core. This work evaluated the masses of corrosion products released during shutdown as a proxy for steam generator tubing corrosion rates. The masses were evaluated for trends with time (e.g., the number of cycles) and for the influence of design and operating features such as tubing manufacturer, plant design (e.g., three loop versus four loop), and operating chemistry program. This project utilized the EPRI PWR Chemistry Monitoring and Assessment database. Data from over 20 units, many over several cycles, were assessed. The focus was on corrosion product release from Alloy 690TT tubing and all data were from units that had replaced steam generators. Data were analyzed using models developed from corrosion rate test data reported in the literature with a heavy reliance on data from the EDF BOREAL testing. The most striking result of this analysis was a clear division between plants that exhibited corrosion with a falling rate (i.e., following an exponential decay as has been observed, for example, in the BOREAL testing) and those that showed a constant corrosion rate, sustained for many outages. This difference appears to be most closely correlated with the manufacturer of the tubing. Within the two distinct plant groups (decaying corrosion rate and constant corrosion rate), details of the trends were evaluated for correlation with zinc addition history, plant type, and operating

  14. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Di [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ding, Shiming, E-mail: smding@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Qin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zhong, Jicheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2012-11-01

    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q{sub max}) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC{sub 0}s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K{sub p} and Q{sub max} were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  15. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Di; Ding, Shiming; Sun, Qin; Zhong, Jicheng; Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K p ) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q max ) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC 0 s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K p and Q max were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: ► Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. ► Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. ► Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. ► Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. ► Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  16. Comparative evaluation of polymersome versus micelle structures as vehicles for the controlled release of drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alibolandi, Mona [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Fatemeh, E-mail: sadeghif@mums.ac.ir [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Targeted Drug Delivery Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadizadeh, Farzin, E-mail: hadizadehf@mums.ac.ir [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Di-block copolymers composed of two biocompatible polymers, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(d,l-lactide), were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization for the preparation of doxorubicin-loaded self-assembled nanostructures, including polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) and micelles. The capability and stability of the nanostructures prepared for the controlled release of DOX are discussed in this paper. The in vitro drug release at 37 °C was evaluated up to 6 days at pH 7.4 and 5.5 and in the presence of 50 % FBS. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity effect of both formulations were also evaluated in the MCF-7 cell line. The SEM and AFM images confirmed the hollow spherical structure of the polymersomes and the solid round structures of the micelles. The TEM results also revealed the uniformity in size and shape of the drug-loaded micelle and polymersome nanostructures. The DOX-loaded micelles and polymersomes presented efficient anticancer performance, as verified by flow cytometry and MTT assay tests. The most important finding of this study is that the prepared nanopolymersomes presented significant increases in the doxorubicin encapsulation efficiency and the stability of the formulation in comparison with the micelle formulation. In vitro studies revealed that polymersomes may be stable in the blood circulation and meet the requirements for an effective drug delivery system.

  17. Dose evaluation model for radionuclides released from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Iyogi, Takashi; Inaba, Jiro; Chiang, Jing-Hsien; Suwa, Hiroji; Koide, Mitsuo

    2007-01-01

    A dose evaluation model was developed for radionuclides released from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant which is located in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, and now undergoing test operation. The dose evaluation model suitable for medium- and long-term dose assessments for both prolonged and short-term releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere was developed on the PC. The ARAC-2, a particle tracing type dispersion model coupled with 3-D wind field calculation by a mass conservative model, was adopted as the atmospheric dispersion model. The terrestrial transfer model included movement in soil and groundwater as well as an agricultural and livestock farming system. The available site-specific social and environmental characteristics were incorporated in the model. Growing of the crops was also introduced and radionuclides absorbed were calculated from weight increase from the start of deposition to harvest, and transfer factors. Most of the computer code system of the models was completed by 2005, and this paper reports the results of the development. (author)

  18. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of odd frequency microwave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A microwave intruder simulator for testing motion detection sensors is described. This simulator can be used to evaluate a variety of microwave sensors regardless of the value of the center frequency of the signal utilized. Representative curves from the evaluation of one microwave sensor are also presented

  19. Draft evaluation of the frequency for gas sampling for the high burnup confirmatory data project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockman, Christine T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alsaed, Halim A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone M3FT-15SN0802041, “Draft Evaluation of the Frequency for Gas Sampling for the High Burn-up Storage Demonstration Project” under Work Package FT-15SN080204, “ST Field Demonstration Support – SNL”. This report provides a technically based gas sampling frequency strategy for the High Burnup (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project. The evaluation of: 1) the types and magnitudes of gases that could be present in the project cask and, 2) the degradation mechanisms that could change gas compositions culminates in an adaptive gas sampling frequency strategy. This adaptive strategy is compared against the sampling frequency that has been developed based on operational considerations. Gas sampling will provide information on the presence of residual water (and byproducts associated with its reactions and decomposition) and breach of cladding, which could inform the decision of when to open the project cask.

  20. Biocompatibility evaluations and biomedical sensing applications of nitric oxide-releasing/generating polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiduo

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent signaling molecule secreted by healthy vascular endothelial cells (EC) that is capable of inhibiting the activation and adhesion of platelets, preventing inflammation and inducing vasodilation. Polymeric materials that mimic the EC through the continuous release or generation of NO are expected to exhibit enhanced biocompatibility in vivo. In this dissertation research, the biocompatibility of novel NO-releasing/generating materials has been evaluated via both in vitro and in vivo studies. A new in vitro platelet adhesion assay has been designed to quantify platelet adhesion on NO-releasing/generating polymer surfaces via their innate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. Using this assay, it was discovered that continuous NO fluxes of up to 7.05 x10-10 mol cm-2 min-1 emitted from the polymer surfaces could reduce platelet adhesion by almost 80%. Such an in vitro biocompatibility assay can be employed as a preliminary screening method in the development of new NO-releasing/generating materials. In addition, the first in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of NO-generating polymers was conducted in a porcine artery model for intravascular oxygen sensing catheters. The Cu(I)-catalyzed decomposition of endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) generated NO in situ at the polymer/blood interface and offered enhanced biocompatibility to the NO-generating catheters along with more accurate analytical results for intra-arterial measurements of PO2 levels. NO-generating polymers can also be utilized to fabricate electrochemical RSNO sensors based on the amperometric detection of NO generated by the reaction of RSNOs with immobilized catalysts. Unlike conventional methodologies employed to measure labile RSNO, the advantage of the RSNO sensor method is that measurement in whole blood samples is possible and this minimizes sample processing artifacts in RSNO measurements. An electrochemical RSNO sensor with organoselenium crosslinked polyethylenimine (RSe

  1. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ging, James; Tejerina-Anton, Raul; Ramakrishnan, Girish [Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Nielsen, Mark; Murphy, Kyle [University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Gorham, Justin M.; Nguyen, Tinh [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Orlov, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.orlov@stonybrook.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed.

  2. Development of a conceptual framework for evaluation of nanomaterials release from nanocomposites: Environmental and toxicological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ging, James; Tejerina-Anton, Raul; Ramakrishnan, Girish; Nielsen, Mark; Murphy, Kyle; Gorham, Justin M.; Nguyen, Tinh; Orlov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that nanomaterials are considered potentially hazardous in a freely dispersed form, they are often considered safe when encapsulated into a polymer matrix. However, systematic research to confirm the abovementioned paradigm is lacking. Our data indicates that there are possible mechanisms of nanomaterial release from nanocomposites due to exposure to environmental conditions, especially UV radiation. The degradation of the polymer matrix and potential release of nanomaterials depend on the nature of the nanofillers and the polymer matrix, as well as on the nature of environmental exposure, such as the combination of UV, moisture, mechanical stress and other factors. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic study that addresses all these effects. We present here an initial study of the stability of nanocomposites exposed to environmental conditions, where carbon nanotube (CNT) containing polymer composites were evaluated with various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. This work discusses various degradation mechanisms of CNT polymer nanocomposites, including such factors as UV, moisture and mechanical damage. An in vivo ingestion study with Drosophila showed reduced survivorship at each dose tested with free amine-functionalized CNTs, while there was no toxicity when these CNTs were embedded in epoxy. In addition to developing new paradigms in terms of safety of nanocomposites, the outcomes of this research can lead to recommendations on safer design strategies for the next generation of CNT-containing products. - Highlights: • The UV-induced degradation of multiple carbon nanotube-epoxy composites is studied. • The toxicology of these materials is explored with a Drosophila model. • A life cycle analysis of carbon nanotube release from composites is proposed

  3. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF 6 -) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF 6 , Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF 6 released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF 6 -specific models, using field data on releases of UF 6 and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF 6 and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF 6 -specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF 6 reaction with water

  4. Evaluation of catch-and-release regulations on Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; Wagner, Tyler; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission implemented catch-and-release (CR) regulations on headwater stream systems to determine if eliminating angler harvest would result in an increase in the number of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Under the CR regulations, angling was permitted on a year-round basis, no Brook Trout could be harvested at any time, and there were no tackle restrictions. A before-after–control-impact design was used to evaluate the experimental regulations. Brook Trout populations were monitored in 16 treatment (CR regulations) and 7 control streams (statewide regulations) using backpack electrofishing gear periodically for up to 15 years (from 1990 to 2003 or 2004) before the implementation of the CR regulations and over a 7–8-year period (from 2004 or 2005 to 2011) after implementation. We used Poisson mixed models to evaluate whether electrofishing catch per effort (CPE; catch/100 m2) of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout increased in treatment streams as a result of implementing CR regulations. Brook Trout CPE varied among sites and among years, and there was no significant effect (increase or decrease) of CR regulations on the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout. Results of our evaluation suggest that CR regulations were not effective at improving the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams. Low angler use, high voluntary catch and release, and slow growth rates in infertile headwater streams are likely the primary reasons for the lack of response.

  5. Evaluation of the impact and the releases of operating nuclear facilities; Evaluation de l'impact et des rejets des installations nucleaires en fonctionnement normal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The monitoring of nuclear installations releases, the associated impacts evaluation and the radiation monitoring of the environment are of an increase interest since the last ten years. Theses two days, organized by the environment section of the SFRP (French Society of Radiation Protection), aim to discuss the following topics: the development of the methods to improve radioactive elements and toxic substances releases in the environment; the structure of the environment control and the objectives of this control; the association of the local actors to the releases monitoring and to the environment control; the perspectives of evolution in matter of nuclear facilities releases management. (A.L.B.)

  6. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  7. Evaluation of the Components Released by Wine Yeast Strains on Protein Haze Formation in White Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristine Giese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of 23 indigenous yeast strains (22 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a non-Saccharomyces, Torulaspora delbrueckii, isolated from fermentation tanks at wineries in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain, and were performed under winemaking conditions using a synthetic must. Polysaccharide analysis and turbidity assays were conducted so as to observe the capacity of the released mannoproteins against protein haze formation in white wine, and 3 strains (2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii were chosen for further experiments. The action of a commercial b-glucanolytic enzyme preparation (Lallzyme BETA®, and a β-(1→3-glucanase preparation from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were evaluated to release polysaccharides from the different yeast strains’ cell walls. Protection against protein haze formation was strain dependent, and only two strains (Sc2 and Sc4 presented >50% stabilization in comparison to controls. Addition of β-glucanases did not increase the concentrations of polysaccharides in the fermentation musts; however, a significant increase of polymeric mannose (mannoproteins was detected using an enzymatic assay following total acid hydrolysis of the soluble polysaccharides. Enzymatic treatment presented positive effects and decreased protein haze formation in white wine. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i6.869

  8. Evaluation of sustained release polylactate electron donors for removal of hexavalent chromium from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, E.L.; Joyner, D. C.; Faybishenko, B.; Conrad, M. E.; Rios-Velazquez, C.; Mork, B.; Willet, A.; Koenigsberg, S.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M. K.; Hazen, T. C.; Malave, Josue; Martinez, Ramon

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of bioimmobilization of Cr(VI) in groundwater at the Department of Energy Hanford site, we conducted a series of microcosm experiments using a range of commercial electron donors with varying degrees of lactate polymerization (polylactate). These experiments were conducted using Hanford Formation sediments (coarse sand and gravel) immersed in Hanford groundwater, which were amended with Cr(VI) and several types of lactate-based electron donors (Hydrogen Release Compound, HRC; primer-HRC, pHRC; extended release HRC) and the polylactate-cysteine form (Metal Remediation Compound, MRC). The results showed that polylactate compounds stimulated an increase in bacterial biomass and activity to a greater extent than sodium lactate when applied at equivalent carbon concentrations. At the same time, concentrations of headspace hydrogen and methane increased and correlated with changes in the microbial community structure. Enrichment of Pseudomonas spp. occurred with all lactate additions, and enrichment of sulfate-reducing Desulfosporosinus spp. occurred with almost complete sulfate reduction. The results of these experiments demonstrate that amendment with the pHRC and MRC forms result in effective removal of Cr(VI) from solution most likely by both direct (enzymatic) and indirect (microbially generated reductant) mechanisms.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of physical variables on in vitro release of diclofenac pellets using Box-Behnken design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Enayatifard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: A Box-Behnken design was used for evaluation of Eudragit coated diclofenac pellets. The purpose of this work was to optimize diclofenac pellets to improve the physicochemical properties using experimental design. Materials and Methods: Diclofenac was loaded onto the non-pareil beads using conventional coating pan. Film coating of pellets was done at the same pan. The effect of plasticizer level, curing temperature and curing time was determined on the release of diclofenac from pellets coated with polymethacrylates. Results: Increasing the plasticizer in the coating formula led to decrease in drug release and increasing the curing temperature and time resulted in higher drug release. The optimization process generated an optimum of 35% drug release at 3 hr. The level of plasticizer concentration, curing temperature and time were 20% w/w, 55 °C and 24 hr, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that by controllinig the physical variables optimum drug release were obtained.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of physical variables on in vitro release of diclofenac pellets using Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatifard, Reza; Mahjoob, Aiding; Ebrahimi, Pouneh; Ebrahimnejad, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): A Box-Behnken design was used for evaluation of Eudragit coated diclofenac pellets. The purpose of this work was to optimize diclofenac pellets to improve the physicochemical properties using experimental design. Materials and Methods: Diclofenac was loaded onto the non-pareil beads using conventional coating pan. Film coating of pellets was done at the same pan. The effect of plasticizer level, curing temperature and curing time was determined on the release of diclofenac from pellets coated with polymethacrylates. Results: Increasing the plasticizer in the coating formula led to decrease in drug release and increasing the curing temperature and time resulted in higher drug release. The optimization process generated an optimum of 35% drug release at 3 hr. The level of plasticizer concentration, curing temperature and time were 20% w/w, 55 °C and 24 hr, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that by controllinig the physical variables optimum drug release were obtained. PMID:26351563

  11. Evaluation of high frequency ground motion effects on the seismic capacity of NPP equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun

    2003-04-01

    In this study, the uniform hazard spectrum for the example Korean nuclear power plants sites were developed and compared with various response spectra used in past seismic PRA and SMA. It shows that the high frequency ground motion effects should be considered in seismic safety evaluations. The floor response spectra were developed using the direct generation method that can develop the floor response spectra from the input response spectrum directly with only the dynamic properties of structures obtained from the design calculation. Most attachment of the equipments to the structure has a minimum distortion capacity. This makes it possible to drop the effective frequency of equipment to low frequency before it is severely damaged. The results of this study show that the high frequency ground motion effects on the floor response spectra were significant, and the effects should be considered in the SPRA and SMA for the equipments installed in a building. The high frequency ground motion effects are more important for the seismic capacity evaluation of functional failure modes. The high frequency ground motion effects on the structural failure of equipments that attached to the floor by welding can be reduced by the distortion capacity of welded anchorage

  12. Evaluation methodology for flood damage reduction by preliminary water release from hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, T.; Kawasaki, A.; Koike, T.

    2017-12-01

    IPCC AR5 (2014) reported that rainfall in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has been increasing since 1901, and it is claimed that warmer climate will increase the risk of floods. In contrast, world water demand is forecasted to exceed a sustainable supply by 40 percent by 2030. In order to avoid this expectable water shortage, securing new water resources has become an utmost challenge. However, flood risk prevention and the secure of water resources are contradictory. To solve this problem, we can use existing hydroelectric dams not only as energy resources but also for flood control. However, in case of Japan, hydroelectric dams take no responsibility for it, and benefits have not been discussed accrued by controlling flood by hydroelectric dams, namely by using preliminary water release from them. Therefore, our paper proposes methodology for assessing those benefits. This methodology has three stages as shown in Fig. 1. First, RRI model is used to model flood events, taking account of the probability of rainfall. Second, flood damage is calculated using assets in inundation areas multiplied by the inundation depths generated by that RRI model. Third, the losses stemming from preliminary water release are calculated, and adding them to flood damage, overall losses are calculated. We can evaluate the benefits by changing the volume of preliminary release. As a result, shown in Fig. 2, the use of hydroelectric dams to control flooding creates 20 billion Yen benefits, in the probability of three-day-ahead rainfall prediction of the assumed maximum rainfall in Oi River, in the Shizuoka Pref. of Japan. As the third priority in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, `investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience - public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures' was adopted. The accuracy of rainfall prediction is the key factor in maximizing the benefits

  13. Some consequences of including low frequencies in the evaluation of floor impact sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    A method for including frequencies down to 50 Hz in the evaluation of floor impact sound has become available with the new version of ISO 717-2. In addition to the single number quantity for rating the impact sound insulation, a new spectrum adaptation term has been defined. The method has been...... studied by the Acoustics Group of the Nordic Committee on Building Regulations. The new method has been applied to a large number of recent measuring results from the Nordic countries. It was found that the spectrum adaptation term for the extended frequency range depends on the type of floor construction...... frequency range in future building regulations or in a system for sound classification of dwellings have been considered. However, there are several problems to be solved, among which are a lack of available data for floor constructions at low frequencies, an increased measurement uncertainty, and the fact...

  14. Evaluation of bioremediation strategies of a controlled oil release in a wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Marc A.; Bonner, James S.; Page, Cheryl A.; Autenrieth, Robin L.

    2004-01-01

    A controlled petroleum release was conducted to evaluate bioremediation in a wetland near Houston, Texas. The 140-day study was conducted using a randomized, complete block design to test three treatments with six replicates per treatment. The three treatment strategies were inorganic nutrients, inorganic nutrients with an alternative electron acceptor, and a no-action oiled control. Samples were analyzed for petroleum chemistry and inorganic nutrients. These results are discussed in the context of our related research involving toxicology and microbiology at the site during the experiment. To evaluate biodegradation, the targeted compounds were normalized to the conservative compound C 30 17α, 21β-[H]hopane, thus reducing the effects of spatial heterogeneity and physical transport. The two biostimulation treatments demonstrated statistically-higher rates of biodegradation than the oiled no-action control. For the majority of the experiment, target nutrient levels were maintained. Further research may be warranted to optimize these bioremediation strategies as well as evaluating additional treatment strategies for wetlands and other shoreline systems

  15. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1983-1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoon, Ronald L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1987-06-01

    This study was initiated in July, 1983 to develop a water management plan for the release of water purchased from Painted Rocks Reservoir. Releases were designed to provide optimum benefits to the Bitterroot River fishery. Fisheries, habitat, and stream flow information was gathered to evaluate the effectiveness of these supplemental releases in improving trout populations in the Bitterroot River. The study was part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program and was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report presents data collected from 1983 through 1986.

  16. Preparation and In-Vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Diclofenac Sodium Tablets Using HPMC KM 100 and Gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal, Raza Khan, Fazli Nasir, Jamshaid Ali Khan, Lateef Ahmad, Abad Khan, Yaser Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The impact of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose(HPMC K 100M alone and in combination with the guar gum,xanthan gum and gum tragacanth on the release of the diclofenac sodium matrix tablets were evaluated.Materials and Methods: The granules were prepared using wet granulation method and compressed into tablets using different ratio of drug and gum ratio. The physical properties of the tablets were within acceptable pharmacopeial limits.The release profiles of the matrix tablets were evaluated in vitro,using USP dissolution apparatus II (paddle method.Results: The formulations containing HPMC K 100M drug ratio1:1.3 and 1:1.6 and formulations containing HPMC, gum and drug with different ratio also sustained the release of diclofenac sodium for 12 hours. The mechanism of drug release from the matrix tablets was studied using Zero order, First order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s models using regression coefficient method. The stability of the selected formulations was evaluated at 40˚C and 70% RH for 6 months.Conclusions: HPMC K100M alone and in combination with natural gums as the retarding material retarded the release upto 12 hours and showed little deviation from the theoretical release pattern.

  17. Evaluation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. Design: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study...

  18. Effects of hippocampal high-frequency electrical stimulation in memory formation and their association with amino acid tissue content and release in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Meneses, Alfredo; Peña-Ortega, Fernando; Gaona, Andres; Rocha, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal high frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) at 130 Hz has been proposed as a therapeutical strategy to control neurological disorders such as intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study was carried out to determine the effects of hippocampal HFS on the memory process and the probable involvement of amino acids. Using the autoshaping task, we found that animals receiving hippocampal HFS showed augmented short-term, but not long-term memory formation, an effect blocked by bicuculline pretreatment and associated with enhanced tissue levels of amino acids in hippocampus. In addition, microdialysis experiments revealed high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, glycine, taurine, and alanine during the application of hippocampal HFS. In contrast, GABA release augmented during HFS and remained elevated for more than 1 h after the stimulation was ended. HFS had minimal effects on glutamine release. The present results suggest that HFS has an activating effect on specific amino acids in normal hippocampus that may be involved in the enhanced short-term memory formation. These data further provide experimental support for the concept that hippocampus may be a promising target for focal stimulation to treat intractable seizures in humans. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Inc.

  19. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Rexervoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1985-12-01

    evaluate the effects of dewatering in the river: (3) obtain baseline information that would aid in determining the effectiveness of supplemental water releases in improving the fisheries resource. The study was initiated in July 1983.

  20. Evaluation of common variants in 16 genes involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Cormand, Bru; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Hervás, Amaia; Bosch, Rosa; Palomar, Glòria; Nogueira, Mariana; Gómez-Barros, Núria; Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montse; Garcia-Martinez, Iris; Corominas, Roser; Guijarro, Silvina; Bigorra, Aitana; Bayés, Mònica; Casas, Miguel; Ribasés, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inappropriate difficulties to sustain attention, control impulses and modulate activity level. Although ADHD is one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorders, it also persists into adulthood in around 30-50% of the cases. Based on the effect of psychostimulants used in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD, dysfunctions in neuroplasticity mechanisms and synapses have been postulated to be involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. With this background, we evaluated, both in childhood and adulthood ADHD, the role of several genes involved in the control of neurotransmitter release through synaptic vesicle docking, fusion and recycling processes by means of a population-based association study. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms across 16 genes in a clinical sample of 950 ADHD patients (506 adults and 444 children) and 905 controls. Single and multiple-marker analyses identified several significant associations after correcting for multiple testing with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 15%: (i) the SYT2 gene was strongly associated with both adulthood and childhood ADHD (p=0.001, OR=1.49 (1.18-1.89) and p=0.007, OR=1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively) and (ii) STX1A was found associated with ADHD only in adults (p=0.0041; OR=1.28 (1.08-1.51)). These data provide preliminary evidence for the involvement of genes that participate in the control of neurotransmitter release in the genetic predisposition to ADHD through a gene-system association study. Further follow-up studies in larger cohorts and deep-sequencing of the associated genomic regions are required to identify sequence variants directly involved in ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of radionuclide releases from underground waste repositories using the method of status vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.

    1983-01-01

    For safety analyses of underground repositories for radioactive wastes various possible release scenarios have to be defind and anticipated consequences to be calculated and compared. Normally only the main exposure pathways (i.e. the critical pathways) of the radionuclides disposed of in the repository are calculated using deterministic methods and varying the parameters. It is proposed to evaluate all the individual pathways including those differing considerably from the critical pathway by forming weighted averages of their consequences. This offers the possibility of including, without any restriction, in the evaluation of the repository the various possible events and processes that influence the function of barriers for the retention of radionuclides. Various states (scenarios) of a repository in a salt formation, which might occur in the course of time have been used as an example. The consequences related to these states and the probabilities of their occurrence or the scenario weights form the components of 'status vectors'. For low- and intermediate-level wastes the overall consequences obtained from these calculations are negligibly small, for high-level wastes they are about 3 x 10 - 5 Sv a - 1 /GW a. These values are reached if at least a part of the barriers is effective. Variations of the weighting factors for the states and their influence on the overall consequences are given. (author)

  2. Evaluation of external exposure during building and operation of concrete bridges constructions that reuse the conditionally released steels - 59120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the project presented at ICEM'10 [1] related to the topics of reusing the conditionally released materials from decommissioning. The subject of the reuse of conditionally released materials in this case is modeling of bridge constructions which reuse the conditionally released steel in the form of reinforcement bars for the concrete bridges. A general approach for the project was presented at ICEM'10. The activities of the project continue in evaluating the individual effective doses from the external exposure based on reused conditionally released steels separately for public and for professionals (the internal exposure will be evaluated in next stages of the project). Evaluated scenarios are related to critical groups of professionals constructing the bridges (worker's scenarios). The computer code VISIPLAN 3D ALARA 4.0 planning tool was used for the calculation of the individual effective dose for professionals. Various limits of the annual individual effective dose are used for the evaluation of calculation results. The aim of the ongoing modeling is to develop a set of data of maximal radioactivity concentration for individual radionuclides in the conditionally released steel used in the bridges model constructions in order not to exceed the limits for the individual effective dose. (authors)

  3. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of sustained-release floating tablets of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sayed M; Ahmed Ali, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Ma; Hassan, Omiya A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the bioavailability of itopride (ITO) and sustain its action by formulating as a floating dosage form. Sustained-release floating tablets of ITO hydrochloride (HCl) were prepared by direct compression using different hydrocolloid polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethylcellulose and/or methacrylic acid polymers Eudragit RSPM and Carbopol 934P. The floating property was achieved using an effervescent mixture of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid (1:1 mol/mol). Hardness, friability, content uniformity, and dissolution rate of the prepared floating tablets were evaluated. The formulation F 10 composed of 28.5% Eudragit RSPM, 3% NaHCO 3 , and 7% citric acid provided sustained drug release. In vitro results showed sustained release of F 10 where the drug release percentage was 96.51%±1.75% after 24 hours ( P =0.031). The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the area under the curve (AUC 0-∞ ) of the prepared sustained-release floating tablets at infinity achieved 93.69 µg·h/mL compared to 49.89 µg·h/mL for the reference formulation (Ganaton ® ) and the relative bioavailability of the sustained-release formulation F 10 increased to 187.80% ( P =0.022). The prepared floating tablets of ITO HCl (F 10 ) could be a promising drug delivery system with sustained-release action and enhanced drug bioavailability.

  4. Evaluation of gum mastic (Pistacia lentiscus as a microencapsulating and matrix forming material for sustained drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh M. Morkhade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a natural gum mastic was evaluated as a microencapsulating and matrix-forming material for sustained drug release. Mastic was characterized for its physicochemical properties. Microparticles were prepared by oil-in-oil solvent evaporation method. Matrix tablets were prepared by wet and melt granulation techniques. Diclofenac sodium (DFS and diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ were used as model drugs. Mastic produced discrete and spherical microspheres with DLTZ and microcapsules with DFS. Particle size and drug loading of microparticles was in the range of 22–62 µm and 50–87%, respectively. Increase in mastic: drug ratio increased microparticle size, improved drug loading and decreased the drug release rate. Microparticles with gum: drug ratio of 2:1 could sustain DLTZ release up to 12 h and released 57% DFS in 12 h. Mastic produced tablets with acceptable pharmacotechnical properties. A 30% w/w of mastic in tablet could sustain DLTZ release for 5 h from wet granulation, and DFS release for 8 h and 11 h from wet and melt granulation, respectively. Results revealed that a natural gum mastic can be used successfully to formulate matrix tablets and microparticles for sustained drug release.

  5. Comparison of computer codes for evaluation of double-supply-frequency pulsations in linear induction pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, Igor R.; Obukhov, Denis M.; Ogorodnikov, Anatoly P.; Araseki, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes and compares three computer codes that are able to estimate the double-supply-frequency (DSF) pulsations in annular linear induction pumps (ALIPs). The DSF pulsations are the result of interaction of the magnetic field and induced in liquid metal currents both changing with supply-frequency. They may be of some concern for electromagnetic pumps (EMP) exploitation and need to be evaluated at their design. The results of computer simulation are compared with experimental ones for annular linear induction pump ALIP-1

  6. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saeedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Ocimum basilicum L. (family Lamiaceae was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Basil mucilage was extracted and several tablets were formulated. The effect of mucilage on drug release rate was evaluated in comparison with tablets containing two kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M as standard polymer. The release data were fitted to several models for kinetic evaluation. The results showed that hardness decreased and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased. The rate of release of propranolol HCl from O. basilicm mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug: mucilage ratio. Drug release was slower from the HPMC K4M and HPMCK100M containing tablets compared to the mucilage containing matrices than the drug release from matrices containing O. basilicum seed mucilage in similar ratios.  Formulations containing O. basilicm mucilage were found to exhibit suitable release pattern. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in tablets containing O. basilicm mucilage the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets.

  7. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive controlled release matrix tablets of flurbiprofen using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikrima Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to formulate mucoadhesive controlled release matrix tablets of flurbiprofen and to optimize its drug release profile and bioadhesion using response surface methodology. Tablets were prepared via a direct compression technique and evaluated for in vitro dissolution parameters and bioadhesive strength. A central composite design for two factors at five levels each was employed for the study. Carbopol 934 and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were taken as independent variables. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy studies were performed to observe the stability of the drug during direct compression and to check for a drug-polymer interaction. Various kinetic models were applied to evaluate drug release from the polymers. Contour and response surface plots were also drawn to portray the relationship between the independent and response variables. Mucoadhesive tablets of flurbiprofen exhibited non-Fickian drug release kinetics extending towards zero-order, with some formulations (F3, F8, and F9 reaching super case II transport, as the value of the release rate exponent (n varied between 0.584 and 1.104. Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables, were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05. The study also helped to find the drug's optimum formulation with excellent bioadhesive strength. Suitable combinations of two polymers provided adequate release profile, while carbopol 934 produced more bioadhesion.

  8. Evaluation of three atmospheric dispersion models using tracer release experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoo, V.J.; Oza, R.B.; Pandit, G.G.; Sadasivan, S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of three atmospheric dispersion models viz: (1) Gaussian Plume Model (GPM), (2) Equi-Distance PUFF Model (EDPUFFM) and (3) Particle Trajectory Model (PTM) is evaluated using field data collected from a tracer (SF 6 ) release experiment. The experiment was conducted within the campus of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), located at Trombay, Mumbai, India. The three models used are currently in operation at the BARC. The first one is a standard, well-documented empirical model while the other two models have been developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The PTM is a numerical model while the EDPUFFM is a hybrid model combining both the numerical and analytical techniques. The procedure for evaluation is as per the recommendations of 1980 AMS (American Meteorological Society) workshop on atmospheric dispersion models performance evaluation. In addition, linear regression analysis has also been carried out. The regression analysis reveals that on an average, the EDPUFFM and the GPM predictions are higher by a factor of about 1.5 while the PTM predictions are lower by a factor of about 4. Comparison of various performance measures reveals that the performance of the EDPUFFM is marginally better than that of the GPM while the PTM performance is comparatively poor. The uncertainty factors obtained in this study, especially for higher concentration range ( > 100 ppt) are similar to those obtained in other validation study carried out elsewhere to validate the GPM predictions. However, for lower concentration range and for the conditions after the source is switched off, all the three models perform poorly in predicting the concentration. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Management of Water Release for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1984-11-01

    Baseline fisheries and habitat data were gathered during 1983 and 1984 to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental water releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir in improving the fisheries resource in the Bitterroot River. Discharge relationships among main stem gaging stations varied annually and seasonally. Flow relationships in the river were dependent upon rainfall events and the timing and duration of the irrigation season. Daily discharge monitored during the summers of 1983 and 1984 was greater than median values derived at the U.S.G.S. station near Darby. Supplemental water released from Painted Rocks Reservoir totaled 14,476 acre feet in 1983 and 13,958 acre feet in 1984. Approximately 63% of a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release of supplemental water conducted during April, 1984 was lost to irrigation withdrawals and natural phenomena before passing Bell Crossing. A similar loss occurred during a 5.66 m{sup 3}/sec test release conducted in August, 1984. Daily maximum temperature monitored during 1984 in the Bitterroot River averaged 11.0, 12.5, 13.9 and 13.6 C at the Darby, Hamilton, Bell and McClay stations, respectively. Chemical parameters measured in the Bitterroot River were favorable to aquatic life. Population estimates conducted in the Fall, 1983 indicated densities of I+ and older rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were significantly greater in a control section than in a dewatered section (p < 0.20). Numbers of I+ and older brown trout (Salmo trutta) were not significantly different between the control and dewatered sections (p > 0.20). Population and biomass estimates for trout in the control section were 631/km and 154.4 kg/km. In the dewatered section, population and biomass estimates for trout were 253/km and 122.8 kg/km. The growth increments of back-calculated length for rainbow trout averaged 75.6 mm in the control section and 66.9mm in the dewatered section. The growth increments of back-calculated length for brown trout averaged 79.5 mm in the

  10. High frequency fatigue test of IN 718 alloy – microstructure and fractography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INCONEL alloy 718 is a high-strength, corrosion-resistant nickel chromium material used at -253 °C to 705 °C for production of heat resistant parts of aero jet engine mostly. The fatigue test provided on this kind materials were done via low frequency loading up to this time. Nowadays, needs of results at higher volume of loading cycles leads to high frequency loading with aim to shorten testing time. Fatigue test of experimental material was carried out at frequency 20 kHz with stress ration R = - 1 (push – pull at room temperature. It was found that this superalloy can still fracture after exceeding 108 cycles. Besides fatigue test were microstructural characterisation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM fractography evaluation done.

  11. ICT based Performance Evaluation of Primary Frequency Control Support from Renewable Power Plants in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Altin, Müfit; Mikkelsen, Lars Møller

    2018-01-01

    frequency control support from ReGen plants will highly depend on the underlying communication infrastructure that allows an exchange of information between different ReGen plants and the control centers. This paper, therefore, focuses on the impact of communication and the related aspects to provide online...... plants towards ReGen plants, such as wind and photovoltaic power plants. Frequency control support from the Wind Power Plants (WPPs) is one of the crucial ancillary services in order to preserve operational stability in case of grid disturbances. Among other requirements, the ability to provide fast...... wind speeds at a particular wind-power penetration level and communication scenarios are considered to evaluate the performance of power system frequency response. The article provides the Transmission System Operator (TSO) and other communication engineers insights into the importance and various...

  12. The assessment and evaluation of low-frequency noise near the region of infrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Ziaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present recent knowledge about the assessment and evaluation of low-frequency sounds (noise and infrasound, close to the threshold of hearing, and identify their potential effect on human health and annoyance. Low-frequency noise generated by air flowing over a moving car with an open window was chosen as a typical scenario which can be subjectively assessed by people traveling by automobile. The principle of noise generated within the interior of the car and its effects on the comfort of the driver and passengers are analyzed at different velocities. An open window of a car at high velocity behaves as a source of specifically strong tonal low-frequency noise which is generally perceived as annoying. The interior noise generated by an open window of a passenger car was measured under different conditions: Driving on a highway and driving on a typical roadway. First, an octave-band analysis was used to assess the noise level and its impact on the driver′s comfort. Second, a fast Fourier transform (FFT analysis and one-third octave-band analysis were used for the detection of tonal low-frequency noise. Comparison between two different car makers was also done. Finally, the paper suggests some possibilities for scientifically assessing and evaluating low-frequency sounds in general, and some recommendations are introduced for scientific discussion, since sounds with strong low-frequency content (but not only strong engender greater annoyance than is predicted by an A-weighted sound pressure level.

  13. Evaluating vertical concentration profile of carbon source released from slow-releasing carbon source tablets and in situ biological nitrate denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeum, Y.; HAN, K.; Yoon, J.; Lee, J. H.; Song, K.; Kang, J. H.; Park, C. W.; Kwon, S.; Kim, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Slow-releasing carbon source tablets were manufactured during the design of a small-scale in situ biological denitrification system to reduce high-strength nitrate (> 30 mg N/L) from a point source such as livestock complexes. Two types of slow-releasing tablets, precipitating tablet (PT, apparent density of 2.0 g/mL) and floating tablet (FT), were prepared to achieve a vertically even distribution of carbon source (CS) in a well and an aquifer. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used to control the release rate, and microcrystalline cellulose pH 101 (MCC 101) was added as a binder. The #8 sand was used as a precipitation agent for the PTs, and the floating agents for the FTs were calcium carbonate and citric acid. FTs floated within 30 min. and remained in water because of the buoyance from carbon dioxide, which formed during the acid-base reaction between citric acid and calcium carbonate. The longevities of PTs with 300 mg of HPMC and FTs with 400 mg of HPMC were 25.4 days and 37.3 days, respectively. We assessed vertical CS profile in a continuous flowing physical aquifer model (release test, RT) and its efficiency on biological nitrate denitrification (denitrification test, DT). During the RT, PTs, FTs and a tracer (as 1 mg rhodamine B/L) were initially injected into a well of physical aquifer model (PAM). Concentrations of CS and the tracer were monitored along the streamline in the PAM to evaluate vertical profile of CS. During the DT, the same experiment was performed as RT, except continuous injection of solution containing 30 mg N/L into the PAM to evaluate biological denitrification activity. As a result of RT, temporal profiles of CS were similar at 3 different depths of monitoring wells. These results suggest that simultaneous addition of PT and FT be suitable for achieving a vertically even distribution of the CS in the injection well and an aquifer. In DT, similar profile of CS was detected in the injection well, and nitrate was biologically

  14. Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ashby, E.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

  15. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  16. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  17. ICT Based Performance Evaluation of Primary Frequency Control Support from Renewable Power Plants in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Shahid

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased penetration of Renewable Energy Generation (ReGen plants in future power systems poses several challenges to the stability of the entire system. In future green energy rich power systems, the responsibility for providing ancillary services will be shifted from conventional power plants towards ReGen plants, such as wind and photovoltaic power plants. Frequency control support from the Wind Power Plants (WPPs is one of the crucial ancillary services in order to preserve operational stability in case of grid disturbances. Among other requirements, the ability to provide fast frequency control support from ReGen plants will highly depend on the underlying communication infrastructure that allows an exchange of information between different ReGen plants and the control centers. This paper, therefore, focuses on the evaluation of the impact of communication and the related aspects to provide online frequency control support from ReGen (with special focus on WPP. The performance evaluation is based on an aggregated WPP model that is integrated into a generic power system model. This generic power system model is specifically designed to assess the ancillary services in a relatively simple yet relevant environment. Several case studies with different wind speeds at a particular wind-power penetration level and communication scenarios are considered to evaluate the performance of power system frequency response. The article provides the Transmission System Operator (TSO and other communication engineers insights into the importance and various aspects of communication infrastructure for general service coordination between WPPs and specifically primary frequency control coordination from WPPs in future power systems.

  18. Development and evaluation of a biocide release system for prolonged antifungal activity in finishing materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eversdijk, J.; Erich, S.J.F.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Adan, O.C.G.; Bolle, de M.; Meyer, de K.; Bylemans, D.; Bekker, M.; Cate, ten A.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of modified nano-clay particles as a controlled release system for biocides from building materials. Different (model) biocides were incorporated in a biocide/nano-clay composite and subsequently the release of the biocides was monitored under different environmental

  19. The impact of new partial AUC parameters for evaluating the bioequivalence of prolonged-release formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily, Michaël; Dussault, Catherine; Massicotte, Julie; Guibord, Pascal; Lefebvre, Marc

    2015-01-23

    To demonstrate bioequivalence (BE) between two prolonged-release (PR) drug formulations, single dose studies under fasting and fed state as well as at least one steady-state study are currently required by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Recently, however, there have been debates regarding the relevance of steady-state studies. New requirements in single-dose investigations have also been suggested by the EMA to address the absence of a parameter that can adequately assess the equivalence of the shape of the curves. In the draft guideline issued in 2013, new partial area under the curve (pAUC) pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were introduced to that effect. In light of these potential changes, there is a need of supportive clinical evidence to evaluate the impact of pAUCs on the evaluation of BE between PR formulations. In this retrospective analysis, it was investigated whether the newly defined parameters were associated with an increase in discriminatory ability or a change in variability compared to the conventional PK parameters. Among the single dose studies that met the requirements already in place, 20% were found unable to meet the EMA's new requirements in regards to the pAUC PK parameters. When pairing fasting and fed studies for a same formulation, the failure rate increased to 40%. In some cases, due to the high variability of these parameters, an increase of the sample size would be required to prove BE. In other cases however, the pAUC parameters demonstrated a robust ability to detect differences between the shapes of the curves of PR formulations. The present analysis should help to better understand the impact of the upcoming changes in European regulations on PR formulations and in the design of future BE studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated

  1. Design of environment monitoring system to evaluate radionuclide release from subsystem on PWR nuclear power accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Kuntjoro; Sugiyanto; Pande Made Udiyani; Jupiter Sitorus Pane

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plan (NPP) as a renewable energy source is selected as an alternative, because it has many advantages that is environmentally friendly, fuel supply which is independent of the season, and the price that can compete with other power plants. However, the existence of some public skepticism about nuclear radiation safety, the government must be convinced about the operation of nuclear power plants are safe and secure. Research on the design of environment monitoring system for evaluation of radionuclide release from the reactor subsystems and the environment due to accidents at power reactors has been done. The study was conducted by calculating the distribution of radionuclide release into the reactor subsystem and the environment and also to build the environment radiation monitoring system. Environmental monitoring system consists of a radiation counter, early warning systems, meteorological measurement systems, GPS systems and GIS. Radiation monitoring system used to record the data of radiation, meteorological measurement system used to record data of wind and speed direction, while the GPS system is used to determine position of data measurements. The data is then transmitted to a data acquisition system and then to be transmitted to the control center. Collection and transmission of data is done via SMS formatting using a modem device that is placed in the control center. The control center receives measurement data from various places. In this case the control center has a function as an SMS Gateway. This system can visualize for different measurement locations. Furthermore, radiation data and position data to be integrated with digital maps. System integration is then visualized in a personal computer. To position of measurements directly visualized on the map and also look for the data displayed on a monitor as a red or green circle colour. That colour indicated as a safe limit of radiation monitor. When the cycle colour is red, the system will

  2. Efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in postoperative evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kapuścińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and a frequent cause of sick leave because of work-related hand overload. The main treatment is operation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound in the postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy. Material and methods: Sixty-two patients (50 women and 12 men aged 28–70, mean age 55.2 underwent surgical treatment of CTS. Ultrasound examinations of the wrist in all carpal tunnel sufferers were performed 3 months after the procedure with the use of a high frequency broadband linear array transducer (6–18 MHz, using 18 MHz band of MyLab 70/Esaote. On the basis of the collected data, the author has performed multiple analyses to confirm the usefulness of ultrasound imaging for postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy. Results: Among all 62 patients, 3 months after surgical median nerve decompression: in 40 patients, CTS symptoms subsided completely, and sonographic evaluation did not show median nerve entrapment signs; in 9 patients, CTS symptoms persisted or exacerbated, and ultrasound proved nerve compression revealing preserved flexor retinaculum fibers; in 13 patients, scar tissue symptoms occurred, and in 5 of them CTS did not subside completely (although ultrasound showed no signs of compression. Conclusions: Ultrasound imaging with the use of a high frequency transducer is a valuable diagnostic tool for postoperative assessment of CTS treatment efficacy.

  3. Role of Histamine Release Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions to Clavulanic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, F.; Ariza, A.; Mayorga, C.

    2015-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to clavulanic acid (CLV) seem to be on the increase. Diagnosis is mainly based on skin testing and the drug provocation test (DPT), procedures that are not risk free. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the histamine release test (HRT) could help eva...

  4. Formulation and In vitro/In vivo Evaluation of Sustained Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    applied to study the effect of polymers used on drug release from the DHL. The tablets were ... A fair correlation between the dissolution profile and bioavailability for ... The results also indicate that the approach used could lead to a successful.

  5. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of tolmetin sodium conventional and sustained-release suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    B., Baloǧlu; O., Kirkaǧaçhoǧlu

    2002-01-01

    Conventional suppositories of tolmetin sodium were prepared by using two different types of Witepsol as an oily base and two different ratios of polyethylene glycol 400: polyethylene glycol 4000 as an water-soluble base. In addition, sustained- release suppositories were prepared by adding Eudragit L-100 ta the suppositories. The effects of the suppository base and the ratios of the polyethylene glycol 400: polyethylene glycols 4000 on the in vitro release characteristics were investigated. T...

  7. Evaluating Weathering of Food Packaging Polyethylene-Nano-clay Composites: Release of Nanoparticles and their Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changseok; Zhao, Amy; Varughese, Eunice; Sahle-Demessie, E

    2018-01-01

    Nano-fillers are increasingly incorporated into polymeric materials to improve the mechanical, barrier or other matrix properties of nanocomposites used for consumer and industrial applications. However, over the life cycle, these nanocomposites could degrade due to exposure to environmental conditions, resulting in the release of embedded nanomaterials from the polymer matrix into the environment. This paper presents a rigorous study on the degradation and the release of nanomaterials from food packaging composites. Films of nano-clay-loaded low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composite for food packaging applications were prepared with the spherilene technology and exposed to accelerated weathering of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or low concentration of ozone at 40 °C. The changes in the structural, surface morphology, chemical and physical properties of the films during accelerated weathering were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative changes in properties of pristine and aged materials and the release of nano-clay proceeded slowly until 130 hr irradiation and then accelerated afterward resulting complete degradation. Although nano-clay increased the stability of LDPE and improved thermal and barrier properties, they accelerated the UV oxidation of LDPE. With increasing exposure to UV, the surface roughness, chemiluminescence index, and carbonyl index of the samples increased while decreasing the intensity of the wide-angle X-ray diffraction pattern. Nano-clay particles with sizes ranging from 2-8 nm were released from UV and ozone weathered composite. The concentrations of released nanoparticles increased with an increase in aging time. Various toxicity tests, including reactive oxygen species generation and cell activity/viability were also performed on the released nano-clay and clay polymer. The released nano-clays basically did not show toxicity. Our combined results demonstrated the degradation properties of nano-clay particle-embedded LDPE composites

  8. Enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles by coaxial electrospray: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou; Xu, Yingqian

    2014-02-01

    Enteric-coated formulations can delay the release of drugs until they have passed through the stomach. However, high concentration of drugs caused by rapidly released in the small intestine leads to the intestinal damage, and frequent administration would increase the probability of missing medication and reduce the patient compliance. To solve the above-mentioned problems, aspirin-loaded enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles with core-shell structure were prepared via one-step method using coaxial electrospray in this study. Eudragit L100-55 as pH-sensitive polymer and Eudragit RS as sustained-release polymer were used for the outer coating and inner core of the nanoparticles, respectively. The maximum loading capacity of nanoparticles was 23.66 % by changing the flow rate ratio of outer/inner solutions, and the entrapment efficiency was nearly 100 %. Nanoparticles with core-shell structure were observed via fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope. And pH-sensitive and sustained drug release profiles were observed in the media with different pH values (1.2 and 6.8). In addition, mild cytotoxicity in vitro was detected, and the nanoparticles could be taken up by Caco-2 cells within 1.0 h in cellular uptake study. These results indicate that prepared enteric-coated sustained-release nanoparticles would be a more safety and effective carrier for oral drug delivery.

  9. Piper betle LEAVES EXTRACT PATCH: EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, RELEASE PROFILE OF EUGENOL, AND LOCAL TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufrod Mufrod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Piper betle leaf in extract form is more effective than crude drug. Eugenol is a component in the extract that has antibacterial activity but irritate. Patch of piper betle leaf extract was used on the mucosa to make oral cavity hygiene. Antibacterial activity was influenced by the release of eugenol from the patch. Release enhancer substances (RES such as glycerin, propylen glicol and tween 80 were added in patch formulation to increase the release of active substances. The aim of the research was to investigate the physicochemical properties, eugenol release profiles, and local tolerance test of the patch. Extract of piper betle leaf was made using infundation method. Patch was made according to the variation concentration of extract (1, 2 and 4% and RES (glycerine, propylen glycol and tween 80 using chitosan as vehicle. Patch produced solvent casting method. Patch obtained was tested for swelling index, folding endurance, surface pH, antibacterial activity, release of eugenol, and local tolerance. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the addition of RES did not affect the surface pH but increase the water absorption with in inconsistent way except patch with tween 80. The flexibility (folding endurance value increased, and the highest amount of eugenol released was achieved by patch using propylen glicol. Patch with tween 80 and glycerin for all extract concentration and patch with 1% extract concentration using propylen glycol showed medium sensation (local tolerance, and patch with 2 and 4% extract using propylen glycol showed severe sensation.

  10. Evaluation of the Thermosensitive Release Properties of Microspheres Containing an Agrochemical Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Takatoshi; Ohtsubo, Toshiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a deeper understanding of the key physicochemical parameters involved in the release profiles of microsphere-encapsulated agrochemicals at different temperatures. Microspheres consisting of different polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared using our previously reported solventless microencapsulation technique. Notably, these microspheres exhibited considerable differences in their thermodynamic characteristics, including their glass transition temperature (T g ), extrapolated onset temperature (T o ) and extrapolated end temperature (T e ). At test temperatures below the T o of the PU, only 5-10% of the agrochemical was rapidly released from the microspheres within 1 d, and none was released thereafter. However, at test temperatures above the T o of the PU, the rate of agrochemical release gradually increased with increasing temperatures, and the rate of release from the microspheres was dependent on the composition of the PU. Taken together, these results show that the release profiles of the microspheres were dependent on their thermodynamic characteristics and changes in their PU composition.

  11. Evaluating protein incorporation and release in electrospun composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Tonye; Matos, Jeffrey; Collins, George; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun polymer/ceramic composites have gained interest for use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, we investigated methods to incorporate Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) or PCL prepared with polyethylene oxide (PEO), where both contained varying levels (up to 30 wt %) of ceramic composed of biphasic calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Using a model protein, lysozyme, we compared two methods of protein incorporation, adsorption and emulsion electrospinning. Adsorption of lysozyme on scaffolds with ceramic resulted in minimal release of lysozyme over time. Using emulsion electrospinning, lysozyme released from scaffolds containing a high concentration of ceramic where the majority of the release occurred at later time points. We investigated the effect of reducing the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the ceramic on protein release with the addition of the cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In vitro release studies demonstrated that electrospun scaffolds prepared with CTAB released more lysozyme or PDGF-BB compared with scaffolds without the cationic surfactant. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on composite scaffolds containing PDGF-BB incorporated through emulsion electrospinning expressed higher levels of osteogenic markers compared to scaffolds without PDGF-BB, indicating that the bioactivity of the growth factor was maintained. This study revealed methods for incorporating growth factors in polymer/ceramic scaffolds to promote osteoinduction and thereby facilitate bone regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Using random event simulation to evaluate the effectiveness of indoor sheltering during a sour gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of sour gas releases to the atmosphere, there is a strong bias toward evacuation rather than sheltering-in-place. This paper described the critical factors in decision-making for shelter-in-place versus evacuation. These include: delay time expected before release begins; size of potential release, explosion or fire; expected duration; direction to safety for evacuation; the air tightness of the building; and, the number of people in the emergency response zone. A shelter-in-place decision chart developed by the Canadian Association of Fire Chiefs was presented. It shows the usual bias toward evacuation as the default position. It also shows the greatest drawbacks of sheltering-in-place. The main factor in maintaining the effectiveness of the building shelter is the rate of air infiltration into the building. Other issues to consider include: reactive versus passive chemicals in the release; light versus heavy gas releases; building type (houses, high-rise apartments, office buildings, or warehouses); tightness of building construction; whether to turn the house heating and air conditioning on or off during shelter; daytime versus nighttime conditions; and, cost factors. Equations for calculating indoor and outdoor toxic exposure to decide on shelter versus evacuation were also presented. It was concluded that the absence of peak concentrations dramatically reduce the risk of fatality to people sheltering indoors. Keeping people indoors is the best way to assure their safety for the first hour following a toxic release. 8 refs., 6 figs

  13. Planck intermediate results. VII. Statistical properties of infrared and radio extragalactic sources from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue at frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurinsky, N.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschènes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2013-02-01

    We make use of the Planck all-sky survey to derive number counts and spectral indices of extragalactic sources - infrared and radio sources - from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) at 100 to 857 GHz (3 mm to 350 μm). Three zones (deep, medium and shallow) of approximately homogeneous coverage are used to permit a clean and controlled correction for incompleteness, which was explicitly not done for the ERCSC, as it was aimed at providing lists of sources to be followed up. Our sample, prior to the 80% completeness cut, contains between 217 sources at 100 GHz and 1058 sources at 857 GHz over about 12 800 to 16 550 deg2 (31 to 40% of the sky). After the 80% completeness cut, between 122 and 452 and sources remain, with flux densities above 0.3 and 1.9 Jy at 100 and 857 GHz. The sample so defined can be used for statistical analysis. Using the multi-frequency coverage of the Planck High Frequency Instrument, all the sources have been classified as either dust-dominated (infrared galaxies) or synchrotron-dominated (radio galaxies) on the basis of their spectral energy distributions (SED). Our sample is thus complete, flux-limited and color-selected to differentiate between the two populations. We find an approximately equal number of synchrotron and dusty sources between 217 and 353 GHz; at 353 GHz or higher (or 217 GHz and lower) frequencies, the number is dominated by dusty (synchrotron) sources, as expected. For most of the sources, the spectral indices are also derived. We provide for the first time counts of bright sources from 353 to 857 GHz and the contributions from dusty and synchrotron sources at all HFI frequencies in the key spectral range where these spectra are crossing. The observed counts are in the Euclidean regime. The number counts are compared to previously published data (from earlier Planck results, Herschel, BLAST, SCUBA, LABOCA, SPT, and ACT) and models taking into account both radio or infrared galaxies, and covering a

  14. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Development of model evaluation criteria. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the usefulness and effectiveness of currently existing models that simulate the release of uranium hexafluoride from UF 6 -handling facilities, subsequent reactions of UF 6 with atmospheric moisture, and the dispersion of UF 6 and reaction products in the atmosphere. The study evaluates screening-level and detailed public-domain models that were specifically developed for UF 6 and models that were originally developed for the treatment of dense gases but are applicable to UF 6 release, reaction, and dispersion. The model evaluation process is divided into three specific tasks: model-component evaluation; applicability evaluation; and user interface and quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) evaluation. Within the model-component evaluation process, a model's treatment of source term, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion are considered and model predictions are compared with actual observations. Within the applicability evaluation process, a model's applicability to Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis, and to site-specific considerations are assessed. Finally, within the user interface and QA/QC evaluation process, a model's user-friendliness, presence and clarity of documentation, ease of use, etc. are assessed, along with its handling of QA/QC. This document presents the complete methodology used in the evaluation process

  15. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of carboxymethylated κ-carrageenan aluminum hydrogel microbeads for prolonged release of mefenamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beron, Pia Maria G.; Cruzado, Shervin T.; Dela Cruz, Sharmaine F.; Estanislao, Fides Mae L.; Evangelista, Charina Joy; Mandocdoc, Larra Minnellie W.; Salas, Sharlaine B.; Tiu, Mark Brian C.; Carigma, Andrea Q.; Bayquen, Aristea V.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers that swell in an aqueous medium have been widely used to formulate controlled-release dosage forms. This study aims to prepare carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan (CMKC) microbeads and evaluate its potential for controlled release of mefenamic acid in comparison to the positive control, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) microbeads. The powdered κ-carrageenan was carboxymethylated and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the carboxy methylation. Aqueous solutions of CMC (3% w/v) and CMKC (3%, 4%, 5% w/v) were prepared as microbeads using ionotropic gelation technique. Microbeads were loaded with mefenamic acid by suspending it in the aqueous solution (0.5% w/v) of the drug for 72 hours. Particle size and surface morphology were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to determine a significant difference between the release activity of the drug-loaded CMKC and CMC microbeads. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was performed on the drug, drug- free, and drug-loaded microbeads of CMC and CMKC. Two-way ANOVARM showed significant interaction in % drug release of the three groups being analyzed in respect to time effect (p≤0.001) and group effect (p≤0.001). Post Hoc Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that 3% CMC and 4% CMKC has equal average % drug release values and is significantly higher compared to the commercial mefenamic acid. Also, one way ANOVA showed that 3% CMC was able to release the drug with no significant difference in time (p = 0.159), while 4% CMKC (p < 0.001) and the commercial mefenamic acid (p≤0.001) were able to release the drug with significant difference in time (author)

  16. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New Albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. The results of the results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

  17. Evaluation of the high-voltage high-frequency transformer insulating materials for satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Taketoshi; Hirasawa, Eiichi; Gonai, Toshio; Ohsuga, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Environment resistance evaluation was made of the insulating materials of impregnated injection type for high-voltage high-frequency transformers mounted in satellites. (1) The stress occurring in the impregnated injection type resin is small in silicon resin and urethane resin and large in epoxy resin. (2) The dielectric characteristic at high frequency is good in silicone resin. In epoxy resin, when the transformer is operated at high temperature, its thermal runaway may take place. (3) The radiation deterioration at 1 Mrad - 10 Mrad is slight in urethane resin. (4) The degassing is not good in silicone resin. (5) The adhesive power is good in urethane resin. (6) From the above results, in silicone resin there is problem in degassing and adhesive power. In epoxy resin there is problem in stress and dielectric characteristic. (Mori, K.)

  18. A comparative empirical analysis of statistical models for evaluating highway segment crash frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bismark R.D.K. Agbelie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted an empirical highway segment crash frequency analysis on the basis of fixed-parameters negative binomial and random-parameters negative binomial models. Using a 4-year data from a total of 158 highway segments, with a total of 11,168 crashes, the results from both models were presented, discussed, and compared. About 58% of the selected variables produced normally distributed parameters across highway segments, while the remaining produced fixed parameters. The presence of a noise barrier along a highway segment would increase mean annual crash frequency by 0.492 for 88.21% of the highway segments, and would decrease crash frequency for 11.79% of the remaining highway segments. Besides, the number of vertical curves per mile along a segment would increase mean annual crash frequency by 0.006 for 84.13% of the highway segments, and would decrease crash frequency for 15.87% of the remaining highway segments. Thus, constraining the parameters to be fixed across all highway segments would lead to an inaccurate conclusion. Although, the estimated parameters from both models showed consistency in direction, the magnitudes were significantly different. Out of the two models, the random-parameters negative binomial model was found to be statistically superior in evaluating highway segment crashes compared with the fixed-parameters negative binomial model. On average, the marginal effects from the fixed-parameters negative binomial model were observed to be significantly overestimated compared with those from the random-parameters negative binomial model.

  19. Disintegration mediated controlled release supersaturating solid dispersion formulation of an insoluble drug: design, development, optimization, and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjay; Rudraraju, Varma S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a solid dispersion based controlled release system for drug substances that are poorly soluble in water. A wax-based disintegration mediated controlled release system was designed based on the fact that an amorphous drug can crystallize out from hydrophilic matrices. For this study, cilostazol (CIL) was selected as the model drug, as it exhibits poor aqueous solubility. An amorphous solid dispersion was prepared to assist the drug to attain a supersaturated state. Povidone was used as carrier for solid dispersion (spray drying technique), hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) as wax matrix former, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) as a disintegrant. The extreme vertices mixture design (EVMD) was applied to optimize the designed and developed composition. The optimized formulation provided a dissolution pattern which was equivalent to the predicted curve, ascertaining that the optimal formulation could be accomplished with EVMD. The release profile of CIL was described by the Higuchi's model better than zero-order, first-order, and Hixson-Crowell's model, which indicated that the supersaturation state of CIL dominated to allow drug release by diffusion rather than disintegration regulated release as is generally observed by Hixson-Crowell's model. The optimized composition was evaluated for disintegration, dissolution, XRD, and stability studies. It was found that the amorphous state as well as the dissolution profile of CIL was maintained under the accelerated conditions of 40°C/75% RH for 6 months.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release pellets modified by two-layered membrane techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release pellets using two-layered membrane techniques. Centrifugal granulator and fluidized-bed coater were employed to prepare drug-loaded pellets and to employ two-layered membrane coating respectively. The prepared pellets were evaluated for physicochemical characterization, subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and in vitro release of different pH. Different release models and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized to analyze the release mechanism of Harnual® and home-made pellets. By comparing the dissolution profiles, the ratio and coating weight gain of Eudragit® NE30D and Eudragit® L30D55 which constitute the inside membrane were identified as 18:1 and 10%–11%. The coating amount of outside membrane containing Eudragit® L30D55 was determined to be 0.8%. The similarity factors (f2 of home-made capsule and commercially available product (Harnual® were above 50 in different dissolution media. DSC studies confirmed that drug and excipients had good compatibility and SEM photographs showed the similarities and differences of coating surface between Harnual® and self-made pellets before and after dissolution. According to Ritger-Peppas model, the two dosage form had different release mechanism.

  1. 5-Fluorouracil Encapsulated Chitosan Nanoparticles for pH-Stimulated Drug Delivery: Evaluation of Controlled Release Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seda Tığlı Aydın

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles consisting of human therapeutic drugs are suggested as a promising strategy for targeted and localized drug delivery to tumor cells. In this study, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles were prepared in order to investigate potentials of localized drug delivery for tumor environment due to pH sensitivity of chitosan nanoparticles. Optimization of chitosan and 5-FU encapsulated nanoparticles production revealed 148.8±1.1 nm and 243.1±17.9 nm particle size diameters with narrow size distributions, which are confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM images. The challenge was to investigate drug delivery of 5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles due to varied pH changes. To achieve this objective, pH sensitivity of prepared chitosan nanoparticle was evaluated and results showed a significant swelling response for pH 5 with particle diameter of ∼450 nm. In vitro release studies indicated a controlled and sustained release of 5-FU from chitosan nanoparticles with the release amounts of 29.1–60.8% due to varied pH environments after 408 h of the incubation period. pH sensitivity is confirmed by mathematical modeling of release kinetics since chitosan nanoparticles showed stimuli-induced release. Results suggested that 5-FU encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles can be launched as pH-responsive smart drug delivery agents for possible applications of cancer treatments.

  2. PAVAN: an atmospheric-dispersion program for evaluating design-basis accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    This report provides a user's guide for the NRC computer program, PAVAN, which is a program used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to estimate downwind ground-level air concentrations for potential accidental releases of radioactive material from nuclear facilities. Such an assessment is required by 10 CFR Part 100 and 10 CFR Part 50. The program implements the guidance provided in Regulatory Guide 1.145, Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants. Using joint frequency distributions of wind direction and wind speed by atmospheric stability, the program provides relative air concentration (X/Q) values as functions of direction for various time periods at the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the outer boundary of the low population zone (LPZ). Calculations of X/Q values can be made for assumed ground-level releases (e.g., through building penetrations and vents) or elevated releases from free-standing stacks. Various options may be selected by the user. They can account for variation in the location of release points, additional plume dispersion due to building wakes, plume meander under low wind speed conditions, and adjustments to consider non-straight trajectories. It computes an effective plume height using the physical release height which can be reduced by inputted terrain features. It cannot handle multiple emission sources. A description of the main program and all subroutines is provided. Also included as appendices are a complete listing of the program and two test cases with the required data inputs and the resulting program outputs

  3. Microemulsion-Based Mucoadhesive Buccal Wafers: Wafer Formation, In Vitro Release, and Ex Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Nguyet; Van Vo, Toi; Tran, Van-Thanh; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh

    2017-10-01

    Microemulsion has the potentials to enhance dissolution as well as facilitate absorption and permeation of poorly water-soluble drugs through biological membranes. However, its application to govern a controlled release buccal delivery for local treatment has not been discovered. The aim of this study is to develop microemulsion-based mucoadhesive wafers for buccal delivery based on an incorporation of the microemulsion with mucoadhesive agents and mannitol. Ratio of oil to surfactant to water in the microemulsion significantly impacted quality of the wafers. Furthermore, the combination of carbopol and mannitol played a key role in forming the desired buccal wafers. The addition of an extra 50% of water to the formulation was suitable for wafer formation by freeze-drying, which affected the appearance and distribution of carbopol in the wafers. The amount of carbopol was critical for the enhancement of mucoadhesive properties and the sustained drug release patterns. Release study presented a significant improvement of the drug release profile following sustained release for 6 h. Ex vivo mucoadhesive studies provided decisive evidence to the increased retention time of wafers along with the increased carbopol content. The success of this study indicates an encouraging strategy to formulate a controlled drug delivery system by incorporating microemulsions into mucoadhesive wafers.

  4. Evaluation of radioxenon releases in Australia using atmospheric dispersion modelling tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, Rick; Orr, Blake; Grzechnik, Marcus; Hoffmann, Emmy; Saey, Paul; Solomon, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The origin of a series of atmospheric radioxenon events detected at the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System site in Melbourne, Australia, between November 2008 and February 2009 was investigated. Backward tracking analyses indicated that the events were consistent with releases associated with hot commission testing of the Australian Nuclear Science Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical production facility in Sydney, Australia. Forward dispersion analyses were used to estimate release magnitudes and transport times. The estimated 133 Xe release magnitude of the largest event (between 0.2 and 34 TBq over a 2 d window), was in close agreement with the stack emission releases estimated by the facility for this time period (between 0.5 and 2 TBq). Modelling of irradiation conditions and theoretical radioxenon emission rates were undertaken and provided further evidence that the Melbourne detections originated from this radiopharmaceutical production facility. These findings do not have public health implications. This is the first comprehensive study of atmospheric radioxenon measurements and releases in Australia.

  5. An improved broadband method to evaluate effective parameters of slab metamaterials in the microwave frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybin, O.; Nawaz, T.; Abbasi, T.

    2007-01-01

    An improved broadband method for determining complex effective refractive index, permittivity and permeability of an arbitrary passive metamaterial in microwave frequency range has been proposed. Evaluation of the effective parameters is realized using the reflection-transmission S-parameters obtained by simulation or experimental measurements and analytically evaluated interface reflection coefficient of the slab. Formulas for evaluation of effective permittivity and permeability which contain the square root of complex functions of S-parameters have been proposed in (1-2). But this method does not propose a way to avoid an ambiguity arising in choosing the square root branch of product of effective permittivity and permeability. Moreover the above calculation procedure requires evaluating the square root branch of function of S-parameters. Proposed way to choose the square root branch gives sometimes mistaken results. Our method is much simple as compared with the above mentioned formulas and it does not require making a choice of square root branch of complex functions of S-parameters in order to evaluate any of the parameters (refractive index, permittivity or permeability). Instead we obtain a formula for complex refractive index which is simple. On the basis of proposed model effective permittivity and permeability for rod meta-materials can be evaluated with enhanced precision and accuracy. Proposed method is easy to be implemented in engineering problems and does not require using complicated mathematical calculations. Comparison of precision of the presented method with the Nicolson-Ross techniques (1-2) has been made using the simulations for different configurations of rod meta-materials. Some discussion concerning the sensitivity of the effective parameters of meta-materials for the accuracy of the frequency dependent S -parameters is also presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  7. Acai oil development and evaluation of immobilization and release in poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Ana Carolina Henriques Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Acai (Euterpe oleracea) is a native palm of Brazil, distributed for the entire Amazonian basin. Rich in essentials fatty acids (mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid), acai oil prevents abnormal conditions of the skin, as dermatitis and drying, and assists in the regeneration of the epidermis. The benefits of the hydrogels are known as dressings. The purpose of this study was to develop devices for controlled release of acai oil on poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) hydrogels. The behavior of the acai oil front to the radiation was evaluated by the composition of fatty acids of the oil before and after irradiation. Two different matrices of PVP hydrogel were evaluated physically and chemically through assays of swelling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Both matrices were considered adjusted to be used as an active release system. The devices were obtained by acai oil immobilization in PVP hydrogel matrices, were also characterized through assays of sweeling, gel fraction, mechanical proprieties and in vitro cytotoxicity. Moreover, they were characterized by assays of scanning electron microscopy and in vivo primary cutaneous irritation. Both devices were submitted to assay of active release kinetics, and the acai oil was quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The devices showed to be satisfactory to compose a release system of actives. (author)

  8. Evaluation of rate of swelling and erosion of verapamil (VRP) sustained-release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanga, Sandile M; Walker, Roderick B

    2006-01-01

    Tablets manufactured in-house were compared to a marketed sustained-release product of verapamil to investigate the rate of hydration, erosion, and drug-release mechanism by measuring the wet and subsequent dry weights of the products. Swelling and erosion rates depended on the polymer and granulating fluid used, which ultimately pointed to their permeability characteristics. Erosion rate of the marketed product was highest, which suggests that the gel layer that formed around these tablets was weak as opposed to the robust and resistant layers of test products. Anomalous and near zero-order transport mechanisms were dominant in tests and commercial product, respectively.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of controlled-release of telmisartan microspheres: In vitro/in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Gaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to design a controlled-release drug-delivery system for the angiotensin-II receptor antagonist drug telmisartan. Telmisartan was encapsulated with different EUDRAGIT polymers by an emulsion solvent evaporation technique and the physicochemical properties of the formulations were characterized. Using a solvent evaporation method, white spherical microspheres with particle sizes of 629.9–792.1 μm were produced. The in vitro drug release was studied in three different pH media (pH 1.2 for 2 hours, pH 6.8 for 4 hours, and pH 7.4 for 18 hours. The formulations were then evaluated for their pharmacokinetic parameters. The entrapment efficiency of these microspheres was between 58.6% and 90.56%. The obtained microspheres showed good flow properties, which were evaluated in terms of angle of repose (15.29–26.32, bulk and tapped densities (0.37–0.53 and 0.43–0.64, respectively, Carr indices and Hausner ratio (12.94–19.14% and 1.14–1.23, respectively. No drug release was observed in the simulated gastric medium up to 2 hours; however, a change in pH from 1.2 to 6.8 increased the drug release. At pH 7.4, formulations with EUDRAGIT RS 100 showed a steady drug release. The microsphere formulation TMRS-3 (i.e., microspheres containing 2-mg telmisartan gave the highest Cmax value (6.8641 μg/mL at 6 hours, which was three times higher than Cmax for telmisartan oral suspension (TOS. Correspondingly, the area under the curve for TMRS-3 was 8.5 times higher than TOS. Particle size and drug release depended on the nature and content of polymer used. The drug release mechanism of the TMRS-3 formulation can be explained using the Higuchi model. The controlled release of drug from TMRS-3 also provides for higher plasma drug content and improved bioavailability.

  10. Evaluating the High Frequency Behavior of the Modified Grounding Scheme in Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Fatemeh Hajeforosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind generators are exposed to numerous destructive forces such as lightning and are therefore vulnerable to these phenomena. To evaluate the transient behavior of a wind power plant during direct and indirect strikes, modeling of all relevant components is required. Among the protective and control components of wind turbines, the grounding system is the most important element for protection against lightning strikes. This paper examines the impact of nonlinear soil ionization behavior and frequency dependency on a wind turbine in order to model a sufficient protection scheme to reduce overvoltage and make the system tolerable against transitions. The high frequency models of other equipment such as transformers, horizontal conductors, vertical rods, surge arresters and underground cables must also be taken into account to design the grounding system. Our Proposed Modified Grounding Scheme (PMGS is to reduce the maximum transient overvoltages. We simulate the model in a restructured version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP-RV software to examine the effectiveness of the system. We then apply the simulated results to pair of turbines that are interconnected with a frequency-dependent cable. We carry out the simulation for direct and indirect lightning strikes. The results indicate that the MGS can lead to considerably more than a 50% reduction in transient voltages for lightning and thus leads to more reliable networks.

  11. Status of efforts to evaluate LOCA frequency estimates using combined PRA and PFM approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Rudland, D.; Tregoning, R.; Scott, P.

    2002-01-01

    The risk-informed reevaluation of 10 CFR 50.46 (along with Appendix K and GDC 35), the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) requirements, utilizes loss of coolant accident (LOCA) initiating event frequencies to evaluate the technical basis for potential related rule changes. A longer-term effort is considering redefining the maximum design basis pipe break size for sizing the ECCS system. In the past few years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has utilized NUREG/CR-5750 pipe-break LOCA estimated for initiating event frequencies. However, several failure mechanisms have recently emerged at plants which have not been evident within the service period covered by the NUREG/CR-5750 estimates. The concern is that these and other potential aging-related mechanisms may not be adequately represented within the NUREG/CR-5750 LOCA estimates. Additionally, LOCAs can occur from failure of active components (e.g. safety relief valves, reactor coolant pump seals, etc.) and other non-pipe break passive failures (e.g. steam generator tubes). The LOCA contributions from these additional sources must also be considered in deciding the design basis break size. The LOCA estimates must also attempt to capture expected future changes in the LOCA frequencies so that the estimates are pertinent up through the end of the license renewal period. (orig.)

  12. Management Process of a Frequency Response Flight Test for Rotorcraft Flying Qualities Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Otávio Falcão Arantes Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the frequency response methodology to characterize and analyze the flying qualities of longitudinal and lateral axes of a rotary-wing aircraft, AS355-F2. Using the results, it is possible to check the suitability of the aircraft in accordance with ADS-33E-PRF standard, whose flying qualities specifications criteria are based on parameters in the frequency domain. The key steps addressed in the study involve getting, by means of flight test data, the closed-loop dynamic responses including the design of the instrumentation and specification of the sensors to be used in the flight test campaign, the definition of the appropriate maneuvers characteristics for excitation of the aircraft, the planning and execution of the flight test to collect the data, and the proper data treatment, processing and analysis after the flight. After treatment of the collected data, single input-single output spectral analysis is performed. The results permit the analysis of the flying qualities characteristics, anticipation of the demands to which the pilot will be subjected during closed-loop evaluations and check of compliance with the aforementioned standard, within the range of consistent excitation frequencies for flight tests, setting the agility level of the test aircraft.

  13. Frequency of operative trauma to anal sphincters: evaluation with endoanal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiadis, Apostolos; Konstantinou, Evangelos; Theodosopoulou, Eleni; Mamoura, Konstantinia

    2002-01-01

    Sphincter trauma after anorectal surgery is usually asymptomatic. Frequency of trauma cannot be established with the clinical examination only. The frequency of operative sphincter defects and their correlation with disorders of continence was evaluated with the endoanal ultrasound. This study includes 123 subjects who had undergone anorectal surgery in the past and were examined with endoanal ultrasound for various indications such as continence disorders, recurrent fistula, idiopathic perineal pain, or simple postoperative follow-up. No subjects had isolated external anal sphincter defects. Nineteen of 123 patients (15%) had minor or major continence disorders, 55 patients (45%) had no sphincter defects, 42 (34%) had only internal anal sphincter (IAS) defects, and 26 (21%) had simultaneously external and internal anal sphincter (EAS) defects. The incidence of IAS and EAS trauma after Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy was 1/18 (5.5%) and 0/18 respectively; after fistula repair, 24/42 (57%) and 12/42 (29%); and after anal dilatation, 13/17 (76%) and 4/17 (24%). Sixteen of 26 patients (62%) with EAS trauma and 51/68 patients (75%) with IAS trauma did not report any disorders of continence. In patients with two or more operations, the frequency of IAS trauma was 74%, 30% for EAS trauma, and 26% for continence disorders.

  14. Formulation and In vitro/In vivo Evaluation of Sustained Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A fair correlation between in vitro dissolution and in vivo data was found. The results obtained indicate successful development of a sustained release formulation of diltiazem. Keywords: Diltiazem, Matrix tablet, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose Eudragit, In vitro/in vivo correlation, Optimization ...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the potential for plutonium release from burial grounds at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Smith, W.J.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1977-02-01

    An analysis was made of a number of natural phenomena which could result in the release of plutonium from radioactive wastes buried at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Background information concerning the history and practice of radioactive waste disposal at LASL is provided. The potential impact of buried radioactive wastes on the environment is addressed through the mechanisms and rates by which the radionuclides can enter the environment. Only mechanisms independent of human activity are considered. They are divided into two classes, acute and chronic. The acute release mechanisms considered are earthquakes, meteorite impacts, and tornadoes. These have been typified by low occurrence probabilities (10 -6 to 10 -7 /yr). The chronic mechanisms that have been considered are release through uptake by plant roots, exposure by soil erosion, and transport by soil water. The rates of these processes are low, but may result in radionuclide release over long time periods. The analysis of uptake by plant roots was made using an environmental model currently under development; the model is discussed in some detail

  16. Approaches to evaluating weathering effects on release of engineered nanomaterials from solid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) over the past decade has increased the potential for the transport and release of these materials into the environment. Here we present results of two separate studies designed to simulate the effects of weathering o...

  17. Evaluation of recovery and monitoring methods for parasitoids released against Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an invasive insect pest, and the target of an extensive biological control campaign designed to mitigate EAB driven ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Since 2007, environmental releases of three species of hymenopteran parasitoids of EA...

  18. Formulation and In vitro/In vivo Evaluation of Sustained Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic). © Pharmacotherapy ... (DHL). Methods: DHL tablets were prepared by direct compression and consisted of .... subjected to 3D response surface methodology to determine the .... Table 3: Release of diltiazem HCl from the test formulations as per factorial design. Formulation ...

  19. Formulation and In vitro/In vivo Evaluation of Sustained Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2013-07-15

    Jul 15, 2013 ... They are generally used to treat high blood pressure ... extending drug release for highly water-soluble drugs is limited ..... by the high water permeability of Kollidon SR while the ... due to the extremely low water solubility of.

  20. Evaluation of magnocellular pathway abnormalities in schizophrenia: a frequency doubling technology study and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Benites Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing deficits have been reported for patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies demonstrated differences in early-stage processing of schizophrenics, although the nature, extent, and localization of the disturbance are unknown. The magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathways are associated with transient and sustained channels, but their respective contributions to schizophrenia-related visual deficits remains controversial. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate magnocellular dysfunction in schizophrenia using frequency doubling technology. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia and 34 healthy volunteers were examined. Frequency doubling technology testing was performed in one session, consisting of a 15-minute screening strategy followed by the C-20 program for frequency doubling technology. RESULTS: Schizophrenic patients showed lower global mean sensitivity (30,97 ± 2,25 dB compared with controls (32,17 ± 3,08 dB, p<0.009. Although there was no difference in the delta sensitivity of hemispheres, there was a difference in sensitivity analysis of the fibers crossing the optic chiasm, with lower mean sensitivity in the patient group (28,80 dB versus controls (30,66 dB. The difference was higher in fibers that do not cross the optic chiasm, with lower mean sensitivity in patients (27,61 dB versus controls (30,26 dB, p<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there are differences between global sensitivity and fiber sensitivity measured by frequency doubling technology. The different sensitivity of fibers that do not cross the optic chiasm is consistent with most current etiological hypotheses for schizophrenia. The decreased sensitivity responses in the optic radiations may significantly contribute to research assessing early-stage visual processing deficits for patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Nitric oxide releasing silicone rubbers with improved blood compatibility: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Annich, Gail M; Miskulin, Judiann; Osterholzer, Kathryn; Merz, Scott I; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2002-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing silicone rubbers (SR) are prepared via a three-step reaction scheme. A diamino triaminoalkyltrimethoxysilane crosslinker is used to vulcanize hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the presence of ambient moisture and a dibutyltin dilaurate catalyst so that the respective diamine triamine groups are covalently linked to the cured SR structure. These amine sites are then diazeniumdiolated, in situ, when the cured SR is reacted with NO at elevated pressure (80 psi). Although nitrite species are also formed during the NO addition reaction, in most cases the diazeniumdiolated polymer is the major product within the final SR matrix. Temperature appears to be the major driving force for the dissociation of the attached diazeniumdiolate moieties, whereas the presence of bulk water bathing the SR materials has only minimal effect on the observed NO release rate owing to the low water uptake of the SR matrices. The resulting SR films/coatings release NO at ambient or physiological temperature for up to 20 d with average fluxes of at least 4 x 10(10) mol x cm(-2) x min(-1) (coating thickness > or = 600 microm) over first 4 h, comparable to the NO fluxes observed from stimulated human endothelial cells. The NO loading and concomitant NO release flux of the SR material are readily adjustable by altering the diamine triamine loading and film/coating thickness. The new NO releasing SR materials are shown to exhibit improved thromboresistance in vivo, as demonstrated via reduced platelet activation on the surface of these polymers when used to coat the inner walls of SR tubings employed for extracorporeal circulation in a rabbit model.

  2. Evaluation of sodium diclofenac release using natural rubber latex as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aielo, Patricia B.; Borges, Felipe A.; Romeira, Karoline M.; Herculano, Rondinelli D.; Miranda, Matheus Carlos Romeiro; Arruda, Larisa B. de; Lisboa Filho, Paulo Noronha; Drago, Bruno de C.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and, as an analgesic, reduce pain. Although this drug is widely used in the general population, properties such as the short half-time and some side effects restrict its clinical use. The most common side effects are: gastric irritation, gastritis, peptic ulcer and bleeding. Studies involving biomaterials as carrier for drug release have been proving their efficiency in overcoming those problems and better controlling the release rate and targeting of the drug. Natural rubber latex (NRL) has been proven excellent for its biocompatibility and ability to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular adhesion and the formation of extracellular matrix, promoting the replacement and regeneration of tissue. In this work, a NRL membrane is used to deliver sodium diclofenac. Sodium diclofenac (NaDic) was found to be adsorbed on the NRL membrane, with little or no incorporation into the membrane bulk, according to energy dispersive Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS) spectroscopy. In addition, FT-IR shows that there is no molecular-level interaction between drug and NRL. Already, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) of NaDic-NRL shows a broader one spectrum than the sharper halo (amorphous characteristic XRD spectrum) of pure NRL. More importantly, the release time of diclofenac in a NRL membrane in vitro was increased from the typical 2-3 h for oral tablets to ca. 74 h. The kinetics of the drug release could be fitted with a double exponential function, with two characteristic times of 0.899 and 32.102 h. In this study, we demonstrated that the interesting properties provided by NRL membranes combined with a controlled release of drug is relevant for biomedical applications.(author)

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Oxaliplatin Thermosensitive Liposomes with Rapid Release and High Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunying Zeng

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (OXP was reported to show low anti-tumor activity when used alone and to display side effects; this low activity was attributed to high partitioning to erythrocytes and low accumulation in tumors. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL were considered able to specifically deliver drugs to heated tumors and to resolve the OXP distribution problem. Regretfully, TSL encapsulating doxorubicin did not demonstrate significant improvement in progression-free survival. Drug release below 41°C and significant leakage were considered major reasons for the failure. The purpose of this study was to acquire OXP TSL with rapid release at the triggered temperature and high stability at body temperature and at storage temperatures. A small quantity of poloxamer 188 was introduced into the TSL formulation to stabilize the encapsulated drug. It was shown that the addition of poloxamer 188 had no influence on the TSL characteristics. More than 90% of OXP was released within 10 min at 42°C, and less than 15% was released within 60 min at temperatures below 39°C. TSL were stable at 37°C for 96 h and at 4°C for 6 months. The anti-tumor activity of TSL at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg was certified to be equal to those of OXP injection and non-thermosensitive liposomes (NTSL at the dose of 5 mg/kg, and significant improvement of tumor inhibition was observed in TSL compared with injection and NTSL at the same dose. It was also shown from the histological transmutation of tumors that TSL had stronger anti-tumor activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that TSL composed of a proper amount of poloxamer had rapid release and high stability, and OXP TSL would be anticipated to exert prominent anti-tumor activity in the clinic.

  4. Evaluation of sodium diclofenac release using natural rubber latex as carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielo, Patricia B.; Borges, Felipe A.; Romeira, Karoline M.; Herculano, Rondinelli D., E-mail: rond@assis.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Assis, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Miranda, Matheus Carlos Romeiro [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Arruda, Larisa B. de; Lisboa Filho, Paulo Noronha; Drago, Bruno de C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias. Dept. de Fisica

    2014-08-15

    Sodium Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and, as an analgesic, reduce pain. Although this drug is widely used in the general population, properties such as the short half-time and some side effects restrict its clinical use. The most common side effects are: gastric irritation, gastritis, peptic ulcer and bleeding. Studies involving biomaterials as carrier for drug release have been proving their efficiency in overcoming those problems and better controlling the release rate and targeting of the drug. Natural rubber latex (NRL) has been proven excellent for its biocompatibility and ability to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular adhesion and the formation of extracellular matrix, promoting the replacement and regeneration of tissue. In this work, a NRL membrane is used to deliver sodium diclofenac. Sodium diclofenac (NaDic) was found to be adsorbed on the NRL membrane, with little or no incorporation into the membrane bulk, according to energy dispersive Scanning Electron Microscopy with X-Ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS) spectroscopy. In addition, FT-IR shows that there is no molecular-level interaction between drug and NRL. Already, the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) of NaDic-NRL shows a broader one spectrum than the sharper halo (amorphous characteristic XRD spectrum) of pure NRL. More importantly, the release time of diclofenac in a NRL membrane in vitro was increased from the typical 2-3 h for oral tablets to ca. 74 h. The kinetics of the drug release could be fitted with a double exponential function, with two characteristic times of 0.899 and 32.102 h. In this study, we demonstrated that the interesting properties provided by NRL membranes combined with a controlled release of drug is relevant for biomedical applications.(author)

  5. Empirical and mechanistic evaluation of NH4(+) release kinetic in calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, F; Jalali, M

    2014-05-01

    Release, fixation, and distribution of ammonium (NH4(+)) as a source of nitrogen can play an important role in soil fertility and plant nutrition. In this study, ten surface soils, after addition of 1,000 mg NH4(+) kg(-1,) were incubated for 1 week at the field capacity moisture and 25 ± 2 °C temperature, and then NH4(+) release kinetic was investigated by sequential extractions with 10 mM CaCl2. Furthermore, NH4(+) distribution among three fractions, including water-soluble, exchangeable, and non-exchangeable, was determined in all soil samples. NH4(+) release was initially rapid followed by a slower reaction, and this was described well with the Elovich equation as an empirical model. The cumulative NH4(+) concentration released in spiked soil samples had a positive significant correlation with sand content and negative ones with pH, exchangeable Ca(2+)m and K(+), cation exchange capacity (CEC), equivalent calcium carbonate (ECC), and clay content. The cation exchange model in the PHREEQC program was successful in mechanistic simulation of the release trend of native and added NH4(+) in all control and spiked soil samples. The results of fractionation experiments showed that the non-exchangeable fraction in control and spiked soil samples was greater than that in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Soil properties, such as pH, exchangeable Ca(2+) and K(+), CEC, ECC, and contents of sand and clay, had significant influences on the distribution of NH4(+) among three measured fractions. This study indicated that both native and recently fixed NH4(+), added to soil through the application of fertilizers, were readily available for plant roots during 1 week after exposure.

  6. Analytical definition of fission chain reaction parameters for cylindrical uranium bar and energy release evaluations for HIF hybrid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Within the conditions of Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) arises a possibility to obtain the fission chain reaction for a cylindrical HIF target. The paper contains the solution interpolated with the diffusion approximation in order to receive the general approximation expressions for the bar critical radius as well as for over-critical state. The obtained critical parameters generalized for uranium envelope are used for rough evaluation of the energy release in HIF hybrid targets [ru

  7. Evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning of women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system--Mirena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka

    2008-12-01

    The advantages ensuing from the high contraceptive efficacy, positive effect on the parameters of the menstrual cycle as well as other values of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may play an important role in women's sexual life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the quality of life and sexual functioning of women. The research encompassed 200 women aged between 30 and 45. 52 women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were qualified to the study as the research group (Mirena Group). The control groups consisted of 48 women using a different type of intrauterine device (Control Group I--Other IUD) and 50 women using no contraception (Control Group II). A specific questionnaire with a general part concerning socio-demographic conditions, a part dealing with contraception and Polish version of self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index and Mell-Krat Scale was used as a research tool. Quality of life parameters for women using the Mirena system were higher than for the control groups, especially in the aspect of general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. A significant beneficial effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on sexual functioning (sexual desire and arousal) was also revealed in the study. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 20.8% of Other IUD, 34.7% of Control Group II and 9.6% of Mirena Group. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increases female quality of life and sexual functioning parameters.

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. High-frequency volatility combine forecast evaluations: An empirical study for DAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Cheong Chin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the benefits of combining realized volatility, higher power variation volatility and nearest neighbour truncation volatility in the forecasts of financial stock market of DAX. A structural break heavy-tailed heterogeneous autoregressive model under the heterogeneous market hypothesis specification is employed to capture the stylized facts of high-frequency empirical data. Using selected averaging forecast methods, the forecast weights are assigned based on the simple average, simple median, least squares and mean square error. The empirical results indicated that the combination of forecasts in general shown superiority under four evaluation criteria regardless which proxy is set as the actual volatility. As a conclusion, we summarized that the forecast performance is influenced by three factors namely the types of volatility proxy, forecast methods (individual or averaging forecast and lastly the type of actual forecast value used in the evaluation criteria.

  10. Evaluation Of Rotation Frequency Gas-Diesel Engines When Using Automatic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A.; Efremov, A.

    2017-01-01

    A possibility of quality improvement of stabilization of rotation frequency of the gas-diesels used as prime mover of generator set in the multigenerator units working for abruptly variable load of large power is considered. An evaluation is made on condition of fuzzy controller use developed and described by the authors in a number of articles. An evaluation has shown that theoretically, the revolution range of gas-diesel engine may be reduced at 25-30 times at optimal settings of the controller in all the power range. The results of modeling showing a considerable quality improvement of transient processes in the investigated system at a sharp change of loading are presented in this article.

  11. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S. [Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  13. Evaluating changes in stable chromosomal translocation frequency in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Wang Jianyi; Liu An; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Shively, John E.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Williams, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The lack of any consistent correlation between radioimmunotherapy (RIT) dose and observed hematologic toxicity has made it difficult to validate RIT radiation dose estimates to marrow. Stable chromosomal translocations (SCT) which result after radiation exposure may be a biologic parameter that more closely correlates with RIT radiation dose. Increases in the frequency of SCT are observed after radiation exposure and are highly correlated with absorbed radiation dose. SCT are cumulative after multiple radiation doses and conserved through an extended number of cell divisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increases in SCT frequency were detectable in peripheral lymphocytes after RIT and whether the magnitude of these increases correlated with estimated radiation dose to marrow and whole body. Methods and Materials: Patients entered in a Phase I dose escalation therapy trial each received 1-3 intravenous cycles of the radiolabeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, 90 Y-chimeric T84.66. Five mCi of 111 In-chimeric T84.66 was co-administered for imaging and biodistribution purposes. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to the start of therapy and 5-6 weeks after each therapy cycle. Peripheral lymphocytes were harvested after 72 hours of phytohemagglutinin stimulation and metaphase spreads prepared. Spreads were then stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using commercially available chromosome paint probes to chromosomes 3 and 4. Approximately 1000 spreads were evaluated for each chromosome sample. Red marrow radiation doses were estimated using the AAPM algorithm and blood clearance curves. Results: Eighteen patients were studied, each receiving at least one cycle of therapy ranging from 5-22 mCi/m 2 . Three patients received 2 cycles and two patients received 3 cycles of therapy. Cumulative estimated marrow doses ranged from 9.2 to 310 cGy. Increases in SCT frequencies were observed after

  14. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablet: effect of compression force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ehab Ibrahim; Shazly, Gamal Abdel-Ghany; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Barakat, Nahla Sedik; Al-Enazi, Fouza Kayem; Elbagory, Ibrahim Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, Diclofenac Sodium (DS) matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method under different compression forces (5, 10, 15 and 20 KN), using ethylcellulose as matrix forming material. The produced tablets were characterized on the foundation of satisfactory tablet properties such as hardness, friability, drug content, weight variations and in vitro drug release rate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate any incompatibilities of the tablet's ingredients. Additionally, in vivo bioavailability has been investigated on beagle dogs. Data obtained revealed that, upon increasing compression force the in vitro drug release was sustained and the T(max) value was four hours (for formulations compressed at 15 and 20 kN) compared to the conventional voltarine(®) 50 tablets (T(max) value of 2 hours).

  15. Evaluation of radiological impact of habitual atmospheric releases in the surroundings of the Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, J.M.; Rosales, I.

    1993-01-01

    The considerations and fundamental data used to evaluate the individual doses to the population living within an area of 40 km in the surroundings of Juragua nuclear power plant are presented. Recognized dispersion models (Pasquill modified) and models of dose calculations due to continuous habitual air releases composed of gases and aerosols (47 radionuclides) are used for the calculations.The following ways are taken into account for evaluation: a)irradiation of the cloud, b)irradiation of contaminated ground, c)inhalation, d) ingestion of agro-products. The iso line maps of concentrations and fundamental doses for the site are shown

  16. Synthesis of Thiolated Alginate and Evaluation of Mucoadhesiveness, Cytotoxicity and Release Retardant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, A. B.; Wasnik, M. N.; Nair, Hema A.

    2010-01-01

    Modification of polymers by covalent attachment of thiol bearing pendant groups is reported to impart many beneficial properties to them. Hence in the present study, sodium alginate–cysteine conjugate was synthesized by carbodiimide mediated coupling under varying reaction conditions and the derivatives characterized for thiol content. The thiolated alginate species synthesized had bound thiol content ranging from 247.8±11.03–324.54±10.107 ΅mol/g of polymer depending on the reaction conditions. Matrix tablets based on sodium alginate-cysteine conjugate and native sodium alginate containing tramadol hydrochloride as a model drug were prepared and mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release from the tablets were compared. Tablets containing 75 mg sodium alginate-cysteine conjugate could sustain release of 10 mg of model drug for 3 h, whereas 90% of the drug was released within 1 h from corresponding tablets prepared using native sodium alginate. An approximately 2-fold increase in the minimal detachment force of the tablets from an artificial mucin film was observed for sodium alginate–cysteine conjugate as compared to native sodium alginate. In vitro cytotoxicity studies in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells studied using an MTT assay revealed that at low concentrations of polymer, sodium alginate–cysteine conjugate was less toxic to L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line when compared to native sodium alginate. Hence, thiolation is found to be a simple route to improving polymer performance. The combination of improved controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties coupled with the low toxicity of these new excipients builds up immense scope for the use of thiolated polymers in mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. PMID:21969750

  17. Formulation and evaluation of novel controlled release of topical pluronic lecithin organogel of mefenamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhawat, Vikas; Gupta, Sumeet; Saini, Vipin

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, pluronic lecithin based organogels (PLO gels) were formulated as topical carrier for controlled delivery of mefenamic acid. Ten organogel formulations were prepared by a method employing lecithin as lipophilic phase and pluronic F-127 as hydrophilic phase in varying concentrations to study various parameters using in vitro diffusion study and in vivo studies. All formulations were found to be off-white, homogenous, and reluctant to be washed easily and have pH value within the range of 5.56-5.80 which is nonirritant. Polymer concentration increased in formulations of F1 to F5 (lecithin) and F6 to F10 (pluronic) resulted in decrease of the gelation temperature, increase of viscosity and reduction of spreadability of gels having polymer tendency to form rigid 3D network. Organogels with higher viscosity were found to be more stable and retard the drug release from the gel. The formulations of F2 and F3 were selected for kinetic studies and stability studies, as they found to have all physical parameters within acceptable limits, highest percent drug content and exhibited highest drug release in eight hours. The order of drug release from various formulations was found to be F2 > F3 > F10 > F4 > F1 > F9 > F8 > F5 > F7 > F6. The optimized formulation F2 was found to follow zero order rate kinetics showing controlled release of the drug from the formulations. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of optimized mefenamic acid organogel (F2) against a standard marketed preparation (Volini gel) was found satisfactory and significant.

  18. Evaluating the robustness of three ring-width measurement methods for growth release reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, S. L.; Vannoppen, A.; Altman, Jan; Van den Bulcke, J.; Decocq, G.; De Mil, T.; Depauw, L.; Landuyt, D.; Perring, M. P.; Van Acker, J.; Vanhellemont, M.; Verheyen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, DEC 2017 (2017), s. 67-76 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07378S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dendrochronology * Growth release * Ring-width measurement Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.259, year: 2016

  19. Evaluation of the effects of nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A E S; Fraceto, L F; Narciso, A M; Seabra, A B

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there are several commercially available products containing nanostructured materials. Meanwhile, despite the many benefits that can be obtained from nanotechnology, it is still necessary to understand the mechanisms in which nanomaterials interact with the environment, and to obtain information concerning their possible toxic effects. In agriculture, nanotechnology has been used in different applications, such as nanosensors to detect pathogens, nanoparticles as controlled release systems for pesticides, and biofilms to deliver nutrients to plants and to protect food products against degradation. Moreover, plants can be used as models to study the toxicity of nanoparticles. Indeed, phytotoxicity assays are required to identify possible negative effects of nanostructured systems, prior to their implementation in agriculture. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in plant growth and defense, and recently, several papers described the beneficial effects due to application of exogenous NO donors in plants. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is an important anti-oxidant molecule and is the precursor of the NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). In this context, the present work investigates the effects of different concentrations of alginate/chitosan nanoparticles, containing either GSH or GSNO, on the development of two test species (Zea mays and Glycine sp.). The results showed that the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles present a size average range from 300 to 550 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency of GSH between 45 - 56%. The NO release kinetics from the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles containing GSNO showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. Plant assays showed that at the concentrations tested (1, 5 and 10 mM of GSH or GSNO), polymeric nanoparticles showed no significant inhibitory effects on the development of the species Zea mays and Glycine sp., considering the variables shoot height, root length, and

  20. Evaluation of the effects of nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. E. S.; Narciso, A. M.; Seabra, A. B.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, there are several commercially available products containing nanostructured materials. Meanwhile, despite the many benefits that can be obtained from nanotechnology, it is still necessary to understand the mechanisms in which nanomaterials interact with the environment, and to obtain information concerning their possible toxic effects. In agriculture, nanotechnology has been used in different applications, such as nanosensors to detect pathogens, nanoparticles as controlled release systems for pesticides, and biofilms to deliver nutrients to plants and to protect food products against degradation. Moreover, plants can be used as models to study the toxicity of nanoparticles. Indeed, phytotoxicity assays are required to identify possible negative effects of nanostructured systems, prior to their implementation in agriculture. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in plant growth and defense, and recently, several papers described the beneficial effects due to application of exogenous NO donors in plants. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is an important anti-oxidant molecule and is the precursor of the NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). In this context, the present work investigates the effects of different concentrations of alginate/chitosan nanoparticles, containing either GSH or GSNO, on the development of two test species (Zea mays and Glycine sp.). The results showed that the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles present a size average range from 300 to 550 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency of GSH between 45 - 56%. The NO release kinetics from the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles containing GSNO showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. Plant assays showed that at the concentrations tested (1, 5 and 10 mM of GSH or GSNO), polymeric nanoparticles showed no significant inhibitory effects on the development of the species Zea mays and Glycine sp., considering the variables shoot height, root length, and

  1. Models and methods to evaluate consequences of the release of airborne radioactivity from NNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the radioactive contamination and possible consequences of a nuclear power plant on living organisms during its operation periodes, the computer programmes were elaborated for assessing its fluences on the environment. The authors have resolved the following problems: i) Calculation of fission product inventories in the reactor core; ii) Calculation of the atmospheric dispersion of the released radionuclides under the meteorological conditions as well as the deposition of the radioactive substances on the soil; iii) Calculation of the irradiation doses

  2. Characterization of a Planetary Boundary Layer model to evaluate radionuclides releases in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, Leslie de

    1993-01-01

    A two layer bulk model is used to simulate numerically the time and spatial evolution of concentration of radionuclides in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) for convective and stable conditions. In this model, the closure hypothesis are based on the integrated version of the Turbulent Kinetics Energy (TKE) equation (Smeda,1979). This type of model was adopted here because it is numerically simple to be applied operationally in routine and emergency support systems of atmospheric releases at nuclear power plants, and the hypothesis of the efficiency of the vertical mixing seems to be physically reasonable to simulated PBL evolution for high wind conditions and stable conditions in Subtropical latitudes regions. In order to validate the model to the nuclear power plants of the Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located in Ipero, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, numerical simulations were carried out with initial and boundary conditions based on vertical profiles of temperature and horizontal wind speed and direction obtained from tethered balloon soundings, synoptic charts at 850 hPa and surface observations. Comparisons between a 24 hour long numerical simulation and observations indicate that the model is capable of reproduce the diurnal evolution of temperature and horizontal wind during the convective regime. During stable conditions, the slab model was able to simulate the intensity of the surface inversion as a difference between the mixed layer and surface temperatures. The simulated mixed layer height matches with observations during the convective and stable regime. A daytime release of radionuclides was simulated for CEA region and the results indicated that the maximum relative concentration reaches a distance about 15 Km in 1 hour, varing from 100 times background at the moment of the release to 15 times the background. For night releases, the maximum concentration reaches the same distance in 45 minutes, varing from 100 to 30 times the background values

  3. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kaleemullah, M.; Jiyauddin, K.; Thiban, E.; Rasha, S.; Al-Dhalli, S.; Budiasih, S.; Gamal, O.E.; Fadli, A.; Eddy, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M) as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop susta...

  4. Design and in vivo evaluation of oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ju-Young Kim,1,* Sung-Hoon Lee,2,3,* Chun-Woong Park,4 Yun-Seok Rhee,5 Dong-Wook Kim,6 Junsang Park,3 Moonseok Lee,3 Jeong-Woong Seo,2 Eun-Seok Park2 1College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, Republic of Korea; 2School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 3GL Pharmtech, Seongnam, Republic of Korea; 4College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; 5College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The aim of present study was to design oxycodone once-a-day controlled-release (CR tablets and to perform in vitro/in vivo characterizations. Release profiles to achieve desired plasma concentration versus time curves were established by using simulation software and reported pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC 100,000 mPa·s was used as a release modifier because the polymer was found to be resistant to changes in conditions of the release study, including rotation speed of paddle and ion strength. The burst release of the drug from the CR tablets could be suppressed by applying an additional HPMC layer as a physical barrier. Finally, the oxycodone once-a-day tablet was comprised of two layers, an inert HPMC layer and a CR layer containing drug and HPMC. Commercial products, either 10 mg bis in die (bid [twice a day] or once-a-day CR tablets (20 mg were administered to healthy volunteers, and calculated pharmacokinetic parameters indicated bioequivalence of the two different treatments. The findings of the present study emphasize the potential of oxycodone once-a-day CR tablets for improved patient compliance, safety, and efficacy, which could help researchers to develop new CR dosage forms of oxycodone. Keywords

  5. Development and in vitro evaluation of sustained release multiparticulate tablet of freely water soluble drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Pravin Pandit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of aqueous dispersion of a hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer, namely Surelease®: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Surelease®: HPMC E15 were used as coating materials to control the drug release from coated pellets of the highly water soluble drug metoprolol succinate. Varying the polymer blends, ranges of drug release patterns were obtained at pH 6.8. The present study dealt with diffusion of drug through plasticized Surelease®/ hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E15 films prepared by coating of drug and polymers onto non-pareil seeds using the solution layering technique. The release of metoprolol succinate from coated pellets was decreased with increased coating load of polymer. The optimized formulation was obtained by 3² full factorial design. The release profile revealed that the optimized formulation follows zero order release kinetics. The stability data showed no interaction for storage at 25ºC and 60% relative humidity.Misturas das dispersões aquosas de polímero hidrofóbico e de polímero hidrofílico, a saber, Surelease®: hidroxipropil metilcelulose (Surelease®: HPMC E15, foram utilizadas como material de revestimento para controlar a liberação de fármacos de péletes revestidos de fármaco altamente solúvel, o succinato de metoprolol. Variando as misturas de polímeros, obtiveram-se faixas de padrão de liberação do fármaco em pH 6,8. O presente estudo tratou da difusão do fármaco através de filmes de Surelease®/hidroxipropil metilcelulose(HPMC E15, preparados pelo revestimento do fármaco e dos polímeros em sementes nonpareil, utilizando técnica de solução em camada. A liberação de succinato de metoprolol dos péletes revestidos diminuiu com o aumento da carga de polímero de revestimento. A formulação otimizada foi obtida por planejamento fatorial 3². O perfil de liberação revelou que a formulação otimizada segue a cinética de liberação de ordem zero. Os dados de estabilidade mostraram n

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of a sustained-release chitosan-based scaffold embedded with PLGA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kedong; Liu, Yingchao; Macedo, Hugo M.; Jiang, Lili; Li, Chao; Mei, Guanyu; Liu, Tianqing

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient depletion within three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is one of the major hurdles in the use of this technology to grow cells for applications in tissue engineering. In order to help in addressing it, we herein propose to use the controlled release of encapsulated nutrients within polymer microspheres into chitosan-based 3D scaffolds, wherein the microspheres are embedded. This method has allowed maintaining a stable concentration of nutrients within the scaffolds over the long term. The polymer microspheres were prepared using multiple emulsions (w/o/w), in which bovine serum albumin (BSA) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) were regarded as the protein pattern and the exoperidium material, respectively. These were then mixed with a chitosan solution in order to form the scaffolds by cryo-desiccation. The release of BSA, entrapped within the embedded microspheres, was monitored with time using a BCA kit. The morphology and structure of the PLGA microspheres containing BSA before and after embedding within the scaffold were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). These had a round shape with diameters in the range of 27–55 μm, whereas the chitosan-based scaffolds had a uniform porous structure with the microspheres uniformly dispersed within their 3D structure and without any morphological change. In addition, the porosity, water absorption and degradation rate at 37 °C in an aqueous environment of 1% chitosan-based scaffolds were (92.99 ± 2.51) %, (89.66 ± 0.66) % and (73.77 ± 3.21) %, respectively. The studies of BSA release from the embedded microspheres have shown a sustained and cumulative tendency with little initial burst, with (20.24 ± 0.83) % of the initial amount released after 168 h (an average rate of 0.12%/h). The protein concentration within the chitosan-based scaffolds after 168 h was found to be (11.44 ± 1.81) × 10 −2 mg/mL. This novel chitosan-based scaffold embedded with PLGA microspheres has proven to be a

  7. Fabrication and evaluation of a sustained-release chitosan-based scaffold embedded with PLGA microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kedong, E-mail: kedongsong@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian R and D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Yingchao [Dalian R and D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Macedo, Hugo M. [Biological Systems Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jiang, Lili; Li, Chao; Mei, Guanyu [Dalian R and D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Tianqing, E-mail: liutq@dlut.edu.cn [Dalian R and D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Nutrient depletion within three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is one of the major hurdles in the use of this technology to grow cells for applications in tissue engineering. In order to help in addressing it, we herein propose to use the controlled release of encapsulated nutrients within polymer microspheres into chitosan-based 3D scaffolds, wherein the microspheres are embedded. This method has allowed maintaining a stable concentration of nutrients within the scaffolds over the long term. The polymer microspheres were prepared using multiple emulsions (w/o/w), in which bovine serum albumin (BSA) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) were regarded as the protein pattern and the exoperidium material, respectively. These were then mixed with a chitosan solution in order to form the scaffolds by cryo-desiccation. The release of BSA, entrapped within the embedded microspheres, was monitored with time using a BCA kit. The morphology and structure of the PLGA microspheres containing BSA before and after embedding within the scaffold were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). These had a round shape with diameters in the range of 27–55 μm, whereas the chitosan-based scaffolds had a uniform porous structure with the microspheres uniformly dispersed within their 3D structure and without any morphological change. In addition, the porosity, water absorption and degradation rate at 37 °C in an aqueous environment of 1% chitosan-based scaffolds were (92.99 ± 2.51) %, (89.66 ± 0.66) % and (73.77 ± 3.21) %, respectively. The studies of BSA release from the embedded microspheres have shown a sustained and cumulative tendency with little initial burst, with (20.24 ± 0.83) % of the initial amount released after 168 h (an average rate of 0.12%/h). The protein concentration within the chitosan-based scaffolds after 168 h was found to be (11.44 ± 1.81) × 10{sup −2} mg/mL. This novel chitosan-based scaffold embedded with PLGA microspheres has proven to be a

  8. Evaluation of a short food frequency questionnaire used among Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; Overby, Nina Cecilie; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against a four-day precoded food diary (PFD) with regard to frequency of food intake among Norwegian 9- and 13-year-olds. A total of 733 9-year-olds and 904 13-year-olds completed first a short FFQ and one to two weeks later a four-day PFD. The short FFQ included questions about 23 food items, including different drinks, fruits, vegetables, bread, fish, pizza, sweets, chocolate and savoury snacks. The PFD covered the whole diet. When comparing mean intake from the PFD with comparable food items in the FFQ, all food items showed that increasing intake measured with the PFD corresponded with increasing intake with the short FFQ. However, participants reported a significantly higher frequency of intake for most foods with the short FFQ compared with PFD, except for soft drinks with sugar and sweets. The median Spearman correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.36 among the 9-year-olds and 0.32 among the 13-year-olds. Often eaten foods such as fruits and vegetables had higher correlations than seldom eaten foods such as pizza and potato chips. The median correlation coefficients for drinks alone were higher (r=0.47) for both age groups. Results indicate that the short FFQ was able to identify high and low consumers of food intake and had a moderate capability to rank individuals according to food intake. Drinks, fruits and vegetables had better correlations with the PFD than infrequently eaten food items.

  9. Ex vivo human skin evaluation of localized fat reduction and anti-aging effect by TriPollar radio frequency treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, Sylvie; Branchet, Marie Christine

    2010-02-01

    A wide variety of radio frequency (RF) treatments for localized fat and cellulite reduction as well as anti-aging are available nowadays, but only a few have shown the biological mechanism responsible for the clinical results. To determine the biological mechanism of the TriPollar RF device for localized fat and cellulite reduction as well as the collagen remodeling effect. Human skin samples were collected from abdominoplasty surgery and facial lifts, in order to evaluate the lipolytic and anti-aging effects of the apollo device powered by TriPollar RF technology using an ex vivo human skin model. The anti-cellulite effect was evaluated by the dosage of released glycerol and histological analysis of the hypodermis. Skin tightening was evaluated by morphometric analysis of collagen fibers and the dosage of collagen synthesis. Following TriPollar treatment, a significant increase of glycerol release by skin samples was found. The structure of fat cells was altered in shape and a modification of the fibrous tract was also detected in the fat layer. Additional findings indicated stimulation of the dermal fibroblasts with increased collagen synthesis. The detected alteration in the hypodermal layer is manifested by fat and cellulite reduction accompanied by structural and biochemical improvement of dermal collagen, which result in overall skin tightening.

  10. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of sustained-release floating tablets of itopride hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed SM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sayed M Ahmed,1 Adel Ahmed Ali,2 Ahmed MA Ali,2,3 Omiya A Hassan2,4 1Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, El-Minia Gadida, Egypt Purpose: The aim of the present study was to improve the bioavailability of itopride (ITO and sustain its action by formulating as a floating dosage form. Materials and methods: Sustained-release floating tablets of ITO hydrochloride (HCl were prepared by direct compression using different hydrocolloid polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethylcellulose and/or methacrylic acid polymers Eudragit RSPM and Carbopol 934P. The floating property was achieved using an effervescent mixture of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid (1:1 mol/mol. Hardness, friability, content uniformity, and dissolution rate of the prepared floating tablets were evaluated. The formulation F10 composed of 28.5% Eudragit RSPM, 3% NaHCO3, and 7% citric acid provided sustained drug release. Results: In vitro results showed sustained release of F10 where the drug release percentage was 96.51%±1.75% after 24 hours (P=0.031.The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the area under the curve (AUC0–∞ of the prepared sustained-release floating tablets at infinity achieved 93.69 µg·h/mL compared to 49.89 µg·h/mL for the reference formulation (Ganaton® and the relative bioavailability of the sustained-release formulation F10 increased to 187.80% (P=0.022. Conclusion: The prepared floating tablets of ITO HCl (F10 could be a promising drug delivery system with sustained-release action and enhanced drug bioavailability. Keywords: itopride HCl, oral drug delivery, stability study, bioavailability

  11. Synthesis and in vitro anti-cancer evaluation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-conjugated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a decapeptide hormone released from the hypothalamus and shows high affinity binding to the LHRH receptors. It is reported that several cancer cells also express LHRH receptors such as breast, ovarian, prostatic, bladder and others. In this study, we linked B1, an anti-cancer peptide, to LHRH and its analogs to improve the activity against cancer cells with LHRH receptor. Biological evaluation revealed that TB1, the peptide contains triptorelin sequence, present favorable anti-cancer activity as well as plasma stability. Further investigations disclosed that TB1 trigger apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-cytochrome c-caspase apoptotic pathway, it also exhibited the anti-migratory effect on cancer cells.

  12. Frequency of myocardial injury after blunt chest trauma as evaluated by radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, G.R.; Driedger, A.A.; Holliday, R.L.; Cheung, H.W.; Sibbald, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients who had sustained multisystem trauma, including severe blunt chest injury, were prospectively evaluated to assess the frequency of associated traumatic myocardial injury. Traumatic injury to either the right or left ventricle was defined by the presence of discrete abnormalities of wall motion on electrocardiographically gated cardiac scintigraphy in patients without a clinical history of heart disease. Forty-two patients (55%) (Group 1) had focal abnormalities of wall motion; 27 involved the right ventricle, 7 the left ventricle, 7 were biventricular, and 1 involved only the septum. Both the right and left ventricular ejection fractions were significantly lower (31 +/- 11% and 47 +/- 14%, respectively) than those in the 35 traumatized patients without wall motion abnormalities on scintigraphy (Group 2) (49 +/- 8% and 58 +/- 11%, respectively). Repeat scintigraphic examination in 32 Group 1 patients at a time remote from initial injury showed improvement or resolution of previously defined focal wall motion abnormalities in 27 of 32 patients (84%). The electrocardiogram and serum enzyme tests were insensitive indexes of traumatic myocardial injury when defined by the scintigraphic abnormalities. Thus, severe blunt chest trauma results in a higher frequency of traumatic myocardial injury than heretofore recognized, and frequently involves the anteriorly situated right ventricle

  13. Evaluation of Approaches to Deal with Low-Frequency Nuisance Covariates in Population Pharmacokinetic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies include occurrences of rare variables, like genotypes, which due to their frequency and strength render their effects difficult to estimate from a dataset. Variables that influence the estimated value of a model-based parameter are termed covariates. It is often difficult to determine if such an effect is significant, since type I error can be inflated when the covariate is rare. Their presence may have either an insubstantial effect on the parameters of interest, hence are ignorable, or conversely they may be influential and therefore non-ignorable. In the case that these covariate effects cannot be estimated due to power and are non-ignorable, then these are considered nuisance, in that they have to be considered but due to type 1 error are of limited interest. This study assesses methods of handling nuisance covariate effects. The specific objectives include (1) calibrating the frequency of a covariate that is associated with type 1 error inflation, (2) calibrating its strength that renders it non-ignorable and (3) evaluating methods for handling these non-ignorable covariates in a nonlinear mixed effects model setting. Type 1 error was determined for the Wald test. Methods considered for handling the nuisance covariate effects were case deletion, Box-Cox transformation and inclusion of a specific fixed effects parameter. Non-ignorable nuisance covariates were found to be effectively handled through addition of a fixed effect parameter.

  14. Bimatoprost-loaded ocular inserts as sustained release drug delivery systems for glaucoma treatment: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Ribeiro Franca

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and assess a novel sustained-release drug delivery system of Bimatoprost (BIM. Chitosan polymeric inserts were prepared using the solvent casting method and characterized by swelling studies, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, drug content, scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. Biodistribution of 99mTc-BIM eye drops and 99mTc-BIM-loaded inserts, after ocular administration in Wistar rats, was accessed by ex vivo radiation counting. The inserts were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in glaucomatous Wistar rats. Glaucoma was induced by weekly intracameral injection of hyaluronic acid. BIM-loaded inserts (equivalent to 9.0 µg BIM were administered once into conjunctival sac, after ocular hypertension confirmation. BIM eye drop was topically instilled in a second group of glaucomatous rats for 15 days days, while placebo inserts were administered once in a third group. An untreated glaucomatous group was used as control. Intraocular pressure (IOP was monitored for four consecutive weeks after treatment began. At the end of the experiment, retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve head cupping were evaluated in the histological eye sections. Characterization results revealed that the drug physically interacted, but did not chemically react with the polymeric matrix. Inserts sustainedly released BIM in vitro during 8 hours. Biodistribution studies showed that the amount of 99mTc-BIM that remained in the eye was significantly lower after eye drop instillation than after chitosan insert implantation. BIM-loaded inserts lowered IOP for 4 weeks, after one application, while IOP values remained significantly high for the placebo and untreated groups. Eye drops were only effective during the daily treatment period. IOP results were reflected in RGC counting and optic nerve head cupping damage. BIM-loaded inserts provided sustained release of BIM and seem to be a

  15. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report

  16. Report of the national committee on the evaluation of special water releases for electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During summer 2003, because of high temperatures monitored in french rivers and to guarantee the electric power supply in France, the government authorized some power plants of EDF to depart from the rules normally applied in terms of release temperatures of cooling water in rivers. This report presents the main observations realized by the Committee responsible of the electric power plants control on the ecological impacts, the prevention means and the crisis management bound to the meteorological phenomena and the consequences on the water policy. (A.L.B.)

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of a sustained-release chitosan-based scaffold embedded with PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kedong; Liu, Yingchao; Macedo, Hugo M; Jiang, Lili; Li, Chao; Mei, Guanyu; Liu, Tianqing

    2013-04-01

    Nutrient depletion within three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds is one of the major hurdles in the use of this technology to grow cells for applications in tissue engineering. In order to help in addressing it, we herein propose to use the controlled release of encapsulated nutrients within polymer microspheres into chitosan-based 3D scaffolds, wherein the microspheres are embedded. This method has allowed maintaining a stable concentration of nutrients within the scaffolds over the long term. The polymer microspheres were prepared using multiple emulsions (w/o/w), in which bovine serum albumin (BSA) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) were regarded as the protein pattern and the exoperidium material, respectively. These were then mixed with a chitosan solution in order to form the scaffolds by cryo-desiccation. The release of BSA, entrapped within the embedded microspheres, was monitored with time using a BCA kit. The morphology and structure of the PLGA microspheres containing BSA before and after embedding within the scaffold were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). These had a round shape with diameters in the range of 27-55 μm, whereas the chitosan-based scaffolds had a uniform porous structure with the microspheres uniformly dispersed within their 3D structure and without any morphological change. In addition, the porosity, water absorption and degradation rate at 37 °C in an aqueous environment of 1% chitosan-based scaffolds were (92.99±2.51) %, (89.66±0.66) % and (73.77±3.21) %, respectively. The studies of BSA release from the embedded microspheres have shown a sustained and cumulative tendency with little initial burst, with (20.24±0.83) % of the initial amount released after 168 h (an average rate of 0.12%/h). The protein concentration within the chitosan-based scaffolds after 168 h was found to be (11.44±1.81)×10(-2) mg/mL. This novel chitosan-based scaffold embedded with PLGA microspheres has proven to be a promising technique

  18. Biometric identification with high frequency electrocardiogram: Unregistered user refusal method and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoso, Masaki

    2015-08-01

    As a new modality for biometric identification, electrocardiogram-based identification technique has been developed. We proposed a technique with high frequency component of electrocardiogram (HFECG) in QRS segment. In this report, an unregistered user refusal algorithm was combined with the artificial neural network based waveform classifier. The refusal function was realized by simple thresholding technique. HFECGs from twenty collaborators were used for supervised learning. Twenty HFECGs from the same collaborators were tested and false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) were evaluated. Ten HFECGs from other collaborators were also tested to find unregistered user refusal performance. The results show that FAR and FRR in the registrants can be kept within 1%, however, unregistered user refusal performance was not acceptable under the same condition.

  19. Evaluation of diagnosis of small breast cancer with high frequency and color doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Guobing; Hu Chunhong; Jing Qiulong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To probe the features of high frequency ultrasonography (HFU) and color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) in the case of small breast cancers in order to evaluate the diagnostic value for small breast cancer with CDU. Methods: The features of HFU and CDU were respective analyzed in 67 small breast masses, the biggest diameter of which was under 2cm identified with pathology. Results Partially characteristic changes of small breast cancers were displayed, and micro-calcification within the mass was an important characteristic, in addition, the Resistant Index (RI) ≥ 0.70 on Pulsed Doppler (PD) and the grade of blood flow on Color Doppler Flow Imaging (CDFI)≥T2 implied much more positive malignancy prediction. Conclusion: HFU integrated with CDU can be used for the early and accurate diagnosis of the small breast cancer. (authors)

  20. Formulation and evaluation of a bilayer tablet comprising of diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Jabbar; Bashir, Sajid; Samie, Muhammad; Laghari, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    Diclofenac a phenylacetic acid derivative has long been used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug to treat certain conditions however its sustained release formulation with immediate release loading dose is desirable. The rationale of the current work was to develop and evaluate bilayer tablets with diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core. The diclofenac sodium core was prepared by wet granulation method while the...

  1. Evaluation of Controlled Release Urea on the Dynamics of Nitrate, Ammonium, and Its Nitrogen Release in Black Soils of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release urea (CRU is considered to enhance crop yields while alleviating negative environmental problems caused by the hazardous gas emissions that are associated with high concentrations of ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− in black soils. Short-term effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU and polyurethane-coated urea (PCU, compared with conventional urea, on NO3− and NH4+ in black soils were studied through the buried bag experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. We also investigated nitrogen (N release kinetics of CRU and correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO3− and NH4+. CRU can reduce concentrations of NO3− and NH4+, and PCU was more effective in maintaining lower soil NO3−/NH4+ ratios than SCU and U. Parabolic equation could describe the kinetics of NO3− and NH4+ treated with PCU. The Elovich equation could describe the kinetics of NO3− and NH4+ treated with SCU. The binary linear regression model was established to predict N release from PCU because of significant correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO3− and NH4+. These results provided a methodology and data support for characterizing and predicting the N release from PCU in black soils.

  2. Evaluation of the potential for significant ammonia releases from Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B.J.; Anderson, C.M.; Chen, G.; Cuta, J.M.; Ferryman, T.A.; Terrones, G.

    1996-07-01

    Ammonia is ubiquitous as a component of the waste stored in the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). Because ammonia is both flammable and toxic, concerns have been raised about the amount of ammonia stored in the tanks and the possible mechanisms by which it could be released from the waste into the head space inside the tanks as well as into the surrounding atmosphere. Ammonia is a safety issue for three reasons. As already mentioned, ammonia is a flammable gas and may contribute to a flammability hazard either directly, if it reaches a high enough concentration in the tank head space, or by contributing to the flammability of other flammable gases such as hydrogen (LANL 1994). Ammonia is also toxic and at relatively low concentrations presents a hazard to human health. The level at which ammonia is considered Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) is 300 ppm (WHC 1993, 1995). Ammonia concentrations at or above this level have been measured inside the head space in a number of SSTs. Finally, unlike hydrogen and nitrous oxide, ammonia is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, and large amounts of ammonia can be stored in the waste as dissolved gas. Because of its high solubility, ammonia behaves in a qualitatively different manner from hydrogen or other insoluble gases. A broader range of scenarios must be considered in modeling ammonia storage and release

  3. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1, entrapment efficiency (Y2 and drug release (Y3. SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV. The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %, Y2 (45-83 % and Y3 (49-86 % were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  4. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Afzal, Samina; Mahmood, Asif; Maheen, Safirah; Afzal, Khurram; Iqbal, Nabila; Andleeb, Mehwish; Abbas, Nazar

    2017-12-20

    For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and drug release (Y3). SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV). The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %), Y2 (45-83 %) and Y3 (49-86 %) were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas) suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  5. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  6. Pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of extended release lorcaserin for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Kathryn M; Dunham, Marissa W

    2017-08-01

    Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor antagonist that was FDA approved in 2012. Lorcaserin is recently available as an extended-release (ER) formulation for the treatment of obesity as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of lorcaserin ER will be reviewed. Expert opinion: Lorcaserin ER 20mg daily provides drug exposure bioequivalent to lorcaserin immediate release (IR) 10mg twice daily. Lorcaserin IR is associated with 3.3 and 3.0% placebo-subtracted weight loss in patients without and with diabetes, respectively. A1C was reduced by 0.9% in patients with diabetes. Common side effects include headache, dry mouth, constipation, dizziness, fatigue, and nausea. Lorcaserin provides potential advantages over other antiobesity medications in regards to tolerability and simplicity of medication initiation, but may not be as effective as other options. Lorcaserin ER offers improved ease of administration and anticipated adherence compared to the IR formulation. The place in therapy for lorcaserin ER and other antiobesity medications will be further clarified by results of pending clinical trials addressing cardiovascular outcomes as well as the role pharmacogenomics and comorbid disease states may play in choosing patient-specific therapy.

  7. Acoustic transfer function of cavity and its application to rapid evaluation of sound field at low frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Gang; CHEN Hualing; HU Xuanli; HUANG Xieqing

    2001-01-01

    A new method to obtain numerical solution of Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF) by BEM is presented. For a simply supported panel backed by a rectangular cavity at low frequency band (0-200 Hz), the frequency property of ATF is analyzed. The relation between the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field and the discretization schemes of the vibrational panel is discussed. The result shows that the method to obtain ATF and the rapid evaluation of sound field using the ATF is suitable to low frequency band. If an appropriate discretization scheme is choosed based on the frequency involved and the effort to obtain ATF, the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field is acceptable.

  8. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage, Daniel; Horne, Zachary; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  9. The Frequency of "Brilliant" and "Genius" in Teaching Evaluations Predicts the Representation of Women and African Americans across Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Storage

    Full Text Available Women and African Americans-groups targeted by negative stereotypes about their intellectual abilities-may be underrepresented in careers that prize brilliance and genius. A recent nationwide survey of academics provided initial support for this possibility. Fields whose practitioners believed that natural talent is crucial for success had fewer female and African American PhDs. The present study seeks to replicate this initial finding with a different, and arguably more naturalistic, measure of the extent to which brilliance and genius are prized within a field. Specifically, we measured field-by-field variability in the emphasis on these intellectual qualities by tallying-with the use of a recently released online tool-the frequency of the words "brilliant" and "genius" in over 14 million reviews on RateMyProfessors.com, a popular website where students can write anonymous evaluations of their instructors. This simple word count predicted both women's and African Americans' representation across the academic spectrum. That is, we found that fields in which the words "brilliant" and "genius" were used more frequently on RateMyProfessors.com also had fewer female and African American PhDs. Looking at an earlier stage in students' educational careers, we found that brilliance-focused fields also had fewer women and African Americans obtaining bachelor's degrees. These relationships held even when accounting for field-specific averages on standardized mathematics assessments, as well as several competing hypotheses concerning group differences in representation. The fact that this naturalistic measure of a field's focus on brilliance predicted the magnitude of its gender and race gaps speaks to the tight link between ability beliefs and diversity.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of loose assemblies using multi-frequency eddy currents and artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourc’h, Eric; Le Gac, Guillaume; Larzabal, Pascal; Joubert, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of the evaluation of metallic assemblies in an aeronautical context, by means of a non-invasive method. The problems lies in the estimation of the distance separating two aluminum plates representative of a loose assembly (up to 300 µm), the top plate being possibly of unknown thickness ranging from 1 to 8 mm. To do so, the eddy current (EC) method is chosen, because it allows non-contact evaluation of conducting media to be carried out, which is sensitive to electrical conductivity changes in the part under evaluation, and hence to the presence of an air gap between parts. The problem falls into the category of evaluation of a multilayered conductive structure starting from EC data, which is an ill-posed problem. In order to bypass these difficulties, as well as to deal with the uncertainties that may be introduced by the experimental set-up, a ‘non-model’ approach is implemented by means of an artificial neural network (ANN). The latter is elaborated in a statistical learning approach starting from the experimental EC data provided by a ferrite cored coil EC probe used to investigate an assembly mockup of adjustable configuration. Moreover, in order to build a learning database allowing a robust and accurate ANN to be elaborated, as well as to deal with assemblies of unknown thicknesses, we consider EC data obtained at different frequencies chosen in an adjusted frequency bandwidth, experimentally determined so as to optimize the sensitivity toward the presence of an air gap between parts. The implementation of the proposed approach for distances between parts ranging from 60 to 300 µm provided estimated root mean square errors ranging from 7 μm up to 50 µm for the estimation of the distance between parts, and ranging from 20 µm up to 1.4 mm for the estimation of the top plates, ranging from 1 to 8 mm, respectively. (paper)

  11. [Construction and evaluation of the tissue engineered nerve of bFGF-PLGA sustained release microspheres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglin; Lin, Wei; Gao, Weiqiang; Xiao, Yuhua; Dong, Changchao

    2008-12-01

    To study the outcomes of nerve defect repair with the tissue engineered nerve, which is composed of the complex of SCs, 30% ECM gel, bFGF-PLGA sustained release microspheres, PLGA microfilaments and permeable poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) catheters. SCs were cultured and purified from the sciatic nerves of 1-day-old neonatal SD rats. The 1st passage cells were compounded with bFGF-PLGA sustained release microspheres and ECM gel, and then were injected into permeable PDLLA catheters with PLGA microfilaments inside. In this way, the tissue engineered nerve was constructed. Sixty SD rats were included. The model of 15-mm sciatic nerve defects was made, and then the rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 12 rats in each. In group A, autograft was adopted. In group B, the blank PDLLA catheters with PBS inside were used. In group C, PDLLA catheters, with PLGA microfilaments and 30% ECM gel inside, were used. In group D, PDLLA catheters, with PLGA microfilaments, SCs and 30% ECM gel inside, were used. In group E, the tissue engineered nerve was applied. After the operation, observation was made for general conditions of the rats. The sciatic function index (SFI) analysis was performed at 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks after the operation, respectively. Electrophysiological detection and histological observation were performed at 12 and 24 weeks after the operation, respectively. All rats survived to the end of the experiment. At 12 and 16 weeks after the operation, group E was significantly different from group B in SFI (P fibers in group E were significantly differents from those in groups A, B and C (P fibers in group E were smaller than those in group A (P fibers in group E was significantly different from those in groups A, B, C (P fibers in group E were bigger than those in groups B and C (P < 0.05). The tissue engineered nerve with the complex of SCs, ECM gel, bFGF-PLGA sustained release microspheres, PLGA microfilaments and permeable PDLLA catheters promote

  12. Spatial-temporal water quality parameters evaluation of the Santa Rita river (BA with respect to the release of manipueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Delano Porto Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The watershed of the river Santa Rita includes the towns of Simão and Campinhos, where exists about 150 flour houses. Campinhos is among the largest cassava processing facilities in the region, generating many direct and indirect jobs. Manipueira is a liquid residue originating from the cassava pressing and presents high pollutant potential due to its high amount of glucose and fructose, this potential is 25 times greater than the one from domestic sewer. This work had as objective the evaluation of possible impacts of manipueira release in the water quality of Santa Rita river. For this, the land use map was elaborated and the physiographic characterization developed, besides being performed six campaigns for water samples collection in four sampling points along the river. The obtained results indicated that the watershed is elongated, with low drainage efficiency and it is not prone to flooding. Estimated water quality parameters indicated that organic effluents from Campinhos and Simão impact the values of dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and zinc, suggesting that the water quality of the river Santa Rita is affected by manipueira release. The concentrations of total phosphorus, iron and cooper were superior downstream of the Sewer Treatment Station. The river water was saline in the three sampling points most affected by the release of manipueira.

  13. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  15. Progress report on evaluation of potential impact of 14C releases from an HTGR reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Dixon, K.R.; Edwards, N.T.; Murphy, B.D.; Rohwer, P.S.; Harris, W.F.; Kaye, S.V.

    1976-07-01

    The potential radiological impacts of atmospheric releases of 14 CO 2 are assessed for a model HTGR reprocessing facility. Two off-gas systems were considered: (1) a 300-ft stack with no thermal output, and (2) a 1000-ft stack with a stack gas temperature of 80 0 C and heat output of 4.2 x 10 7 Btu/hr. Meteorological data for the Oak Ridge area were used with an assumed annual release rate of 5000 Ci as input to an atmospheric transport model, which in turn was used to predict air concentrations of 14 C at points of habitation and food production in the local area (within 50 miles) of the facility. The total-body dose rates estimated for the average resident living in the local area were 0.107 mrem/yr for the 300-ft stack and 0.063 mrem/yr for the 1000-ft stack. Population doses were computed for a population of 10 6 individuals uniformly distributed within the 50-mile local area of the facility; these were 110 man-rem for the 300-ft stack and 63 man-rem for the 1000-ft stack. The results of these dose calculations suggest that a 1000-ft stack would be very effective in reducing the estimated doses. Plant growth carbon assimilation model was derived in order to investigate the adequacy of the assumption of tissue equilibration with time-averaged ambient specific activity as a basis for dose estimates. Simulation runs with these models suggest that in the presence of frequent fluctuations of large amplitude in the ambient air 14 CO 2 concentrations, specific activity in plant tissue can exceed conventionally calculated time-averaged specific activity

  16. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  17. Evaluation of effect of high frequency electromagnetic field on growth and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Saleh H; Alharbi, Sulaiman A; Faden, Asmaa A; Wainwright, M

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF at 900 and 1800 MHz) on DNA, growth rate and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus , S. epidermidis , and P. aeruginosa . In this study, bacteria were exposed to 900 and 1800 MHz for 2 h and then inoculated to new medium when their growth rate and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. Results for the study of bacterial DNA unsuccessful to appearance any difference exposed and non-exposed S. aureus and S. epidermidis . Exposure of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to electromagnetic fields mostly produced no statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth, except for S. aureus when exposure to 900 MHz at 12 h. Exposure of P. aeruginosa to electromagnetic fields at 900 MHz however, lead to a significant reduction in growth rate, while 1800 MHz had insignificant effect. With the exception of S. aureus , treated with amoxicillin (30 µg) and exposed to electromagnetic fields, radiation treatment had no significant effect on bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics.

  18. Evaluating the Effect of Nuclear Power Plant Buildings on the Atmospheric Dispersion Behavior of Released Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, N.N.; Tawfik, F.S.; Agamy, S.A.; Nagla, T.F.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important principles in air pollution is to minimize the release of pollutants to the atmosphere, deposition on the ground and promote sufficient dilution of released pollutants within the atmosphere. Building down wash describes the effect that wind flowing over or around buildings create a cavity of reticulating winds in the are a near the buildings. These cavities cause increased vertical dispersion of plumes emitted from stacks on or near the buildings . Often it leads to elevated concentrations downwind of affected stacks. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the building down wash phenomena on the atmospheric dispersion behavior of released radioactive materials from NPP. In this study, a hypothetical scenario is presented involving a point source with varying stack parameters and rectangular shaped buildings (Mille stone Nuclear Power Plant) using meteorological parameters of a chosen day. The concentrations of assumed released radionuclides, taking into consideration the building down wash effect and without are calculated using the AERMOD Model taking into consideration the effect of the type of atmospheric stability class. Also the analysis includes the model predictions for the highest 1-hour cavity concentration. The results show that the size of the cavity zone is not affected by the type of stability class, but is affected by the stack location and buildings shape. On other hand, the distance at which the plume touches the ground is affected by the type of stability class, the stack location and buildings shape. So, strategies for locating buildings need to be considered to maximize dispersion when planning for constructing several reactors and accessory buildings at a nuclear site

  19. The use of uranium isotopes and the U/Th ratio to evaluate the fingerprint of plants following uranium releases from fuel cycle settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.; Boulet, B.; Cariou, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the environmental monitoring of fuel cycle settlements. It aims to evaluate uranium released into the terrestrial environment. Measurement of uranium isotopes in terrestrial plants allows illustrating the consequences of chronic and incidental releases of depleted uranium into the atmosphere. However, such an analytical approach reaches its limits when natural uranium is released. Indeed, distinguishing natural uranium from releases and uranium from the radiological background is difficult. For this reason, we propose normalizing uranium activity measured in plants taken in the surroundings of nuclear sites with respect to 232 Th, considering that the source of this latter is the background. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of web-based, self-administered, graphical food frequency questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal, Alan R; Kolar, Ann S; Fisher, James L; Plascak, Jesse J; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Weiss, Rick; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-04-01

    Computer-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can address limitations inherent in paper questionnaires by allowing very complex skip patterns, portion size estimation based on food pictures, and real-time error checking. We evaluated a web-based FFQ, the Graphical Food Frequency System (GraFFS). Participants completed the GraFFS, six telephone-administered 24-hour dietary recalls over the next 12 weeks, followed by a second GraFFS. Participants were 40 men and 34 women, aged 18 to 69 years, living in the Columbus, OH, area. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, and 17 micronutrients/food components were estimated from the GraFFS and the mean of all recalls. Bias (second GraFFS minus recalls) was -9%, -5%, +4%, and -4% for energy and percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. De-attenuated, energy-adjusted correlations (intermethod reliability) between the recalls and the second GraFFS for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.82, 0.79, 0.67, and 0.90, respectively; for micronutrients/food components the median was 0.61 and ranged from 0.40 for zinc to 0.92 for beta carotene. The correlations between the two administrations of the GraFFS (test-retest reliability) for fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol were 0.60, 0.63, 0.73, and 0.87, respectively; among micronutrients/food components the median was 0.67 and ranged from 0.49 for vitamin B-12 to 0.82 for fiber. The measurement characteristics of the GraFFS were at least as good as those reported for most paper FFQs, and its high intermethod reliability suggests that further development of computer-administered FFQs is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation the Frequency of Sexual Dysfunction in Infertile Men, Fatemieh Hospital, Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Babolhavaeji

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sexual dysfunction is called to inability to get or keep a successful sexual intercourse. The term “sexual dysfunction” may also be used to describe other problems that interfere with sexual intercourse, such as inability to achieve erection and problems with ejaculation or orgasm. Damage to nerves, arteries, smooth muscles and fibrous tissues, often as a result of a disease, are the most common cause of erectile dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of sexual dysfunction in patients referred to Fatemieh infertility clinic, Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study all males referred to Fatemieh infertility center in 2005, were entered the study. All patients were clinically examined and their medical histories were obtained. Data such as age, accusation, education, history of smoking and opioid abusing, sexual dysfunction, inability to achieve orgasm, premature ejaculation and the frequency of intercourse were entered in the questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13 and 2 statistical test.Results: The mean age of patients studied was 32.37.4 years (20-65 years. From 245 cases, 135 (55.1% had sexual dysfunction. The most common sexual dysfunction was premature ejaculation(38.8%. Other sexual dysfunctions were impotence with 16.3% , lack of sexual desire with 12.2% and orgasm disorder with 10.6% respectively. 65.9% patients were uneducated or had elementary education , 27.4% had diploma , and 6.7% had academic education. 23.7% of patients had addiction and 34.1% were smoker.Conclusion : This study showed that most common etiology of sexual dysfunction was premature ejaculation. Other sexual dysfunctions were: impotence, sexual desire disorder and orgasm disorder respectively.

  2. Preparation and in-vitro in-vivo evaluation of sustained release matrix diclofenac sodium tablets using PVP-K90 and natural gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Raza; Nasir, Fazli; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Rashid, Abdur; Khan, Abbas; Khan, Abad

    2011-10-01

    Conventional dosage form is nowadays mostly replaced by sustained release formulation in order to increase drug efficacy and patient compliance. The sustained release properties of the PVP K90 alone and in combination with guar gum, xanthan gum and gum tragacanth were evaluated using diclofenac sodium (100 mg/tablet) as a model drug. Tablets were processed using wet granulation method and evaluated for sustained drug release properties. The drug release from the formulations was studied in relationship with Commercially available Diclofenac Sodium SR, used as a reference tablets and results were expressed as similarity (f1) and differential factor (f2). The tablets prepared using PVP K90 160 mg/tablet sustained the release of diclofenac sodium for 12 hours. Formulations where the PVP K90 was partially replaced with different gums also sustained the release of drug for 12 hours. The release of the drug from these formulations mainly followed Higuchi model and super case-II and Non-Fickian diffusion. The in-vivo drug release was studied in healthy human volunteers using non-blinded cross over, two period design using Diclofenac Sodium SR Tablets as a reference drug. The relative bioavailability of the formulation containing PVP K90 and gum tragacanth was 0.91. The studies showed that the use of the PVP K90 in combination with gum tragacanth both in-vitro and in-vivo sustained the release of the drug.

  3. Annual evaluation of routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivating Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Bethel Valley Watershed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has several Environmental Management (EM) facilities that are designated for deactivation and subsequent decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The Surplus Facilities Program at ORNL provides surveillance and maintenance support for these facilities as deactivation objectives are completed to reduce the risks associated with radioactive material inventories, etc. The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program has established requirements for radiological monitoring and surveying radiological conditions in these facilities. These requirements include an annual evaluation of routine radiation survey and monitoring frequencies. Radiological survey/monitoring frequencies were evaluated for two High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project facilities, the Bulk Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility. Considerable progress has been made toward accomplishing deactivation objectives, thus the routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies are being reduced for 1999. This report identifies the survey/monitoring frequency adjustments and provides justification that the applicable RADCON Program requirements are also satisfied

  4. Twenty-six years of post-release monitoring of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): evaluation of a cooperative rehabilitation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M.; Ross, Monica; Hall, Madison; Reid, James P.; Barlas, Margie E.; Keith Diagne, Lucy W; Bonde, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    The rescue, rehabilitation, and release of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) into the wild has occurred since 1974; however, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes of the releases has never been conducted. Herein, we examined data for 136 Florida manatees that were rehabilitated and released with telemetry tags between 1988 and 2013 to determine release outcome of each individual as either success (acclimation) or failure after at least 1 y. Ten predictor variables were statistically evaluated for potential relationships to release outcome. To assess the contribution of each predictor variable to release outcome, each variable was tested for significance in univariate analyses. Manatees born in captivity experienced poor success after release (14%), whereas the overall success of wild-born individuals was higher (72%). When compared with other variables in our dataset, number of days in captivity was the strongest predictor for determining success. Manatees rescued as calves and held in captivity for more than 5 y had a high likelihood of failure, while subadults and adults had a high likelihood of success, regardless of the amount of time spent in captivity. Ensuring the success of individual manatees after release is critical for evaluating the contribution of the manatee rehabilitation program to the growth of the wild population.

  5. First evaluation of low frequency noise measurements of in core detector signals in the measuring assembly Rheinsberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collatz, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor noise spectra of in core neutron detectors are measured in the low frequency range (0.03 Hz to 1 Hz) and evaluated. The increase of the effective noise signal value is due to pressure oscillations or oscillations of special steam volume portions. Thus boiling monitoring of reactor cores in PWR type reactors may be possible, if the low frequency noise of the whole set of in core detectors is taken into account

  6. Evaluating the radiation environment around a nuclear power station with unmonitored radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, A.A.; Dibobes, I.K.; Pyuskyulan, K.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation monitoring system at (RMS) at the Armenian nuclear power station; the environmental monitoring program includes measuring the gamma radiation around the station, determining radionuclide contents in air and fallout, and also in surface water and ground water, in water plants and bottom sediments, in soil and plants and also in local agricultural products. The RMS monitors gas-aerosol releases and effluents from the station. The radius of the monitored zone is 25 km. The gamma radiation is measured by IKS dosemeters and SRP-68-01 portable instruments. The air is monitored by six stationary aspriation systems at distances of 1, 5, 6, 11, 14, 15 and 50 km and 28 planchette cells. The RMS records virtually all the mean monthly and mean annual fluctuations in the global background. In seven years of operation at the Armenian station, only Ca 137 and Sr 90 from global fallout together with Be 7 of cosmogenic origin have been observed in air apart from two cases. In 1981, air samples taken with the aspirators and combined over a quarter showed Ce 141, Ce 144, Ru 106, Ru 103, Nb 95 and Zr 95. The concentrations of these are presented

  7. A dynamic compartment model for evaluating transfer of radionuclide into rice-plant after acute release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, D.K.; Lee, H.S.; Choi, H.J.; Kang, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic compartment model is presented to estimate the transfer of radionuclides deposited on rice-fields after an accidental release. The present model includes a surface water compartment and a direct shoot-base absorption from the surface water to the rice plant to account for the flooded condition of rice-fields, which are major features discriminating the present model from the existing model. In order to test the validity of model, a number of simulated Cs-137 deposition experiments were performed while growing rice-plant in a green house. For the experiments the radionuclide was indirectly treated in the root zone soil before transplanting and on the surface water without a direct contamination of rice-plant after transplanting. In the first year of deposition the shoot-base absorption was a predominant process for the transfer of radionuclide into rice when the radionuclide was treated on the surface water, and from the second year, the root-uptake was dominant. The model calculation predicted reasonably well the first year experimental result showing the importance of shoot base absorption as well as the concentration of rice-body and grain measured from respective rice-plant grown consecutively on the contaminated soils for years. (author)

  8. An evaluation of volatile compounds released from containers commonly used in circulation of sports beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to identify and quantify important volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from sports beverage containers commonly used for storage and distribution, three brands of sports beverages with poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and metal cans were analyzed through headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Out of 80 volatile compounds identified from all container types, I-limonene recorded the highest concentration (34.3-118 pmol mol(-1)) along with 12 other VOCs detected most frequently (more than 3 out of all 6 products) such as 2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene, alpha-terpineol, decanaldehyde, and p-isopropyltoluene. When each container was filled up with water and analyzed after a long-term storage (49 days), a total of 14 VOCs were detected. According to our analysis, all the VOCs detected from either beverage or container materials were below the safety limits prescribed previously by diverse agencies. However, an extension of these analyses may be necessary for other beverage types, as certain VOCs can be migrated from container materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Biodegradable Polyesters for Sustained Release of Isometamidium and Ethidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Geerts

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of the results obtained with biodegradable sustained release devices (SRDs containing a mixture of polymers and either isometamidium (ISMM or ethidium. Under controlled laboratory conditions (monthly challenge with tsetse flies infected with Trypanosoma congolense the protection period in SRD treated cattle could be extended by a factor 2.8 (for ethidium up to 4.2 (for ISMM as compared to animals treated intramuscularly with the same drugs. Using a competitive drug ELISA ISMM concentrations were detected up to 330 days after the implantation of the SRDs, whereas after i.m. injection the drug was no longer present three to four months post treatment. Two field trials carried out in Mali under heavy tsetse challenge showed that the cumulative infection rate was significantly lower in the ISMM-SRD implanted cattle than in those which received ISMM intramuscularly. Using ethidium SRD, however, contradictory results were obtained in field trials in Zambia and in Mali. The potential advantages and inconvenients of the use of SRDs are discussed and suggestions are made in order to further improve the currently available devices.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of nano-sized bioactive glass/collagen composites releasing tetracycline hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneira, J; Di Virgilio, A L; Audisio, M C; Boccaccini, A R; Gorustovich, A A

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of silicate bioactive glass nanoparticles/collagen composites functionalized with tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). Different concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) were incorporated on silicate bioactive glass nanoparticles/collagen composites by dipping these biomaterials for 48 h at 37°C in a solution of simulated body fluid (SBF) plus 0·05, 0·20 or 0·35 mg ml(-1) of the antibiotic. TCH release was assessed in double-distilled water at 37°C up to 72 h. The antibacterial activity of the samples has been evaluated in two ways: inhibition zone test and plate count method. The experiments were performed in vitro up to 48 h on four staphylococci strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, ATCC25923, ATCC6538P and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC12228). The new composites were also tested for cytotoxicity on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. The results showed that the incorporation and release of TCH was dependent on the initial concentration of TCH in SBF. The biomaterials also inhibited the Staph. aureus cell growth even though the efficacy was similar for all concentration. On the other hand, no cytotoxic effects were found on osteoblast-like cells, even at the highest concentration. Considering all results, it can be concluded that the new composite acts as a suitable bioactive carrier of TCH and could have potential in the prevention of biomaterial related infections. The results suggest a potential application as wound dressing. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Magnetic Active Agent Release System (MAARS): evaluation of a new way for a reproducible, externally controlled drug release into the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Christian T; Richert, Hendryk; Abert, Sandra; Merkel, Ute; Hippius, Marion; Stallmach, Andreas

    2012-08-10

    Human absorption studies are used to test new drug candidates for their bioavailability in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In order to replace invasive techniques (e.g. oral or rectal intubation) a variety of externally controlled capsule-based drug release systems has been developed. Most of these use ionizing radiation, internal batteries, heating elements or even chemicals for the localization and disintegration process of the capsule. This embodies potential harms for volunteers and patients. We report about a novel technique called "Magnetic Active Agent Release System" (MAARS), which uses purely magnetic effects for this purpose. In our trial thirteen healthy volunteers underwent a complete monitoring and release procedure of 250 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) targeting the flexura duodenojejunalis and the mid-part of the jejunum. During all experiments MAARS initiated a sufficient drug release and was well tolerated. Beside this we also could show that the absorption of ASA is about two times faster in the more proximal region of the flexura duodenojejunalis with a tmax of 47±13 min compared to the more distal jejunum with tmax values of 100±10 min (p=0.031). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Data release on the Salton Sea Quadrangle, California and Arizona. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, R.T. III; Antrim, D.R.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) was to delineate and evaluate all geologic environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. A favorable environment was defined as having the potential to contain an occurrence of at least 100 tons of U 3 O 8 at an average grade of not less than 0.01% U 3 O 8 . In the Salton Sea Quadrangle, reported uranium occurrences were evaluated, and geologic environments thought to be favorable were examined. This report includes the field data collected during that work and a summary of the quadrangle geology and uranium favorability. This is the final report to be prepared on this quadrangle under the NURE program

  13. Capturing the Interpersonal Implications of Evolved Preferences? Frequency of Sex Shapes Automatic, but Not Explicit, Partner Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lindsey L; McNulty, James K; Meltzer, Andrea L; Olson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    A strong predisposition to engage in sexual intercourse likely evolved in humans because sex is crucial to reproduction. Given that meeting interpersonal preferences tends to promote positive relationship evaluations, sex within a relationship should be positively associated with relationship satisfaction. Nevertheless, prior research has been inconclusive in demonstrating such a link, with longitudinal and experimental studies showing no association between sexual frequency and relationship satisfaction. Crucially, though, all prior research has utilized explicit reports of satisfaction, which reflect deliberative processes that may override the more automatic implications of phylogenetically older evolved preferences. Accordingly, capturing the implications of sexual frequency for relationship evaluations may require implicit measurements that bypass deliberative reasoning. Consistent with this idea, one cross-sectional and one 3-year study of newlywed couples revealed a positive association between sexual frequency and automatic partner evaluations but not explicit satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of automatic measurements to understanding interpersonal relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Frequency domain reflectometry modeling for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Fifield, L. S.; Jones, A. M.; Hartman, T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Cable insulation polymers are among the more susceptible materials to age-related degradation within a nuclear power plant. This is recognized by both regulators and utilities, so all plants have developed cable aging management programs to detect damage before critical component failure in compliance with regulatory guidelines. Although a wide range of tools are available to evaluate cables and cable systems, cable aging management programs vary in how condition monitoring and nondestructive examinations are conducted as utilities search for the most reliable and cost-effective ways to assess cable system condition. Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is emerging as one valuable tool to locate and assess damaged portions of a cable system with minimal cost and only requires access in most cases to one of the cable terminal ends. Since laboratory studies to evaluate the use of FDR for inspection of aged cables can be expensive and data interpretation may be confounded by multiple factors which influence results, a model-based approach is desired to parametrically investigate the effect of insulation material damage in a controlled manner. This work describes development of a physics-based FDR model which uses finite element simulations of cable segments in conjunction with cascaded circuit element simulations to efficiently study a cable system. One or more segments of the cable system model have altered physical or electrical properties which represent the degree of damage and the location of the damage in the system. This circuit model is then subjected to a simulated FDR examination. The modeling approach is verified using several experimental cases and by comparing it to a commercial simulator suitable for simulation of some cable configurations. The model is used to examine a broad range of parameters including defect length, defect profile, degree of degradation, number and location of defects, FDR bandwidth, and addition of impedance-matched extensions to

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Radio Frequency Identification Retained Surgical Instruments Tracking on Patient Safety: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnock, Kumiko O; Biggs, Bonnie; Fladger, Anne; Bates, David W; Rozenblum, Ronen

    2017-02-22

    Retained surgical instruments (RSI) are one of the most serious preventable complications in operating room settings, potentially leading to profound adverse effects for patients, as well as costly legal and financial consequences for hospitals. Safety measures to eliminate RSIs have been widely adopted in the United States and abroad, but despite widespread efforts, medical errors with RSI have not been eliminated. Through a systematic review of recent studies, we aimed to identify the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on reducing RSI errors and improving patient safety. A literature search on the effects of RFID technology on RSI error reduction was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL (2000-2016). Relevant articles were selected and reviewed by 4 researchers. After the literature search, 385 articles were identified and the full texts of the 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 5 articles were included to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of using RFID for preventing RSI-related errors. The use of RFID resulted in rapid detection of RSI through body tissue with high accuracy rates, reducing risk of counting errors and improving workflow. Based on the existing literature, RFID technology seems to have the potential to substantially improve patient safety by reducing RSI errors, although the body of evidence is currently limited. Better designed research studies are needed to get a clear understanding of this domain and to find new opportunities to use this technology and improve patient safety.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Manganese and Iron Food Frequency Questionnaire for Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Frida B; Falciglia, Grace A; Kuhnell, Pierce; Haynes, Erin N

    2017-09-14

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but overexposure can lead to neurotoxicity. Given the essentiality of Mn in the diet, particularly during children's growth and development, it is imperative to quantify dietary Mn intake in populations that may be exposed to industrial sources of Mn. Dietary absorption of Mn is inversely associated with iron (Fe) stores, yet there is currently no food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary Mn and Fe intake. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the validity of a FFQ to measure dietary Mn and Fe intake in pediatrics by comparing the estimated intakes of Mn and Fe with biomarkers: Mn in blood and hair and Fe in serum. This study utilized a subset of the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES) population residing in Guernsey County, Ohio. Dietary Mn was not correlated with either blood or hair Mn; however, dietary Mn and serum ferritin were significantly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of 0.51, p < 0.01. Moreover, dietary Fe and serum ferritin were also significantly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of 0.51, p < 0.01. This FFQ is a valid measurement tool for Fe intake as measured by serum ferritin; however, Mn intake did not correlate with either blood or hair Mn.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Frequency Transform Based Block Classification of Compound Image Segmentation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Ebenezer Juliet; Florinabel, D. Jemi

    2018-04-01

    Compound image segmentation plays a vital role in the compression of computer screen images. Computer screen images are images which are mixed with textual, graphical, or pictorial contents. In this paper, we present a comparison of two transform based block classification of compound images based on metrics like speed of classification, precision and recall rate. Block based classification approaches normally divide the compound images into fixed size blocks of non-overlapping in nature. Then frequency transform like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied over each block. Mean and standard deviation are computed for each 8 × 8 block and are used as features set to classify the compound images into text/graphics and picture/background block. The classification accuracy of block classification based segmentation techniques are measured by evaluation metrics like precision and recall rate. Compound images of smooth background and complex background images containing text of varying size, colour and orientation are considered for testing. Experimental evidence shows that the DWT based segmentation provides significant improvement in recall rate and precision rate approximately 2.3% than DCT based segmentation with an increase in block classification time for both smooth and complex background images.

  18. Evaluation of increased milking frequency as an additional treatment for cows with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krömker, Volker; Zinke, Claudia; Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Klocke, Doris; Reimann, Anette; Eller, Georg

    2010-02-01

    This field study focused on the possible effects of increased milking frequency (milking four times a day in comparison with milking twice a day) on clinical and bacteriological cure rates of clinical, antibiotically treated mastitis cases. Parameters tested were clinical, microbiological and full (cytomicrobiological) cure as well as the development of milk yield after the clinical mastitis episode. Cows from a large dairy herd meeting the study criteria (n=93) were assigned to two treatment groups by a systematic randomization scheme (blocked by body temperature 39.5 degrees C). Both groups were randomly divided by experimental treatments: a) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 2-times a day; b) antibiotic intramammary treatment and milking 4-times a day. Treatments were initiated before the culture results were known. Cows were surveyed and evaluated on days 1-6, 24 and 31. No significant differences between treatment and control groups regarding clinical cure, microbiological cure, full cure and milk production could be established. Applying a 4-times a day milking regime did not lead to any significant effect, either positive or negative. Therefore, the results suggest that milking 4-times a day as a supporting therapy for mild, moderate and severe antimicrobially treated mastitis cases cannot be recommended.

  19. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  20. Wind farms providing secondary frequency regulation: Evaluating the performance of model-based receding horizon control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Carl R.; Meneveau, Charles; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meyers, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the use of wind farms to provide secondary frequency regulation for a power grid. Our approach uses model-based receding horizon control of a wind farm that is tested using a large eddy simulation (LES) framework. In order to enable real-time implementation, the control actions are computed based on a time-varying one-dimensional wake model. This model describes wake advection and interactions, both of which play an important role in wind farm power production. This controller is implemented in an LES model of an 84-turbine wind farm represented by actuator disk turbine models. Differences between the velocities at each turbine predicted by the wake model and measured in LES are used for closed-loop feedback. The controller is tested on two types of regulation signals, “RegA” and “RegD”, obtained from PJM, an independent system operator in the eastern United States. Composite performance scores, which are used by PJM to qualify plants for regulation, are used to evaluate the performance of the controlled wind farm. Our results demonstrate that the controlled wind farm consistently performs well, passing the qualification threshold for all fastacting RegD signals. For the RegA signal, which changes over slower time scales, the controlled wind farm's average performance surpasses the threshold, but further work is needed to enable the controlled system to achieve qualifying performance all of the time. (paper)

  1. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sachiko; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ikehata, Masateru; Ishii, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Wada, Keiji; Wake, Kanako; Nakasono, Satoshi; Taki, Masao; Ohkubo, Chiyoji

    2016-01-01

    The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST). The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF-MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days) or the cell differentiation process (10 days) during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF-MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF-MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2 , and an early developmental gene, Hba-x , in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH) cooktop, etc . in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF-MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect.

  2. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol.

  3. Evaluation of the impact on the environment of thermal power plant releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, C.; Bertrand, R.; Garnier, G.; Berard, P.; Archimbaud, M.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impact on the environment of oil and coal fired power plants, and of nuclear plants. The impact is evaluated by the level of the air pollution around the plant. But the selected pollutants (Sulfur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Trace elements, organic compounds) are not specific of the pollution produced by the power plant. Therefore, we measured the specific emission of the plant by a continuous sampling in the stack gases. To evaluate the contribution of the plant to the global pollution, a series of diffusion tests was run to measure the atmospheric transfer between the stack and the monitoring system. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was added to the stack plume and its concentration was measured in the environment continuously at the monitoring stations, and by a mobile network for tracing the movement of the plume due to a shift in wind direction. Thereby the impact of other sources could be estimated [fr

  4. An evaluation of arsenic release from monolithic solids using a modified semi-dynamic leaching test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermatas, Dimitris; Moon, Deok Hyun; Menounou, Nektaria; Meng, Xiaoguang; Hires, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Quicklime and quicklime-fly ash-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) effectiveness was evaluated by performing semi-dynamic leaching tests (American Nuclear Society 16.1). Artificial soil samples, contaminated with arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) as well as field soil samples contaminated with arsenic (As) were tested. The artificial soils were prepared by mixing amounts of kaolinite or montmorillonite with fine quartz sand. The S/S effectiveness was evaluated by measuring effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) and leachability indices (LX). Treatment was most effective in kaolinite-based artificial soils treated with quicklime and in quicklime-fly ash treated field soils. The experimental results indicate that D e values were lowered as a result of S/S treatment. Upon treatment LX values were higher than 9, suggesting that S/S treated soils are acceptable for 'controlled utilization'. Based on a model developed by de Groot and van der Sloot [G.J. de Groot, H.A. van der Sloot, in: T.M. Gilliam, C.C. Wiles (Eds.), Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes, vol. 2, ASTM STP 1123, ASTM, PA, 1992, p. 149], the leaching mechanism for all of the treated soils was found to be controlled by diffusion. The effect of soluble silica (Si) on As leachability was also evaluated. When soluble Si concentration was less than 1 ppm, As leachability was the lowest. The controlling mechanism of As immobilization whether sorption, precipitation, or inclusion was also evaluated. It was determined that precipitation was the dominant mechanism

  5. Evaluation of the Ca ion release, pH and surface apatite formation of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Han, L; Noiri, Y; Okiji, T

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like surface precipitate-forming abilities of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement, which was mainly composed of synthetically prepared tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide radiopacifier. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement, white ProRoot MTA (WMTA) and TheraCal LC (a light-cured resin-modified calcium silicate-filled material) were examined. The chemical compositions were analysed with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyser with an image observation function (SEM-EPMA). The pH and Ca 2+ concentrations of water in which the set materials had been immersed were measured, and the latter was assessed with the EDTA titration method. The surface precipitates formed on the materials immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were analysed with SEM-EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). The prototype cement contained Ca, Si and Zr as major elemental constituents, whereas it did not contain some metal elements that were detected in the other materials. The Ca 2+ concentrations and pH of the immersion water samples exhibited the following order: WMTA = prototype cement > TheraCal LC (P prototype cement and WMTA. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement exhibited similar Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities to WMTA. The Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities of TheraCal LC were lower than those of the other materials. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Release of transgenic progranulin from a living hyaline cartilage graft model: An in vitro evaluation on anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ting Ting; Zhang, Feng; Tang, Wei; Wang, Dong-An

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent condition that compromises and even jeopardizes the life quality of millions of people. Common symptoms in OA includes joint stiffness and soreness, and they are often associated with inflammations to various extend. Due to the avascular and aneural nature of articular hyaline cartilage, it has limited self-repair capabilities; especially under inflammatory conditions, damages inflicted on cartilage are often irreversible. Hence, treatment approaches focus on anti-inflammation or articular cartilage replacement. In this study, an engineered, dual-functional living hyaline cartilage graft (LhCG), capable of releasing transgenic anti-inflammatory cytokine-progranulin (PGRN) is developed and envisioned to simultaneously fulfil both requirements. The therapeutic functionality of PGRN releasing LhCG is evaluated by co-culturing the constructs with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secreting THP-1 cells to simulate the inflammatory condition in arthritis. Non-transgenic LhCG constructs and non-coculture sample groups were set up as controls. Gene expression and ECM composition changes across samples were assessed to understand the effects of PGRN as well as inflammatory environment on the cartilage graft. Collectively, the results in this study suggest that in situ release of transgenic recombinant PGRN protects LhCG from induced inflammation in vitro; contrastively, in the absence of PGRN, cartilage grafts are at risk of being degraded and mineralized under exposure to TNFα signaling. This shows that cartilage graft itself can be at risk of degradation or calcification when implanted in arthritic microenvironment. Hence, the inflammatory microenvironment has to be considered in cartilage replacement therapy to increase chances of successful joint mobility restoration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2968-2977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Real-time monitoring of extracellular l-glutamate levels released by high-frequency stimulation at region CA1 of hippocampal slices with a glass capillary-based l-glutamate sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ikegami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of l-glutamate released by high-frequency stimulation in region CA1 of mouse hippocampal slices was performed with a glass capillary-based sensor, in combination with the recoding of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs. A method for extracting l-glutamate currents from the recorded ones was described and applied for determining the level of extracellular l-glutamate released by 100 Hz stimulation. Recording of an l-glutamate current with a current sampling interval of 1 Hz was found to be useful for acquiring a Faradaic current that reflects l-glutamate level released by the high-frequency stimulation of 7 trains, each 20 stimuli at 100 Hz and inter-train interval of 3 s. The l-glutamate level was obtained as 15 ± 6 μM (n = 8 for the persistent enhancement of fEPSPs, i.e., the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP, and 3 ± 1 μM (n = 5 for the case of no LTP induction. Based on these observations, the level of the extracellular l-glutamate was shown to play a crucial role in the induction of LTP.

  8. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  9. Subjective evaluation of noise from neighbours with focus on low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Frank Rysgaard

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing tendency to use lightweight constructions in the building industry. One unwanted side effect of this tendency is poor sound insulation at low frequencies. The purpose of this investigation has been to examine the subjective effects of the resulting increase of low frequency noise...

  10. Evaluating Annual Maximum and Partial Duration Series for Estimating Frequency of Small Magnitude Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlul Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of frequent floods is important for characterising channel morphology, riparian and aquatic habitat, and informing river restoration efforts. This paper presents results from an analysis on frequency estimates of low magnitude floods using the annual maximum and partial series data compared to actual flood series. Five frequency distribution models were fitted to data from 24 gauging stations in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR lagoon catchments in north-eastern Australia. Based on the goodness of fit test, Generalised Extreme Value, Generalised Pareto and Log Pearson Type 3 models were used to estimate flood frequencies across the study region. Results suggest frequency estimates based on a partial series are better, compared to an annual series, for small to medium floods, while both methods produce similar results for large floods. Although both methods converge at a higher recurrence interval, the convergence recurrence interval varies between catchments. Results also suggest frequency estimates vary slightly between two or more partial series, depending on flood threshold, and the differences are large for the catchments that experience less frequent floods. While a partial series produces better frequency estimates, it can underestimate or overestimate the frequency if the flood threshold differs largely compared to bankfull discharge. These results have significant implications in calculating the dependency of floodplain ecosystems on the frequency of flooding and their subsequent management.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Type-3 PLLs Under Wide Variation in Input Voltage and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aravind, C. K.; Rani, B.Indu; Chakkarapani, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of Type-3 PLL under wide variation in input voltage and frequency. Using small signal modeling, the performance of both single loop and dual loop type-3 PLL for variation in input voltage and frequency is studied. The analysis shows that for the same bandwi...... verified by implementing in ALTERA cyclone II FPGA board....

  12. Design and Evaluation of Autonomous Hybrid Frequency-Voltage Sensitive Load Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Sossan, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces an algorithm for control of autonomous loads without digital communication interfaces to provide both frequency regulation and voltage regulation services. This hybrid controller can be used to enhance frequency sensitive loads to mitigate line overload arising from reduced l...... load diversity. Numerical simulations of the hybrid controller in a representative distribution system show the peak system load was reduced by 12% compared to a purely frequency sensitive load controller.......The paper introduces an algorithm for control of autonomous loads without digital communication interfaces to provide both frequency regulation and voltage regulation services. This hybrid controller can be used to enhance frequency sensitive loads to mitigate line overload arising from reduced...

  13. Maximum generation power evaluation of variable frequency offshore wind farms when connected to a single power converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Barcelona (Spain); Junyent-Ferre, Adria; Galceran-Arellano, Samuel [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The paper deals with the evaluation of power generated by variable and constant frequency offshore wind farms connected to a single large power converter. A methodology to analyze different wind speed scenarios and system electrical frequencies is presented and applied to a case study, where it is shown that the variable frequency wind farm concept (VF) with a single power converter obtains 92% of the total available power, obtained with individual power converters in each wind turbine (PC). The PC scheme needs multiple power converters implying drawbacks in terms of cost, maintenance and reliability. The VF scheme is also compared to a constant frequency scheme CF, and it is shown that a significant power increase of more than 20% can be obtained with VF. The case study considers a wind farm composed of four wind turbines based on synchronous generators. (author)

  14. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Performance evaluation of of caesium, iodine, strontium and ruthenium isotopes in urban areas after contamination by accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Maria Ines de Carvalho

    2002-03-01

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of I37 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, l03 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations (SIEM), developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclides are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with and without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving pressurized water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of the relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  16. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantsinen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  18. Development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1999-06-01

    Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in

  19. Comparative study of kanamycin sulphate microparticles and nanoparticles for intramuscular administration: preparation in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sanaul; Devi, V Kusum; Pai, Roopa S

    2016-11-01

    Kanamycin sulphate (KS) is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein synthesis inhibitor. KS is polycationic, a property responsible for KS poor oral absorption half-life (2.5 h) and rapid renal clearance, which results in serious nephrotoxicity/ototoxicity. The current study aimed to develop KS-loaded PLGA vitamin-E-TPGS microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) to reduce the dosing frequency and dose-related adverse effect. In vitro release was sustained up to 10 days for KS PLGA-TPGS MPs and 13 days for KS PLGA-TPGS NPs in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4. The in vivo pharmacokinetic test in Wistar rats showed that the AUC 0-∞ of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs (280.58 μg/mL*min) was about 1.62-fold higher than that of KS PLGA-TPGS MPs (172.30 μg/mL*min). Further, in vivo protein-binding assay ascribed 1.20-fold increase in the uptake of KS PLGA-TPGS NPs through the alveolar macrophage (AM). The studies, therefore, could provide another useful tool for successful development of KS MPs and NPs.

  20. Evaluation of the frequency of Candida spp. in hospitalized and non-hospitalized subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours. The morphology identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic characterization, the CHROMagar Candida medium and the VITEK® system Yeast Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, France. The results showed a colonization of Candida spp. in 85.7% the hospitalized individuals, where the species found were C. albicans (60%, C. tropicalis (23.4%, C. krusei (3.3% and Candida spp. (13.3%. In the non-hospitalized individuals the colonization by Candida spp was 47.1%, and the species found were: C. albicans (45.5%, C.krusei (9.1%, C. guilliermondii (9.1% %, C. tropicalis (3.0%, C. famata (3.0% and Candida spp. (30.3%. In spite of their presence in oral cavity in both groups, Candida spp. was more frequently isolated in hospitalized individuals, who were 6.73 times more likely to have this fungus in the oral cavity and were 3.88 times more likely to have Candida albicans.

  1. Evaluation of frequency of positive exercise-induced bronchospasm between swimmers and sedentary individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laricy Martins da Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite the prevalence of prescribed asthma, there is uncertainty about the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB. Objective: Compare the frequency of EIB between swimmers and sedentary individuals, and observe heart rate variability during bronchial activity. Methods: In total, 18 swimmers (group 1 and 18 sedentary individuals (group 2 were included. The participants rested for 30 minutes for evaluation of HRV. Blood pressure (PA, respiratory rate (RR, and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 were measured. The volunteers remained seated for the spirometry test (maneuver of forced vital capacity - FVC. This was repeated 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the exercise test. The statistical analysis used the Student t, Mann Whitney, and Shapiro-Wilks tests. The significance level was p <0.05. Results: The spirometry findings showed 3 sedentary individuals and 10 swimmers with obstructive ventilatory disorder (OVD. Only 2 of the sedentary and none of the swimmer group demonstrated positive bronchial provocation. A key criterion for diagnosing OVD, the relationship between forced expiratory volume in one second and FVC (FEV1/FVC, was statistically lower in the swimmer group. The measures of the root mean square of the successive differences between adjacent normal RR intervals, in a time interval (RMSSD, and the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval (SDNN were significantly higher among the athletes. Conclusion: The bronchial provocation test identified a higher prevalence of bronchospasm among sedentary individuals. However, there was a reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio and higher HRV in the group of swimmers.

  2. Design and evaluation of a flow-to-frequency converter circuit with thermal feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Eligiusz

    2017-01-01

    A novel thermal flow sensor with a frequency output is presented. The sensor provides a pulse-train output whose frequency is related to the fluid flow rate around a self-heating thermistor. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of the pulse frequency modulator with a thermal feedback loop, stabilizing the temperature of the sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures a balance of the amount of heat supplied in the impulses to the sensor and the heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output pulse-train is proportional to the medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of the presented solution is the total integration of the thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. i.e. the sensor and conditioning system are not separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in the form of a thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor digital input, which with use of the standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into a numerical value of high precision. The sensor has been experimentally characterized as a function of the average flow velocity of air at room temperature. (paper)

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in food model system of fish peptides released during simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieva-Echevarria, B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    In the last decade, increasing evidences of the occurrence of lipid oxidation during digestion have been reported, in either in vivo or in vitro studies (1,2,3). As a result, the nutritional quality and safety of foodstuffs could be affected by the decrease of certain lipidic compounds of interest...... in the gastrointestinal tract. In fact, several studies have reported antioxidant activity of fish protein hydrolysates, coming from fish industry waste by-products (3,4). Thus, the potential release of peptides showing antioxidant properties during fish digestion cannot be ruled out. In order to shed light...... on these aspects, in vitro digestates of European sea bass were submitted to ultrafiltration using membranes with different cut off size. Afterwards, the potential antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions obtained was evaluated by comparing the oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions (5...

  4. XOQDOQ: computer program for the meteorological evaluation of routine effluent releases at nuclear power stations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1982-09-01

    Provided is a user's guide for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) computer program X0QDOQ which implements Regulatory Guide 1.111. This NUREG supercedes NUREG-0324 which was published as a draft in September 1977. This program is used by the NRC meteorology staff in their independent meteorological evaluation of routine or anticipated intermittent releases at nuclear power stations. It operates in a batch input mode and has various options a user may select. Relative atmospheric dispersion and deposition factors are computed for 22 specific distances out to 50 miles from the site for each directional sector. From these results, values for 10 distance segments are computed. The user may also select other locations for which atmospheric dispersion deposition factors are computed. Program features, including required input data and output results, are described. A program listing and test case data input and resulting output are provided

  5. Evaluation of gamma radiation response of electrolyte, MKP and MKT capacitors in various frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekie, Shahryar; Salehpour, Behrooz

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental work, the effect of gamma irradiation on the capacitance and impedance of some commercial capacitors namely electrolytic, MKP, and MKT capacitors in different radiation doses up to 120 kGy and a wide range of frequencies between 42 Hz and 5 MHz were studied. Results showed that the capacitances of the electrolytic capacitors exhibited a linear decrease by increasing the radiation dose and frequencies, which can be used for high dosimetry purposes, but non-ceramic capacitors as MKP and MKT showed much higher radiation resistance, particularly for the frequencies less than ∝1 MHz.

  6. Evaluation of gamma radiation response of electrolyte, MKP and MKT capacitors in various frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekie, Shahryar [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application Research School; Salehpour, Behrooz [Tabriz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Physics

    2017-09-01

    In this experimental work, the effect of gamma irradiation on the capacitance and impedance of some commercial capacitors namely electrolytic, MKP, and MKT capacitors in different radiation doses up to 120 kGy and a wide range of frequencies between 42 Hz and 5 MHz were studied. Results showed that the capacitances of the electrolytic capacitors exhibited a linear decrease by increasing the radiation dose and frequencies, which can be used for high dosimetry purposes, but non-ceramic capacitors as MKP and MKT showed much higher radiation resistance, particularly for the frequencies less than ∝1 MHz.

  7. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  8. Evaluation of the iPLEX® ADME PGx Pro Panel and allele frequencies of pharmacogenetic markers in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Børsting, Claus; Dalhoff, Kim

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to perform a technical evaluation of the iPlex® ADME PGx Pro Panel by genotyping 50 unrelated Danes and estimate preliminary genotype frequencies among Danes. DESIGN AND METHODS: The investigations were performed by the use of PCR, single base extension (SBE) and Matrix Assisted Laser...

  9. Evaluation of occupational exposure to toxic metals released in the process of aluminum welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, Wanda; Gromiec, Jan

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to welding fumes and its elements on aluminum welders in Polish industry. The study included 52 MIG/Al fume samples and 18 TIG/Al samples in 3 plants. Air samples were collected in the breathing zone of welders (total and respirable dust). Dust concentration was determined gravimetrically, and the elements in the collected dust were determined by AAS. Mean time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the welding dusts/fumes and their components in the breathing zone obtained for different welding processes were, in mg/m3: MIG/Al fumes mean 6.0 (0.8-17.8), Al 2.1 (0.1-7.7), Mg 0.2 (TIG/Al fumes 0.7 (0.3-1.4), Al 0.17 (0.07-0.50). A correlation has been found between the concentration of the main components and the fume/dust concentrations in MIG/Al and TIG/Al fumes. Mean percentages of the individual components in MIG/Al fumes/dusts were Al: 30 (9-56) percent; Mg: 3 (1-5.6) percent; Mn: 0.2 (0.1-0.3) percent; Cu: 0.2 (welding methods, the nature of welding-related operations, and work environment conditions.

  10. Potential release scenario and radiological consequence evaluation of mineral resources at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    This report has reviewed certain of the natural resources which may be found at the site of the nuclear waste repository being considered for southeastern New Mexico, and discussed the scenarios which have been used to estimate the radiological consequences from the mining of these resources several hundred years after the radioactive waste has been emplaced. It has been concluded that the radiological consequences of the mining of potash or hydrocarbons (mostly natural gas) are probably bounded by the consequences of hydrologic breach scenarios already considered by the US Department of Energy, and by reports of EEG. These studies conclude that the resultant doses would not constitute a significant threat to public health. This report also evaluates the radiological consequences of solution mining of halite at the WIPP site. Although such mining in the Delaware Basin and particularly at the WIPP site, is not likely at the present time, significant economic, social or climatic changes a few hundred years after emplacement may make these resources more attractive. The DOE did not consider such mining at the site credible

  11. Extended‐Release Once‐Daily Formulation of Tofacitinib: Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics Compared With Immediate‐Release Tofacitinib and Impact of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Fletcher, Tracey; Alvey, Christine; Kushner, Joseph; Stock, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. An extended‐release (XR) formulation has been designed to provide a once‐daily (QD) dosing option to patients to achieve comparable pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters to the twice‐daily immediate‐release (IR) formulation. We conducted 2 randomized, open‐label, phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers. Study A characterized single‐dose and steady‐state PK of tofacitinib XR 11 mg QD and intended to demonstrate equivalence of exposure under single‐dose and steady‐state conditions to tofacitinib IR 5 mg twice daily. Study B assessed the effect of a high‐fat meal on the bioavailability of tofacitinib from the XR formulation. Safety and tolerability were monitored in both studies. In study A (N = 24), the XR and IR formulations achieved time to maximum plasma concentration at 4 hours and 0.5 hours postdose, respectively; terminal half‐life was 5.9 hours and 3.2 hours, respectively. Area under plasma concentration‐time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) after single‐ and multiple‐dose administration were equivalent between the XR and IR formulations. In study B (N = 24), no difference in AUC was observed for fed vs fasted conditions. Cmax increased by 27% under the fed state. On repeat administration, negligible accumulation (Tofacitinib administration as an XR or IR formulation was generally well tolerated in these studies. PMID:26970526

  12. Critical evaluation of analytical models for stochastic heating in dual-frequency capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S; Turner, M M

    2013-01-01

    Dual-frequency capacitive discharges are widespread in the semiconductor industry and are used, for example, in etching of semiconductor materials to manufacture microchips. In low-pressure dual radio-frequency capacitive discharges, stochastic heating is an important phenomenon. Recent theoretical work on this problem using several different approaches has produced results that are broadly in agreement insofar as scaling with the discharge parameters is concerned, but there remains some disagreement in detail concerning the absolute size of the effect for the case of dual-frequency capacitive discharges. In this work, we investigate the dependence of stochastic heating on various discharge parameters with the help of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The dual-frequency analytical models are in fair agreement with PIC results for values of the low-frequency current density amplitude J lf (or dimensionless control parameter H lf ∼ 5) typical of many modern experiments. However, for higher values of J lf (or higher H lf ), new physical phenomena (like field reversal, reflection of ions, etc) appear and the simulation results deviate from existing dual-frequency analytical models. On the other hand, for lower J lf (or lower H lf ) again the simulation results deviate from analytical models. So this research work produces a relatively extensive set of simulation data that may be used to validate theories over a wide range of parameters. (paper)

  13. Microspheres prepared with biodegradable PHBV and PLA polymers as prolonged-release system for ibuprofen: in vitro drug release and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Carolina Bazzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and poly(l-lactide (PLA microspheres containing ibuprofen were prepared with the aim of prolonging the drug release. The oil-in-water (O/W emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used, varying the polymer ratio. All formulations provided spherical particles with drug crystals on the surface and a porous and rough polymeric matrix when PHBV was used and smooth external surface when prepared with PLA. The in vitro dissolution profiles show that the formulation containing PHBV/PLA at the proportion of 30/70 presented the best results in terms of prolonging the ibuprofen release. The analysis of the concentration of ibuprofen in the blood of rats showed that maximum levels were achieved at between one and two hours after administration of the immediate-release form (pure drug, while the prolonged microspheres led to a small amount of the drug being released within the first two hours and reached the maximum level after six hours of administration. It was concluded that it is possible to prolong the release of ibuprofen through its incorporation into PHBV/PLA microspheres.No presente estudo foram preparadas microesferas de poli(hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato (PHBV e poli(ácido láctico (PLA com o objetivo de prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno, utilizado como fármaco modelo. Empregou-se o método de emulsificação e evaporação do solvente óleo em água (O/A, variando-se a proporção entre os polímeros. Todas as formulações originaram partículas esféricas com cristais de fármaco aderidos à superfície externa. As microesferas apresentaram superfície rugosa e porosa, quando o PHBV foi utilizado, e superfície externa lisa, quando preparadas com o PLA. Os perfis de dissolução in vitro evidenciaram que a formulação que continha PHBV/PLA na proporção de 30/70 apresentou melhores resultados para prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno. Através da análise da concentra

  14. Frequency of recommendations for additional imaging in diagnostic ultrasound examinations: Evaluation of radiologist, technologist, and other examination-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Nathaniel E; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Babb, James S; Macari, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of the radiologist, technologist, and other examination-related factors on the frequency of recommendations for additional imaging (RAI) during sonographic (US) interpretation. We retrospectively reviewed 719 US reports from a single academic medical center for the presence of RAI. All studies had been interpreted by one of three abdominal radiologists. Examinations were performed at an outpatient radiology facility with no onsite radiologist (n = 299) or at an inpatient emergency department or hospital-based outpatient setting that had an onsite radiologist (n = 420). Possible associations between the frequency of RAI and the presence of an onsite radiologist, location of the examination, body part or region imaged, patient age, technologist performing the exam, and radiologist reading the exam were evaluated. There were significant differences between each pair of radiologists in terms of overall frequency of RAI (p technologists (13.6%-40.0%, p = 0.03). However, other factors such as patient age, patient sex, US unit, patient location, and radiologist location were not associated with the frequency of RAI (p = 0.15-0.93). The individual radiologist and technologist influenced the frequency of RAI for US examinations, whereas other examination-related factors did not. The observed substantial variability in RAI between radiologists and technologists warrants further study, with consideration of strategies to optimize RAI within US reports. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of medial patellofemoral ligament tears after acute lateral patellar dislocation: comparison of high-frequency ultrasound and MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Ying; Ding, Hong-Yu [Shandong University, Department of Ultrasonography, Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan (China); Zheng, Lei; Sun, Bai-Sheng [Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Corps Hospital, Jinan (China); Li, En-Miao [Jinan Third People' s Hospital, Department of Ultrasonography, Jinan (China); Shi, Hao [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan (China)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of high-frequency ultrasound with MR in the evaluation of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) lesions after acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD). High-frequency ultrasound and MR images were prospectively obtained in 97 consecutive patients with acute LPD. Images were acquired using standardised protocols and were independently evaluated by two radiologists. The MPFL was assessed at three sites (patellar insertion, femoral attachment, and mid-substance) for signs of injury. Of a total of 291 sites in 97 MPFLs, 127 showed proven MPFL tear at surgery, including 51 sites of complete tear and 76 sites of partial tear. In a site-based analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of high-frequency ultrasound was 90.8 %, 96.3 %, and 94.6 %, respectively, for partial MPFL tear and 86.3 %, 96.3 %, and 94 %, respectively, for complete tear. For MR, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 81.6 %, 95.7 %, and 91.3 %, respectively, for partial MPFL tear and 80.4 %, 95.7 %, and 92.1 %, respectively, for complete tear. There was no statistical difference between high-frequency ultrasound and MR in the assessment of partial (P = 0.1, 0.777, 0.155) or complete (P = 0.425, 0.777, 0.449) MPFL lesions. Interobserver agreement was very good for high-frequency ultrasound and good for MR. Data suggest that high-frequency ultrasound and MR have similar diagnostic performance in the evaluation of MPFL lesions after acute LPD. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of medial patellofemoral ligament tears after acute lateral patellar dislocation: comparison of high-frequency ultrasound and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guang-Ying; Ding, Hong-Yu; Zheng, Lei; Sun, Bai-Sheng; Li, En-Miao; Shi, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of high-frequency ultrasound with MR in the evaluation of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) lesions after acute lateral patellar dislocation (LPD). High-frequency ultrasound and MR images were prospectively obtained in 97 consecutive patients with acute LPD. Images were acquired using standardised protocols and were independently evaluated by two radiologists. The MPFL was assessed at three sites (patellar insertion, femoral attachment, and mid-substance) for signs of injury. Of a total of 291 sites in 97 MPFLs, 127 showed proven MPFL tear at surgery, including 51 sites of complete tear and 76 sites of partial tear. In a site-based analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of high-frequency ultrasound was 90.8 %, 96.3 %, and 94.6 %, respectively, for partial MPFL tear and 86.3 %, 96.3 %, and 94 %, respectively, for complete tear. For MR, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was 81.6 %, 95.7 %, and 91.3 %, respectively, for partial MPFL tear and 80.4 %, 95.7 %, and 92.1 %, respectively, for complete tear. There was no statistical difference between high-frequency ultrasound and MR in the assessment of partial (P = 0.1, 0.777, 0.155) or complete (P = 0.425, 0.777, 0.449) MPFL lesions. Interobserver agreement was very good for high-frequency ultrasound and good for MR. Data suggest that high-frequency ultrasound and MR have similar diagnostic performance in the evaluation of MPFL lesions after acute LPD. (orig.)

  17. Statistical Analyses of Second Indoor Bio-Release Field Evaluation Study at Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-12-17

    In September 2008 a large-scale testing operation (referred to as the INL-2 test) was performed within a two-story building (PBF-632) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The report “Operational Observations on the INL-2 Experiment” defines the seven objectives for this test and discusses the results and conclusions. This is further discussed in the introduction of this report. The INL-2 test consisted of five tests (events) in which a floor (level) of the building was contaminated with the harmless biological warfare agent simulant Bg and samples were taken in most, if not all, of the rooms on the contaminated floor. After the sampling, the building was decontaminated, and the next test performed. Judgmental samples and probabilistic samples were determined and taken during each test. Vacuum, wipe, and swab samples were taken within each room. The purpose of this report is to study an additional four topics that were not within the scope of the original report. These topics are: 1) assess the quantitative assumptions about the data being normally or log-normally distributed; 2) evaluate differences and quantify the sample to sample variability within a room and across the rooms; 3) perform geostatistical types of analyses to study spatial correlations; and 4) quantify the differences observed between surface types and sampling methods for each scenario and study the consistency across the scenarios. The following four paragraphs summarize the results of each of the four additional analyses. All samples after decontamination came back negative. Because of this, it was not appropriate to determine if these clearance samples were normally distributed. As Table 1 shows, the characterization data consists of values between and inclusive of 0 and 100 CFU/cm2 (100 was the value assigned when the number is too numerous to count). The 100 values are generally much bigger than the rest of the data, causing the data to be right skewed. There are also a significant

  18. Application of Quality Management Tools for Evaluating the Failure Frequency of Cutter-Loader and Plough Mining Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Witold

    2017-06-01

    Failure frequency in the mining process, with a focus on the mining machine, has been presented and illustrated by the example of two coal-mines. Two mining systems have been subjected to analysis: a cutter-loader and a plough system. In order to reduce costs generated by failures, maintenance teams should regularly make sure that the machines are used and operated in a rational and effective way. Such activities will allow downtimes to be reduced, and, in consequence, will increase the effectiveness of a mining plant. The evaluation of mining machines' failure frequency contained in this study has been based on one of the traditional quality management tools - the Pareto chart.

  19. Frequency sweep of the field scattered by an inhomogeneous structure using method of moments and asymptotic waveform evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2000-01-01

    into account. To the knowledge of the authors the AWE technique has not previously been applied to a MoM solution based on this kind of integral equation. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the use of the AWE technique as a tool to obtain a fast frequency sweep of the field scattered......In many radar applications it is necessary to determine the scattering from an object over a wide frequency band. The asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE), which is a moment matching (MM) technique, constitutes a method to this end. In general, MM techniques provide a reduced-order model...

  20. Extended-Release Once-Daily Formulation of Tofacitinib: Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics Compared With Immediate-Release Tofacitinib and Impact of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Manisha; Wang, Rong; Fletcher, Tracey; Alvey, Christine; Kushner, Joseph; Stock, Thomas C

    2016-11-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. An extended-release (XR) formulation has been designed to provide a once-daily (QD) dosing option to patients to achieve comparable pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters to the twice-daily immediate-release (IR) formulation. We conducted 2 randomized, open-label, phase 1 studies in healthy volunteers. Study A characterized single-dose and steady-state PK of tofacitinib XR 11 mg QD and intended to demonstrate equivalence of exposure under single-dose and steady-state conditions to tofacitinib IR 5 mg twice daily. Study B assessed the effect of a high-fat meal on the bioavailability of tofacitinib from the XR formulation. Safety and tolerability were monitored in both studies. In study A (N = 24), the XR and IR formulations achieved time to maximum plasma concentration at 4 hours and 0.5 hours postdose, respectively; terminal half-life was 5.9 hours and 3.2 hours, respectively. Area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C max ) after single- and multiple-dose administration were equivalent between the XR and IR formulations. In study B (N = 24), no difference in AUC was observed for fed vs fasted conditions. C max increased by 27% under the fed state. On repeat administration, negligible accumulation (Tofacitinib administration as an XR or IR formulation was generally well tolerated in these studies. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Frequency domain modeling and dynamic characteristics evaluation of existing wind turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Yu, Chih-Peng

    2016-04-01

    It is quite well accepted that frequency domain procedures are suitable for the design and dynamic analysis of wind turbine structures, especially for floating offshore wind turbines, since random wind loads and wave induced motions are most likely simulated in the frequency domain. This paper presents specific applications of an effective frequency domain scheme to the linear analysis of wind turbine structures in which a 1-D spectral element was developed based on the axially-loaded member. The solution schemes are summarized for the spectral analyses of the tower, the blades, and the combined system with selected frequency-dependent coupling effect from foundation-structure interactions. Numerical examples demonstrate that the modal frequencies obtained using spectral-element models are in good agreement with those found in the literature. A 5-element mono-pile model results in less than 0.3% deviation from an existing 160-element model. It is preliminarily concluded that the proposed scheme is relatively efficient in performing quick verification for test data obtained from the on-site vibration measurement using the microwave interferometer.

  2. Evaluation of Gentamicin and Lidocaine Release Profile from Gum Acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol Based Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    No doubt, the prevention of infection is an indispensable aspect of the wound management, but, simultaneous wound pain relief is also required. Therefore, herein this article, incorporation of antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into hydrogel wound dressings, prepared by using acacia gum, carbopol and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) polymers, has been carried out. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. Synthesis of hydrogel wound dressing was carried out by free radical polymerization technique. The drug loading was carried out by swelling equilibrium method and gel strength of hydrogels was measured by a texture analyzer. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. It is concluded that the pH of swelling medium has influenced the network structure of hydrogel i.e., molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links, crosslink density and the corresponding mesh size. A good correlation was established between gel strength and network parameters. Cryo-SEM images showed porous morphology of hydrogels. These hydrogels were found to be biodegradable and antimicrobial in nature. Drug release occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile was best fitted in first order model. Overall it is concluded that modification in GA has led to formation of a porous hydrogels for wound dressing applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Preparation and Optimization of Labeled Chitosan Nanoparticles and Evaluation of their Release from Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sadeghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical engineering. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using ionic gelation method in view of two determining factors namely method of adding chitosan into the tripolyphosphate (TPP solution and thermal shock application. With regard to the concentration of chitosan and TPP solutions as two variables, the mean particle size of chitosan nanoparticles and their preparation yield were optimized using response surface method. According to previous studies and some preliminary experiments, the chitosan and TPP solution concentration ranges were determined to be 0.5-2.5 mg/mL and 0.25-1.25 mg/mL, respectively. The optimum values of 1.25 mg/mL and 0.6 mg/mL were obtained for chitosan and TPP solution concentrations in the order given. The optimized response value for the chitosan nanoparticles size was found to be 54 nm and preparation yield was 62%. The Zeta potential of resulting spherical nanoparticles was around 31 mV. Chitosan-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC polymer was prepared based on the reaction between isothiocyanate functional group of FITC and primary amine functional group of chitosan. FTIR analysis was performed to demonstrate the presence of new bond formation. Labeled chitosan nanoparticles were prepared in the optimized condition using chitosan-FITC polymer. The release behavior of the labeled chitosan nanoparticles from transdermal patches was evaluated. The mean size of chitosan-FITC nanoparticles was determined to be 70 nm. Finally, it was shown that the chitosan nanoparticles were not able to release from acrylic adhesive film without using a method to speed up their diffusion.

  4. THE EVALUATION OF FREQUENCY AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF ACID PEPTIC DISEASE: A SEVEN YEARS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Iftikhar Haider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid peptic disease (APD is a worldwide health problem. It includes a variety of inflammatory and ulcerative lesions involving esophagus, stomach and duodenum. The disease condition may persist with multiple symptoms, one of them being dyspepsia. The object of the present study was to determine the frequency and seasonal variations of APD in patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms. This observational study was carried out at the endoscopy unit in Baqai Medical University from December 2003 to December 2010, over a period of seven years. The evolution of APD frequency remained equivocal throughout the study period. However, a decline was noted in the frequency of peptic ulcer disease (PUD especially for gastric and duodenal ulcer cases but a rise during autumn and winter seasons was also noted in duodenal ulcer cases.

  5. ICT based Performance Evaluation of Primary Frequency Control Support from Renewable Power Plants in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Altin, Müfit; Mikkelsen, Lars Møller

    2018-01-01

    frequency control support from ReGen (with special focus on WPP). The study is conducted with an aggregated WPP model, integrated into a generic power system model, specifically designed to assess the ancillary services in a relatively simple yet relevant environment. Various case studies with different...... plants towards ReGen plants, such as wind and photovoltaic power plants. Frequency control support from the Wind Power Plants (WPPs) is one of the crucial ancillary services in order to preserve operational stability in case of grid disturbances. Among other requirements, the ability to provide fast...... frequency control support from ReGen plants will highly depend on the underlying communication infrastructure that allows an exchange of information between different ReGen plants and the control centers. This paper, therefore, focuses on the impact of communication and the related aspects to provide online...

  6. The evaluation of different environments in ultra-high frequency induction sintered powder metal compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, P. S.; Cavdar, U.

    2015-01-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra-High Frequency Induction Sintering (UHFIS) was reviewed for different environments. The three different environments: atmosphere, argon and vacuum were applied to the PM compacts. Iron based PM compacts were sintered at 1120 degree centigrade for a total of 550 seconds by using induction sintering machines with 2.8 kW power and 900 kHz frequency. Micro structural properties, densities, roughness and micro hardness values were obtained for all environments. The results were compared with each other. (Author)

  7. Formulation of a modified release metformin. HCl matrix tablet: influence of some hydrophilic polymers on release rate and in-vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride is an antidiabetic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes and reduces basal plasma levels of glucose. In this study, a simplex centroid experimental design with 69 runs was used to select the best combination of some hydrophilic polymers that rendered a 24 h in-vitro release profile of metformin.HCl. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model was used to model the dissolution profiles since it presented the best fit to the experimental data. Further, a cubic model predicted the best formulation of metformin.HCl containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone, ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, carrageenan, sodium alginate, and gum arabic at 6.26, 68.7, 6.26, 6.26, 6.26 and 6.26 % levels, respectively. The validation runs confirmed the accuracy of the cubic model with six components for predicting the best set of components which rendered a once-a-day modified release hydrophilic matrix tablet in compliance with the USP specifications.O cloridrato de metformina é um agente antidiabético que melhora a tolerância à glicose em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 e reduz os níveis plasmáticos basais de glicose. Neste estudo, um projeto experimental do tipo "centróide simplex" com 69 tomadas foi usado para selecionar a melhor combinação de alguns polímeros hidrofílicos que gerou um perfil de liberação da metformina.HCl de 24 horas. O modelo Korsmeyer-Peppas foi usado para modelar os perfis de dissolução, uma vez que apresentou os melhores ajustes aos dados experimentais. Além disso, um modelo cúbico previu a melhor formulação de metformina.HCl sendo aquela contendo polivinilpirrolidona, etilcelulose, hidroxipropilmetil celulose, carragena, alginato de sódio e goma arábica nos níveis 6.26, 68.7, 6.26, 6.26, 6.26 e 6.26 %, respectivamente. As corridas de validação confirmaram a precisão do modelo cúbico com os seis componentes para prever o melhor conjunto de componentes que originou uma

  8. Surface atrial frequency analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a tool for evaluating the effects of intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Dan; Langley, Philip; Murray, Alan; Dunuwille, Asunga; Bourke, John P

    2004-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) principal component analysis as a technique for extracting the atrial signal waveform from the standard 12-lead ECG and (2) its ability to distinguish changes in atrial fibrillation (AF) frequency parameters over time and in response to pharmacologic manipulation using drugs with different effects on atrial electrophysiology. Twenty patients with persistent AF were studied. Continuous 12-lead Holter ECGs were recorded for 60 minutes, first, in the drug-free state. Mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency were measured using an automated computer technique. This extracted the atrial signal by principal component analysis and identified the main frequency component using Fourier analysis. Patients were then allotted sequentially to receive 1 of 4 drugs intravenously (amiodarone, flecainide, sotalol, or metoprolol), and changes induced in mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency measured. Mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency did not differ within patients between the two 30-minute sections of the drug-free state. As hypothesized, significant changes in mean and variability of atrial waveform frequency were detected after manipulation with amiodarone (mean: 5.77 vs 4.86 Hz; variability: 0.55 vs 0.31 Hz), flecainide (mean: 5.33 vs 4.72 Hz; variability: 0.71 vs 0.31 Hz), and sotalol (mean: 5.94 vs 4.90 Hz; variability: 0.73 vs 0.40 Hz) but not with metoprolol (mean: 5.41 vs 5.17 Hz; variability: 0.81 vs 0.82 Hz). A technique for continuously analyzing atrial frequency characteristics of AF from the surface ECG has been developed and validated.

  9. The quantitative evaluation of complex defect signals from eddy current testings with multi-frequency methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, W.

    1982-01-01

    The usual formulation of multi-frequency eddy current signals of large defects by linearized impedance diagrams may lead to misinterpretations. Here a developement of the linear superposition principle is proposed, which takes into account also the curvature of the impedance diagrams thus allowing to identify even large defects in an unambiguous way. (orig.) [de

  10. Frequency of otitis media based on otoendoscopic evaluation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticchia, James; Shah, Priyanka; Sachdeva, Livjot; Kwong, Kelvin; Cortez, Josef M; Nation, Javan; Rudd, Tracy; Zidan, Marwan; Cepeda, Eugene; Gonik, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency of otitis media in preterm neonates using otoendoscopy and tympanometry. Prospective study. Wayne State University, Hutzel Women's Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Eighty-six preterm infants were included (gestational age otitis media. Kappa statistic and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Otoendoscopy was performed in 85 patients. The frequency of otoendoscopy-diagnosed otitis media was 72.9% (62/85). Tympanometry could be performed on 69.76% of the ears. There was 73.5% agreement between the findings of tympanometry and those of otoendoscopy. The association between the presence of otitis media and gestational age at birth was statistically significant. The lower the gestational age, the higher the frequency of otoendoscopy-diagnosed otitis media (P = .001). Otoendoscopically diagnosed otitis media is frequent in preterm neonates. There was agreement between the results of tympanometry and those of otoendoscopy. The frequency of otitis media increased with lower gestational age. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. Archaeological Evaluation of The Multi-frequency Electromagnetic Slingram Device Gem 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Bonsall, J.

    Frequency-domain electromagnetic devices offer a great potential in geophysical prospection as they allow the simultaneous measurement of two parameters. Con- ventionally, in-phase and quadrature components of the return-signal are recorded. However the identification of these measurements with ground properties such as con- ductance or magnetic susceptibility are complicated and depend on instrument design, frequency and other parameters, such as magnetic viscosity. While in environmental applications a simple identification of strongly conductive features (e.g. oil drums) can be obtained, archaeological surveys pose much greater challenges due to the smaller contrast in conductivity and magnetic susceptibility. A very detailed analysis of mea- sured data and sophisticated computations are therefore required. The new GEM 300 Slingram device allows to measure in-phase and quadrature data at up to 16 frequencies simultaneously which could be used to calculate three inde- pendent soil parameters: conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic viscosity. Alternatively, the manufacturer claims that the different frequencies can be used for depth soundings. The instrument was tested on a number of sites for which prior geophysical and ar- chaeological investigations had revealed distinct features (e.g. a brick-built cest pit). The results were disappointing as large drift and undefined offsets made a quantitative analysis of data nearly impossible. It was therefore concluded that further develop- ments of the instrument are required before it can be used successfully for archaeo- logical prospection.

  12. The evaluation of voiding patterns. An analysis of frequency-volume charts and symptom scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarst, E.P. van

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of frequency-volume charts (FVCs) and International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and their relations, based on 2 large databases: one with 24-hour FVCs of 1152 volunteers of all adult age groups without urological complaints, and one with 7-day FVCs of 378 urological

  13. Evaluation of the anthocyanin release and health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir grape juices after pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir juices (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained at different maceration times after pulsed electric fields (PEF) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and human intestinal Caco-2 cells assays. Juice quality, anthocyanins, total phenolics and vitamin C were also determined. The evaluation of bioprotective capacity of the juice against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells was determined using biomarkers for cellular health and integrity: cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Compared to untreated grape juice, PEF pre-treatment on grapes enhanced the release of the major anthocyanin found in Pinot Noir, i.e. malvidin-3-O-glucoside (+224%). Increase in the content of total phenolic (+61%) and vitamin C (+19%) as well as improvement in the DPPH scavenging activity (+31%) and bioprotective capacity (+25% for cell viability and +30% for LDH leakage) were observed in grape juices following PEF treatment. Bioprotective capacity determined by the cellular biomarkers had significant linear correlations with malvidin-3-O-glucoside content (0.71⩽r⩽0.73) whereas DPPH scavenging activity was not well correlated with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (r=0.30) and total phenolics (r=0.30). Therefore, evaluation of the bioprotective capacities using Caco-2 cell assay performed in this study makes a novel contribution to the current knowledge that demonstrates the capability of PEF technology to produce plant-based foods with better phytochemical composition and exhibiting the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system vs. usual medical treatment for menorrhagia: an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sanghera

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To undertake an economic evaluation alongside the largest randomised controlled trial comparing Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device ('LNG-IUS' and usual medical treatment for women with menorrhagia in primary care; and compare the cost-effectiveness findings using two alternative measures of quality of life. METHODS: 571 women with menorrhagia from 63 UK centres were randomised between February 2005 and July 2009. Women were randomised to having a LNG-IUS fitted, or usual medical treatment, after discussing with their general practitioner their contraceptive needs or desire to avoid hormonal treatment. The treatment was specified prior to randomisation. For the economic evaluation we developed a state transition (Markov model with a 24 month follow-up. The model structure was informed by the trial women's pathway and clinical experts. The economic evaluation adopted a UK National Health Service perspective and was based on an outcome of incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY estimated using both EQ-5D and SF-6D. RESULTS: Using EQ-5D, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment for menorrhagia. LNG-IUS costs £100 more than usual medical treatment but generated 0.07 more QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for LNG-IUS compared to usual medical treatment was £1600 per additional QALY. Using SF-6D, usual medical treatment was the most cost-effective treatment. Usual medical treatment was both less costly (£100 and generated 0.002 more QALYs. CONCLUSION: Impact on quality of life is the primary indicator of treatment success in menorrhagia. However, the most cost-effective treatment differs depending on the quality of life measure used to estimate the QALY. Under UK guidelines LNG-IUS would be the recommended treatment for menorrhagia. This study demonstrates that the appropriate valuation of outcomes in menorrhagia is crucial.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of a sustained-release tablets of metformin hydrochloride using hydrophilic synthetic and hydrophobic natural polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadher, K J; Kakde, R B; Umekar, M J

    2011-03-01

    Metformin hydrochloride has relatively short plasma half-life, low absolute bioavailability. The need for the administration two to three times a day when larger doses are required can decrease patient compliance. Sustained release formulation that would maintain plasma level for 8-12 h might be sufficient for daily dosing of metformin. Sustained release products are needed for metformin to prolong its duration of action and to improve patient compliances. The overall objective of this study was to develop an oral sustained release metformin hydrochloride tablet by using hydrophilic Eudragit RSPO alone or its combination with hydrophobic natural polymers Gum copal and gum damar as rate controlling factor. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The in vitro dissolution study was carried out using USP 22 apparatus I, paddle method and the data was analysed using zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Hixson-Crowell equations. The drug release study revealed that Eudragit RSPO alone was unable to sustain the drug release. Combining Eudragit with gum Copal and gum Damar sustained the drug release for more than 12 h. Kinetic modeling of in vitro dissolution profiles revealed the drug release mechanism ranges from diffusion controlled or Fickian transport to anomalous type or non-Fickian transport. Fitting the in vitro drug release data to Korsmeyer equation indicated that diffusion along with erosion could be the mechanism of drug release.

  16. Developments in the Frequency of Ratings and Evaluation Tendencies: A Review of German Physician Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Reimann, Swantje

    2017-08-25

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) have been developed to allow all patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' quality online as a source of information for others searching for a physician. At the beginning of 2010, a sample of 298 randomly selected physicians from the physician associations in Hamburg and Thuringia were searched for on 6 German PRWs to examine the frequency of ratings and evaluation tendencies. The objective of this study was to examine (1) the number of identifiable physicians on German PRWs; (2) the number of rated physicians on German PRWs; (3) the average and maximum number of ratings per physician on German PRWs; (4) the average rating on German PRWs; (5) the website visitor ranking positions of German PRWs; and (6) how these data compare with 2010 results. A random stratified sample of 298 selected physicians from the physician associations in Hamburg and Thuringia was generated. Every selected physician was searched for on the 6 PRWs (Jameda, Imedo, Docinsider, Esando, Topmedic, and Medführer) used in the 2010 study and a PRW, Arztnavigator, launched by Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (AOK). The results were as follows: (1) Between 65.1% (194/298) on Imedo to 94.6% (282/298) on AOK-Arztnavigator of the physicians were identified on the selected PRWs. (2) Between 16.4% (49/298) on Esando to 83.2% (248/298) on Jameda of the sample had been rated at least once. (3) The average number of ratings per physician ranged from 1.2 (Esando) to 7.5 (AOK-Arztnavigator). The maximum number of ratings per physician ranged from 3 (Esando) to 115 (Docinsider), indicating an increase compared with the ratings of 2 to 27 in the 2010 study sample. (4) The average converted standardized rating (1=positive, 2=neutral, and 3=negative) ranged from 1.0 (Medführer) to 1.2 (Jameda and Topmedic). (5) Only Jameda (position 317) and Medführer (position 9796) were placed among the top 10,000 visited websites in Germany. Whereas there has been an overall increase in

  17. A new frequency approach for light flicker evaluation in electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, Luigi; Langella, Roberto; Testa, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new analytical estimator for light flicker in frequency domain, which is able to take into account also the frequency components neglected by the classical methods proposed in literature, is proposed. The analytical solutions proposed apply for any generic stationary signal affected by interharmonic distortion. The light flicker analytical estimator proposed is applied to numerous numerical case studies with the goal of showing i) the correctness and the improvements of the analytical approach proposed with respect to the other methods proposed in literature and ii) the accuracy of the results compared to those obtained by means of the classical International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) flickermeter. The usefulness of the proposed analytical approach is that it can be included in signal processing tools for interharmonic penetration studies for the integration of renewable energy sources in future smart grids.

  18. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients: An Evaluation of Robustness of MP3 Encoded Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2006-01-01

    the influence of MP3 coding for the Mel frequency cepstral coeficients (MFCCs). The main result is that the widely used subset of the MFCCs is robust at bit rates equal or higher than 128 kbits/s, for the implementations we have investigated. However, for lower bit rates, e.g., 64 kbits/s, the implementation...... of the Mel filter bank becomes an issue....

  19. Evaluation of magnesium ions release, biocorrosion, and hemocompatibility of MAO/PLLA-modified magnesium alloy WE42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Cao, Lu; Liu, Yin; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys may potentially be applied as biodegradable metallic materials in cardiovascular stent. However, the high corrosion rate hinders its clinical application. In this study, a new approach was adopted to control the corrosion rate by fabricating a biocompatible micro-arc oxidation/poly-L-lactic acid (MAO/PLLA) composite coating on the magnesium alloy WE42 substrate and the biocompatibility of the modified samples was investigated. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were used to demonstrate the morphology of the samples before and after being submerged in hanks solution for 4 weeks. The degradation was evaluated through the magnesium ions release rate and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The biocompatibility of the samples was demonstrated by coagulation time and hemolysis behavior. The result shows that the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) effectively improved the corrosion resistance by sealing the microcracks and microholes on the surface of the MAO coating. The modified samples had good compatibility. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Residue and bio-efficacy evaluation of controlled release formulations of imidacloprid against pests in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Dey, Debjani; Shakil, N A; Walia, S

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of imidacloprid (1-(6 chloro-3-pyridinyl methyl)-N- nitro imidazolidin-2- ylideneamine) were prepared using novel amphiphilic polymers synthesized from polyethylene glycol and aliphatic diacids employing encapsulation technique. The bioefficacy of the prepared CR formulations was evaluated against major pests of soybean, namely stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntmer and white fly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius along with a commercial formulation at the experimental farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi during kharif 2009 and 2010. Most of the CR formulations of imidacloprid gave significantly better control of the pests compare to its commercial formulations, however the CR formulations, Poly [poly (oxyethylene-1000)-oxy suberoyl] amphiphilic polymer based formulation performed better over others for controlling of both stem fly incidence and Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) infestation transmitted by white fly. Some of the developed CR formulations recorded higher yield over commercial formulation and control. Nodulation pattern of soybean was not affected due to treatment of CR and commercial formulations of imidacloprid. Also the residues of imidacloprid in seed and soil at harvest were not detectable for both CR and commercial formulations.

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of Platelet-Released Growth Factor and Immediate Orthodontic Loading on the Removal Torque of Miniscrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Shahin; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Aghaabbasi, Sharereh; Farsinejad, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-released growth factor (PRGF) and immediate orthodontic forces on the removal torque of miniscrews. This study was conducted on three male dogs aged 6 to 8 months with a body weight of 17.6 to 18.4 kg. Sixty miniscrews were inserted in the posterior aspect of the femur. There were four groups, including loaded miniscrews with application of PRGF, unloaded miniscrews without application of PRGF, unloaded miniscrews with PRGF, and loaded miniscrews without PRGF. Twenty miniscrews were inserted in the femoral bone of one foot of each dog, including all the aforementioned subgroups. After 12 weeks, the miniscrews were removed by a removal torque tester device and measured in newton centimeters. The mean removal torque values in four groups of immediately loaded screws with PRGF, unloaded screws with PRGF, immediately loaded screws without PRGF, and unloaded screws without PRGF were 19.68, 21.74, 13.65, and 15.46 Ncm, respectively. It was shown that the mean removal torque value for the group with PRGF was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P = .0001). Although there was a tendency toward a decrease in removal torque value with immediate loading, it was not statistically significant (P = .21). According to the results of this study, applying PRGF with miniscrews increased their stability, but the delivery of immediate force on miniscrews had no effect on the miniscrews' stability.

  2. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella H.; Sabate, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI) assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p vegans). This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities. PMID:25006856

  3. Evaluation of a validated food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyett, Patricia; Rajaram, Sujatha; Haddad, Ella H; Sabate, Joan

    2014-07-08

    This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified 'Block Method' using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI) assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p vegans). This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities.

  4. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Dyett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p < 0.001 for all analyzed nutrients except calcium. Estimates, ranks, trends and higher-level participant percentile placements for Vitamin B12 were similar with both methods. Questionnaire intakes were higher than recalls for most other nutrients. Both methods demonstrated similar trends in DRI adequacy assessment (e.g., significantly inadequate vitamin D intake among vegans. This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities.

  5. Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Fields For Frequencies 900 MHz-1 800 MHz In Tirana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuqi Dhurata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The massive use of mobile phone as a communication tool nowadays is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are presents the results of measurements of electromagnetic fields for the frequencies 900 MHz - 1800 MHz used in mobile telephone in Tirana. These frequencies are included in the area radio frequency RF and Microwave MW 300 Hz - 300 GHz in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and belong to non-ionizing radiation. The measurements were performed in different areas of Tirana. The purpose is to assess the level of exposure electromagnetic fields especially near areas where mobile antennas are mounted construction of dynamic digital mapping and comparison with the permitted levels of the exposure defined by the International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP. Through this publication the aim of the authors is to provide real information and reliable for the population.

  6. Evaluation of chitosan–anionic polymers based tablets for extended-release of highly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop chitosan–anionic polymers based extended-release tablets and test the feasibility of using this system for the sustained release of highly water-soluble drugs with high drug loading. Here, the combination of sodium valproate (VPS and valproic acid (VPA were chosen as the model drugs. Anionic polymers studied include xanthan gum (XG, carrageenan (CG, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na and sodium alginate (SA. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. In vitro drug release was carried out under simulated gastrointestinal condition. Drug release mechanism was studied. Compared with single polymers, chitosan–anionic polymers based system caused a further slowdown of drug release rate. Among them, CS–xanthan gum matrix system exhibited the best extended-release behavior and could extend drug release for up to 24 h. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies demonstrated that polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs were formed on the tablet surface, which played an important role on retarding erosion and swelling of the matrix in the later stage. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is possible to develop highly water-soluble drugs loaded extended-release tablets using chitosan–anionic polymers based system.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on in Vitro Growth and Maturation of Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barzegari Firouzabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Access to modern methods for increasing the percentage of in vitro human and animal mature oocytes can be useful in the treatment of some forms of human infertility as well as proliferation of many domestic and wild animals which generation is endangered. Effect of low- frequency electromagnetic fields on in vitro growth and maturation of mouse oocytes is recently considered as a new approach. In this study we evaluated the effect of low- frequency electromagnetic field on in vitro growth and maturation of mouse oocyte. Methods: In this study electromagnetic fields with frequencies of 5, 50 and 100 Hz and 2mT intensity were used. For observation of the effect of electromagnetic field four groups were selected: Group 1 as control group, which included 35 prenatal follicles (immature oocytes. Groups 2, 3 and 4were exposed to 5, 50 and 100 Hz electromagnetic fields, respectively. Results: Prenatal follicles exposed to 5 and 50 Hz frequencies showed no significant changes in diameter and survival rates. In contrast at a frequency of 100 Hz in 72-hour culture period a significant increase in diameter(155μm, follicles livability power(59%, oocyte maturation(52% and GVBD(39% was shown in comparison to other experimental groups and control group(P <0.05. Conclusion: Low-frequency magnetic field effects gene expression and thus protein synthesis, cell division, proliferation and behavior. Although this effect can be temporary, it can increase the percentage of ovulation for in vitro environment along with other environmental factors.

  8. Regulating Drug Release Behavior and Kinetics from Matrix Tablets Based on Fine Particle-Sized Ethyl Cellulose Ether Derivatives: An In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of sustained/controlled release dosage forms, employing new excipients capable of extending/controlling the release of drugs from the dosage forms over prolonged periods, has worked well in achieving optimally enhanced therapeutic levels of the drugs. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of selected cellulose ether derivatives for use in direct compression (DC and as efficient drug release controlling agents. Controlled release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin were prepared at different drug-to-polymer (D : P ratios by direct compression using a fine particle sized ethylcellulose ether derivative (ETHOCEL Standard Premium 7FP as rate controlling polymer. The tablets obtained were evaluated for various physico-chemical characteristics and in-vitro drug release studies were conducted in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 using PharmaTest dissolution apparatus at constant temperature of 37∘C±0.1. Similarity factor 2 was employed to the release profiles of test formulations and were compared with marketed ciprofloxacin conventional tablets. Drug release mechanism and the kinetics involved were investigated by fitting the release profile data to various kinetic models. It was found that with increasing the proportion of ethylcellulose ether derivative in the matrix, the drug release was significantly extended up to 24 hours. The tablets exhibited zero order or nearly zero order drug transport mechanism. In vivo drug release performance of the developed controlled release tablets and reference conventional tablets containing ciprofloxacin were determined in rabbit serum according to randomized two-way crossover study design using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Several bioavailability parameters of both the test tablets and conventional tablets including max, max and AUC0- were compared which showed an optimized max and max (<0.05. A good correlation was obtained between in vitro

  9. Comparative evaluation of metal ions release from titanium and Ti-6Al-7Nb into bio-fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was designed to investigate the effects of pH, chloride ions and nature of some bio-fluids on the amount of metal ions released from titanium and TiAl 6 Nb 7 plates following incubation in actual and simulated bio-fluids over time. Methods: The amounts of released metal ions from commercially pure titanium (CpTi and TiAl 6 Nb 7 of surgical grade on immersion in 20 mL Hank′s solution of pH 4.0 or 7.0, Hank′s solution of high chloride ions concentration, Whole Blood Serum (WBS and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS at 37° C were determined over an incubation time of 20 weeks using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels of released metal ions were compared by two-way ANOVA and Duncan′s post-hoc tests. The amounts of titanium ions released by the samples were analyzed by Pearson′s correlation. Results: TiAl 6 Nb 7 plate showed no release of Ti ions into the test solutions until after 12 weeks of incubation, while Ti ions were released from the CpTi plate from the 1 day immersion time. The re-lease of measurable amount of Al ions from TiAl 6 Nb 7 was after 12 weeks of incubation. The rate of release of Ti and Al ions from the samples increased initially with incubation time and then stabilized due to adsorption-desorption equilibrium. Conclusion: The results showed that variations in pH and chloride ions of the test media has a sig-nificant effect on the amounts of Ti ions released, while increase in chloride ions concentration sig-nificantly elevates the release of Al ions into the bio-fluids.

  10. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacoscintigraphy Evaluation of an Intestinal Release Delivery System of Prussian Blue for Decorporation of Cesium and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved by US-FDA for internal decorporation of Cesium-137 (137Cs and Thallium-201 (201Tl. Aim. Since PB is a costly drug, pH-dependent oral delivery system of PB was developed using calcium alginate matrix system. Methods. Alginate (Alg beads containing PB were optimized by gelation of sodium alginate with calcium ions and effect of varying polymer concentration on encapsulation efficiency and release profile was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out to study surface morphology. Adsorption efficacy of Alg-PB beads for 201Tl was evaluated and compared with native PB. In vivo pH-dependent release of the formulation was studied in humans using gamma scintigraphy. Results. Encapsulation efficiencies of Alg-PB beads with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% polymer solution were 99.9, 91, 92, and 93%, respectively. SEM and particle size analysis revealed differences between formulations in their appearance and size distribution. No drug release was seen in acidic media (pH of 1-2 while complete release was observed at pH of 6.8. Dissolution data was fitted to various mathematical models and beads were found to follow Hixson-Crowell mechanism of release. The pH-dependent release of beads was confirmed in vivo by pharmacoscintigraphy in humans.

  11. A simple and rapid approach to evaluate the in vitro in vivo role of release controlling agent ethyl cellulose ether derivative polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaq, Muhammad; Khan, Gul Majid; Jan, Syed Umer; Wahab, Abdul; Hussain, Abid; Nawaz, Asif; Abdelkader, Hamdy

    2014-11-01

    Diclofenac sodium (DCL-Na) conventional oral tablets exhibit serious side effects when given for a longer period leading to noncompliance. Controlled release matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium were formulated using simple blending (F-1), solvent evaporation (F-2) and co-precipitation techniques (F-3). Ethocel® Standard 7 FP Premium Polymer (15%) was used as a release controlling agent. Drug release study was conducted in 7.4 pH phosphate buffer solutions as dissolution medium in vitro. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using albino rabbits. Solvent evaporation technique was found to be the best release controlling technique thereby prolonging the release rate up to 24 hours. Accelerated stability studies of the optimized test formulation (F-2) did not show any significant change (prelease rate when stored for six months. A simple and rapid method was developed for DCL-Na active moiety using HPLC-UV at 276nm. The optimized test tablets (F-2) significantly (prelease. The study showed that once-daily controlled release matrix tablets of DCL-Na were successfully developed using Ethocel® Standard 7 FP Premium.

  12. Evaluation of local hospital discharge for thyroid cancer patients treated with Iodine-131; comparison with internationally accepted release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou-Markidou, E.; Peraticou, A.; Constantinou, C.; Giannos, A.; Aritkan, A.V.; Dimitriadou, D.; Frangos, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Patients with Thyroid Cancer treated with I-131 in our institution, stay in a shielded room for two days, or until they emit less than 40 μSv/hr at 1m, based on the Cyprus legislation for radiation protection. Other countries have different regulations and public dose limits, and their hospital discharge guidelines vary accordingly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate local hospital discharge regulations, make a comparison with other countries' accepted release criteria, and find where improvements can be made. Methods: 267 patients were treated with I-131 (activity 1.8-8.9GBq) from September 2001 to April 2007. The dose equivalent rate (DER) was measured within 30 min of the administration at a distance of 1 m from the patient. Measurements at 1m were also obtained before the release of the patient. For a group of these patients, measurements were also carried out a week after the treatment with I-131. The doses given to members of the public, from each of the above patients, were calculated using the Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) concept, which is based on the line source model. For 10% of these patients, measurements of the dose emitted to surroundings were taken, using two different methods. (a) Doses were measured with TLD dosimeters placed at specific points of the room during the two day restriction of the patient in the shielded room. These points were at bedside, at 1 m from the patient's bed, at 3m from the patient's bed, in the shower area, and at the side of the toilet. (b) On the day of release, personal dosimeters were given to a member of the immediate family (carer) of the patient for a minimum of five days. The skin dose and dose at approximately 10cm depth were measured by the National personnel monitoring for radiation protection authority of Cyprus. Results: Our calculation of the TEDE values indicated that, had the patients been released just after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical, members of the

  13. Food-dependent disintegration of immediate release fosamprenavir tablets: In vitro evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging and a dynamic gastrointestinal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, J.; Anneveld, B.; Goudappel, G.J.; Duchateau, G.; Annaert, P.; Augustijns, P.; Zeijdner, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated the value of two advanced tools, the TNO gastric and small Intestinal Model (TIM-1) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for the in vitro evaluation of food-dependent disintegration of immediate release fosamprenavir tablets. Upon introduction of a tablet with

  14. Selective spleen scintigraphy to evaluate frequency of splenosis after posttraumatic splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, A.; Tischler, E.; Mahlstedt, J.; Wolf, F.; Meier, H.

    1981-01-01

    In 60 patients having had posttraumatic splenectomy between 9 months and 12 years ago frequency of splenosis was investigated in comparison to immunological and hematological parameters. Selective spleen scintigraphy was performed with sup(99m)-Tc-labelled heat-damaged auto-erythrocytes. In 46,7% of the patients splenosis was found without age dependence. Between patients with and without splenosis no significant differences concerning the immunological and hematological parameters were seen. Therefore, the lack of pathological manifestations after posttraumatic splenectomy is not to be related to autotransplantation of splenic tissue. (orig.) [de

  15. A Bayesian Analysis of the Flood Frequency Hydrology Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-1 February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Bayesian Analysis of the Flood Frequency Hydrology ...flood frequency hydrology concept as a formal probabilistic-based means by which to coherently combine and also evaluate the worth of different types...and development. INTRODUCTION: Merz and Blöschl (2008a,b) proposed the concept of flood frequency hydrology , which emphasizes the importance of

  16. Protective action evaluation, Part 1. Effectiveness of sheltering as a protective action against nuclear accidents involving gaseous releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, G.H.; Dore, M.A.

    1978-04-01

    In an airborne release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant accident, sheltering of individuals is of importance in emergency protective action planning. An analysis to estimate the effectiveness or benefit that might be derived from sheltering is described. The objective of this effort is the development of sheltering effectiveness information for those responsible for formulating required emergency plans for nuclear power plant siting. Shelter effectiveness is specifically defined as the dose reduction factor (DRF). DRF estimates for different conditions of source release, shelter structure assumptions, and operational time parameters are made for both whole-body and thyroid doses separately, based on a single-compartment structural model of the time-varying outside and inside gaseous radionuclide sources of krypton, zenon, and iodine. Design basis accident (DBA) assumptions are made for the gaseous radionuclide release. The magnitude of the release and dose estimates are based on radionuclide data from The Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). Source release time and duration assumptions are related to release categories PWR 1, PWR 3, and PWR 4, for which release times range from 1.5 to 2.5 hr and the release duration ranges from 0.5 to 3 hr. The basic shelter model characteristics considered are gamma ray attentuation, source geometry, gaseous fission-product ingress, and air change rate. Temporal parameters considered are source release time and duration, cloud travel time, and time spent in the shelter structure. Also, the analysis of shelter effectiveness is based on a time-frame model, which can be conveniently related to other operational times important for emergency planning. In addition to developing shelter-effectiveness estimates parametrically, the advantage of exiting and evacuating the vicinity of the shelter area after some initial time in the shelter is analyzed from the standpoint of the DRF and temporal considerations

  17. Development and Evaluation of High Bioavailable Sustained-Release Nimodipine Tablets Prepared with Monolithic Osmotic Pump Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hua; Yu, Fanglin; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yang; Li, Mingyuan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Hu, Xiaoqin; Tang, Xuemei; Li, Zhiping; Mei, Xingguo

    2018-01-01

    Frequent administration caused by short half-life and low bioavailability due to poor solubility and low dissolution rate limit the further application of poorly water-soluble nimodipine, although several new indications have been developed. To overcome these shortcomings, sophisticated technologies had to be used since the dose of nimodipine was not too low and the addition of solubilizers could not resolve the problem of poor release. The purpose of this study was to obtain sustained and complete release of nimodipine with a simple and easily industrialized technology. The expandable monolithic osmotic pump tablets containing nimodipine combined with poloxamer 188 and carboxymethylcellulose sodium were prepared. The factors affecting drug release including the amount of solubilizing agent, expanding agent, retarding agent in core tablet and porogenic agent in semipermeable film were optimized. The release behavior was investigated both in vitro and in beagle dogs. It was proved that the anticipant release of nimodipine could be realized in vitro. The sustained and complete release of nimodipine was also realized in beagles because the mean residence time of nimodipine from the osmotic pump system was longer and Cmax was lower than those from the sustained-release tablets in market while there was no difference in AUC(0-t) of the monolithic osmotic pump tablets and the sustained release tablets in market. It was reasonable to believe that the sustained and complete release of poorly watersoluble nimodipine could be realized by using simple expandable monolithic osmotic pump technology combined with surfactant. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Concept and methodology for evaluating core damage frequency considering failure correlation at multi units and sites and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, K.; Teragaki, T.; Nomura, S. [Former Incorporated Administrative Agency, Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (Japan); Abe, H., E-mail: Hiroshi_abe@nsr.go.jp [Former Incorporated Administrative Agency, Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (Japan); Shigemori, M.; Shimomoto, M. [Mizuho Information & Research Institute, 2-3, Kanda-Nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We develop a method to evaluate CDF considering failure correlation at multi units. • We develop a procedure to evaluate correlation coefficient between multi components. • We evaluate CDF at two different BWR units using correlation coefficients. • We confirm the validity of method and correlation coefficient through the evaluation. - Abstract: The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with six units were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. Authors proposed the concept and method for evaluating core damage frequency (CDF) considering failure correlation at the multi units and sites. Based on the above method, one of authors developed the procedure for evaluating the failure correlation coefficient and response correlation coefficient between the multi components under the strong seismic motion. These method and failure correlation coefficients were applied to two different BWR units and their CDF was evaluated by seismic probabilistic risk assessment technology. Through this quantitative evaluation, the validity of the method and failure correlation coefficient was confirmed.

  19. Concept and methodology for evaluating core damage frequency considering failure correlation at multi units and sites and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, K.; Teragaki, T.; Nomura, S.; Abe, H.; Shigemori, M.; Shimomoto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method to evaluate CDF considering failure correlation at multi units. • We develop a procedure to evaluate correlation coefficient between multi components. • We evaluate CDF at two different BWR units using correlation coefficients. • We confirm the validity of method and correlation coefficient through the evaluation. - Abstract: The Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) occurred on March 11, 2011 and caused a large tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with six units were overwhelmed by the tsunami and core damage occurred. Authors proposed the concept and method for evaluating core damage frequency (CDF) considering failure correlation at the multi units and sites. Based on the above method, one of authors developed the procedure for evaluating the failure correlation coefficient and response correlation coefficient between the multi components under the strong seismic motion. These method and failure correlation coefficients were applied to two different BWR units and their CDF was evaluated by seismic probabilistic risk assessment technology. Through this quantitative evaluation, the validity of the method and failure correlation coefficient was confirmed

  20. GUM2DFT—a software tool for uncertainty evaluation of transient signals in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichstädt, S; Wilkens, V

    2016-01-01

    The Fourier transform and its counterpart for discrete time signals, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), are common tools in measurement science and application. Although almost every scientific software package offers ready-to-use implementations of the DFT, the propagation of uncertainties in line with the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) is typically neglected. This is of particular importance in dynamic metrology, when input estimation is carried out by deconvolution in the frequency domain. To this end, we present the new open-source software tool GUM2DFT, which utilizes closed formulas for the efficient propagation of uncertainties for the application of the DFT, inverse DFT and input estimation in the frequency domain. It handles different frequency domain representations, accounts for autocorrelation and takes advantage of the symmetry inherent in the DFT result for real-valued time domain signals. All tools are presented in terms of examples which form part of the software package. GUM2DFT will foster GUM-compliant evaluation of uncertainty in a DFT-based analysis and enable metrologists to include uncertainty evaluations in their routine work. (paper)

  1. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron longitudinal impedance from measurements of the quadrupole frequency shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasheen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal instabilities are one of the main limitations in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS to reach the beam parameters required for the High Luminosity LHC project. In preparation to the SPS upgrade, possible remedies are studied by performing macroparticle simulations using the machine impedance model obtained from electromagnetic simulations and measurements. To benchmark the impedance model, the results of simulations are compared with various beam measurements. In this study, the reactive part of the impedance was probed by measuring the quadrupole frequency shift with intensity, obtained from bunch length oscillations at mismatched injection into the SPS. This method was applied over many last years to follow up the evolution of the SPS impedance, injecting bunches with the same bunch length. A novel approach, giving significantly more information, consists in varying the injected bunch length. The comparison of these measurements with macroparticle simulations allowed us to test the existing model, identify some missing SPS impedance and to obtain its possible dependence on frequency.

  3. Natural Frequencies Evaluation on Partially Damaged Building using Ambient Vibration Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, A. F.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Daud, M. E.; Noh, M. S. Md; Madun, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Matarul, J.; Mokhatar, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    Severe damages observed on the school blocks, roads, retaining walls and drainage within the compound of SMK Kundasang Sabah possibly due to the ground movements triggered by the Ranau earthquake in 1991. Ambient vibration measurements were carried on the remaining demolished 3-storey building which partially damaged in order to measure the predominant building frequencies using tri-axial 1 Hz seismometer sensors. Popular methods of Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) and Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) were used to compute the ambient vibration wave fields of each building axes (Transverse or North-South (NS), Longitudinal or East-West (EW) and vertical) into Fourier spectra. Two main modes of translation and torsion were observed from the peaks frequencies obtained at 2.99 to 3.10 Hz (1st mode), 4.85 Hz (2nd mode) and 5.63 to 5.85 Hz (3rd mode). The building experiencing translation modes of bending and shear in the NS and EW directions. It could be seen when the amplitudes tends to increase when the floor are increased. Meanwhile, the torsional bending mode is expected to occur when the deformation amplitudes are found to be increasing horizontally, when moving into partially structural damaged section located on the East wing of building.

  4. High-frequency ultrasound evaluation of cellulite treated with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet-Rouaud, Regine; Bazan, Marie; Chaintreuil, Jean; Echague, Agustina Vila

    2009-03-01

    To investigate non-invasive laser treatment for cellulite using the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser and to correlate clinical results with high-frequency skin ultrasound images. Twelve individuals of normal weight were treated on either the left or right posterior side of the thigh with the following parameters: fluence 30 J/cm, 18 mm spot size and dynamic cooling device pulse duration of 30 ms. Three treatments were performed at intervals of 3-4 weeks, and followed-up 1 and 3 months after the last session. Photographs and ultrasound imaging were assessed before each session. The 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser resulted in a tightening of the skin and an improvement in cellulite. No side effects were reported. High-resolution ultrasound imaging showed a significant improvement in dermis density and a reduction of dermis thickness. The method is described in detail in Appendix 1. Infra-red lasers may constitute a safe and effective treatment for cellulite and high-frequency ultrasound imaging provides a quantitative and objective measurement of the treatment efficacy.

  5. SCROTAL SWELLING- EVALUATION BY HIGH FREQUENCY USG AND COLOUR DOPPLER STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Borah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to- 1. Study ultrasonographic and colour Doppler patterns of different causes of scrotal swelling (masses. 2. Asses the role of high frequency real time USG in differentiating testicular and extra testicular masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional study of 100 cases of scrotal pathology were studied over a period of 1 year from 1 st August, 2008, to 31 st July, 2009, in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Assam Medical College Hospital at Dibrugarh. All the patients were subjected to grey scale high resolutions USG of scrotum and then scrotal colour Doppler study. Sonographic imaging was performed with Phillips HD-11 real time scanner by using 2.5-5 MHz curvilinear probe and 10 MHz linear transducer. RESULTS Out of 100 cases of scrotal swelling- 97% were benign, 3% were malignant. Among the benign lesions, 82% cases were extra testicular, 7% intratesticular, 8% are both intra and extra testicular in origin. 100% of all malignant lesions were intratesticular. Of the benign lesion- 40% hydrocele, 26% inflammatory lesions, 5% hernia, 6% varicocele, 4% traumatic, 5% cases epididymal cyst, 2% cases torsion. CONCLUSION High resolution, high frequency US and colour Doppler study of scrotum had the advantages of being noninvasiveness, lack of ionising radiation, wide availability, cost effectiveness and repeatability. It is accurate in differentiating testicular ischaemia and torsion, solid and cystic, benign and malignant mass. It is highly sensitive in demonstrating varicocele.

  6. Characterization of a Prototype Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for interspacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of the medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for Radio Frequency Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of gas release scenarios for the silo in Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, J.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste (SFR) has been in operation since 1988 and is located in the crystalline rock, 60 m below the Baltic Sea. In the licensing procedure for the SFR the safety assessment has been complemented with a detailed scenario analysis of the performance of the repository. The scenarios include the influence on radionuclide release by gas formation and gas transport processes in the silo. The overall conclusion is that the release of most radionuclides from the silo is only marginally affected by the formation and release of gas, even for scenarios considering unexpected events. The largest effects were found for short-lived radionuclides and radionuclides that have no or low sorption ability. Except for very extreme scenarios for the silo the overall impact from repository on the environment is by far dominated by the release of radionuclides from the rock vaults. 10 refs., 6 figs

  8. A repository released-dose model for the evaluation of long-lived fission product transmutation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the total integrated dose due to a radionuclide species i emplaced in a geologic repository; the focus is on the seven long-lived fission products (LLFPs). The methodology assumes continuous exposure water contaminated with species i at the accessible environment (i.e., just beyond the geologic barrier afforded by the geologic repository). The dose integration is performed out to a reference post-release time. The integrated dose is a function of the total initial inventory of radionuclide i the repository, the time at which complete and instantaneous failure of the engineered barrier (e.g., waste canister) in, a geologic repository occurs, the fractional dissolution rate (from waste solid form) of radionuclide i in ground water, the ground water travel time to the accessible environment, the retardation factor (sorption on the geologic media) for radionuclide i, the time after radionuclide begins to enter the biosphere. In order to assess relative dose, the ratio of total integrated dose to that for a reference LLFP species j (e.g., 99 Tc) was defined. This ratio is a measure of the relative benefit of transmutation of other LLFPs compared to 99 Tc. This methodology was further developed in order to quantify the integrated dose reduction per neutron utilized for LLFP transmutation in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT). This measure of effectiveness is a function of the integrated dose due to LLFP species i, the number of total captures in LLFP species i chain per LLFP nuclide fed to the chain at equilibrium, and the number of total captures in related transmutation product (TP) chains per capture in the LLFP species i chain. To assess relative transmutation effectiveness, the ratio of integrated dose reduction per neutron utilization to that for a reference LLFP species j (e.g., 99 Tc) was defined. This relative measure of effectiveness was evaluated LLFP transmutation strategy

  9. Acetylene Resembling Effect of Ethylene on Seed Germination: Evaluating the Effect of Acetylene Released from Calcium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz MASHAYEKHI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some vegetable seeds need a very long time to germinate. In these kinds of seeds the second phase of germination is very long. As acetylene’s chemical structure is almost similar to the gaseous hormone ethylene, its’ physiological effect on seed germination should be very similar as well. Therefore, an experiment was established in order to enhance seed germination, by treating seeds with acetylene released from interaction of calcium carbide (CaC2 with water (H2O. A simple system was designed for efficient and proper use of gaseous acetylene resulted from the two substrates interaction, which conducted the produced gas obtained inside the interaction chamber into a sealed container wherein seeds were floating in water. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of one concentration of acetylene with different exposure periods (between 1 to 8 hours on parsley, celery and Swees chard seeds’ germination (chosen as late germinating vegetables. The effect of acetylene on seed germination speed and percent was investigated. There were significant differences in both percent and speed of germination within the various treatments. By floating for 3, 5 and 3 hours for parsley, celery and Swiss chard respectively, the highest germination rates were observed. The highest germination speed was achieved by 5, 5 and 3 hours floating respectively for parsley, celery and Swiss chard. Based on the results obtained, the current experiment suggests that acetylene has positive effect on enhancing seed germination of named vegetables, and played the role of ethylene, its effects resembling in regard to seed germination process.

  10. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  11. Influence of PCL on the material properties of collagen based biocomposites and in vitro evaluation of drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanungo, Ivy; Fathima, Nishter Nishad; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of biodegradable collagen–poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) based biomaterials for the sustained release of insulin is the main objective of the present work. PCL has been employed to modulate the physico-chemical behavior of collagen to control the drug release. Designed formulations were employed to statistically optimize insulin release parameter profile at different collagen to PCL molar ratios. Circular dichroism, thermoporometry, FTIR, impedance and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been employed to investigate the effect of PCL on hydration dynamics of the collagen molecule, which in turn changes the dissolution parameters of the drug from the systems. Drug entrapment efficiency has been found to be maximum for collagen to PCL molar ratio of 1:2 (> 90%). In vitro dissolution test reveals that 99% of the drug was released from composite at collagen to PCL molar ratio of 1:3 and 1:4 within 2 h, which indicates that hydrophobicity of the matrix results in weak interaction between lipophilic drug and carrier materials. The least burst release was observed for collagen to PCL molar ratio at 1:2 as synergistic interactions between collagen and PCL was maximum at that particular polymer–polymer ratios. The drug release data indicates super case-II transport of drug (n > 1.0). - Graphical abstract: Collagen–poly-ε-caprolactone based biomaterials for the sustained release of insulin were formulated. Circular dichroism, thermoporometry, FTIR, impedance and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been employed to elucidate the effect of PCL on the structure of the collagen and in vitro drug release. The drug release data fitted to the kinetic model indicates super case-II transport due to the combination of diffusion and polymer relaxation/dissolution (n > 1.0). - Highlights: • Poly-ε-caprolactone influences physico-chemical behavior of collagen. • Poly-ε-caprolactone influences in vitro drug release mechanism from biocomposites.

  12. A Novel Approach for Dry Powder Coating of Pellets with Ethylcellulose. Part II: Evaluation of Caffeine Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Beatrice; Melegari, Cecilia; Bertoni, Serena; Dolci, Luisa Stella; Passerini, Nadia

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and the capability of a novel ethylcellulose-based dry-coating system to obtain prolonged and stable release profiles of caffeine-loaded pellets. Lauric and oleic acids at a suitable proportion were used to plasticize ethylcellulose. The effect of coating level, percentage of drug loading, inert core particle size, and composition of the coating formulation including the anti-sticking agent on the drug release profile were fully investigated. A coating level of 15% w/w was the maximum layered amount which could modify the drug release. The best controlled drug release was obtained by atomizing talc (2.5% w/w) together with the solid plasticizer during the dry powder-coating process. SEM pictures revealed a substantial drug re-crystallization on the pellet surface, and the release studies evidenced that caffeine diffused through the plasticized polymer acting as pore former. Therefore, the phenomenon of caffeine migration across the coating layer had a strong influence on the permeability of the coating membrane. Comparing dry powder-coated pellets to aqueous film-coated ones, drug migration happened during storage, though more sustained release profiles were obtained. The developed dry powder-coating process enabled the production of stable caffeine sustained release pellets. Surprisingly, the release properties of the dry-coated pellets were mainly influenced by the way of addition of talc into the dry powder-coating blend and by the drug nature and affinity to the coating components. It would be interesting to study the efficacy of novel coating system using a different API.

  13. Formulation and Evaluation of a Sustained-Release Tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride Using Hydrophilic Synthetic and Hydrophobic Natural Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Wadher, K. J.; Kakde, R. B.; Umekar, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride has relatively short plasma half-life, low absolute bioavailability. The need for the administration two to three times a day when larger doses are required can decrease patient compliance. Sustained release formulation that would maintain plasma level for 8-12 h might be sufficient for daily dosing of metformin. Sustained release products are needed for metformin to prolong its duration of action and to improve patient compliances. The overall objective of this study ...

  14. Development of a code to simulate dispersion of atmospheric released tritium gas in the environmental media and to evaluate doses. TRIDOSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2000-11-01

    A computer code (TRIDOSE) was developed to assess the environmental impact of atmospheric released tritium gas (T 2 ) from nuclear fusion related facilities. The TRIDOSE simulates dispersion of T 2 and resultant HTO in the atmosphere, land, plant, water and foods in the environment, and evaluates contamination concentrations in the media and exposure doses. A part of the mathematical models in TRIDOSE were verified by comparison of the calculation with the results of the short range (400 m) dispersion experiment of HT gas performed in Canada postulating a short-time (30 minutes) accidental release. (author)

  15. Development of a code to simulate dispersion of atmospheric released tritium gas in the environmental media and to evaluate doses. TRIDOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Mikio [Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    A computer code (TRIDOSE) was developed to assess the environmental impact of atmospheric released tritium gas (T{sub 2}) from nuclear fusion related facilities. The TRIDOSE simulates dispersion of T{sub 2} and resultant HTO in the atmosphere, land, plant, water and foods in the environment, and evaluates contamination concentrations in the media and exposure doses. A part of the mathematical models in TRIDOSE were verified by comparison of the calculation with the results of the short range (400 m) dispersion experiment of HT gas performed in Canada postulating a short-time (30 minutes) accidental release. (author)

  16. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V and currents (<1 mA with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  17. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lan; Lu, Jian, E-mail: jian-lu@aist.go.jp; Takagi, Hideki; Maeda, Ryutaro [Research Center for Ubiquitous MEMS and Micro Engineering (UMEMSME), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8564 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V) and currents (<1 mA) with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  18. Evaluation of frequency-dependent ultrasound attenuation in transparent medium using focused shadowgraph technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yukina; Kudo, Nobuki

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic fields of a short-pulsed ultrasound propagating through a transparent medium with ultrasound attenuation were visualized by the focused shadowgraph technique. A brightness waveform and its spatial integrations were derived from a visualized field image and compared with a pressure waveform measured by a membrane hydrophone. The experimental results showed that first-order integration of the brightness wave has good agreement with the pressure waveforms. Frequency-dependent attenuation of the pulse propagating through castor oil was derived from brightness and pressure waveforms, and attenuation coefficients determined from focused shadowgraphy and hydrophone techniques showed good agreement. The results suggest the usefulness of the shadowgraph technique not only for the visualization of ultrasound fields but also for noncontact estimation of rough pressure waveforms and correct ultrasound attenuation.

  19. Evaluation of the electromagnetic field level emitted by medium frequency AM broadcast stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Bambini, S.; Barellini, A.; Monorchio, A.; Rogovich, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate the level of the electromagnetic field produced by telecommunication systems, different computational techniques can be employed whose complexity depends on the accuracy of the final results. In this paper, we present the validation of a code based on the method of moments that allows us to analyse the electromagnetic field emitted by radio-communication systems operating at medium frequencies. The method is able to provide an accurate estimate of the levels of electromagnetic field produced by this type of device and, consequently, it can be used as a method for verifying the compliance of the system with the safe exposure level regulations and population protection laws. Some numerical and experimental results are shown relevant to an amplitude modulated (AM) radio transmitter, together with the results of a forthcoming system that will be operative in the near future. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of the mineral composition of breadstuff and frequency its consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess some selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) in different types of breadstuff. Moreover, the frequency of breadstuff consumption was determined in a selected group of students at one of Lublin universities. The material for the study was breadstuff available on the consumer market, produced from wheat and rye flour, of varied degree of grinding. In the samples the content of dry matter, crude ash and minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) was determined. A questionnaire investigation was performed in a group of 100 university students in Lublin. The questionnaire included questions which were helpful in determining the frequency of the consumed breadstuff. The content of mineral elements in breadstuff depended on its recipe's composition and their higher share was noted in rye and mixed-flour bread. Whole wheat bread was richer in minerals in comparison with white bread. Assuming that a statistical Pole consumes daily 166 g of bread, it may be calculated that the men consumes daily with bread 512 mg of P (73% of RDA) and 0.7 mg of Cu (ca. 78% of RDA), ca. 20 mg of Ca (1.6-2.0% of AI), 93 mg of Mg (ca. 22-30% of RDA), 602 mg of Na (40-50% of AI), 183 mg of K (3.9% of AI), 4.5 mg of Fe (25-45% of RDA) and 3 mg of Zn (29-40% of RDA). Bread is an important source of minerals, especially phosphorus and copper. Among students an excessive consumption of white bread should be noted contrasting with a low intake of whole wheat or whole meal bread.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Releasing Ability of Various Restorative Materials after the Application of Surface Coating Agents - An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Gvs; Sai-Sankar, A J; Pratap-Gowd, Mjs; Sridhar, M; Pranitha, Kakarla; Sai-Krishna, V S

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride plays a key role in prevention of dental caries and is also an essential element for oral health promotion both in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface coating (petroleum jelly, G-Coat Plus) on the fluoride releasing property of conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Zirconomer. A total of 30 disk shaped brass mold specimens (6±0.1mm in diameter and 2±0.1mm thickness) for each test group were fabricated with conventional GIC (Group A) and Zirconomer (Group B). These test groups were further divided into three subgroups of 10 each. The unprotected specimens act as control (Group A1 and B1), G-Coat Plus specimens as (Group A2 and B2) and for the remaining specimens petroleum jelly was applied (Group A3 and B3). Fluoride ion concentration was measured with a combination of fluoride ion specific electrode and ion analyzer for every 24 hours for 15 days. The data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The Group B released significantly more fluoride than Group A. Among all the subgroups the greatest amount of fluoride was released from Group B1, in the first 24 hours followed by A1 and B2. The least was observed on 15 th day with Group B3 and A3. Both the tested materials (GIC and Zirconomer) used in the study exhibited fluoride release whether protected or unprotected with surface coating. Though there was a difference between the groups, the pattern of fluoride release was similar and continuous throughout the study period i.e., first the initial burst followed by sustained release. The results revealed Zirconomer released more fluoride and is comparable to conventional GIC.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Releasing Ability of Various Restorative Materials after the Application of Surface Coating Agents – An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, GVS; Sai-Sankar, AJ; Sridhar, M; Pranitha, Kakarla; Sai-Krishna, VS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride plays a key role in prevention of dental caries and is also an essential element for oral health promotion both in children and adults. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface coating (petroleum jelly, G-Coat Plus) on the fluoride releasing property of conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Zirconomer. Materials and Methods A total of 30 disk shaped brass mold specimens (6±0.1mm in diameter and 2±0.1mm thickness) for each test group were fabricated with conventional GIC (Group A) and Zirconomer (Group B). These test groups were further divided into three subgroups of 10 each. The unprotected specimens act as control (Group A1 and B1), G-Coat Plus specimens as (Group A2 and B2) and for the remaining specimens petroleum jelly was applied (Group A3 and B3). Fluoride ion concentration was measured with a combination of fluoride ion specific electrode and ion analyzer for every 24 hours for 15 days. The data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results The Group B released significantly more fluoride than Group A. Among all the subgroups the greatest amount of fluoride was released from Group B1, in the first 24 hours followed by A1 and B2. The least was observed on 15th day with Group B3 and A3. Conclusion Both the tested materials (GIC and Zirconomer) used in the study exhibited fluoride release whether protected or unprotected with surface coating. Though there was a difference between the groups, the pattern of fluoride release was similar and continuous throughout the study period i.e., first the initial burst followed by sustained release. The results revealed Zirconomer released more fluoride and is comparable to conventional GIC. PMID:28209001

  3. Composition-structure-property (Zn2+ and Ca2+ ion release) evaluation of Si-Na-Ca-Zn-Ce glasses: Potential components for nerve guidance conduits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.F.; Kehoe, S.; Adhi, S.K.; Ajithkumar, T.G.; Moane, S.; O'Shea, H.; Boyd, D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glasses have demonstrated tailored therapeutic ion release, primarily with respect to the augmentation of hard tissues. However, controlled degradation and release of therapeutic ions from biomaterials may also play an important role in soft tissue regeneration such as repair of peripheral nerve discontinuities. In this study, three silica based glasses (0.5SiO 2 -0.2CaO-0.13ZnO-XNa 2 O-(0.17-X) CeO 2 ) where, (0.04 29 Si isotope was probed for each glass using 29 Si MAS-NMR, whilst the thermal characteristics of each glass were examined using DTA. Following these analyses, ion release profiles for Ca 2+ and Zn 2+ were evaluated; an equivalent specific surface area of 1 m 2 of each glass powder was incubated (37 deg. C) in 10 ml of citric acid buffer and TRIS-HCI buffer solution (pH 3.0 and pH 7.4 respectively) for incubation periods of up to 30 days. The Zn 2+ concentration of each filtrate was analysed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Varian AA240FS Fast Sequential AAS) and the Ca 2+ concentration of each filtrate was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (Varian 820 ICP-MS). Results obtained from the 29 Si MAS-NMR spectra indicated Q 2 structures pervading the network. An analytical model was proposed to analyse the ion release profiles for each glass, and indicated heterogeneous dissolution of glass networks. The ion release data demonstrates that ion release in the range (19.26-3130 ppm) for Ca 2+ and in the range (5.97-4904 ppm) for Zn 2+ occurred. Release of such elements, at appropriate levels, from peripheral nerve guidance conduits may be advantageous with respect to the repair of peripheral nerve discontinuities.

  4. Autonomic nervous system activity in purebred Arabian horses evaluated according to the low frequency and high frequency spectrum versus racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Janczarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional excitability influences horses’ performance in sports and races. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the balance of the autonomic system which can occur when sympathetic system activity is at various levels might impact the horses’ racing performance. The study was carried out on 67 purebred Arabian horses trained for racing. The following indices were analysed: low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF, and the ratio of spectrum power at low frequencies to high frequencies (LF/HF. The autonomic nervous system activity was measured × 3 during the training season, at three-month intervals. Each examination included a 30-min measurement at rest and after a training session. The racing performance indices in these horses were also analysed. Better racing results were found in horses with enhanced LF/HF. The worst racing results were determined in horses with low LF.

  5. A novel co-processed directly compressible release-retarding polymer: In vitro, solid state and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Choudhari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Directly compressible (DC co-processed excipient capable of providing nearly zero order release with improved functionality was developed without any chemical modification by employed various techniques such as physical mixing, high shear mixer granulation and spray drying. Co-processed excipient was developed by using release retarding polymer Eudragit RSPO, separately, in combination with different concentration of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose 100 cps (Methocel K100 LV, HPMC, ethyl cellulose (Ethocel N50, EC and hydroxyl propyl cellulose (Klucel EF, HPC. All co-processed excipients were evaluated for their flow properties in terms of angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and Hausner's ratio. Out of eighteen combinations, the nine co-processed excipients exhibited promising flow properties were found suitable for direct compression and formulated as tablets. Metoprolol succinate, a BCS Class I drug, was selected as a model drug and the formulation was developed employing direct compression approach. The developed tablets were evaluated for physical parameters like uniformity of weight, thickness, hardness, friability and assay. In vitro dissolution study confirms that formulation prepared using co-processed excipient showed sustained drug release. The optimized tablet formulation was characterized by DSC, FTIR and PXRD which confirms the absence of any chemical change during co-processing. The optimized formulation was kept for stability study for six months as per ICH guidelines and found to be stable. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of optimized formulation in rats showed similar pharmacokinetic behaviour as was observed with the marketed brand. Study revealed that co-processed excipient has advantage over polymers with single property and can be utilised for sustained release formulation. Keywords: Co-processed excipient, Metoprolol succinate, Extended-release, Direct compression, Zero-order release

  6. Fission gas release behavior of MOX fuels under simulated daily-load-follow operation condition. IFA-554/555 test evaluation with FASTGRASS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Ozawa, Takayuki

    2008-03-01

    IFA-554/555 load-follow tests were performed in HALDEN reactor (HBWR) to study the MOX fuel behavior under the daily-load-follow operation condition in the framework of ATR-MOX fuel development in JAEA. IFA-554/555 rig had the instruments of rod inner pressure, fuel center temperature, fuel stack elongation, and cladding elongation. Although the daily-load-follow operation in nuclear power plant is one of the available options for economical improvement, the power change in a short period in this operation causes the change of thermal and mechanical irradiation conditions. In this report, FP gas release behavior of MOX fuel rod was evaluated under the daily-load-follow operation condition with the examination data from IFA-554/555 by using the computation code 'FASTGRASS'. From the computation results of FASTGRASS code which could compute the FP gas release behavior under the transient condition, it could be concluded that FP gas was released due to the relaxation of fuel pellet inner stress and pellet temperature increase, which were caused by the cyclic power change during the daily-load-follow operation. In addition, since the amount of released FP gas decreased during the steady operation after the daily-load-follow, it could be mentioned that the total of FP gas release at the end of life with the daily-load-follow is not so much different from that without the daily-load-follow. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Varicocele Frequency in Adolescents in the City of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although varicocele can be treated, it is considered as one of the most common causes of infertility. This study was performed in order to estimate prevalence of varicocele in adolescents aging 12-14 years in the city of Isfahan.Materials and Methods: During this descriptive analytic research, 800 secondary school students who were 12 to 14 years old were randomly chosen from all the five areas of the city. Physical examination results were considered absolutely private. Examinations could screen grades I, II, III, unilateral and bilateral varicocele. Finally, recorded data was analyzed.Results: From 800 students examined, 133 individuals had varicocele. 74 students out of 133 individuals with varicocele, had grade I (55.6% in the left side, 44 students had grade II (33.1% in the left side, 4 students had grade III (3% in the left side, and 11 students had bilateral varicocele (8.3%.Conclusion: Considering the significant frequency of varicocele among adolescents more attention must be paid to early treatment of varicocele in order to restore the testicular function and therefore, future fertility. However late treatment may lead to testicular atrophy and irreversible consequences. Thus examination, diagnosis and treatment of possible varicocele in individuals at this range of age is highly recommended. In addition, the results of this study highlight the importance of parents' education about the consequences of varicocele on the future fertility of their children.

  8. Evaluation of radio-frequency heating in controlling Salmonella enterica in raw shelled almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Baik, Oon-Doo; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-08-02

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to reduce Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Typhimurium, and Senftenberg in raw shelled almonds compared to conventional convective heating, and the effect of RF heating on quality by measuring changes in the color and degree of lipid oxidation. Agar-grown cells of three pathogens were inoculated onto the surface or inside of raw shelled almonds using surface inoculation or the vacuum perfusion method, respectively, and subjected to RF or conventional heating. RF heating for 40s achieved 3.7-, 6.0-, and 5.6-log reductions in surface-inoculated S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Senftenberg, respectively, whereas the reduction of these pathogens following convective heating for 600s was 1.7, 2.5, and 3.7 log, respectively. RF heating reduced internally inoculated pathogens to below the detection limit (0.7 logCFU/g) after 30s. However, conventional convective heating did not attain comparable reductions even at the end of treatment (600s). Color values, peroxide values, and acid values of RF-treated (40-s treatment) almonds were not significantly (P>0.05) different from those of nontreated samples. These results suggest that RF heating can be applied to control internalized pathogens as well as surface-adhering pathogens in raw almonds without affecting product quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Development of a Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and. control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for inter-spacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for RF Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  10. Morphogen and proinflammatory cytokine release kinetics from PRGF-Endoret fibrin scaffolds: evaluation of the effect of leukocyte inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Zalduendo, M M; Prado, R; Alkhraisat, M H; Orive, G

    2015-03-01

    The potential influence of leukocyte incorporation in the kinetic release of growth factors from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may explain the conflicting efficiency of leukocyte platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) scaffolds in tissue regeneration. To assess this hypothesis, leukocyte-free (PRGF-Endoret) and L-PRP fibrin scaffolds were prepared, and both morphogen and proinflammatory cytokine release kinetics were analyzed. Clots were incubated with culture medium to monitor protein release over 8 days. Furthermore, the different fibrin scaffolds were morphologically characterized. Results show that leukocyte-free fibrin matrices were homogenous while leukocyte-containing ones were heterogeneous, loose and cellular. Leukocyte incorporation produced a significant increase in the contents of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-16 but not in the platelet-derived growth factors release (PRGF-Endoret, the inclusion of leukocytes induced a major increase in these cytokines, which was characterized by the presence of a latent period. The PRGF-Endoret matrices were stable during the 8 days of incubation. The inclusion of leukocytes alters the growth factors release profile and also increased the dose of proinflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biodegradation study of enzymatically catalyzed interpenetrating polymer network: Evaluation of agrochemical release and impact on soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN has been synthesized through enzymatic initiation using lipase as initiator, glutaraldehyde as cross-linker, acrylic acid as primary monomer and acrylamide as secondary monomer. Biodegradability of synthesized interpenetrating polymer network was studied through soil burial and composting methods. Synthesized hydrogel was completely degraded within 70 days using composting method, while it was 86.03% degraded within 77 days using soil burial method. This was confirmed by Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Synthesized interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel was used as a device for controlled release of urea and also act as water releasing device. Their impact on soil fertility and plant growth was also studied. The initial diffusion coefficient has a greater value than the later diffusion coefficient indicating a higher fertilizer release rate during the early stage. Fertilizer release kinetic was also studied which showed Non-Fickian diffusion behavior, as the rate of fertilizer release was comparable to the relaxation time of the synthesized matrix. Synthesized IPN enhance the water uptake capacity up to 6.2% and 7.2% in sandy loam and clay soil, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of power transfer efficiency for a high power inductively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Recchia, M.; Cavenago, M.; Fantz, U.; Gaio, E.; Kraus, W.; Maistrello, A.; Veltri, P.

    2018-04-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) for plasma heating and current drive is necessary for International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) tokamak. Due to its various advantages, a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma source type was selected as a reference ion source for the ITER heating NBI. The ITER relevant RF negative ion sources are inductively coupled (IC) devices whose operational working frequency has been chosen to be 1 MHz and are characterized by high RF power density (˜9.4 W cm-3) and low operational pressure (around 0.3 Pa). The RF field is produced by a coil in a cylindrical chamber leading to a plasma generation followed by its expansion inside the chamber. This paper recalls different concepts based on which a methodology is developed to evaluate the efficiency of the RF power transfer to hydrogen plasma. This efficiency is then analyzed as a function of the working frequency and in dependence of other operating source and plasma parameters. The study is applied to a high power IC RF hydrogen ion source which is similar to one simplified driver of the ELISE source (half the size of the ITER NBI source).

  13. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose  Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods  Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results  For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion  We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:   · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is similar between the USA, Japan and Germany.. · To date, no validated risk factors for TSM could be identified.. Citation Format · Well L, Rausch VH, Adam G et al. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a

  14. Formulation and evaluation of rifampicin sustained release tablets using juice of Citrus limetta as bio-retardant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, K Pawan; Soam, Kulwant; Gupta, S K; Dabral, Prashant

    2012-03-01

    The advantages of biopolymers over synthetic polymers are low cost, natural origin, free from side effects, biocompatible, bio-acceptable, environmental friendly processing, local availability, better patient tolerance as well as public acceptance. Sustained release tablets containing rifampicin was prepared by adding 100 mg polymer and 50 mg Drug and Granules. Same procedure was followed with 3% and 5% of polymer for preparation of sustained release tablets. Additional Tablets of 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg were prepared using 5% of the polymer. The results indicated that the selected biopolymer had a good release retardant property thus it can be concluded that the selected biopolymer can be utilized as low cost natural biocompatible and biodegradable agent.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of rifampicin sustained release tablets using juice of Citrus limetta as bio-retardant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pawan Gaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of biopolymers over synthetic polymers are low cost, natural origin, free from side effects, biocompatible, bio-acceptable, environmental friendly processing, local availability, better patient tolerance as well as public acceptance. Sustained release tablets containing rifampicin was prepared by adding 100 mg polymer and 50 mg Drug and Granules. Same procedure was followed with 3% and 5% of polymer for preparation of sustained release tablets. Additional Tablets of 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg were prepared using 5% of the polymer. The results indicated that the selected biopolymer had a good release retardant property thus it can be concluded that the selected biopolymer can be utilized as low cost natural biocompatible and biodegradable agent.

  16. Evaluation of low-frequency operational limit of proposed ITER low-field-side reflectometer waveguide run including miter bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guiding [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Peebles, W. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Doyle, E. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Crocker, N. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Wannberg, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Lau, Cornwall H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hanson, Gregory R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doane, John L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The present design concept for the ITER low-field-side reflectometer transmission line (TL) consists of an ~40 m long, 6.35 cm diameter helically corrugated waveguide (WG) together with ten 90° miter bends. This paper presents an evaluation of the TL performance at low frequencies (33-50 GHz) where the predicted HE11 mode ohmic and mode conversion losses start to increase significantly. Quasi-optical techniques were used to form a near Gaussian beam to efficiently couple radiation in this frequency range into the WG. We observed that the output beams from the guide remained linearly polarized with cross-polarization power levels of ~1.5%-3%. The polarization rotation due to the helical corrugations was in the range ~1°-3°. The radiated beam power profiles typically show excellent Gaussian propagation characteristics at distances >20 cm from the final exit aperture. The round trip propagation loss was found to be ~2.5 dB at 50 GHz and ~6.5 dB at 35 GHz, showing an inverse increase with frequency. This was consistent with updated calculations of miter bend and ohmic losses. At low frequencies (33-50 GHz), the mode purity remained very good at the exit of the waveguide, and the losses are perfectly acceptable for operation in ITER. Finally, the primary challenge may come from the future addition of a Gaussian telescope and other filter components within the corrugated guide, which will likely introduce additional perturbations to the beam profile and an increase in mode-conversion loss.

  17. Analysis and evaluation of the ASTEC model basis on fission product and aerosol release phenomena from melts. 3. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agethen, K.; Koch, M.K.

    2016-04-01

    The present report is the 3 rd Technical Report within the research project ''ASMO'' founded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi 1501433) and projected at the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics (LEE) within the workgroup Reactor Simulation and Safety at the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB). The focus in this report is set on the release of fission products and the contribution to the source term, which is formed in the late phase after failure of the reactor pressure vessel during MCCI. By comparing the RUB simulation results including the fission product release rates with further simulations of GRS and VEIKI it can be indicated that the simulations have a high sensitivity in respect to the melting point temperature. It can be noted that the release rates are underestimated for most fission product species with the current model. Especially semi-volatile fission products and the lanthanum release is underestimated by several orders of magnitude. Based on the ACE experiment L2, advanced considerations are presented concerning the melt temperature, the gas temperature, the segregation and a varied melt configuration. Furthermore, the influence of the gas velocity is investigated. This variation of the gas velocity causes an underestimation of the release rates compared to the RUB base calculation. A model extension to oxidic species for lanthanum and ruthenium shows a significant improvement of the simulation results. In addition, the MEDICIS module has been enhanced to document the currently existing species, are displayed in a *.ist-file. This expansion shows inconsistencies between the melt composition and the fission product composition. Based on these results, there are still some difficulties regarding the release of fission products in the MEDICIS module and the interaction with the material data base (MOB) which needs further investigation.

  18. Construction and evaluation of controlled-release delivery system of Abamectin using porous silica nanoparticles as carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Haixin; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Photolysis and poor solubility in water of Abamectin are key issues to be addressed, which causes low bioavailability and residual pollution. In this study, a novel hydrophilic delivery system through loading Abamectin with porous silica nanoparticles (Abam-PSNs) was developed in order to improve the chemical stability, dispersity, and the controlled release of Abamectin. These results suggest that Abam-PSNs can significantly improve the performance of controllable release, photostability, and water solubility of Abamectin by changing the porous structure of silica nanoparticles, which is favorable to improve the bioavailability and reduce the residues of pesticides.

  19. A quality evaluation of stabilization of rotation frequency of gas-diesel engines when using an adaptive automatic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A. A.; Efremov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of quality improvement of stabilization of rotation frequency of the gas-diesels used as prime mover of generator set in the multigenerator units working for abruptly variable load of large power is considered. An evaluation is made on the condition of fuzzy controller use developed and described by the authors in a number of articles. An evaluation has shown that theoretically, the revolution range of a gas-diesel engine may be reduced 25-30 times in case of optimal settings of the controller in the whole power range. The results of modelling showing a considerable quality improvement of transient processes in the investigated system during a sharp change of loading are presented in this article.

  20. MEG time-frequency analyses for pre- and post-surgical evaluation of patients with epileptic rhythmic fast activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Nakane, Shingo; Asahina, Naoko; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Nakama, Hideyuki; Otsuki, Taisuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Saitoh, Shinji

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery for epilepsy, we analyzed rhythmic fast activity by magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after surgery using time-frequency analysis. To assess reliability, the results obtained by pre-surgical MEG and intraoperative electrocorticography were compared. Four children with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy caused by circumscribed cortical lesion were examined in the present study using 204-channel helmet-shaped MEG with a sampling rate of 600Hz. One patient had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and three patients had focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Aberrant areas were superimposed, to reconstruct 3D MRI images, and illustrated as moving images. In three patients, short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of MEG showed rhythmic activities just above the lesion with FCD and in the vicinity of DNT. In one patient with FCD in the medial temporal lobe, rhythmic activity appeared in the ipsilateral frontal lobe and temporal lateral aspect. These findings correlate well with the results obtained by intraoperative electrocorticography. After the surgery, three patients were relieved of their seizures, and the area of rhythmic MEG activity disappeared or become smaller. One patient had residual rhythmic MEG activity, and she suffered from seizure relapse. Time-frequency analyses using STFT successfully depicted MEG rhythmic fast activity, and would provide valuable information for pre- and post-surgical evaluations to define surgical strategies for patients with epilepsy.

  1. Wind farms providing secondary frequency regulation: evaluating the performance of model-based receding horizon control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Shapiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended version of our paper presented at the 2016 TORQUE conference (Shapiro et al., 2016. We investigate the use of wind farms to provide secondary frequency regulation for a power grid using a model-based receding horizon control framework. In order to enable real-time implementation, the control actions are computed based on a time-varying one-dimensional wake model. This model describes wake advection and wake interactions, both of which play an important role in wind farm power production. In order to test the control strategy, it is implemented in a large-eddy simulation (LES model of an 84-turbine wind farm using the actuator disk turbine representation. Rotor-averaged velocity measurements at each turbine are used to provide feedback for error correction. The importance of including the dynamics of wake advection in the underlying wake model is tested by comparing the performance of this dynamic-model control approach to a comparable static-model control approach that relies on a modified Jensen model. We compare the performance of both control approaches using two types of regulation signals, RegA and RegD, which are used by PJM, an independent system operator in the eastern United States. The poor performance of the static-model control relative to the dynamic-model control demonstrates that modeling the dynamics of wake advection is key to providing the proposed type of model-based coordinated control of large wind farms. We further explore the performance of the dynamic-model control via composite performance scores used by PJM to qualify plants for regulation services or markets. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic-model-controlled wind farm consistently performs well, passing the qualification threshold for all fast-acting RegD signals. For the RegA signal, which changes over slower timescales, the dynamic-model control leads to average performance that surpasses the qualification threshold, but further

  2. Ultrastructural evaluation of multiple pass low energy versus single pass high energy radio-frequency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, David; Burns, A Jay; Sanner, Roth; Counters, Jeff; Zelickson, Brian

    2006-02-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) device is a system capable of volumetric heating of the mid to deep dermis and selective heating of the fibrous septa strands and fascia layer. Clinically, these effects promote dermal collagen production, and tightening of these deep subcutaneous structures. A new technique of using multiple low energy passes has been described which results in lower patient discomfort and fewer side effects. This technique has also been anecdotally described as giving more reproducible and reliable clinical results of tissue tightening and contouring. This study will compare ultrastructural changes in collagen between a single pass high energy versus up to five passes of a multiple pass lower energy treatment. Three subjects were consented and treated in the preauricular region with the RF device using single or multiple passes (three or five) in the same 1.5 cm(2) treatment area with a slight delay between passes to allow tissue cooling. Biopsies from each treatment region and a control biopsy were taken immediately, 24 hours or 6 months post treatment for electron microscopic examination of the 0-1 mm and 1-2 mm levels. Sections of tissue 1 mm x 1 mm x 80 nm were examined with an RCA EMU-4 Transmission Electron Microscope. Twenty sections from 6 blocks from each 1 mm depth were examined by 2 blinded observers. The morphology and degree of collagen change in relation to area examined was compared to the control tissue, and estimated using a quantitative scale. Ultrastructural examination of tissue showed that an increased amount of collagen fibril changes with increasing passes at energies of 97 J (three passes) and 122 J (five passes), respectively. The changes seen after five multiple passes were similar to those detected after much more painful single pass high-energy treatments. This ultrastructural study shows changes in collagen fibril morphology with an increased effect demonstrated at greater depths of the skin with multiple low-fluence passes

  3. Randomized crossover study evaluating the effect of a hand sanitizer dispenser on the frequency of hand hygiene among anesthesiology staff in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Patel, Zalak; Banks, Shawn; Arheart, Kristopher; Eber, Scott; Lubarsky, David A; Birnbach, David J

    2014-06-01

    Forty anesthesia providers were evaluated with and without hand sanitizer dispensers present on the anesthesia machine. Having a dispenser increased the frequency of hand hygiene only from 0.5 to 0.8 events per hour (P = .01). Other concomitant interventions are needed to further increase hand hygiene frequency among anesthesia providers.

  4. Development and evaluation of a new prototype P&T system to determine in-heading gas release rate.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, FJ

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the potential methane hazard in underground coal mines, it is necessary to determine the in-seam methane content and an expected gas release rate during production. Various methods for estimating this have been proposed, ranging...

  5. Evaluating the Release, Delivery, and Deployment Processes of Eight Large Product Software Vendors applying the Customer Configuration Update Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.R.L.; Brinkkemper, S.

    2006-01-01

    For software vendors the processes of release, delivery, and deployment to customers are inherently complex. However, software vendors can greatly improve their product quality and quality of service by applying a model that focuses on customer interaction if such a model were available. This

  6. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures

  7. Evaluation of peripheral microcirculation improvement of foot after tarsal tunnel release in diabetic patients by transcutaneous oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trignano, Emilio; Fallico, Nefer; Chen, Hung-Chi; Faenza, Mario; Bolognini, Alfonso; Armenti, Andrea; Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio; Rubino, Corrado; Campus, Gian Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    According to recent studies, peripheral nerve decompression in diabetic patients seems to not only improve nerve function, but also to increase microcirculation; thus decreasing the incidence of diabetic foot wounds and amputations. However, while the postoperative improvement of nerve function is demonstrated, the changes in peripheral microcirculation have not been demonstrated yet. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of microcirculation improvement of foot after the tarsal tunnel release in the diabetic patients by using transcutaneous oximetry. Twenty diabetic male patients aged between 43 and 72 years old (mean age 61.2 years old) suffering from diabetic peripheral neuropathy with superimposed nerve compression underwent transcutaneous oximetry (PtcO2) before and after tarsal tunnel release by placing an electrode on the skin at the level of the dorsum of the foot. Eight lower extremities presented diabetic foot wound preoperatively. Thirty-six lower extremities underwent surgical release of the tibialis posterior nerve only, whereas four lower extremities underwent the combined release of common peroneal nerve, anterior tibialis nerve, and posterior tibialis nerve. Preoperative values of transcutaneous oximetry were below the critical threshold, that is, lower than 40 mmHg (29.1 ± 5.4 mmHg). PtcO2 values at one month after surgery (45.8 ± 6.4 mmHg) were significantly higher than the preoperative ones (P = 0.01). The results of postoperative increase in PtcO2 values demonstrate that the release of the tarsal tunnel determines a relevant increase in microcirculation in the feet of diabetic patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune; Andersen, Lene F

    2011-05-16

    Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the intakes of culinary spices and herbs.

  9. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomhoff Rune

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR. The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5, and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted

  10. Evaluation of source term parameters for spent fuel disposal in foreign countries. (1) Instant release fraction from spent fuel matrices and composition materials for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Masanobu; Chikazawa, Takahiro; Kitamura, Akira; Tachi, Yukio; Akahori, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    Although spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed after reprocessing and vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), feasibility study on direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SF) has been started as one of the alternative disposal options to flexibly apply change of future energy situation in Japan. Radionuclide inventories and their release behavior after breaching spent fuel container should be assessed to confirm safety of the SF disposal. Especially, instant release fractions (IRFs), which are fractions of radionuclide released relatively faster than those released with congruent dissolution with SF and construction materials after breaching spent fuel container, may have an impact on safety assessment of the direct disposal of SF. However, detailed studies on evaluation / estimation of IRF have not been performed in Japan. Therefore, we investigated some foreign safety assessment reports on direct disposal of SF by focusing on IRF for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. As a result of comparison between the safety assessment reports in foreign countries, although some fundamental data have been referred to the reports in common, the final source term dataset was seen differences between countries in the result of taking into account the national circumstances (reactor types and burnups, etc.). We also found the difference of assignment of uncertainties among the investigated reports; a report selected pessimistic values and another report selected mean values and their deviations. It is expected that these findings are useful as fundamental information for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. (author)

  11. Sustained-release diclofenac potassium-loaded solid lipid microparticle based on solidified reverse micellar solution: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chime, Salome Amarachi; Attama, Anthony Amaechi; Builders, Philip F; Onunkwo, Godswill C

    2013-01-01

    To formulate sustained-release diclofenac potassium-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) based on solidified reverse micellar solution (SRMS) and to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo properties. SRMS consisting of mixtures of Phospholipon® 90H and Softisan® 154 were used to formulate diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs. Characterization based on the particle size and morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) were carried out on the SLMs. In vitro release was carried out in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.5). Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic properties were studied using rats. Maximum EE% of 95%, 94% and 93% were obtained for SLMs formulated with SRMS 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. In vitro release showed about 85-90% drug release at 13 h. Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs showed good anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective properties. Diclofenac potassium-loaded SLMs based on SRMS could be used orally or parenterally under controlled conditions, for once daily administration.

  12. Development and evaluation of a novel low power, high frequency piezoelectric-based ultrasonic reactor for intensifying the transesterification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Aghbashlo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel low power, high frequency piezoelectric-based ultrasonic reactor was developed and evaluated for intensifying the transesterification process. The reactor was equipped with an automatic temperature control system, a heating element, a precise temperature sensor, and a piezoelectric-based ultrasonic module. The conversion efficiency and specific energy consumption of the reactor were examined under different operational conditions, i.e., reactor temperature (40‒60 °C, ultrasonication time (6‒10 min, and alcohol/oil molar ratio (4:1‒8:1. Transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO was performed in the presence of a base-catalyst (potassium hydroxide using methanol. According to the obtained results, alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, ultrasonication time of 10 min, and reactor temperature of 60 °C were found as the best operational conditions. Under these conditions, the reactor converted WCO to biodiesel with a conversion efficiency of 97.12%, meeting the ASTM standard satisfactorily, while the lowest specific energy consumption of 378 kJ/kg was also recorded. It should be noted that the highest conversion efficiency of 99.3 %, achieved at reactor temperature of 60 °C, ultrasonication time of 10 min, and alcohol/oil molar ratio of 8:1, was not favorable as the associated specific energy consumption was higher at 395 kJ/kg. Overall, the low power, high frequency piezoelectric-based ultrasonic module could be regarded as an efficient and reliable technology for intensifying the transesterification process in terms of energy consumption, conversion efficiency, and processing time, in comparison with high power, low frequency ultrasonic system reported previously. Finally, this technology could also be considered for designing, developing, and retrofitting chemical reactors being employed for non-biofuel applications as well.

  13. Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form for Assessing Behavior in a Sample of Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Thompson, Erin L

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluation of the release characteristics of covalently attached or electrostatically bound biocidal polymers utilizing SERS and UV-Vis absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mathioudakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biocidal polymers with antimicrobial quaternized ammonium groups introduced in the polymer biocidal chains either through covalent attachment or electrostatic interaction have been separately incorporated in a poly (methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. The objective of present study was to highlight the release characteristics of biocidal polymers, primarily in saline but also in water ethanol solutions, utilizing UV-Vis absorption and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS. It is shown that through the combination of UV-Vis and SERS techniques, upon the release process, it is possible the discrimination of the polymeric backbone and the electrostatically bound biocidal species. Moreover, it is found that electrostatically bound and covalently attached biocidal species show different SERS patterns. The long term aim is the development of antimicrobial polymeric materials containing both ionically bound and covalently attached quaternary ammonium thus achieving a dual functionality in a single component polymeric design.

  15. Preparation of slowly released male sex hormone drug by radiation polymerization technique and its evaluation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rueizhi; Lei Shaoqiong; Li Ximing

    1992-01-01

    The radiation polymerization technique was used for immobilization testosterone propionate into crosslinked network of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate to prepare slowly released male sex hormone drug which is used for testicular prosthesis. The testicular prosthesis was transplanted into the scrotum of male rabbit whose testes was excised 2 months before the transplantation. Then the level of male sex hormone in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay once a week after transplantation. The results of measurement in a period of 6 months were shown that the testicular prosthesis has a stable release of male sex hormone. The testosterone level in serum of the castrated male rabbits rises markedly and finally stabilizes at the level of 429 ± 36 ng/100 ml after transplantation. Macroscopic examination of biopsies taken from the tissues around the testicular prosthesis showed that tissue compatibility was revealed well

  16. Evaluations of dielectric property and drug release profile of 5-FU patches based on plasma charged electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YUAN; Hejuan, LIANG; Ping, HUANG; Xiaoqiang, AN; Jian, JIANG; Lili, CUI

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the electret 5-fluorouracil patch was developed, the effective surface potential, piezoelectric coefficient d 33, open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) current spectra and shear adhesion of the patch were measured. The drug release profile of the patch was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography method. A stable potential difference which was positively dependent on the surface potential of the electret was generated on two sides of the patch. The measurements of d 33 coefficient, TSD current spectra and adhesion performance showed that the electrostatic field of the electret could cause polarization and cohesive strength decreasing of the matrix molecules, change the distribution and interaction of the drug molecules in patch, therefore to increase the release of drug from the transdermal patch.

  17. In-vitro evaluation of ion-exchange microspheres for the sustained release of liposomal-adenoviral conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jason C; Cavanagh, Heather M A; Burton, Mark A; Dingwall, Daniel; Kalle, Wouter H J

    2004-03-24

    This study looks at the development of a novel combination vector consisting of adenovirus conjugated to liposomes (AL complexes) bound to cation-exchanging microspheres (MAL complexes). With adenovirus having a net negative charge and the liposomes a net positive charge it was possible to modify the net charge of the AL complexes by varying the concentrations of adenovirus to liposomes. The modification of the net charge resulted in altered binding and release characteristics. Of the complexes tested, the 5:1 and 2:1 ratio AL complexes were able to be efficiently bound by the microspheres and exhibited sustained release over 24 h. The 1:1 and 1:2 AL complexes, however, bound poorly to the microspheres and were rapidly released. In addition the MAL complexes also were able to reduce the toxicity of the AL complexes, which was seen with the 10:1 ratio. The AL complexes showed considerably more toxicity alone than in combination with microspheres, highlighting a potential benefit of this vector.

  18. The effect of food on gastrointestinal (GI) transit of sustained-release ibuprofen tablets as evaluated by gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borin, M.T.; Khare, S.; Beihn, R.M.; Jay, M.

    1990-01-01

    The GI transit of radiolabeled sustained-release ibuprofen 800-mg tablets in eight healthy, fed volunteers was monitored using external gamma scintigraphy. Ibuprofen serum concentrations were determined from blood samples drawn over 36 hr following dosing. Sustained-release ibuprofen tablets containing 0.18% of 170Er2O3 (greater than 96% 170Er) in the bulk formulation were manufactured under pilot-scale conditions and were radiolabeled utilizing a neutron activation procedure which converted stable 170Er to radioactive 171Er (t1/2 = 7.5 hr). At the time of dosing, each tablet contained 50 mu Ci of 171Er. Dosage form position were reported at various time intervals. In five subjects the sustained-release tablet remained in the stomach and eroded slowly over 7-12 hr, resulting in gradual increases in small bowel radioactivity. In the remaining three subjects, the intact tablet was ejected from the stomach and a gastric residence time of approximately 4 hr was measured. This is in marked contrast to a previous study conducted in fasted volunteers in which gastric retention time ranged from 10 to 60 min. Differences in GI transit between fed and fasted volunteers had little effect on ibuprofen bioavailability. AUC and Tmax were unaltered and Cmax was increased by 24%, which is in agreement with results from a previous, crossover-design food effect study

  19. Post-release survival of surf scoters following an oil spill: an experimental approach to evaluating rehabilitation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Yee, Julie; Golightly, Richard T.; Massey, Greg; Henkel, Laird A.; Larsen, Scott; Ziccardi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Birds are often the most numerous vertebrates damaged and rehabilitated in marine oil spills; however, the efficacy of avian rehabilitation is frequently debated and rarely examined experimentally. We compared survival of three radio-marked treatment groups, oiled, rehabilitated (ORHB), un-oiled, rehabilitated (RHB), and un-oiled, non-rehabilitated (CON), in an experimental approach to examine post-release survival of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) following the 2007 M/V Cosco Busan spill in San Francisco Bay. Live encounter-dead recovery modeling indicated that survival differed among treatment groups and over time since release. The survival estimate (±SE) for ORHB was 0.143 ± 0.107 compared to CON (0.498 ± 0.168) and RHB groups (0.772 ± 0.229), suggesting scoters tolerated the rehabilitation process itself well, but oiling resulted in markedly lower survival. Future efforts to understand the physiological effects of oil type and severity on scoters are needed to improve post-release survival of this species.

  20. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  1. Tunes stuck in your brain: The frequency and affective evaluation of involuntary musical imagery correlate with cortical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Nicolas; Jakubowski, Kelly; Cusack, Rhodri; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the neuroscience of spontaneous cognition. One form of such cognition is involuntary musical imagery (INMI), the non-pathological and everyday experience of having music in one's head, in the absence of an external stimulus. In this study, aspects of INMI, including frequency and affective evaluation, were measured by self-report in 44 subjects and related to variation in brain structure in these individuals. Frequency of INMI was related to cortical thickness in regions of right frontal and temporal cortices as well as the anterior cingulate and left angular gyrus. Affective aspects of INMI, namely the extent to which subjects wished to suppress INMI or considered them helpful, were related to gray matter volume in right temporopolar and parahippocampal cortices respectively. These results provide the first evidence that INMI is a common internal experience recruiting brain networks involved in perception, emotions, memory and spontaneous thoughts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radio frequency glow discharge source with integrated voltage and current probes used for evaluation of discharge parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, L.; Hoffmann, V.; Wetzig, K.

    2006-01-01

    A radio frequency (rf) Grimm-type glow discharge source for the chemical analysis of solid samples, with integrated voltage and current probes, was developed. All elements of a plasma equivalent circuit are determined from the measured current-voltage characteristics. The procedure is based on the independent evaluation of the ion current and electron current region. The physical meaning of the parameters is investigated by comparisons with measurements from dc glow discharges. We found that the reduced rf current of the powered electrode is comparable to the reduced current in dc discharges. A formula is developed that corrects the reduced current due to gas heating. The sheath thickness at the powered rf electrode is evaluated and is between 75 and 1100 μm. The voltage of the bulk plasma is in the range 2-15 V, and the resistance is between 30 and 400 Ω. The bulk plasma consumes about 3% of the total power, and the reduced voltage is comparable to the reduced electrical field in the positive column of direct current discharges. The sheath voltage at the grounded electrode is in the range 25-100 V, the capacities are between 10 and 400 pF, and the resistances are in the range 100 Ω-5000 Ω. We also found invariants for the evaluated sheath parameters

  3. Primary Frequency Regulation with Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage System - Evaluation and Comparison of Different Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbergsson, Egill; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2013-01-01

    devices is becoming more attractive, the aim of this paper is to analyse the viability of providing primary frequency regulation with Lithium-ion based energy storage systems. Three control strategies of the energy storage system are analysed and compared in terms of economic benefits on the Danish energy...... market. The revenues and degradation of the Lithium-ion batteries are obtained by simulations. Furthermore, an energy management strategy based on variable state-of-charge (SOC) set-point is evaluated. Preliminary, the influence of different state-of-charge levels on the cycle lifetime is estimated......The increased grid penetration levels of renewable sources are at the expense of the conventional power plants. This means that the grid support functions, traditionally achieved by the conventional power plants, need to be provided by new technologies. Since grid support with energy storage...

  4. Coupled cluster evaluation of the frequency dispersion of the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, Pierre; Champagne, Benoît, E-mail: benoit.champagne@unamur.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Unité de Chimie Physique Théorique et Structurale, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2016-07-28

    The static and dynamic first (β{sub ‖}) and second (γ{sub ‖}) hyperpolarizabilities of water, methanol, and dimethyl ether have been evaluated within the response function approach using a hierarchy of coupled cluster levels of approximation and doubly augmented correlation consistent atomic basis sets. For the three compounds, the electronic β{sub ‖} and γ{sub ‖} v