Sample records for release covers research

  1. High plains cover crop research

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  2. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  3. Evaporation release behavior of volatile fission products from liquid sodium pool to the inert cover gas

    Nakagiri, T.; Miyahara, S. [Oarai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oaraimachi, Ibaraki (Japan)


    In fuel failure of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors, released volatile fission products (VFPs) such as iodine and cesium from the fuel will be dissolved into the liquid sodium coolant and transferred to the cover vaporization. In the cover gas system of the reactor, natural convection occurs due to temperature differences between the sodium pool and the gas phase. The release rates of VFPs together with sodium vaporization are considered to be controlled by the convection. In this study, three analytical models are developed and examined to calculate the transient release rates using the equilibrium partition coefficients of VFPs. The calculated release rates are compared with experimental results for sodium and sodium iodide. The release rate of sodium is closest to the calculation by the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The release rate of sodium iodide obtained from the experiment is between the release rates calculated by the model based on heat-and-mass transfer analogy and the Hill`s theory. From this study, it is confirmed that the realistic release rate of sodium is able to be calculated by the model based on the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The conservative release rate of sodium iodide is able to be calculated by the model based on the Hill`s theory using the equilibrium partition coefficient of sodium iodide. (author) 7 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  4. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  5. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia


    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  6. COVER


    <正>This issue of Virologica Sinica is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of "filterable lytic factor" or "bacteriophage"(1915-2015).During the past 100 years,both basic knowledge and applications of bacteriophages have been substantially explored and developed.In recent years,bacteriophage research is booming and holding the hope

  7. COVER


    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  8. Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters

    Solberg, Ingrid


    Upward-facing echosounders that provided continuous, long-term measurements were applied to address the surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) throughout an entire winter in a 150-m-deep Norwegian fjord. During ice-free conditions, the sprat surfaced and released gas bubbles at night with an estimated surfacing rate of 3.5 times per fish day-1. The vertical swimming speeds during surfacing were considerably higher (~10 times) than during diel vertical migrations, especially when returning from the surface, and particularly when the fjord was not ice covered. The sprat released gas a few hours after surfacing, suggesting that the sprat gulped atmospheric air during its excursions to the surface. While the surface activity increased after the fjord became ice covered, the records of gas release decreased sharply. The under-ice fish then displayed a behavior interpreted as "searching for the surface" by repeatedly ascending toward the ice, apparently with limited success of filling the swim bladder. This interpretation was supported by lower acoustic target strength in ice-covered waters. The frequent surfacing behavior demonstrated in this study indicates that gulping of atmospheric air is an important element in the life of sprat. While at least part of the population endured overwintering in the ice-covered habitat, ice covering may constrain those physostome fishes that lack a gas-generating gland in ways that remain to be established. 2013 The Author(s).

  9. Numerical simulations on influence of urban land cover expansion and anthropogenic heat release on urban meteorological environment in Pearl River Delta

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Yan; Dai, Wei; Wang, Xueyuan


    Urbanization is an extreme way in which human being changes the land use/land cover of the earth surface, and anthropogenic heat release occurs at the same time. In this paper, the anthropogenic heat release parameterization scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting model is modified to consider the spatial heterogeneity of the release; and the impacts of land use change and anthropogenic heat release on urban boundary layer structure in the Pearl River Delta, China, are studied with a series of numerical experiments. The results show that the anthropogenic heat release contributes nearly 75 % to the urban heat island intensity in our studied period. The impact of anthropogenic heat release on near-surface specific humidity is very weak, but that on relative humidity is apparent due to the near-surface air temperature change. The near-surface wind speed decreases after the local land use is changed to urban type due to the increased land surface roughness, but the anthropogenic heat release leads to increases of the low-level wind speed and decreases above in the urban boundary layer because the anthropogenic heat release reduces the boundary layer stability and enhances the vertical mixing.

  10. Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue

    The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are known to supp...

  11. Science news release and its benefits to your research


    News release to the latest science findings is beneficial to both researchers and their served institutions as well as the public. It will help to set a bridge of communication between researchers, the public and media, and publishers, making the latest research findings well known to the public. World Journal of Gastroenterology has currently freely opened the News Release Service System (WJG-NRSS) for original articles with potential significance and novelty for news release to mass media to broaden the findings to the public.

  12. [Research progress of cover crop in Chinese orchard].

    Whang, Yan-ting; Ji, Xiao-hao; Wu, Yu-sen; Mao, Zhi-quan; Jiang, Yuan-mao; Peng, Fu-tian; Whang, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Xue-sen


    Grass growing in orchard is implemented in most fruit cultivation advanced countries, but only China carries out grass weeding. To effectively resolve the puzzle on harmful or beneficial effect on fruit production imparted by grass growing, and promote grass growing management in orchard in China, more and more domestic research was reported in recent years. Combined the results of our research and domestic related research, we reviewed the latest research progress about the effect of growing grass on soil, microclimate, fruit tree diseases and insect pests, tree growth and fruit quali- ty, etc. in this paper. We pointed out that grass growing in orchard must consider the local conditions, economic efficiency, the critical period, and the supporting technique.

  13. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC): NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Thomas J.


    departure runway assignments to the Center scheduling tool. The PDRC concept also incorporates earlier NASA and FAA research into automation-assisted CFR coordination. The PDRC concept reduces uncertainty by automatically communicating coordinated release times with seconds-level precision enabling TMCs and FLMs to work with target times rather than windows. NASA has developed a PDRC prototype system that integrates the Center's TMA system with a research prototype Tower decision support tool. A two-phase field evaluation was conducted at NASA's North Texas Research Station in Dallas-Fort Worth. The field evaluation validated the PDRC concept and demonstrated reduced release time uncertainty while being used for tactical departure scheduling of more than 230 operational flights over 29 weeks of operations.

  14. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.


    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  15. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.


    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  16. Medical marijuana: CAS releases report, government cuts research funding.

    Betteridge, Glenn


    In June 2006, the Canadian AIDS Society (CAS) released a comprehensive report with recommendations to overcome barriers to the use of cannabis for medical purposes faced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada. On 25 September 2006, as part of package of spending cuts, the federal government announced plans to eliminate its marijuana medical research program.

  17. Research destruction ice under dynamic loading. Part 1. Modeling explosive ice cover into account the temperature

    Bogomolov Gennady N.


    Full Text Available In the research, the behavior of ice under shock and explosive loads is analyzed. Full-scale experiments were carried out. It is established that the results of 2013 practically coincide with the results of 2017, which is explained by the temperature of the formation of river ice. Two research objects are considered, including freshwater ice and river ice cover. The Taylor test was simulated numerically. The results of the Taylor test are presented. Ice is described by an elastoplastic model of continuum mechanics. The process of explosive loading of ice by emulsion explosives is numerically simulated. The destruction of the ice cover under detonation products is analyzed in detail.

  18. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan


    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning.

  19. The System Dynamics of Forest Cover in the Developing World: Researcher Versus Community Perspectives

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi


    Full Text Available Efforts to increase forest cover in the developing world will only succeed if the root causes of deforestation are addressed. Researchers designing reforestation initiatives tend to emphasize macro-level drivers of deforestation, about which they have extensive data and knowledge. On the other hand, local people have contextually based knowledge of forest cover dynamics in their region—about which external researchers may be largely ignorant. This type of perception gap between researchers and community members has led to many failed or insufficiently implemented projects. An emerging tool—group model-building with system dynamics—shows promise in its ability to integrate different perspectives on a complex problem such as forest cover loss. In this study, I use system dynamics modeling methodology to compare causal loop diagrams of forest cover dynamics on Negros Island, Philippines generated by researchers working for the World Wildlife Fund with causal loop diagrams generated by community members in upland Negros. The diagrams were significantly different, with very few variables in common, but both illuminate critical aspects of the deforestation problem on the island. I conclude that reforestation initiatives in the Philippines would benefit from incorporating all relevant information into a single, coherent model.


    Reliable estimates of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere due to land-use change have become increasingly important. One source of land-use changes estimates comes from comparing multi-date remote sensing imagery, though the effect of land-cover clas...

  1. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad


    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society.

  2. Precious grasses : Alberta Research Council releases new native species for reclamation

    Jaremko, D.


    The Alberta Research Council has released 6 new varieties of native plant species suitable for reclamation in Alberta's Parkland region, which is characterized by sandy soils. The Parkland stretches for 37,000 kilometres and is the most densely populated of the province's 6 ecoregions. Because of farming, grazing, oil and gas development and recreation, only 5 per cent of the area remains undisturbed. It was anticipated that the native grasses will help disturbed sites eventually resemble their original state. Varieties included: Aspen Milk Vetch; Centennial Canada Wild Rye; Hillbilly Nodding Brome; Butte Rocky Mountain Fescue; Porter Indian Rice Grass; and Metisko Awned Wheatgrass. The varieties were evaluated for their ability to provide rapid cover and their ability to compete with invading weeds, as well as their ability to allow recruitment of other native species. Multi-environmental testing trials were established to evaluate the species' seed production potential. Seeds were tested for germination in species-specific growth chambers, grown in greenhouses and then taken to an agricultural setting where data on forage density; ground cover; vigour; and biomass were then recorded. The species have also been targeted to ensure that the oil and gas industry has better options for reclaiming disturbed sites. In addition to their ability to combat threats from invasive species, the native plant species have been investigated for their ability to remediate hydrocarbon and salt contaminants and sequester carbon dioxide. Details of Alberta's current reclamation criteria for wellsites and associated facilities were also presented. 4 figs.

  3. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu


    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward.

  4. Production and release rate of (37)Ar from the UT TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    Johnson, Christine; Biegalski, Steven R; Artnak, Edward J; Moll, Ethan; Haas, Derek A; Lowrey, Justin D; Aalseth, Craig E; Seifert, Allen; Mace, Emily K; Woods, Vincent T; Humble, Paul


    Air samples were taken at various locations around The University of Texas at Austin's TRIGA Mark II research reactor and analyzed to determine the concentrations of (37)Ar, (41)Ar, and (133)Xe present. The measured ratio of (37)Ar/(41)Ar and historical records of (41)Ar releases were then utilized to estimate an annual average release rate of (37)Ar from the reactor facility. Using the calculated release rate, atmospheric transport modeling was performed in order to determine the potential impact of research reactor operations on nearby treaty verification activities. Results suggest that small research reactors (∼1 MWt) do not release (37)Ar in concentrations measurable by currently proposed OSI detection equipment.

  5. A review and perspective of existing research on the release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites.

    Froggett, Stephan J; Clancy, Shaun F; Boverhof, Darrell R; Canady, Richard A


    Advances in adding nanomaterials to various matrices have occurred in tandem with the identification of potential hazards associated with exposure to pure forms of nanomaterials. We searched multiple research publication databases and found that, relative to data generated on potential nanomaterial hazards or exposures, very little attention has focused on understanding the potential and conditions for release of nanomaterials from nanocomposites. However, as a prerequisite to exposure studying release is necessary to inform risk assessments. We identified fifty-four studies that specifically investigated the release of nanomaterials, and review them in the following release scenario groupings: machining, weathering, washing, contact and incineration. While all of the identified studies provided useful information, only half were controlled experiments. Based on these data, the debris released from solid, non-food nanocomposites contains in varying frequencies, a mixture of four types of debris. Most frequently identified are (1) particles of matrix alone, and slightly less often, the (2) matrix particles exhibit the nanomaterial partially or fully embedded; far less frequently is (3) the added nanomaterial entirely dissociated from the matrix identified: and most rare are (4) dissolved ionic forms of the added nanomaterial. The occurrence of specific debris types appeared to be dependent on the specific release scenario and environment. These data highlight that release from nanocomposites can take multiple forms and that additional research and guidance would be beneficial, allowing for more consistent characterization of the release potential of nanomaterials. In addition, these data support calls for method validation and standardization, as well as understanding how laboratory release scenarios relate to real-world conditions. Importantly, as risk is considered to be a function of the inherent hazards of a substance and the actual potential for exposure, data

  6. C-CAP Land Cover, National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, Maine, 2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution orthoimagery, LiDAR data and ancillary data sources such as National Wetlands Inventory, and was...

  7. 2006 C-CAP Land Cover of Old Woman Creek, Ohio, National Estuarine Research Reserve

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution orthoimagery, LiDAR data and ancillary data sources such as SSURGO and National Wetlands Inventory,...

  8. Spatial Analyses in the Research of Land Cover Changes (A Case Study

    Mazurek Kinga


    Full Text Available Increasing human activity significantly influences the geographic environment. The effects of excessive anthropogenic pressure are manifested by changes in land cover and in landscape structure, and land cover changes can particularly well observed in river valleys. In this study we aimed to determine the transformations of land use in 13.9 sq km of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, including parts of the city of Ruda Slaska and Mikolow County by analyzing changes in land cover that occurred from 1827-2012 and archival and contemporary topographic maps, and aerial photos were used as primary source materials. All materials were prepared with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, using spatial analyses, such as kernel density and point density in order to define land cover structure changes.

  9. Spatial Analyses in the Research of Land Cover Changes (A Case Study)

    Mazurek, Kinga


    Increasing human activity significantly influences the geographic environment. The effects of excessive anthropogenic pressure are manifested by changes in land cover and in landscape structure, and land cover changes can particularly well observed in river valleys. In this study we aimed to determine the transformations of land use in 13.9 sq km of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, including parts of the city of Ruda Slaska and Mikolow County by analyzing changes in land cover that occurred from 1827-2012 and archival and contemporary topographic maps, and aerial photos were used as primary source materials. All materials were prepared with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), using spatial analyses, such as kernel density and point density in order to define land cover structure changes. Results show the development of residential areas and the fragmentation of large structures that have occurred over the time period.

  10. Uncertainty and dynamics of natural wetland CH4 release in China: Research status and priorities

    Wei, Da; Wang, Xiaodan


    Natural wetlands represent the largest single source of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. China is home to the world's fourth largest wetland area, and it is facing intense climate- and human-related impacts. The scientific community in China has invested considerable effort into investigating wetland CH4 release and its dynamics. Static chamber and eddy covariance observations have verified the temperature, water regime and air pressure as factors that regulate the diurnal and seasonal variation of CH4 release. Non-growing seasons, especially freezing-thawing cycles, play a role in CH4 release. However, a knowledge gap still exists with respect to the inter-annual variability of CH4 release. Observations also suggest that water and temperature regimes control the micro- and macro-scale spatial pattern of CH4 release, respectively. Recent bookkeeping surveys, biogeochemical model simulations, and chemical transport model inversions, have narrowed the uncertainty range of national CH4 release to 2.46-3.20, 2.77-4.95 and 2.38-4.91 Tg CH4 yr-1, respectively. Wetland loss (especially cropland conversion in Northeast China), despite climate changes, decreased CH4 release by 45.2%-52.2% from the 1950s-2000s, and by 13.2%-15.4% from the 1980s-2000s. However, future warmer temperatures and rising CO2 are predicted to strengthen national CH4 release by 32% (RCP2.6), 55% (RCP4.5) and 91% (RCP8.5) by the 2080s, albeit without the variation in wetland extent having been considered. Furthermore, future research should emphasize the mechanisms involved in CH4 release during freezing-thawing cycles and interannual variability. Model-data fusion of eddy covariance and manipulative experiments, especially warming and CO2 enrichment, would benefit estimations and projections of CH4 release.

  11. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  12. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Young, Steven


    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  13. Research relative to angular distribution of snow reflectance/snow cover characterization and microwave emission

    Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert E.


    Remote sensing has been applied in recent years to monitoring snow cover properties for applications in hydrologic and energy balance modeling. In addition, snow cover has been recently shown to exert a considerable local influence on weather variables. Of particular importance is the potential of sensors to provide data on the physical properties of snow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Visible and near-infrared measurements of upwelling radiance can be used to infer near-surface properties through the calculation of albedo. Microwave signals usually come from deeper within the snow pack and thus provide depth-integrated information, which can be measured through clouds and does not relay on solar illumination.Fundamental studies examining the influence of snow properties on signals from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum continue in part because of the promise of new remote sensors with higher spectral and spatial accuracy. Information in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum comprise nearly all available data with high spatial resolution. Current passive microwave sensors have poor spatial resolution and the data are problematic where the scenes consist of mixed landscape features, but they offer timely observations that are independent of cloud cover and solar illumination.

  14. The research progress on carbon fixation and oxygen release of phytoremediation

    YANG Qing; YAO Duo-xi; LI Shou-qin; ZHANG Zhi-guo; CHENG Yong-chun; ZHAO Kui


    To create evaluation methods in reclamation area according to specific conditions in coal mines,introduced the research trends both at home and abroad on plants' carbon fixation and oxygen release,offered,at the same time,several method models on carbon fixation and oxygen release by plants,and gave some suggestions in this field on the basis of reading the experiences of former experts.Finally,used biomass method and instrument measurement method to analyze carbon emission benefits in the study area.

  15. Distorting Genetic Research about Cancer: From Bench Science to Press Release to Published News.

    Brechman, Jean M; Lee, Chul-Joo; Cappella, Joseph


    This study considered genetic research relating to cancer outcomes and behaviors, specifically investigating the extent to which claims made in press releases (N=23) and mainstream print media (N=71) were fairly derived from their original presentation in scholarly journals (N=20). Central claims expressing gene-outcome relationships were evaluated by a large pool (N=40) of genetics graduate students. Raters judged press release claims as significantly more representative of material within the original science journal article compared with news article claims. Claims originating in news articles which demonstrated contact with individuals not directly involved in the research were judged by experts to be more representative of the original science as compared with those that demonstrated contact with individuals directly involved in the research.

  16. The Research of Simplification Of 1.9 TDI Diesel Engine Heat Release Parameters Determination

    Justas Žaglinskis


    Full Text Available The investigation of modified methodology of Audi 1.9 TDI 1Z diesel engine heat release parameters’ determination is represented in the article. In this research the AVL BOOST BURN and IMPULS software was used to treat data and to simulate engine work process. The reverse task of indicated pressure determination from heat release data was solved here. T. Bulaty and W. Glanzman methodology was modified for purpose to simplify the determination of heat release parameters. The maximal cylinder pressure, which requires additional expensive equipment, was changed into the objective indicator – exhaust gas temperature. This modification allowed to simplify the experimental engine tests and also gave simulation results in an error range up to 2% of main engine operating parameters. The study results are assessed as an important point for the simplification of engine test under field conditions.

  17. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Eduardo Caierão


    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  18. Research to support sterile-male-release and genetic alteration techniques for sea lamprey control

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.


    Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, review the current understanding of SMRT efficacy, and identify additional research areas and topics that would increase either the efficacy of the SMRT or expand its geographic potential for application. Key areas for additional research are in the sterilization process, effects of skewed sex ratios on mating behavior, enhancing attractiveness of sterilized males, techniques for genetic alteration of sea lampreys, and sources of animals to enhance or expand the use of sterile lampreys.

  19. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Overview and Results: NASA to FAA Research Transition

    Engelland, Shawn; Davis, Tom.


    NASA researchers developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept to improve the tactical departure scheduling process. The PDRC system is comprised of: 1) a surface automation system that computes ready time predictions and departure runway assignments, 2) an en route scheduling automation tool that uses this information to estimate ascent trajectories to the merge point and computes release times and, 3) an interface that provides two-way communication between the two systems. To minimize technology transfer issues and facilitate its adoption by TMCs and Frontline Managers (FLM), NASA developed the PDRC prototype using the Surface Decision Support System (SDSS) for the Tower surface automation tool, a research version of the FAA TMA (RTMA) for en route automation tool and a digital interface between the two DSTs to facilitate coordination.

  20. Response of young ponderosa pines, shrubs, and grasses to two release treatments. Forest Service research note

    McDonald, P.M.; Everest, G.A.


    To release a young pine plantation on a medium site in central California, herbicides and mulches were applied soon after planting to study their effectiveness. Bearclover is an aggressive shrub species that resprouts from rhizomes after disturbance, and must be controlled if young conifer seedlings are to become established. After 4 years, resprouting bearclover plants numbered 282,000 per acre in the control, but less than 4,000 per acre in the plots treated by herbicides. Mean foliar cover was 63 percent versus 1 percent for control and herbicide plots, respectively. Ponderosa pine seedlings were significantly taller, had larger mean diameters, and survived better in the herbicide treatment than counterparts in mulched plots and control. The 5-foot square mulches were ineffective for controlling bearclover. Cheatgrass invaded the plantation in the second year, and after 2 more years became abundant in herbicide plots and plentiful in the control.

  1. 15 CFR 734.11 - Government-sponsored research covered by contract controls.


    ... or other categories of persons; or restrictions on participation of non-U.S. citizens or other... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT... security controls are agreed on to protect information resulting from the research, § 734.3(b)(3) of...

  2. Fossil debris-covered glaciers in Demanda Sierra (Northern Spain): geomorphological research and 10Be cosmogenic exposure dating

    Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Palacios, David; Andrés, Nuria; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Santos-González, Javier; Álvarez-Martínez, Javier; Arnáez, José; Úbeda, José; García-Ruiz, José M.


    masses, which partially cover the adjacent moraines. The CED analysis indicated a minimum age of 17.8 ± 2.2 ka for the outermost moraine in the San Lorenzo cirque, attributed to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) or even prior glacial stages, and an age of 16.5 ka (GS-2a stadial, Oldest Dryas) for small moraines located close to the cirque headwall. Thus, the debris-covered glacier developed in the intense deglaciation occurred between the LGM and the Oldest Dryas. The isolating effect of the debris mantle over the ice masses enabled them to endure for thousands years, especially in the western Mencilla Cirque, which melted during the Holocene Thermal Optimum, favored by its northern aspect, whereas the San Lorenzo debris-covered glacier did it earlier during the Late Pleistocene. The ELAs fluctuated between 1673 and 1807 m a.s.l. (Mencilla Peak) and between 1904 and 2007 m a.s.l. (San Lorenzo Peak) within the three/four glacial stages identified in the cirques. Research funded by the projects ESPAS (CGL2015-65569_R) (MINECO/FEDER), CRYOCRISIS (CGL2012-35858), and Deglaciation (CGL2015-65813-R), Government of Spain.

  3. Numerical research on the mechanism of contaminant release through the porous sediment-overlying water interface

    郑淑君; 曹洋; 郭加宏


    After the pollutant discharged into the river or lake has been reduced, the release of the contaminant from the sediment to the overlying water may cause the river and lake be contaminated again. On the condition that the overlying water flow does not lead to sediment suspension, numerical researches are carried out for the mechanism of contaminant release through the sediment-overlying water interface. The overlying water flow is calculated as turbulence. The sediment is regarded as isotropic homogeneous porous medium, therefore the seepage field in the porous sediment layer is obtained by solving Darcy’s equations. Coupled two dimensional steady flows of the overlying water and the pore water in the sediment are calculated. Based on the flow fields obtained, the unsteady contaminant solute transportation process in the pore water in the sediment and the overlying water is numerically simulated, as the shapes of the sediment-overlying water interface are flat or periodic triangular respectively. Numerical results show that the exchange of the pore water and the overlying water is an important factor which decides the release flux of the contaminant from the sediment to the overlying water. The pressure distribution produced by the overlying water flow along the sediment-overlying water interface, as it is not flat, may induce the seepage of the pore water in the sediment and through the sediment-overlying water interface, which may increase the release flux of the contaminant from the sediment to the overlying water.

  4. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  5. Research of wind and snow cover loads on the roofs of the vertical cylindrical tanks

    A.A. Semenov


    Full Text Available The widespread use of vertical cylindrical tanks puts the question of their sustainable design. Snow load brings the greatest contribution to the stress-strain state of the supporting structures of vertical tanks spherical domed coatings in the IV-VIII snowy areas of Russia.New geometrical forms of the tank coatings with volume 20 000 m3 were developed. The results of aerodynamic research of proposed coatings model were presented.The coefficients of the external pressure on the surface of the walls and coating of the tank were determined. Qualitative and quantitative picture of the snowy mass under the influence of the wind were also determined.The obtained results can be used to develop effective design solutions for domed coatings of the oil tanks.

  6. Assimilation of MODIS Snow Cover Through the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Community Land Model Version 4

    Zhang, Yong-Fei; Hoar, Tim J.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Toure, Ally M.; Rodell, Matthew


    To improve snowpack estimates in Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF) was assimilated into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) via the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The interface between CLM4 and DART is a flexible, extensible approach to land surface data assimilation. This data assimilation system has a large ensemble (80-member) atmospheric forcing that facilitates ensemble-based land data assimilation. We use 40 randomly chosen forcing members to drive 40 CLM members as a compromise between computational cost and the data assimilation performance. The localization distance, a parameter in DART, was tuned to optimize the data assimilation performance at the global scale. Snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth are adjusted via the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, particularly in regions with large SCF variability. The root-mean-square error of the forecast SCF against MODIS SCF is largely reduced. In DJF (December-January-February), the discrepancy between MODIS and CLM4 is broadly ameliorated in the lower-middle latitudes (2345N). Only minimal modifications are made in the higher-middle (4566N) and high latitudes, part of which is due to the agreement between model and observation when snow cover is nearly 100. In some regions it also reveals that CLM4-modeled snow cover lacks heterogeneous features compared to MODIS. In MAM (March-April-May), adjustments to snowmove poleward mainly due to the northward movement of the snowline (i.e., where largest SCF uncertainty is and SCF assimilation has the greatest impact). The effectiveness of data assimilation also varies with vegetation types, with mixed performance over forest regions and consistently good performance over grass, which can partly be explained by the linearity of the relationship between SCF and SWE in the model ensembles. The updated snow depth was compared to the Canadian Meteorological

  7. Nitrogen release from decomposing residues of leguminous cover crops and their effect on maize yield on depleted soils of Bukoba District, Tanzania

    Baijukya, F.P.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.


    Nitrogen release patterns from decomposing shoot residues of Tephrosia candida, Crotalaria grahamiana, Mucuna pruriens, Macrotyloma axillare, Macroptillium atropurpureum and Desmodium intortum were studied in the laboratory for a period of 22 weeks in a sandy clay soil and 10 weeks in a clay soil us

  8. Notice of Release of US-1136, US-1137, and US-1138 Cowpea Gerplasm Lines with Potential For Use As A Cover Crop

    In 1998, field screening trials were initiated to identify cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) populations suitable for use as a weed-suppressing cover crop. After the preliminary field studies, eleven populations were selected for more detailed evaluations. After three additional years of evaluation, e...

  9. World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map version 2 (WDMAM v.2) - released for research and education

    CHOI-Dyment, Y.; Lesur, V.; Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Thebault, E.; Catalan, M.


    The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is an international initiative carried out under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). A first version of the map has been published and distributed eight years ago (WDMAM v1; Korhonen et al., 2007). We have produced a candidate which has been accepted as the second version of this map (WDMAM v2) at the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy in Prag, in June 2015. On land, we adopted an alternative approach avoiding any unnecessary processing on existing aeromagnetic compilations. When available, we used the original aeromagnetic data. As a result the final compilation remains an acceptable representation of the national and international data grids. Over oceanic areas the marine data have been extended. In areas of insufficient data coverage, a model has been computed based on a modified digital grid of the oceanic lithosphere age, considering plate motions in the determination of magnetization vector directions. This model has been further adjusted to the available data, resulting in a better representation of the anomalies. The final grid will be periodically upgraded. Version 2.0 has been released and is available at to support both research and education projects. Colleagues willing to contribute data for future releases (and become a co-author of the map) should contact any of the authors or Jerome Dyment (chair of the WDMAM Task Force) at .

  10. Applied Ecotechnical Research on Lübao Slow-Release Water-Fertilizer-Nutrition Agent

    黄大明; 张文奎; 沈子威; 席葆树


    Lübao slow-release water-fertilizer-nutrition agent (LSWA) is a new and proven highly effective soil additive. This nutrient absorbent polymer dramatically conserves water and reduces fertilizer usage while significantly increasing plant and crop yield. There are numerous benefits that LSWA is engineered to produce,and moreover, with every new application new benefits are discovered. The versatility of this additive will undoubtedly lead to some new applications. LSWA crystals in the soil absorb hundreds of times their mass in water and then, upon demand, release the stored moisture regardless of the soil condition. Unlike previously used polymers, LSWA has great absorbability even under soil pressure, and maintains its absorbability in the presence of fertilizers and other water soluble additives. It is completely non-toxic, and has a lengthy effective period of seven to ten years. LSWA is extremely cost effective due to its low initial cost, the dramatic reduction in the number of watering cycles, the decrease of fertilizer usage and the increase in crop yield, as well as allowing utilization of previously unusable land. When LSWA crystals are added into the soil, irrigation schedule times can be reduced by more than 50%, and fertilizer usage reduced by up to 33%. In this paper, some basic researches on the basic properties of the soil additive are reported. Some applications are described by reference to a number of case studies. Finally, specific recommendations are given for the application rates and methods for a range of crops and soil conditions.

  11. Land Cover

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  12. Is digital cover photography a viable method for measuring leaf index for phenological research in closed forest ecosystems?

    Felts, E. S.; Sonnentag, O.; Ryu, Y.; Macfarlane, C.; Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Friedl, M. A.; Richardson, A. D.


    The use of the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer as instrument for calculating plant area index (PAI), and ultimately leaf area index (LAI), based on hemispherical gap-fraction measurements has been established through past studies. Ideally, these measurements are taken under diffuse light, which restricts their application to overcast conditions or short time windows during dusk and dawn. A promising and less restrictive alternative is digital cover photography (DCP), which provides estimates of crown porosity (φ), and foliage (ff) and crown cover fractions (fc). From these, PAI can be calculated, which can then be corrected for the influence of woody canopy elements to obtain LAI. The method has been developed and tested in Eucalyptus forests and oak-savanna woodland, i.e. in open ecosystems where enough light can penetrate the canopy for sufficient scene illumination. This research seeks to explore the viability of DCP as a method of obtaining PAI and LAI for phenological research in closed forest ecosystems such as temperate broadleaf deciduous forests, where limited scene illumination especially under fully developed canopies and the seasonally changing influence of woody canopy elements to φ, ff and fc might pose methodological challenges. To test the performance of DCP under these conditions, weekly imaging of 33 long-term incremental biomass plots at a temperate broadleaf-deciduous-dominated forest (Harvard Forest) was undertaken with a digital single-lens reflex camera (Pentax K100D). To examine the role of changing scene illumination at different canopy development stages, the images were acquired in RAW format to allow maximum control over image exposure in the post-processing. Using a range of different exposure settings, DCP-based PAI estimates were then compared to PAI estimates obtained from gap-fraction measurements made with the LAI-2000 instrument (recomputed using only the first 7° ring) at the same plots, and with canopy greenness obtained with

  13. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.


    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how

  14. Ovarian Cancer Proteomic, Phosphoproteomic, and Glycoproteomic Data Released - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have just released a comprehensive dataset of the proteomic analysis of high grade serous ovarian tumor samples,

  15. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.


    Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. The Department of Homeland Security sponsored the production of this material under the Department of Energy contract for the management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-PROC-234355


    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bate, N. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)


    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at

  17. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    Harrach, Robert J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peterson, S. Ring [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a "tritium labeling facility" operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and "ordinary" citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though "discovered" or "appreciated" only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to

  18. Evaluation of Gamma Fluence Rate Predictions for 41-argon Releases to the Atmosphere at a Nuclear Research Reactor Site

    Rojas-Palma, Carlos; Aage, Helle Karina; Astrup, Poul


    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry...

  19. Evaluation of Gamma Fluence Rate Predictions for 41-argon Releases to the Atmosphere at a Nuclear Research Reactor Site

    Rojas-Palma, Carlos; Aage, Helle Karina; Astrup, Poul


    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry...

  20. Benthic Cover

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  1. Research on Land Surface Thermal-Hydrologic Exchange in Southern China under Future Climate and Land Cover Scenarios

    Jianwu Yan


    Full Text Available Climate change inevitably leads to changes in hydrothermal circulation. However, thermal-hydrologic exchanging caused by land cover change has also undergone ineligible changes. Therefore, studying the comprehensive effects of climate and land cover changes on land surface water and heat exchanges enables us to well understand the formation mechanism of regional climate and predict climate change with fewer uncertainties. This study investigated the land surface thermal-hydrologic exchange across southern China for the next 40 years using a land surface model (ecosystem-atmosphere simulation scheme (EASS. Our findings are summarized as follows. (i Spatiotemporal variation patterns of sensible heat flux (H and evapotranspiration (ET under the land cover scenarios (A2a or B2a and climate change scenario (A1B are unanimous. (ii Both H and ET take on a single peak pattern, and the peak occurs in June or July. (iii Based on the regional interannual variability analysis, H displays a downward trend (10% and ET presents an increasing trend (15%. (iv The annual average H and ET would, respectively, increase and decrease by about 10% when woodland converts to the cultivated land. Through this study, we recognize that land surface water and heat exchanges are affected greatly by the future climate change as well as land cover change.

  2. The Research of Intelligent Release%智能脱扣器的研究

    夏天伟; 任继武; 李海波


    介绍了智能脱扣器的设计原理、工作原理、智能化技术的构成,并介绍了脱扣器的硬件、软件设计及脱扣器的动作特性和特点。%This paper main introduces the design of intelligent release, principle of working and construct of intellectualized technology. And the design of hardware and software, characteristic and distinguishing feature of release are given with particular illustration.

  3. 缓/控释肥料的研究进展%Research development of slow/controlled release fertilizers

    牛永生; 明大增; 李志祥; 李沪萍


    The basic connotation of slow/controlled release fertilizer at home and abroad and its research background and progress are presented. The recent research status of integument of slow/controlled release fertilizer is summarized. The principle of increase production is described briefly, and the key points of study and development prospect are overviewed.%介绍了缓/控释肥料的基本内涵和国内外的研究背景和进展,对国内外最新研究的缓/控释肥料包裹层进行了综述.简单说明了缓/控释肥料的增产原理,对缓/控释肥料的研究重点和发展前景进行了展望.

  4. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Terry Robert F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  5. Flat covers of modules

    Xu, Jinzhong


    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  6. Research on the Release of Theanine in the Exist of Metal Ions in Natural Water

    Zhi-xu Zhang


    Full Text Available Theanine is a main component in tea leaf, it is the key factor to influence the nutrition value and flavor when the tea leaf is brewing. Natural water is the most-used extractant to dissolve out the theanine. It is recorded in ancient books that dissolution rate is quite different in different kinds of natural water. Recent study shows its correlation with the complexing abilities of metal ions. The thesis is trying to explain the law between the release of theanine and metal ions through designed model test. Response surface experiments showed that in the mixed solution of 1.74 mg/L Ca2+, 21.63 mg/L Na+, 5.55 mg/L Mg2+ and 4.86 mg/L Al3+., the release of theanine reaches the peak value 0.88 mg/mL. It is also found that in the exist of Ca2+, free theanine is increasing with total metal ions while free theanine is decreasing with the increasement of total metal ions in the absence of Ca2+.

  7. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    Sweeney, D.A. [SEACOR Environmental Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tratch, D.J. [Watermark Consulting Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada)


    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  9. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  10. Video News release (A-roll) International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe

    CERN Visual Media Office; Paola Catapano


    Video News Release (A-roll) accompanying the Press Release announcing the International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe, organized by CERN at the International Conference Centre Geneva from February 27 to March 2.

  11. Video news release : “Research without a budget means a Europe without a future”

    Staff association


    Geneva, 25th August 2010 – Several hundred CERN collaborators demonstrated in Geneva to proclaim their concerns about threats of additional budget cuts by certain Member States. These scientists, supported by representatives of other European research organizations, held a mass gathering on the theme “Research without a budget means a Europe without a future”. According to Gianni Deroma, President of the CERN Staff Association: “To favour economic recovery in Europe and consolidate its position as world leader in particle physics, it is vital to invest in CERN today. Additional budget restrictions could ruin all the efforts made so far and the marvellous first results given by the LHC.” Support from other European research organizations CERN is not alone in worrying about the future of research. Other European scientific organizations were keen to join the demonstration, with the same message “Research without a budget means Europe without a future”. Staff representatives from the following orga...

  12. GERLUMPH Data Release 1: High-resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and eResearch tools

    Vernardos, Georgios; Bate, Nicholas F; Croton, Darren


    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disc and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced...

  13. Sganzerla Cover

    Victor da Rosa


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  14. Cover Picture.

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen


    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  15. Releasing the power: research led learning in a professional practice undergraduate curriculum

    Daws, Michael; Johansen, Eric; Osborne, Allan


    There is a challenge for vocational programmes in Higher Education in addressing the needs of a practice based discipline while developing enquiry based abilities in students. Ongoing research is being carried out into the use and suitability of student research-led learning within Built Environment curriculum at Northumbria University. This is aimed at undergraduate professional practice education and its perceived value by staff and students as compared to the use of the more traditional pe...

  16. Guangxi’s first Nickel Industry Development Research Report Was Released


    <正>Recently,Guangxi Metallurgical Research Institute,a subsidiary of Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group,completed survey on laterite and related manufacturers in the region,by combining the current development status of laterite both at home and abroad,it compiled Guangxi’s first"Research Report on the Development of Guangxi Nickel Industrial Chain"which adopted laterite as the study subject.This report expounded on the current

  17. Development Status and Research Trends of Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer%我国缓/控释肥研究现状和发展趋势

    王恩飞; 崔智多; 何璐; 肖传绪; 莫海涛; 张小勇


    从养分控释的途径对缓/控释肥进行分类,介绍代表产品,总结我国当前研究情况,并对研究趋势进行展望.%Slow/controlled release fertilizer was classified by the means of the nutrient release. The representative products were introduced.The current research situation in China were summarized. And the research trends were discussed.

  18. The ISO/IEC 11179 norm for metadata registries: does it cover healthcare standards in empirical research?

    Ngouongo, Sylvie M N; Löbe, Matthias; Stausberg, Jürgen


    In order to support empirical medical research concerning reuse and improvement of the expressiveness of study data and hence promote syntactic as well as semantic interoperability, services are required for the maintenance of data element collections. As part of the project for the implementation of a German metadata repository for empirical research we assessed the ability of ISO/IEC 11179 "Information technology - Metadata registries (MDR)" part 3 edition 3 Final Committee Draft "Registry metamodel and basic attributes" to represent healthcare standards. First step of the evaluation was a reformulation of ISO's metamodel with the terms and structures of the different healthcare standards. In a second step, we imported instances of the healthcare standards into a prototypical database implementation representing ISO's metamodel. Whereas the flat structure of disease registries as well as some controlled vocabularies could be easily mapped to the ISO's metamodel, complex structures as used in reference models of electronic health records or classifications could be not exhaustively represented. A logical reconstruction of an application will be needed in order to represent them adequately. Moreover, the correct linkage between elements from ISO/IEC 11179 edition 3 and concepts of classifications remains unclear. We also observed some restrictions of ISO/IEC 11179 edition 3 concerning the representation of items of the Operational Data Model from the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium, which might be outside the scope of a MDR. Thus, despite the obvious strength of the ISO/IEC 11179 edition 3 for metadata registries, some issues should be considered in its further development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancements in Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring CH4 Release from Remote Permafrost Regions: Principles, Emerging Research, and Latest Updates

    Burba, George; Budishchev, Artem; Gioli, Beniamino; Haapanala, Sami; Helbig, Manuel; Losacco, Salvatore; Mammarella, Ivan; Moreaux, Virginie; Murphy, Patrick; Oechel, Walter; Peltola, Olli; Rinne, Janne; Sonnentag, Oliver; Sturtevant, Cove; Vesala, Timo; Zona, Donatella; Zulueta, Rommel


    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor release and uptake rates of CO2, CH4, H2O and other gases from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of gas exchange at time scales ranging from 15 or 30 minutes to multiple years, and at spatial scales ranging from thousands m2 to multiple km2, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in gas release due to weather or man-triggered events (pressure changes, ice breakage and melts, ebullition events, etc.). They can also detect slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and man-triggered processes (seasonal freeze and thaw, long-term permafrost degradation, etc.). From 1980s to mid-2000s, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular researcher. In the past 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional flux networks and technological developments, the methodology became fairly standardized. Majority of current stations compute gas emission and uptake rates using eddy covariance method, as one of the most direct micrometeorological techniques. Over 600 such flux stations operate in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, ships, etc.). With increasing atmospheric temperatures in the Arctic likely resulting in a higher rate of permafrost degradation, measurements of gas exchange dynamics become particularly important. The permafrost regions store a significant amount of organic materials under anaerobic conditions, leading to large CH4 production and accumulation in the upper layers of bedrock, soil and ice. These regions may become a significant potential source of global CH4 release under a warming climate over the following decades and centuries. Present measurements of CH4 release

  20. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) responded to a call from Anthony Fauci, Ph.D., head, NIAID, to get a candidate vaccine into human trials by the summer of 2016.

  1. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) responded to a call from Anthony Fauci, Ph.D., head, NIAID, to get a candidate vaccine into human trials by the summer of 2016.

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art


    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  3. 射箭撒放技术的研究%The Research of Release Technology In Archery

    于慧; 吴逢波


    射箭是以命中环数为比赛目的技能主导类表现准确性项目。在技术中,撒放技术是最重要的一个环节,它是整个射箭技术的精髓,撒放动作的正确与否直接影响着命中率。本文以专家访谈、问卷调查、实地观察为主要研究方法,通过对64名国家射箭优秀运动员的注意方式、撒放时机和勾弦方式等几个方面进行调查,并分析了撒放技术中几个主--素指标与成绩的关系,最后得出以下结论:(1)轻松、稳固的勾弦;适宜的撒放时机,是创造良好成绩的重要因素;(2)在无意识状态下完成撒放动作,能减少心理的干扰;(3)自然快捷的脱弦,一般拉弓靠位到撒放在三秒左右最佳。%Archery is a sport with the purpose of hitting the target exactly. It is a skills-led sport. Release Technology is an important part in archery,it is the essence of the entire archery technology and has a direct impact on hitting the target. Based on expert interviews, questionnaires, field observations as the main research methods, this paper studies the attention, clearance, the way of hooking on 64 elite national archers, and analyzes the relationship between these elements and score. Conclusion:(1)Hook the string easily and firmly, and appropriate time to release, are the important factors in archery; (2)To release in an unconscious state can reduce the psychological disturbance;(3) It’s the best way to release from touching mandible to let the string go naturally and fast in three seconds.

  4. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Rezaeian Mahdi


    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  5. Framing the Candidates in Presidential Primaries: Issues and Images in Press Releases and News Coverage.

    Miller, M. Mark; Andsager, Julie L.; Riechert, Bonnie P.


    Contributes to research on political communication by examining how 1996 GOP presidential candidates framed themselves in press releases and how elite newspapers covered them. Shows that candidate images were distinct in press releases and news stories; candidate positions were represented differently in both; and candidates were differentially…

  6. 不同还田方式下木薯茎秆腐解及养分释放特征研究%Research on characteristics of decomposing and nutrients releasing of cassava stalk under different ways returned to field

    邹雨坤; 李光义; 侯宪文; 胡杨; 陈运; 张雪华; 李勤奋


    采用网袋法,研究不同还田方式下木薯茎秆腐解及养分释放特征。结果表明:不同还田方式下,木薯茎秆在30~60 d腐解速度较快,在240 d时,覆土、覆土覆膜和仅覆膜处理下木薯茎秆的质量累积减少率分别为69.9%、80.8%和73.8%,表现为覆土覆膜>覆膜>覆土。腐解过程中木薯茎秆养分的释放速率表现为K>P>N≈C。240 d,碳、氮、磷、钾的累积释放率分别为69.9%~80.8%、78.1%~94.2%、87.3%~93.5%、97.4%~98.5%。考虑木薯茎秆还田养分的释放及碳氮比变化情况,木薯茎秆还田时可以适量减少基肥中钾肥的用量,并在还田后期结合木薯的生长情况适当配施氮肥;木薯茎秆还田最好采用覆土覆膜的方式。%Net bags were employed to research characteristics of decomposing and nutrients releasing of cassava stalk under dif-ferent ways returned to field. The results showed that the decomposing speed of cassava stalk was fast during 30 to 60 days un-der different ways returned to field. Under covered with soil, covered with soil and plastic film and covered with plastic film only, the accumulated decay rate was 69. 9%, 80. 8% and 73. 8% respectively at the 240th day, and was ranked as: cov-ered with soil and plastic film >covered with plastic film only>covered with soil. Releasing speed of nutrients of cassava stalk ranked as: potassium > phosphorus >nitrogen≈carbon. The accumulated releasing rates of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 69. 9% ~80. 8%, 78. 1% ~94. 2%, 87. 3% ~93. 5% and 97. 4% ~98. 5% respectively at 240th day. Considering both the nutrients releasing and carbon nitrogen ratio, it was suggested that the content of potassic fertilizer in base manure should be reduced and nitrogen fertilizer could be increased according to growth of cassava. The way of covered with soil and plastic film when returned cassava stalk to field could be the best choice.

  7. Computer implemented land cover classification using LANDSAT MSS digital data: A cooperative research project between the National Park Service and NASA. 3: Vegetation and other land cover analysis of Shenandoah National Park

    Cibula, W. G.


    Four LANDSAT frames, each corresponding to one of the four seasons were spectrally classified and processed using NASA-developed computer programs. One data set was selected or two or more data sets were marged to improve surface cover classifications. Selected areas representing each spectral class were chosen and transferred to USGS 1:62,500 topographic maps for field use. Ground truth data were gathered to verify the accuracy of the classifications. Acreages were computed for each of the land cover types. The application of elevational data to seasonal LANDSAT frames resulted in the separation of high elevation meadows (both with and without recently emergent perennial vegetation) as well as areas in oak forests which have an evergreen understory as opposed to other areas which do not.

  8. Development of Coated Slow Release Fertilizers and Research Advances%包膜型缓释肥的开发与研究进展

    蒋悦; 刘立明; 张战利; 黄应平


    The characteristics and application advantages of coated slow-release fertilizers are reviewed. The research and development of coated slow release agent, also the release behavior and evaluation of slow release fertilizer are summarized. Research advances are stated; then the research, development and problems existing in application of slow-release fertilizers in China are analyzed. Finally, the research and development trends are looked forward to.%概述了包膜型缓释肥料的特性与应用优势,包膜缓释剂的研究与开发、缓释肥释放行为研究与评价研究的现状、归纳了目前缓释肥的研究进展,并对国内缓释肥料研究、开发和应用中存在的问题进行分析,对其研究开发趋势进行了展望.

  9. Experimental Researches on Inhibitory Effect of Huoxiang Zhengqi Liquid(藿香正气水) on Histamine Release

    余传星; 朱玲


    Objective: To observe the blocking effect of Huoxiang Zhengqi liquid (藿香正气水,HXZQL) on histamine release of basophils. Methods: The study was conducted using HXZQL to neutralize and block IgE and antagonize the effect of IL-3 induced enhancing histamine release of bosaphils. Concentration and percentage of histamine release of bosaphils were tested by the basophil histamine release test. Results: The HXZQL drug-serum had obvious inhibitive effect on degranulation of bosaphils induced by IgE antigen-antibody complex (P<0.05) and can successfully weaken the histamine release of basophils stimulated by IL-3. When compared with those in the untreated group, it showed P<0.01. Conclusion: HXZQL drug-serum may neutralize and block IgE and has inhibitive effects on degranulation of cells when resensitized by antigens. It can also block allergic response type Ⅰ by antagonizing the effect of IL-3 induced enhancing histamine release.

  10. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  11. Research on remote sensing image segmentation based on ant colony algorithm: take the land cover classification of middle Qinling Mountains for example

    Mei, Xin; Wang, Qian; Wang, Quanfang; Lin, Wenfang


    Remote sensing image based on the complexity of the background features, has a wealth of spatial information, how to extract huge amounts of data in the region of interest is a serious problem. Image segmentation refers to certain provisions in accordance with the characteristics of the image into different regions, and it is the key of remote sensing image recognition and information extraction. Reasonably fast image segmentation algorithm is the base of image processing; traditional segmentation methods have a lot of the limitations. Traditional threshold segmentation method in essence is an ergodic process, the low efficiency impacts on its application. The ant colony algorithm is a populationbased evolutionary algorithm heuristic biomimetic, since proposed, it has been successfully applied to the TSP, job-shop scheduling problem, network routing problem, vehicle routing problem, as well as other cluster analysis. Ant colony optimization algorithm is a fast heuristic optimization algorithm, easily integrates with other methods, and it is robust. Improved ant colony algorithm can greatly enhance the speed of image segmentation, while reducing the noise on the image. The research background of this paper is land cover classification experiments according to the SPOT images of Qinling area. The image segmentation based on ant colony algorithm is carried out and compared with traditional methods. Experimental results show that improved the ant colony algorithm can quickly and accurately segment target, and it is an effective method of image segmentation, it also has laid a good foundation of image classification for the follow-up work.

  12. Experimental evaluation of gamma fluence-rate predictions from Argon-41 releases to the atmosphere over a nuclear research reactor site

    Rojas-Palma, C.; Aage, H.K.; Astrup, P.


    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry...

  13. Mechanisms of HSP72 release

    Alexzander Asea


    Currently two mechanisms are recognized by which heat shock proteins (HSP) are released from cells; a passive release mechanism, including necrotic cell death, severe blunt trauma, surgery and following infection with lytic viruses, and an active release mechanism which involves the non classical protein release pathway. HSPs are released both as free HSP and within exosomes. This review covers recent findings on the mechanism by which stress induces the release of HSP72 into the circulation and the biological significance of circulating HSP72 to host defense against disease.

  14. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year 2015 Funded Research Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases Final Report

    Andrus, Jason P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Toston, Mary [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Maas, Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operating under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose distribution associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. Users can also specify custom distributions through a user defined distribution option. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA, developed using the MATLAB coding framework, has a graphical user interface and can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers. SODA is a standalone software application and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC; rather it is viewed as an

  15. The research and preparation of a bi-layer biodegradable external sheath with directional drug release profiles for vein graft

    Liu, Zhenjie, E-mail: [Department of Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Vascular Surgery, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Guo, Zhenying [Department of Pathology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Si, Yi [Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Zhang, Xiangman; Shi, Zhenyu [Institute of Vascular Surgery, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Feng [College of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Fu, Weiguo [Institute of Vascular Surgery, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)


    External sheath has been suggested for autologous vein grafts to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and prevent anastomosis stricture. In this study, we prepared a bi-layer biodegradable paclitaxel-loaded sheaths with a synthetic copolymer poly(ethylene carbonate-ε-caprolactone) at room temperature. The bi-layer drug release profiles of the Paclitaxel-loaded (PTX-loaded) sheath significantly slow down the paclitaxel (PTX) release rates and result in a directional drug release way. Moreover, the nanofibrous layer of PTX-loaded poly(EC-CL) sheaths reduced the cytotoxicity and provided a better support for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation than the PTX-loaded layer of the sheaths. Thus, this study demonstrates that the bi-layer PTX-loaded poly(EC-CL) sheath with directional drug release profiles have a promising application for vein graft to against neointimal hyperplasia and anastomotic stricture.

  16. Covering walks in graphs

    Fujie, Futaba


    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  17. What Medicare Covers

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  18. The seismicity research in the sub-regions of Chinese mainland using strain accumulating and releasing model

    马宏生; 刘杰; 张国民; 李丽


    The sub-regions are divided for the seismicity of the Chinese mainland based on the hypothesis of the active crustal blocks and the division of the active boundaries. On this result, the seismicity of each active crustal blocks are studied by calculating the accumulated and released strain of the earthquakes based on strain accumulating and releasing model, and the different seismicity stages of the sub-regions are discussed basically. Finally we have discussed the premise of the model application and the potential problems of the model results.

  19. A Research on Improving the NVH Performance of Flywheel Cover%飞轮壳NVH性能研究与改进

    张焕宇; 郝志勇; 陈渊博


    Simulations on a flywheel cover are conducted by adopting FEM, multi-body dynamics and BEM methods to analyze its NVH performance. Firstly the finite element model for flywheel cover is set up and validated by modal test. Multi-body dynamics technique is used to calculate the vibration response of the coupled model for the cylinder block and crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism of a six-cylinder diesel engine with the load spectra transferred to flywheel end from cylinder block obtained. The frequency response characteristics of flywheel cover are worked out by finite element analysis. Then the noise characteristics of flywheel cover are predicted with its boundary element model. Finally the measures for reducing flywheel cover noise are studied. The results show that the method adopted can effectively suppress the radiated noise from cover surface.%采用有限元/多体动力学/边界元等方法对某飞轮壳进行仿真,以分析其NVH性能.首先建立飞轮壳有限元模型并通过模态试验验证其准确性;采用多体动力学方法计算六缸柴油机缸体与曲柄连杆机构耦合模型的振动响应,得到缸体传递到飞轮端的载荷频谱,通过有限元分析获得飞轮壳的频率响应特性,然后在边界元模型中预测出飞轮壳的噪声特性,最后研究了飞轮壳降噪的方法.结果表明,采用的方法能有效抑制飞轮壳的表面辐射噪声.

  20. COVER FIGURE in Nucleic Acids Research (Volume 39, Issue 9) entitled "The involvement of the nuclear-encoded human 2'-phosphodiesterase in mitochondrial RNA turnover"

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave


    (English) Cover: The involvement of the nuclear-encoded human 2'-phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) in mitochondrial RNA turnover. The 2'-PDE precursor (upper left corner) gets directed into the mitochondrial matrix by an N-terminal mitochondrial signaling peptide (blue). Inside the matrix, this signalin...

  1. Adsorption - release of Heavy Metals in Sediment Research%底泥吸附及释放重金属的研究

    林振波; 何少华; 凌静; 夏勇锋


    水体受重金属污染后其底泥亦成为污染面源。本文结合底泥中重金属的分析方法介绍了其赋存形态。分析讨论了pH值、温度、粒径、盐度、腐殖酸、氧化还原电位、泥水比等因素对底泥吸附及释放重金属的影响,总结了底泥吸附重金属的热力学及动力学、底泥释放重金属的动力学等相关规律.并对底泥中重金属的释放研究及其污染防治工作做出了展望。%Sediments become non - point pollution due to overlying water polluted by heavy metals. In this paper, the spatial distribution .characteristics of heavy metals in sediment are introduced combined with extraction method methods. The influence factors of heavy metals adsorption - release are discussed, such as the pH value, temperature, particle size, salinity, humic acid, redox potential, mud to water ratio, etc. The regularities of heavy metal adsorption -release are summarized, such as adsorption thermodynamics and dynamics, release thermodynamics. Furthermore, the research tendencies of heavy metal release and its pollution controlling are forecast.

  2. The Research of Mobile Data Information Release Platform%移动数据信息发布平台的研究



    随着移动设备与无线网络的普及,现阶段移动办公成为主流趋势。移动数据信息发布平台可以将企业的信息沟通系统、自动化办公系统、信息发布系统、电子邮件系统、ERP、CRM系统的功能和应用扩展到手机、PDA等终端设备上,提高工作效率。介绍了移动数据信息发布平台的应用前景,并对移动数据信息发布平台的主要功能和特点进行研究。%As the development of mobile equipment and wireless network , mobile-officing has become a main-stream.The application of information communication system , office automation system, information release system, e-mail system, ERP function and CRM system is extended to mobile phone , PDA and other terminal equipment by the mobile data information release platform .This paper talks about the application prospect a-bout mobile data information release platform , and do research on the main functions and features of mobile data information release platform .

  3. Amifostine-conjugated pH-sensitive calcium phosphate-covered magnetic-amphiphilic gelatin nanoparticles for controlled intracellular dual drug release for dual-targeting in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer.

    Li, Wei-Ming; Chiang, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Wei-Chen; Su, Chia-Wei; Chiang, Min-Yu; Chen, Jian-Yi; Chen, San-Yuan


    We developed a surfactant-free method utilizing amifostine to stably link a targeting ligand (Herceptin) to amphiphilic gelatin (AG)-iron oxide@calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles with hydrophobic curcumin (CUR) and hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulated in the AG core and CaP shell (AGIO@CaP-CD), respectively. This multi-functional nanoparticle system has a pH-sensitive CaP shell and degradable amphiphilic gelatin (AG) core, which enables controllable sequential release of the two drugs. The dual-targeting system of AGIO@CaP-CD (HER-AGIO@CaP-CD) with a bioligand and magnetic targeting resulted in significantly elevated cellular uptake in HER2-overexpressing SKBr3 cells and more efficacious therapy than delivery of targeting ligand alone due to the synergistic cell multi-drug resistance/apoptosis-inducing effect of the CUR and DOX combination. This nanoparticle combined with Herceptin and iron oxide nanoparticles not only provided a dual-targeting functionality, but also encapsulated CUR and DOX as a dual-drug delivery system for the combination therapy. This study further demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of this dual-targeting co-delivery system can be improved by modifying the application duration of magnetic targeting, which makes this combination therapy system a powerful new tool for in vitro/in vivo cancer therapy, especially for HER2-positive cancers.

  4. Branched polynomial covering maps

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard


    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  5. Branched polynomial covering maps

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard


    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  6. UAS-SfM for coastal research: Geomorphic feature extraction and land cover classification from high-resolution elevation and optical imagery

    Sturdivant, Emily; Lentz, Erika; Thieler, E. Robert; Farris, Amy; Weber, Kathryn; Remsen, David P.; Miner, Simon; Henderson, Rachel


    The vulnerability of coastal systems to hazards such as storms and sea-level rise is typically characterized using a combination of ground and manned airborne systems that have limited spatial or temporal scales. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry applied to imagery acquired by unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offers a rapid and inexpensive means to produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival existing lidar and imagery standards. Here, we use SfM to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM) from data collected by UAS at a beach and wetland site in Massachusetts, USA. We apply existing methods to (a) determine the position of shorelines and foredunes using a feature extraction routine developed for lidar point clouds and (b) map land cover from the rasterized surfaces using a supervised classification routine. In both analyses, we experimentally vary the input datasets to understand the benefits and limitations of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment. We find that (a) geomorphic features are extracted from the SfM point cloud with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter precision, better than was possible from a recent lidar dataset covering the same area; and (b) land cover classification is greatly improved by including topographic data with visual reflectance, but changes to resolution (when <50 cm) have little influence on the classification accuracy.

  7. 自去污功能性面料的研究与开发%The research and development of oil self-release functional fabrics

    于滨; 张战旗; 梁政佰; 许秋生; 齐元章; 白志旺


      从织物沾污的产生原因着手,通过全面控制前处理下布质量,研究自去污整理的助剂及其应用工艺,并对自去污效果进行了测试,同时试验了树脂整理对自去污效果的影响,确定了符合大生产的应用工艺,保证了自去污效果。自去污功能面料具有不用或者少用洗涤剂即具有良好自去污效果的优点,作为一种附加值高、生态环保以及符合现代生活需求的纺织品,受到人们的欢迎。%From the reason causing fabric stains, the oil self-release auxiliaries as well as its application technique were investigated researched through fully controlling pre-treated fabric quality. Efficiency of oil self-release auxiliaries was tested and the influence of resin finishing on oil self-release effect was determined to make sure to accord with mass production process, which guarantees the oil self-release result. Oil self-release functional fabric presented remarkable detergency in low or without any detergent. It will be popular as a high value-added, environment friendly and correspond to modern life textile.

  8. Landfill Top Covers

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter


    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  9. 低压脱扣器电压暂降敏感性试验研究%Experimental Research on Sensitivity of Low Voltage Releaser to Voltage Sag

    欧阳森; 刘平; 吴彤彤; 杨家豪; 曾江


    Using test method the low voltage releaser is researched and its action area, no action area and fuzzy area under the composite actions of the amplitude, the duration and the phase of voltage sag are obtained. On the basis of researching Chinese National Standard GB/T17626.11—2008 in depth, the detailed analysis on related research materials home and abroad are carried out, and a test scheme for sensitivity of low voltage releaser to voltage sag is constructed. Based on this test scheme, twelve types of low voltage releasers, which belong to the mainstream in the present market, are taken as the specimens to bear different amplitudes, durations and phases of voltage sags, while the action situations of low voltage releasers are observed and recorded. On the same voltage amplitude-duration plane the voltage tolerance curves of these low voltage releasers under different phase are plotted to form the family of voltage tolerance curves and then the upper and lower envelopes of the curve family are drawn. Through synthesizing and lumping the envelops of voltage tolerance curves belonging to different types of low voltage releasers, the three-region action characteristics of low voltage releaser under voltage sag, namely the explicit action region, the explicit no action region and the fuzzy action region, which can provide data support for the optimized design and manufacture of low voltage releasers and offer theoretical foundation for economic evaluation of voltage sag, are formed.%采用试验方法对低压脱扣器进行研究,得出其在电压暂降幅值、持续时间、相位组合作用下的动作区域、不动作区域、模糊区域。在深入研究国标GB/T 17626.11—2008的基础上,详细分析国内外相关研究资料,构建了低压脱扣器电压暂降敏感性试验方案。基于试验方案,对目前市场上主流的12种型号低压脱扣器进行试验,使其承受不同电压暂降幅值、持续时间及相位,观察并

  10. Present Situation, Existing Problems of Controlled Release Fertilizer Research and Countermeasures%控释肥料研究现状、存在问题及对策①

    刘海林; 林钊沐; 罗微; 华元刚; 郑国亮; 王龙宇


    综述控释肥料的定义及与缓释肥料的区别,分析控释肥料包膜材料、包膜工艺研究现状,指出控释肥料研究和产业化中存在的问题,提出对策,并对今后控释肥料研究发展进行展望。%On the base of research data about controlled release fertilizer, in this paper we expounded the definition of controlled release fertilizer, explained the difference between controlled release fertilizer and slow release fertilizer. We also analyzed the present situation on coated materials, coating technique, discussed the existing problems on research and industrialization of controlled release fertilizer, and puts forward strategy according to the problem. The last, we prospected the research and development in the future.

  11. Landfill Top Covers

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter


    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  12. Research on the Exploded Deep Drawing Technology of Concave Cover Shells%凹盖壳爆炸拉深工艺研究

    李清泉; 周晖


    The paper introduces the manufacturing process of exploded deep drawing of stainless concave cover shells',and it focuses on elaborating the determination of shaping technical process,the design of exploded deep drawing model and the choice of the exploded technology parameters.The results prove that the exploded deep drawing technology of cave cover shells have advantages of simple method,little investment,needing no large equipments and high precision.Thus,such technology can be widely used in producing similar parts in low and medium quantity.%介绍了不锈钢凹盖壳爆炸拉深的研制过程,重点阐述成形工艺方法的确定,爆炸拉深模的设计和爆炸工艺参数的选择。研究结果表明,凹盖壳爆炸拉深具有工艺方法简单、投资少、无需大型设备、成形精度高等优点,工艺方法是可行的,可广泛应用于类似零件的中小批量生产。

  13. A Numerical Analysis Research on Earlier Behavior of Molten Droplet Covered with Vapor Film at the Stage of Triggering and Propagation in Steam Explosion

    Mingjun Zhong


    Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.

  14. Percent Forest Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  15. Saturated Domino Coverings

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex


    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  16. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  17. 非树脂包膜型缓释肥的研究与展望%Research and Prospects of Non -resin-coated Slow-release Fertilizer

    景旭东; 林海琳; 阎杰


    This article elaborated the research progress in non -resin-coated slow-release fertilizer (fertilizer-wrapped type and organic-matter-coated type) at home and abroad, and pointed out the bottleneck and problems in its development .%阐述了非树脂包膜缓释肥包括肥料包裹型、有机质包膜型的国内外研究进展,并指出了其发展中需要克服的瓶颈和问题。

  18. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art


    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  19. A Research on Closed Valve Cover Production Process Quality Control%常闭阀罩生产过程质量控制研究

    赵会珍; 赵虎


    Observing the quality problems in a closed valve cover enterprise , quality control theory and methods are used to improve the quality of closed valve cover .First, a praetor diagram method is used to analyze the product quality problems;and then , using measurement system analysis , process capability a-nalysis is made to find the key factors;using a fishbone diagram , a linear regression analysis is made to de-sign the improvement scheme;using Minitab software , data is analyzed .Finally , improved improved im-provedtithe project is successfully implemented , whose result shows that failure rate is reduced largely , and the process capability improved from 0.54 to 1.22.%为了解决某公司常闭阀罩生产过程中质量不稳定、生产过程能力低等问题,将质量管理方法应用于常闭阀罩生产的管理过程。利用测量系统分析、过程能力分析、一元线性回归分析等方法进行产品质量的分析,并结合Minit-ab软件里面的功能模块,精确计算过程能力指数,生成控制图,根据判定准则,给出判定结论。企业应用实例表明,该公司在实施了质量控制后,过程能力提高,废品率降低,有效地提高了产品质量。

  20. Land Cover Characterization Program



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  1. Land Cover Trends Project

    Acevedo, William


    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  2. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2000 - 2013

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  3. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2001

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  4. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2002

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  5. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2004

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  6. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2013

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  7. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2012

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  8. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2011

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  9. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2006

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  10. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2009

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...


    郭茂林; 孟庆元; 王彪


    A new extrapolation approach was proposed to calculate the strain energy release rates of complex cracks. The point-by-point closed method was used to calculate the closed energy, thus the disadvantage of self inconsistency in some published papers can be avoided. The disadvantage is that the closed energy is repeatedly calculated: when closed nodal number along radial direction is more than two, the displacement of nodes behind the crack tip that is multiplied by nodal forces, the closed energy has been calculated and the crack surfaces have been closed, and that closed energy of middle point is calculated repeatedly. A DCB ( double cantilever beam) specimen was calculated and compared with other theoretical results, it is shown that a better coincidence is obtained. In addition the same results are also obtained for compact tension specimen, three point bend specimen and single edge cracked specinen. In comparison with theoretical results, the error can be limited within 1 per cent. This method can be extended to analyze the fracture of composite laminates with various delamination cracks.

  12. Changes of snow cover in Poland

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader


    The present paper examines variability of characteristics of snow cover (snow cover depth, number of days with snow cover and dates of beginning and end of snow cover) in Poland. The study makes use of a set of 43 long time series of observation records from the stations in Poland, from 1952 to 2013. To describe temporal changes in snow cover characteristics, the intervals of 1952-1990 and of 1991-2013 are compared and trends in analysed data are sought (e.g., using the Mann-Kendall test). Observed behaviour of time series of snow-related variables is complex and not easy to interpret, for instance because of the location of the research area in the zone of transitional moderate climate, where strong variability of climate events is one of the main attributes. A statistical link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the snow cover depth, as well as the number of snow cover days is found.

  13. 牙周局部缓释给药系统研究进展%Advance in research on periodontal sustained-release local drug delivery systems

    刘庆晓; 杨美燕; 高春生


    Periodontal disease is a kind of local inflammatory and destructive diseases,and it is one of the most common human oral diseases. Compared with systemic administration,periodontal sustained-release local drug delivery systems can not only achieve high drug concentration and slow drug release in periodontal pocket,but also minimize side effects and bacterial resistance to drugs caused by systemic administration. Therefore,periodontal sus-tained - release local drug delivery systems have become the focus of the study on periodontal disease therapy at home and abroad. At present,the periodontal sustained-release local drug delivery systems include fiber,film,micro-spheres,gels,stylus and bucco-adhesive tablets. In this article,we reviewed the advance in research on periodontal sustained-release local drug delivery systems.%牙周病是局部炎症破坏性疾病,是人类最常见的口腔疾病之一.与全身给药相比,牙周局部缓释给药系统不仅使药物在牙周袋内达到高浓度,持续杀灭牙周致病菌,而且可以减少全身给药造成的不良反应和细菌耐药性.因此运用局部缓释给药系统治疗牙周病已成为国内外的研究热点,目前已有纤维剂、膜剂、微球、缓释凝胶、棒剂和口腔黏膜粘附片等牙周局部缓释给药系统在临床中使用或已有文献报道.文中主要围绕治疗牙周病的各种局部给药剂型的处方设计原理、关键辅料性质及其制剂优缺点等,详细综述牙周局部缓释给药系统的研究进展.

  14. "Physiology in the News": Using Press Releases to Enhance Lay Communication and Introduce Current Physiology Research to Undergraduates

    Kelly, Kevin L.; Poteracki, James M.; Steury, Michael D.; Wehrwein, Erica A.


    Michigan State University's senior-level undergraduate physiology capstone laboratory uses a simple exercise termed "Physiology in the News," to help students explore the current research within the field of physiology while also learning to communicate science in lay terms. "Physiology in the News" is an activity that charges…

  15. Covering folded shapes

    Oswin Aichholzer


    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.


    A. M. Mihaltsov


    Full Text Available The methods of carrying out of experiments by determination of gas creating ability of different materials which are of interest from the point of view of molding of aluminum alloys under pressure are given and described, and the results of research are presented as well.

  17. Percent Wetland Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. Percent of Impervious Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  19. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  20. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  1. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  2. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  3. 聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料的研究进展%Research Progress of Polymer Coated Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    范本荣; 沈玉文; 江丽华; 林海涛; 刘兆辉


    The research on coated slow/controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) have become hot in domestic and overseas. Especially the polymer coated CRFs gradually occupied the dominant position of market. In order to help people understand polymer coated fertilizer deeply and apply them correctly, the contents were summarized as follows: different types of polymer coated materials, the developing status of polymer coated fertilizers at home and abroad, nutrient release characteristics of CRFs, evaluation methods for nutrient release characteristics and developing prospect of polymer coated CRFs.%缓/控释肥料是近年来国内外的研究热点,尤其是以聚合物为主要包膜材料的缓/控释肥逐渐占据了缓/控释肥料市场的主导地位.为了使人们更为全面地了解聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料并正确的加以应用,我们系统总结了如下内容:不同类型的聚合物包膜材料;聚合物包膜缓/控释肥在国内外的发展状况;聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料的养分释放特征;针对其养分释放特征的评价方法;并展望了聚合物包膜缓/控释肥料的发展前景.

  4. Elementary particle physics. Progress report covering the five year period November 1, 1974 to October 31, 1979. [Summaries of research activities at Florida State Univ


    Experimental and theoretical research in high energy physics is summarized. Preparations and proposals for future experiments include high mass states decaying into phi..pi../sup + -/, phi..pi../sup + -/..gamma.. and phiphi produced centrally in 300 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/p interactions, search for baryonium and for hyperonium, exotic states and charm decays, and dilepton production by neutrinos. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  5. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  6. 农村800 MHz FDD-LTE覆盖能力研究%Research on Covering Capacity for Rural 800 MHz FDD-LTE



    目前中国电信在城区的LTE建设已趋于饱和,建设重心逐步向乡镇农村倾斜,由于1800 MHz所处频段较高,在农村广覆盖时存在一定问题,而现有800 MHz的低频特性则相对更适合于广域覆盖。在相同的覆盖目标场景下,通过设定合理的工程参数和设备参数,计算800和1800 MHz 2种频段的最大路径损耗,并选取对应的传播模型,分析两者各自不同的覆盖能力;通过ATOLL仿真平台,结合现网站点参数进行仿真,分析2种频段的下行RSRP、SINR、FTP下载速率等指标差异,验证800 MHz LTE在覆盖上的优势。%At present,China Telecom’s LTE construction in the city has become saturated,the rural area became the focus of construc-tion. Because 1800 MHz is a high frequency,there are some problems in rural wide coverage,however the existing 800 MHz band is more suitable for wide area coverage. In the premise of the same scene,by setting reasonable project parameters and device parameters,calculating the MAPL on 800 MHz and 1800 MHz and selecting the appropriate propagation model,analyz-ing the different covering capacity between the two frequency bands,then according to the simulation results based on the parameters of the network,analyzing the index difference of RSRP,SINR,FTP download speed between the two frequency, verifying 800 MHz LTE advantage in coverage.

  7. The Image Segmentation Research on The Land Cover of Fujian National Geographical Conditions Investigation%福建省地理国情普查地表覆盖影像分割技术研究



    地表覆盖是地理国情普查中一项极为重要的内容之一,地表覆盖分类的第一步是基于影像的分割,准确的分割结果有助于提高分类的正确性。本文结合福建省地理国情普查试点项目,通过选取大量样本实例,对地表覆盖影像分割进行了深入地研究,研究成果已经广泛应用于地理国情普查工作。%Part of the very important job is the land cover in National Geographical Conditions Investigation , the first step in land cov-er classification is based on image segmentation ,the accurate segmentation results directly contributes to improve the correct classifica-tion.In this paper , by choosing a lot of samples , combined with the geographical conditions in Fujian province investigation pilot pro-ject, the land cover image segmentation are deeply studied , Research results have been widely applied to the actual work situation census geography .

  8. 烟草“前膜后草”双覆盖模式研究现状与展望%Research Progress of Tobacco Dual-mode Covering Cultivation Mode with Straw Mulching after Film

    傅淋; 屠乃美; 邹湘香; 王可; 樊芬; 何康; 王靖渊; 易镇邪


    The straw mulching after film uncovered technique is an improved tobacco cultivation mode based on the plastic firm mulching and straw mulching cover patterns. This paper reviews the cause and efficacy of dual-mode covering culti-vation mode with straw mulching after film cover pattern, and raised the prospect of research direction on double coverage model.%烟草“前膜后草”双覆盖是在地膜覆盖与秸秆覆盖的基础上改进的覆盖栽培模式。综述了双覆盖模式的形成原因及其保温保湿效果,对烟株根系活力和病虫害防御、烟叶品质以及经济性状等方面的影响,并展望了“前膜后草”双覆盖模式的研究方向。

  9. Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications

    Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.


    Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications. See Featured Molecules.

  10. List of U.S. Army Research Institute Research and Technical Publications for Public Release/Unlimited Distribution, Fiscal Year 2008


    recommendations from a research-based analysis on increasing linguistic and cultural capability in Army leaders and Soldiers. 20 Findings from a workshop...Armed Forces and Society, Chicago, IL. Siebold, G. L. (2008, February). Models of the evolving military: Postmodern organizations vs. platform

  11. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  12. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.


    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  13. Release behavior of smoke and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filter under the fire accident. Contract research

    Takada, Junichi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukamoto, Michio; Tashiro, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Shiro [Nippon Muki Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Koji [Sanzo Environment Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    In a part of building ventilating installation of reprocessing plant, the pre-filter is equipped in front of a HEPA filter. The pre-filter plays a role in protection and repression of clogging of HEPA filter. However, in a fire accident, it is considered that large smoke generation cause the pre-filter clogging due to smoke loading, increase of differential pressure and breakdown. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the demonstration tests to confirm the performance of ventilation filters by a fire accident were carried out. In the tests, smoke was generated from burning of the mock solid wastes (gloves made of rubber and/or cloth) or the mock recovered solvent (n-dodecane or tributyl phosphate / n-dodecane). The test data was acquired on generation of smoke, decrease evolution of smoke by transportation through the compositions of ventilation system (cell, duct, damper, filters) and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters due to smoke loading. From the results, it was found that the performance of the whole of ventilation system was kept even if the pre-filter was breakdown. To adopt the analysis of the increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter using the safety analysis code, CELVA-1D, increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter was expressed by quadratic empirical equation with function of smoke loading per unit filtration area and it coefficients, ({alpha}, {beta}), were estimated. (author)

  14. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478).......We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  15. Climate under cover

    Takakura, Tadashi


    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  16. List of U.S. Army Research Institute Research and Technical Publications for Public Release/Unlimited Distribution, Fiscal Year 2010


    Asymmetric Attention: Visualizing the Uncertain Threat Christopher L. Vowels . March 2010. (ADA516567) This report attempts to fuse Army needs...U U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences RN 2010-04, RN 2010-05 V Vasilopulos, N. RR 1917 Vowels , C. L. RR...2010, September). Training leaders on emotion management skills: Challenges in designing a blended learning program. Symposium conducted at the

  17. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    E. Kassianov


    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  18. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)


    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  19. 缓/控释肥料的研究现状及发展趋势%Researching Present Situation and Developing Trend for Releasing Fertilizer Slowly/Controlled

    刘英; 熊海蓉; 李霞; 熊远福; 文祝友; 王楠楠


    Author has introduced the definition and type of releasing fertilizer slowly/controlled ; has described the developing process and researching progress for the releasing fertilizer slowly/controlled abroad and at home; has prospected the developing tendency of the releasing fertilizer slowly/ controlled.%介绍了缓/控释肥料的定义和类型;阐述了国内外缓/控释肥料的发展历程和研究进展;展望了缓/控释肥料的发展趋势。

  20. Mapping the existing body of health policy implementation research in lower income settings: what is covered and what are the gaps?

    Erasmus, E; Orgill, M; Schneider, H; Gilson, L


    This article uses 85 peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2009 to characterize and synthesize aspects of the health policy analysis literature focusing on policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It seeks to contribute, first, to strengthening the field of LMIC health policy analysis by highlighting gaps in the literature and generating ideas for a future research agenda and, second, to thinking about the value and applicability of qualitative synthesis approaches to the health policy analysis field. Overall, the article considers the disciplinary perspectives from which LMIC health policy implementation is studied and the extent to which the focus is on systems or programme issues. It then works with the more specific themes of the key thrusts of the reviewed articles, the implementation outcomes studied, implementation improvement recommendations made and the theories used in the reviewed articles. With respect to these more specific themes, the article includes explorations of patterns within the themes themselves, the contributions of specific disciplinary perspectives and differences between systems and programme articles. It concludes, among other things, that the literature remains small, fragmented, of limited depth and quite diverse, reflecting a wide spectrum of health system dimensions studied and many different suggestions for improving policy implementation. However, a range of issues beyond traditional 'hardware' health system concerns, such as funding and organizational structure, are understood to influence policy implementation, including many 'software' issues such as the understandings of policy actors and the need for better communication and actor relationships. Looking to the future, there is a need, given the fragmentation in the literature, to consolidate the existing body of work where possible and, given the often broad nature of the work and its limited depth, to draw more explicitly on theoretical

  1. Covering tree with stars

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  2. Covering tree with stars

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  3. Covering All Options

    Kennedy, Mike


    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  4. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  5. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  6. U-2 with fictitious NASA markings to support CIA cover story for pilot Gary Powers, shot down over S


    After Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union during a CIA spy flight on 1 May 1960, NASA issued a press release with a cover story about a U-2 conducting weather research that may have strayed off course after the pilot 'reported difficulties with his oxygen equipment.' To bolster the cover-up, a U-2 was quickly painted in NASA markings, with a fictitious NASA serial number, and put on display for the news media at the NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base on 6 May 1960. The next day, Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev exposed the cover-up by revealing that the pilot had been captured, and espionage equipment had been recovered from the wreckage. 7 May 1956 - NACA Director Dr. Hugh L. Dryden issues a press release stating that U-2 aircraft are conducting weather research for NACA with Air Force support from Watertown, Nevada. 22 May 1956 - A second press release is issued with cover story for U-2 aircraft operating overseas. 1 May 1960 - Francis Gary Powers is shot down near Sverdlovsk. 6 May 1960 - U-2 with fictitious NASA serial number and NASA markings is shown to news media to bolster cover story of NASA weather research flights with U-2. 7 May 1960 - Soviet Premier Kruschev announces capture and confession of Powers. 1960 - Dr. Hugh L. Dryden tells senate committee that some 200 U-2 flights carrying NASA weather instrumentation have taken place since 1956. 2 April 1971 - NASA receives two U-2C aircraft for high-altitude research.

  7. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    Mahmood, Rezaul; Pielke, Roger A; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Niyogi, Dev; Dirmeyer, Paul A; McAlpine, Clive; Carleton, Andrew M; Hale, Robert; Gameda, Samuel; Beltrán‐Przekurat, Adriana; Baker, Bruce; McNider, Richard; Legates, David R; Shepherd, Marshall; Du, Jinyang; Blanken, Peter D; Frauenfeld, Oliver W; Nair, U.S; Fall, Souleymane


    Land cover changes ( LCCs ) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation...

  8. Singular coverings of toposes

    Bunge, Marta


    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  9. On directed coverings

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  10. Covering R-trees

    Berestovskii, V N


    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  11. 垃圾填埋场覆盖土CH4氧化影响因素的研究进展%Research on Main Factors for CH4 Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soil

    张卫风; 彭禹; 张后虎; 吴世东


    温室气体CH4是导致气候变化、引起全球变暖的因素之一。垃圾填埋场是CH4重要的人为释放源,而填埋场覆盖土CH4氧化能有效削减CH4排放。本文对近年来国内外在影响覆盖土CH4氧化的主要因素方面取得的研究成果进行了总结,提出影响覆盖土CH4氧化的主要因素有:土壤含水率、土壤pH、土壤温度、土壤碳氮含量、土壤粒径、气象条件、CH4及O2浓度、重金属及覆盖土材料。最后,对其后的研究方向进行了展望,指出通过优选覆盖土材料以及控制环境状态,可以有效提高覆盖土CH4氧化速率,减小垃圾填埋场CH4释放。%CH4, as a serious greenhouse gas, is one of the reasons for climate change and global warming. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is a significant source of anthropogenic CH4, but the use of landfill cover soil (LCS) is seen as a key technology for the mitigation of CH4 emissions from landfill. In this paper, research progress about the main factors affecting CH4 oxidation in LCS were reviewed, and the major factors influencing CH4 oxidation potential in LCS included soil water content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil carbon and nitrogen content, soil particle, weather condition, CH4 and O2 concentrations, metal content and landfill final cover material. Finally, the future research directions of MOP in LCS were discussed, and through optimizing cover material and controlling environment condition, MOP can be effectively improved and mitigation of CH4 emissions from MSW landfills can be decreased.

  12. Covered Clause Elimination

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin


    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  13. Research on Similarity Law of Physical Model Experiments for Ice Cover Thickening in the Conveyance Channel%输水渠道冰盖增厚物理模型试验相似律研究

    赵新; 王旭; 张雅卓


    随着南水北调中线工程冰期输水相关问题研究的深入,理论研究成果亟需物理模型试验和原型观测数据的支持和验证,由于原型观测难度较大,且影响因素不可控,物理模型试验方法成为解决冰水力学问题的有效途径.现在国内外学者开展冰水力学模型试验的成果基础上,结合冰水力学理论研究成果,对以冻结模型冰为试验材料的输水渠道冰盖增厚物理模型试验相似律展开研究,并通过物理模型试验进行了验证.研究表明:冰凌下潜临界流速的比尺为λ0.5,水力加厚冰盖沉积厚度的比尺为λ,均遵循重力相似准则;对于力学加厚冰盖,由于冰凌黏结力不遵循重力相似准则,结冰期需设法控制黏结力;融冰期可按照重力相似准则设计,但需控制环境温度在结冰点以上,以减小冰凌间的黏结力;因此输水渠道冰盖增厚物理模型试验宜采用冻结模型冰为试验对象,试验应按照重力相似准则进行设计.%With the research development on water diversion during the ice period in the South-to-North Water Diversion project, the theoretical research results need to be proved and supported by the physical model experiments and in-situ measured data. The in-situ measurements are usually difficult to obtain and their influencing factors are difficult to control, thus the physical model experiments have become an effective approach to solve the ice hydraulics problems. Based on the existing research results for the ice hydraulics experiments from the domestic and foreign scholars and the ice hydraulics theory, the frozen model ice was used as the experiment material,and then the similarity law of the physical model experiments was studied and verified for the ice cover thickening in the conveyance channel in this paper. The results showed that (1) The scale of the critical flow velocity for the submergence of ice slush is ,and the scale of the thickness of the

  14. Renin release

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;


    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located......, salt, and volume overload. In contrast, the events controlling the function of renin-secreting cells at the organ and cellular level are markedly less clear and remain mysterious in certain aspects. The unravelling of these mysteries has led to new and interesting insights into the process of renin...

  15. Measurement Method Research of Metal-insert Seal Press-in, Release Load%骨架密封圈压入、脱出力测定方法的研究

    杜国忠; 韩悦琴


    该文研究了一种骨架密封圈压入及脱出力的试验方法,测定方法是在一定的温度条件下,密封圈在带有测力装置的试验机的作用下,以一定的速度运动设定的位移以使密封圈压入腔体或从腔体中脱出,并得到位移-力曲线和最大力值。此方法规定了骨架密封圈压入、脱出力试验方法,适应于内包骨架、外露骨架及装配式骨架密封圈压入、脱出力的性能评价。%This article studies the testing method for metal insert seal press-in load and release load, it is done under a certain temperature. The seal is installed into the testing machine with load device;to a certain speed set to make the seal pressed into the cavity or released from the cavity, and get the load curves and maximum load values. This theory covers the details at how to press in seals and how to release it, suitable to the load measurement for press-in and release of rubber-covered metal-insert seal, outer-metal seal, and metal-insert assembly seal.

  16. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    McMahon, J.


    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  17. Research on application of controlled released fertilizers coated by industrial lignin and its releasing characteristics%工业木质素用于包膜复合肥的研究

    崔智多; 张小勇; 莫海涛


    Industrial lignin was used as raw materials,which can be easily obtained by paper making industry,to make new kinds of controlled released fertilizers (CRFs),with the rotate drum.The releasing characteristics of CRFs were explored under different temperature and pH.Field experiment was conducted to value effect of CRFs on plants.Results show that releasing rate has reached 14.58%,and the accumulating releasing rate of 28 days is 58.12%.The quality satisfy the demand of GBT23348-2009,and this kind of CRFs can promote the production of strawberry significantly.%利用自然界大量存在的木质素和经造纸工艺得到的木质素为原料,利用转鼓包膜法制备了新型的包膜缓释复合肥,并通过不同温度和 pH 值的静水实验探究肥料养分的规律,草莓的田间试验探究肥料的实际使用效果。实验结果表明,使用工业木质素包膜的复合肥,初期养分释放率为14.58%,28d 总养分释放率达58.12%,满足国标(GBT23348-2009)的要求,并且能够极显著地提高草莓的产量,具有良好的开发前景。


    贾俊姝; 宋桂萍; 高国雄; 马金明


    利用1995年和2005年两期TM遥感影像,综合利用RS和GIS技术,研究了大通县实施退耕还林政策以来从1995年到2005年10年期间土地利用/覆被时空变化特征.结果表明:大通县土地利用/覆被类型及面积变化明显,林地、水域及建设用地呈现增长趋势,其中林地增长最显著,成为最大的土地利用/覆被类型;草地总面积呈现减少趋势,但高覆被草地面积明显增加;耕地及未利用地均呈减少趋势;不同土地利用/覆被类型之间的转换很强烈,相互转换面积186 894.97hm2,占总面积的60.18%,其中草地转出为林地面积达68 040.88hm2,占发生转变总量的36.41%.研究结果可为该区退耕还林工程的管理和决策提供科学依据.%By the application of remote sensing 1995 and 2005 and using RS and GIS. The paper researched the space - time characteristics of Land - use/cover change ( LUCC) during the past 10 - year from 1995 to 2005 since the policies and measures of " converting farmland to forests" implemented. The result showed that the type and area of land use/cover of DaTong County had changed obviously by the project of converting farmland to forest. The woodland, water area and construction land showed on a growth trend, and woodland becomes the largest land - use/cover types in 2005; Grassland, cultivated land and unused land displayed a decreasing trend, the grassland turned into the second type from the advantage types of 1995, because of a remarkable reduction of low - cover grassland; The mutual conversion between different land - use/cover type was strong, the area 186 894. 97hm2 , accounting for the total area of 60. 18% ; The transition of grassland to woodland, area of 68 040. 88hm2 , is the most amount accounting for the total change of 36.41%. The conclusion would provide evidence for management and policy of converting farmland to forest in this area.

  19. Collaborative Proposal to Extend ONR YIP Research with BRC Efforts


    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Collaborative Proposal to Extend ONR YIP research with BRC Efforts...SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Collaborative Proposal to Extend ONR YIP research with

  20. 环境友好型替代铜及其合金基体镀金的工艺研究%Research of Environment Friendly Electrical Contact Protective lubricant Instead of Gold Plated Covering on Copper and Its Alloy

    贾成林; 张宝根; 段练


    通过长期研究试验,研制出代替镀金用的铜及其合金表面的保护材料SP-2085C和LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂,经过反复试验,大批量生产实践证明:SP-2085C和LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂不仅能替代银、铜、镍等金属及其合金上的镀金层,而且保护后的银、铜、镍表面耐蚀能力优于替代前的镀金表面,且电气性能和微波传输性能没有影响。在滑动摩擦的接触表面上,还解决了金、银或铜滑动摩擦的接触表面上的磨损问题。%Through long-term research and test, the electrical contact protective lubricant SP-2085C and LP-1087C instead of gold plated covering on copper and its alloy have been manufactured. after repeated testing, mass production practice has proved that SP-2085C and LP-1087C electrical contact protective lubricant can not only replacing the gold-plating on the silver, copper, nickel and their alloys, but also have no influence on the electricity function and microwave transmission, and with using the protective agent, the corrosion resistance of silver, copper and nickel's surface is better than the gold plated covering before. In addition, the attrition issues of the sliding friction of gold or copper's contact surface have also been solved.

  1. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  2. Modified dexamethasone suppression-corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test: A pilot study of young healthy volunteers and implications for alcoholism research in adolescents and young adults.

    Sher, Leo; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A


    The key neuroendocrine component of a response to stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Abnormalities in the HPA system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcoholism and suicide. The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is the most frequently used test to assess HPA-system function in psychiatric disorders. This neuroendocrine test consists of the administration of a low dose of dexamethasone at 11 pm and the measurement of cortisol levels at one or more time points on the following day. After corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) became available for clinical studies, the DST was combined with CRH administration. In this test, patients are pretreated with a single dose of dexamethasone at 11 pm and receive human CRH intravenously at 3 pm the following day. The resulting DST-CRH test proved to be much more sensitive in detecting HPA system alterations than the DST. We have modified the DST-CRH test and used ovine CRH instead of human CRH in a pilot study of a group of young healthy volunteers. Results indicated that it produces results similar to the results obtained with human CRH. This suggests that ovine CRH can be used in psychiatric research. Alcoholism is associated with abnormalities in HPA function. Nonalcoholic subjects with a family history of alcoholism exhibit lower plasma ACTH and beta-endorphin as well as lower ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin responses to psychological stress and CRH stimulation. This suggests that in children of alcoholics, alterations in the mechanisms that regulate HPA axis activity predate the development of alcohol dependence and may be considered inherited traits. Therefore, studies of the HPA system in persons at risk for alcoholism may help understand the neurobiological mechanisms of predisposition to alcoholism.

  3. Kinetics of milk lipid droplet transport, growth, and secretion revealed by intravital imaging: lipid droplet release is intermittently stimulated by oxytocin | Center for Cancer Research

    Description of the cover: The micrograph shows lipid droplets (red) accumulating at the apical surface of secretory cells (green) between oxytocin-induced contractions in a transgenic mouse line that expresses green fluorescent protein in the cytoplasm of most cells.

  4. Progress of Water Retention and Slow-release Fertilizer Research%保水缓释肥料研究进展



    The combination of the slow-release fertilizer technique and super-absorbent polymers can form slow-release fertilizer with water-retention, which has dual properties of water retention capacity and slow release at the same time. This paper reviews the present status, preparation and determining method of nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer with water-retention. The problems and development trends of slow-release fertilizer with water-retention are also analyzed.%  保水型缓释肥料把高吸水树脂与肥料缓释技术相结合,不仅可以提高肥料利用率,还可以赋予肥料良好的保水性能。文中综述了保水型缓释肥料的制备方法及缓释性能的测定,分析了其存在的问题,并对今后的研究方向进行了展望。

  5. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  6. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...




    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) office has committed itself to an accelerated cleanup of its national facilities. The goal is to have much of the DOE legacy waste sites remediated by 2006. This includes closure of several sites (e.g., Rocky Flats and Fernald). With the increased focus on accelerated cleanup, there has been considerable concern about long-term stewardship issues in general, and verification and long-term monitoring (LTM) of caps and covers, in particular. Cap and cover systems (covers) are vital remedial options that will be extensively used in meeting these 2006 cleanup goals. Every buried waste site within the DOE complex will require some form of cover system. These covers are expected to last from 100 to 1000 years or more. The stakeholders can be expected to focus on system durability and sustained performance. DOE EM has set up a national committee of experts to develop a long-term capping (LTC) guidance document. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, desiccation, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. Very little is available in terms of long-term monitoring other than downstream groundwater or surface water monitoring. By its very nature, this can only indicate that failure of the cover system has already occurred and contaminants have been transported away from the site. This is unacceptable. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict approaching cover failure are needed. The LTC committee has identified predictive monitoring technologies as a high priority need for DOE, both for new covers as well as existing covers. The same committee identified a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technology as one approach that may be capable of meeting the requirements for LTM. The Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD) at BNL developed a novel methodology for verifying and monitoring

  9. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin


    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  10. Cover crops and N credits

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  11. Optimization research about polyester/cotton fabric soil release finish process%涤棉织物易去污整理工艺优化

    姚永旺; 闫英山; 李玉华; 李春光; 吕建品


    The soil release finishing agent and softer for polyester/cotton fabric soil release finishing were optimized, and the soil release property was improved by the synergistic effect of soil release finishing agent and polyether derivative HP and optimization of technological conditions. The soil release finishing process for cotton fabric is that cotton fabric was baked for 2 min under 160 ℃ with soil release agent SR-7000 60 g/L, polyether derivative HP 30 g/L, softer HF 103 30 g/L, easy care finishing agent EFR 80 g/L, catalyzer 531 20 g/L, and strong protective agent HLC 30 g/L. The soil release property of finished fabric is 3.5 scale after 30 times washing.%在涤棉织物的易去污整理过程中对易去污整理剂、柔软剂进行优选,通过易去污整理剂与聚醚衍生物HP协同作用和优化工艺条件提高织物易去污效果.涤棉织物易去污整理工艺条件:易去污整理剂SR-7000 60 g/L,聚醚衍生物HP 30 g/L,柔软剂HF103 30 g/L,免烫整理剂EFR 80 g/L,催化剂531 20 g/L,强力保护剂HLC 30 g/L,焙烘温度160 ℃ ,焙烘时间2 min.整理后的织物30次水洗后易去污效果3.5级.




    The multifunctional plastic spiral cover production line used for protecting high-pressure soft pipe was researched.Changing thick section extruding, an unique soft shaft revolving forming technology was adopted in this line. The results after use showed that the machine forming was excellent. Products fully met the requirements of engineering machinery industry and obtained better social and economic benefits.%研制了一种高压软管用多功能塑料螺旋保护套的生产线.该生产线采用变厚截面塑料挤出,是一种独特的软轴旋转成型技术.用户使用后证明,该生产线成型性能优良.生产的产品完全符合工程机械行业的要求,取得了较好的社会效益和经济效益.

  13. Impact Analysis of Climate Change on Snow over a Complex Mountainous Region Using Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF Simulation and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data (MODIS-Terra Fractional Snow Cover Products

    Xiaoduo Pan


    Full Text Available Climate change has a complex effect on snow at the regional scale. The change in snow patterns under climate change remains unknown for certain regions. Here, we used high spatiotemporal resolution snow-related variables simulated by a weather research and forecast model (WRF including snowfall, snow water equivalent and snow depth along with fractional snow cover (FSC data extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data (MODIS-Terra to evaluate the effects of climate change on snow over the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a typical inland river basin in arid northwestern China from 2000 to 2013. We utilized Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis and Mann-Kendall/Theil-Sen trend analysis to evaluate the results. The results are as follows: (1 FSC, snow water equivalent, and snow depth across the entire HRB region decreased, especially at elevations over 4500 m; however, snowfall increased at mid-altitude ranges in the upstream area of the HRB. (2 Total snowfall also increased in the upstream area of the HRB; however, the number of snowfall days decreased. Therefore, the number of extreme snow events in the upstream area of the HRB may have increased. (3 Snowfall over the downstream area of the HRB decreased. Thus, ground stations, WRF simulations and remote sensing products can be used to effectively explore the effect of climate change on snow at the watershed scale.

  14. Caption of The Cover

    Jiang Zongzhi


    @@ The airport scheduled flight dynamic management and information image display system type JHP-1 automatic display system developed recently by Shanghai Ship & Shipping Research Institute,Ministry of Communications. This system was first time installed in the international waiting building of Guangzhou Baiyun Airport in the Octoter of 1991 and put into use successfully.

  15. Introduction of Cover Picture


    Cypripedium guttatum Sw is a plant of Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae), which has biological effects such as sedation, analgesia, sweating, and antipyretic. Modern research shows that this Chinese herbal medicine can be used for the treatment of neurasthenia, epilepsy, febrile convulsion, headache, and stomachache. It is widely distributed in Northeast China, and Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan

  16. The Present Research Status and Prospect of Water-Retaining Controlled Release Fertilizers%保水型控释肥料的研究现状与展望

    魏恩志; 牛育华; 赵冬冬


    保水型控释肥料是保水剂与肥料控释技术复合一体化的产物,在控制肥料养分释放量和释放期的同时可提高肥料的保水性。概述了保水型控释肥料的保水和控释原理,简要介绍了国内、外的研究现状,分析了目前存在的主要问题及其未来发展方向。%The water-retaining controlled release fertilizer is the product of controlled release fertilizer combined with water-retaining agent using integration technology, which is capable to control nutrients release amount and period, and along with it , the water retaining ability is increased.The principle of water-retaining and controlled releasing of water retaining controlled release fertilizer is summarized, domestic and overseas research status is briefly introduced, and major problems existing at present and future development direction are analyzed.

  17. Research on the Countermeasures of Adult Education Promoting the Social Accommodation of Released Prisoners%成人教育促进社会归正人员社会适应对策探究



    The number of the released prisoners in our country has an upward tendency ,as many people back to society ,their social accommodation received more and more attention of the government and society .This paper analyzed the advantages of adult education promoting the social accommodation of released prisoners ,elaborated the dilemma of released prisoners’ social accommodation ,and then put forward countermeasures that adult education promote the social accommodation of released prisoners , in order to provide a new research paradigm and practical reference to the social accommodation of released prisoners .%我国社会归正人员呈逐年上升趋势,他们出狱后的社会适应状况也越来越受到国家和社会的重视。本文分析了成人教育促进社会归正人员社会适应的优势,对社会归正人员社会适应的困境进行了阐述,进而提出了成人教育促进社会归正人员社会适应的对策,以期为社会归正人员社会适应提供新的研究范式和实践参考。

  18. Research on the biological activity and doxorubicin release behavior in vitro of mesoporous bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass nanospheres

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Gen; Zhang, Ying


    Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) nanospheres have been synthesized by a facile method of sacrificing template using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant. The prepared MBG nanospheres possess high specific surface area (632 m2 g-1) as well as uniform size (∼100 nm). In addition, MBG nanospheres exhibited a quick in vitro bioactive response in simulated body fluids (SBF) and excellent bioactivity of inducing hydroxyapatite (HA) forming on the surface of MBG nanospheres. Furthermore, MBG nanospheres can sustain release of doxorubicin (DOX) with a higher encapsulation efficiency (63.6%) and show distinct degradation in PBS by releasing Si and Ca ions. The encapsulation efficiency and DOX release of MBG nanospheres could be controlled by mesoporous structure and local pH environment. The greater surface area and pore volumes of prepared MBG nanospheres are conducive to bioactive response and drug release in vitro. The amino groups in DOX can be easily protonated at acidic medium to become positively charged NH+3, which allow these drug molecules to be desorbed from the surface of MBG nanospheres via electrostatic effect. Therefore, the synthesized MBG nanospheres have a pH-sensitive drug release capability. In addition, the cytotoxicity of MBG nanospheres was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and results showed that the synthesized MBG nanospheres had no significant cytotoxicity to MC3T3 cells. These all indicated that as-prepared MBG nanospheres are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  19. On L-injective Covers



    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  20. The Best Use of a Cover Letter


    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  1. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.


    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined by the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P.J. Cameron (Ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469–478)....

  2. Research of Release Anion Health Bamboo Fiber Fabric%竹纤维织物释放负离子的研究

    王鑫春; 李青山


    研究了负离子添加剂以及洗涤次数对织物释放负离子浓度的影响。结果表明:经过负离子功能化整理的竹纤维织物,释放负离子的浓度高于未经整理的竹纤维织物;洗涤次数对织物释放负离子浓度呈现出先降低后稳定的趋势。%This paper studied the influence of anion additives and washing frequency upon fabric released negative ions concentration. The results showed that the bamboo fabric treated with anion functionalization released higher anion concentration than the bamboo fabric without the treatment; washing frequency also had very big effect on negative ions concentration released by fabrics.

  3. Research on the Release Characteristics of Marine DC Contactor%船用直流接触器脱扣特性的研究

    陆干文; 韩露; 彭格; 袁征; 王永鑫


    论述了直流接触器脱扣原理,分析了影响直流接触器正确脱扣的主要因素,以三维有限元分析为基础,采用ANSYS软件仿真分析,提出一种减小铁心剩磁吸力的方法,保证船用接触器断电后可靠释放,提高了船用直流接触器的可靠性.%The principle of the release characteristics on marine DC eontaetor was surveyed and the main fac-tors which impact DC contactor correct release were analyzed.Based on 3D finite element method,by ANSYS soft-ware,a way to reduce residual flux force was introduced to ensure the DC eontactor release correctly.The reliability of marine DC contactor was impmved.

  4. Reuse of MSWI bottom ash mixed with natural sodium bentonite as landfill cover material.

    Puma, Sara; Marchese, Franco; Dominijanni, Andrea; Manassero, Mario


    The research described in this study had the aim of evaluating the reuse of incinerator slag, mixed with sodium bentonite, for landfill capping system components. A characterization was performed on pure bottom ash (BA) samples from an incinerator in the north of Italy. The results show that the BA samples had appropriate properties as covers. The compacted dry unit weight of the studied BA (16.2 kN m(-3)) was lower than the average value that characterizes most conventional fill materials and this can be considered advantageous for landfill cover systems, since the fill has to be placed on low bearing capacity ground or where long-term settlement is possible. Moreover, direct shear tests showed a friction angle of 43°, corresponding to excellent mechanical characteristics that can be considered an advantage against failure. The hydraulic conductivity tests indicated a steady-state value of 8 × 10(-10) m s(-1) for a mixture characterized by a bentonite content by weight of 10%, which was a factor 10 better than required by Italian legislation on landfill covers. The results from a swell index test indicated that fine bentonite swelled, even when divalent cations were released by the BA. The leaching behaviour of the mixture did not show any contamination issues and was far better than obtained for the pure BA. Thus, the BA-bentonite mixture qualified as a suitable material for landfill cover in Italy. Moreover, owing to the low release of toxic compounds, the proposed cover system would have no effect on the leachate quality in the landfill.

  5. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng


    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  6. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Brust, Jochen


    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  7. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Tiina Köster


    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  8. Particle Release Experiment (PRex) Final Report

    Keillor, Martin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arrigo, Leah M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detwiler, Rebecca S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kernan, Warnick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Randy R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chipman, Veraun D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Milbrath, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Allen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Carolyn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Emer, Dudley [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)


    An experiment to release radioactive particles representative of small-scale venting from an underground nuclear test was conducted to gather data in support of treaty verification and monitoring activities. For this experiment, a CO2-driven “air cannon” was used to release La-140 at ambient temperatures. Lanthanum-140 was chosen to represent the fission fragments because of its short half-life and prominent gamma-ray emissions; the choice was also influenced by the successful production and use of La-140 with low levels of radioactive contaminants in a Defence Research and Development Canada Field Trial. The source was created through activation of high-purity natural lanthanum oxide at the reactor of Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Multiple varieties of witness plates and air samplers were laid in an irregular grid covering the area over which the plume was modeled to deposit. Aerial survey, a NaI(Tl) mobile spectrometer, and handheld and backpack instruments ranging from polyvinyl toluene to high-purity germanium were used to survey the plume. Additionally, three varieties of soil sampling were investigated. The relative sensitivity and utility of sampling and survey methods are discussed in the context of On-Site Inspection. The measurements and samples show a high degree of correlation and form a valuable set of test data.

  9. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Charles J. Colbourn


    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  10. Thermophysics Universal Research Framework (TURF) Tutorial Package


    DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermophysics Universal Research Framework (TURF) Tutorial Package 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 THERMOPHYSICS UNIVERSAL RESEARCH FRAMEWORK – INFRASTRUCTURE RELEASE – (TURF-IR V1.0...a C-R physics module), there are no hooks to indicate that a particular module is missing. In this way, reverse engineering the functionality of a

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))


    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  12. Small-scale field test of simple earthen covers for uranium mill tailings. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Rich, D.C. (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (USA))


    A series of field tests has been conducted during the past year to provide benchmark data on the performance of simple, single-layer earthen covers at thee uranium tailings sites. The performance of the covers was evaluated in terms of their reduction of radon gas releases, although moisture profiles and other cover parameters were also monitored. The tests were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of local soils applied with minimum engineering design or compaction effort. The tests, therefore, tend to represent a lowest-cost, and perhaps a worst-case scenario for tailings reclamation. The field benchmark tests are part of a major research program being conducted by the US Department of Energy to develop technology for uranium tailings disposal. The present tests with simple earthen covers thus provide a comparative basis for evaluating the effectiveness of more highly-engineered systems and their proportionately higher costs. These tests were conducted on the inactive tailings piles at Salt Lake City; Mexican Hat, Utah; and Grand Junction, Colorado. The test covers were installed during the summer of 1981 (Ri81) and have been monitored during the following year. This report describes the experimental details of the cover tests, the data that were collected during the one-year monitoring period, and the conclusions that were drawn from the experiments. 5 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. The effect of treatment with a slow-releasing oxytocin preparation at the onset of oestrus on the ovulation rate of Merino ewes : research note

    P.R. King


    Full Text Available The effect of a slow-releasing oxytocin preparation on the ovulation rate of Merino ewes was investigated. Synchronised Merino ewes were subcutaneously injected with a slow-re-leasing preparation containing 10 IU oxytocin, 48 hours after sponge withdrawal. Laparo-scopic examination of the ovaries of all ewes was performed 10 d after the oxytocin treatment in order to determine the number of corpora lutea per ewe. The ovulation rate of the adult ewes of the treated and control groups was 179.1 % and 159.1 % respectively (p < 0.05 while that of the 2-tooth ewes was 108.3 % and 112.8 % respectively (p > 0.05. It would appear that a higher ovulation rate can be obtained by a single injection of a slow-releasing oxytocin preparation at the onset of oestrus. The lack of response in the 2-tooth ewes was probably due to their relatively low body weight.

  14. 儿科护士职业倦怠缓释对策研究%Pediatric Nurse Job Burnout Slow-release Countermeasure Research



    本文通过对导致职业倦怠产生的几个主要因素分析,提出几点缓释职业倦怠产生,即学会释放压力方法、角色换位思考减轻压力负担、爱岗敬业,树立正确的人生观和价值观、不断提高自身素质与护理技术水平。%This article through to lead to job burnout of several main factors analysis, put forward some slow-release job burnout, will learn to release pressure method, the role the perspective-taking alleviate pressure burden, wuxi, set up the correct outlook on life and values, and constantly improve their own quality and nursing techniques.

  15. Recent Research Advances in Receptor of Prolactin Releasing Peptide%催乳素释放肽受体的研究进展

    陈宇; 朱河水


    催乳素释放肽(Prolactin Releasing Peptide,PrRP)是一种RF肽,催乳素释放肽受体(PrRP-R)为G蛋白偶联受体(GPCR).综述了PrRP-R基因特点以及PrRP-R在体内的分布、表达以及亲和性等.

  16. 富马酸喹硫平骨架缓释片的研发%Development and Research of Quetiapine Fumarate Matrix Sustained-Release Tablets

    何广卫; 苏峰; 许国琴; 许慧雷


    Using f2 similarity factor and comprehensive score of the cumulate release rate as response value , single factor test and orthogonal experimental design were used to determine the viscosity and dosage of HPMC as matrix materials and dosage of lactose as diluents and sodium citrate as pH regulators and magnesium stearate as lubricants .The optimal formulation (1 000 units) was quetiapine fumarate 230 g, HPMC K100Lv 180 g, HPMC K4M 60 g, lactose 50 g, sodium citrate 75 g and magnesium stearate 6 g.The dissolution profile in difference pH media was consistent with reference listed drug ( f2≥50 ) , and the sustained -release tablets in vitro release fitted to the Higuchi model and Ritger -Peppas equation , the release mechanism in vitro was diffusion combined with corrosion.%以HPMC为骨架缓释材料,乳糖为填充剂,枸橼酸钠为pH调节剂,硬脂酸镁为润滑剂,采用单因素试验和正交实验设计方法,通过f2相似因子和累积释放度综合评分进行评价,最终确定富马酸喹硫平缓释片的处方组成为:富马酸喹硫平230 g, HPMC K100Lv 180 g, HPMC K4M 60 g,乳糖50 g,柠檬酸钠75 g,硬脂酸镁6 g。自研缓释片释放行为与原研制剂一致( f2≥50),且符合Higuchi模型和Ritger-Peppas方程,表明药物释放机制是扩散与溶蚀并存的双重机制。

  17. The Monitoring Research of Land Use/Cover Disturbance in Puguang Gas Field Development Zone%普光气田开发区土地利用/覆盖扰动监测

    汪东川; 黄勇; 张利辉


    Gas field development engineering project often exerts damage to vegetation,changing land use status,lead to soil and water losses,and increase soil erosion intensity of the project area. Based on 3S technology,taking Puguang gas field development zone as the research area,the ecosystem destruction and recovery situation of the gas field development zone were monitored through layer overlay,buffering analysis and land use/cover change trajectory extraction using spatial analysis method. Results showed that during the process of the project,great impacts were brought about on the vegetation and the surrounding ecosystem. Land use/cover conversions were mainly between forest,farmland,grassland and con-structive land before and after the project. Among those conversions,the occupied farmland was the main land use during gas field development construction. While because appropriate measures,such as soil and water conservation,ecological res-toration,had been taken during the construction,no obvious soil erosion and ecological destruction arose. The later engi-neering protection measures produced better vegetation restoration in the project area.%气田开发施工工程常常对植被造成破坏,改变土地利用现状,产生水土流失,因而加剧了项目区土壤侵蚀强度。以普光气田开发区为研究区,在3S技术支持下,运用空间分析方法,通过图层叠加、缓冲区分析与土地利用/覆盖变化轨迹提取,对气田开发区的生态系统破坏与恢复情况进行监测。结果表明:气田开发工程过程中会对植被和周围生态系统产生较大影响;工程前后土地利用变化主要体现在林地、耕地、草地和建设用地之间的转换上,其中气田开发区建设以占用耕地为主。但由于采取了相应的水土保持、生态恢复等措施,没有引发明显的水土流失和生态破坏,故工程中采取的措施有效,后期植被恢复较好。

  18. Dualities in Covering Rough Operations

    William Zhu


    Rough set theory is a technique of granular computing. In this paper, we study a type of generalized rough sets based on covering. There are several literatures[ 1,40-43 ] exploring covering-based rough sets. Our focus of this paper is on the dualities in rough operations.

  19. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  20. News/Press Releases

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  1. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.


    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  2. 我国保水缓/控释肥料的研发进展%Research progress and development of water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizers in China

    党民团; 刘娟


    The water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizer is the new value-added fertilizer in low carbon economy era, as well as one of the most promising fertilizers in the future fertilizer industry. The research progress and development of water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizers in china are reviewed, four kinds of composite integration technologies for water-storing and fertilizer are introduced with the analysises on existing problems, some strategies are provided for the further research and development of water-storing slow/controlled release fertilizers in China.%保水缓/控释肥料是低碳经济时代的新型增值肥料,是未来肥料产业最具前景的重要方向之一。综述了近年来我国保水缓/控释肥料的研发进展和保水剂与肥料复合一体化技术的4种制备方法,分析了相关研发存在的问题,提出了我国保水缓/控释肥料开发应进一步采取的对策。

  3. 安徽沿江棉区控失型化肥施用技术研究%Research on the Application Technology of Controlled-release Chemical Fertilizer in the Cotton Area along Yangtze River in Anhui Province

    余立祥; 邱冠男; 吴跃进


    [目的]研究控失肥在棉区的施用技术,验证控失肥的"控失"效果及其经济效益.[方法]以当地主要推广的抗虫棉品种为供试作物,通过在安徽省沿江棉田进行施肥试验研究了控失肥不同施用方式对棉花产量和效益的影响.[结果]与一次基施全部控失肥相比,将控失肥分3次施用使棉花产量增加了240 kg/hm~2,棉农的净收入增加了156元/hm~2;将控失肥基施,后期追施速效化肥使棉花产量增加了7.04%,棉农的净收入增加了833.4元/hm~2.施用减氮20%的控失肥的棉花的现蕾期提前了6 d,开花期提前了7 d,吐絮期提前了8 d,生育期短了8 d.与施用普通氮肥的棉花相比,施用控失氮肥的棉花的秋桃增加幅度为22.29%~36.31%,皮棉产量增加了27.78%.[结论]该研究为在安徽沿江棉区推广应用控失肥提供了科学依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to research the application technology of controlled-release fertilizer in cotton area and validate its controlled-release effect and economic benefit. [Method] With the insect-resistant cotton varieties mainly popularized in the local place as tested crops, the effect of different application methods of controlled-release fertilizer on the yield and benefit of cotton was researched through carrying out fertilization experiment in the cotton fields along Yangtze River in Anhui Province. [Result] Compared with applying all the controlled-release fertilizer as base fertilizer at the first fertilization, when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied 3 times separately, the cotton yield was increased for 240 kg/hm~2 and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 156 yuan/hm~2; when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer and the fast-available chemical fertilizer was dressed in the anaphase, the cotton yield was increased by 7.04% and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 833.4 yuan/hm~2. The squaring period of cottons applied

  4. Fuel safety research 2001

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  5. Investigación matemática argentina recogida en MathSci (2000-2005 Mathematical Research in Argentina Covered by MathSci (2000-2005

    Cristian Merlino-Santesteban


    Full Text Available Se analiza la investigación matemática argentina recogida en la base de datos MathSci correspondiente al período 2000-2005. Durante este período el total de la producción científica matemática tuvo un incremento del 10%. Teoría cuántica, Ecuaciones y derivadas parciales, y Relatividad y teoría gravitatoria son las tres áreas temáticas con mayor contribución matemática argentina, seguidas por Anillos y álgebras asociativos, y Mecánica estadística, estructura de la materia. La Universidad de Buenos Aires fue la institución líder en el número de trabajos publicados (35% y presentó la mayor diversidad productiva. Cerca del 89% de los trabajos se distribuyó en 406 revistas y prácticamente 46 títulos concentraron el 50% de los documentos. El 36% de la producción fue realizada en coautoría con colegas extranjeros. Estados Unidos y España fueron las naciones con las cuales se establecieron relaciones más estrechas. La tasa de colaboración internacional aumentó del 30 al 42%.Argentinean mathematical research covered by MathSci database for the period 2000-2005 is analyzed. During those years, the mathematical scientific production showed a growing rate of 10%. Quantum theory, Partial differential equations, and Relativity and gravitational theory are the three subject areas with more Argentinean mathematical contribution followed by Associative rings and algebra, and Statistical mechanics, structure of matter. The University of Buenos Aires was the leading institution in the number of published papers (35% and it presented the greatest productive diversity. About 89% of the articles have appeared in 406 journals and almost 46 titles concentrated 50% of the documents. Thirty six per cent of the production was performed in conjunction with foreign colleagues. United States and Spain were the most important collaborating nations. The international collaboration rate showed an increasu from 30 to 42%.


    杨锋; 朱守林; 高明星


    The snow-covered road has some basic characteristics in the north-forest such as low level,small short line-of-sight and road surface adhesion,small plane curve radius,vertical curve change drastically.It make the drivers have been a strong sense of higher physical and psychological pressure.In this paper,the authors analysed 6 drivers'eye movement data about 25 blink,fixation and Saccade,found the same periodic change about average blink continuous time and average pupil-area change rate,found average saccade amplitude had significant changes in the long distance.Also determined the length of straight-line roads which made the drivers feel the most comfortable on their eye-moving,for the next research of physiological change rule to provide theoretical reference.%林区冰雪道路具有等级低、视距短、路面附着力小、平曲线半径小、纵曲线变化剧烈等基本特征,给木材生产运输的驾驶员带来了较大的生理和心理压力.本文以北方林区冰雪道路上6名驾驶员的眼动实驾试验数据为基础,分析了驾驶员在不同直线长度下的冰雪道路上的眨眼、注视和扫视行为,得出了驾驶员在冰雪道路上行车时的平均眨眼持续时间、平均瞳孔面积变化率呈现相似的周期性变化规律,平均扫视幅度在中长距离上具有显著变化规律,确定了在北方林区冰雪路面上驾驶员的最佳视觉舒适性直线段长度,为下一步研究驾驶员的生理指标变化规律提供理论参考.

  7. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK


    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.


    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen


    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ


    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen


    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  10. Repeated manual release in a young plantation: Effect on douglas-fir seedlings, hardwoods, shrubs, forbs, and grasses. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.; Harrison, H.R.


    Douglas-fir seedlings on the Arcata Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, in central coastal California, were released by chain sawing and grubbing competing vegetation around them at different frequencies (0, 2, and 3 grubbings) over a 5-year period. After 5 years, average Douglas-fir stem diameter (measured at 12 inches above mean groundline) of seedlings grubbed at ages 1, 2, and 5 was 0.91 inches, and of seedlings grubbed after the first and fifth growing season was 0.95 inches. Both were significantly larger than counterparts in the control (0.57 inches).


    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Gaensicke, B. T. [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics group, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL Coventry (United Kingdom); Martin, E. L. [INTA-CSIC Centro de Astrobiologia, Carretera de Ajalvir km 4, 28550 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Groot, P. J.; Verbeek, K.; Jonker, P. G.; Scaringi, S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Irwin, M. J.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. [Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0HA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Greimel, R. [Institut fuer Physik, Karl-Franzen Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Knigge, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Ostensen, R. H. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Drew, J. E.; Farnhill, H. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Drake, J.; Wright, N. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, Naples I-80131 (Italy); Southworth, J. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Newcastle-under-Lyme ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Still, M., E-mail: [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-40, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others


    This paper describes the first data release of the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) that covers a 116 deg{sup 2} region of the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The Kepler field is the target of the most intensive search for transiting planets to date. Despite the fact that the Kepler mission provides superior time-series photometry, with an enormous impact on all areas of stellar variability, its field lacks optical photometry complete to the confusion limit of the Kepler instrument necessary for selecting various classes of targets. For this reason, we follow the observing strategy and data reduction method used in the IPHAS and UVEX galactic plane surveys in order to produce a deep optical survey of the Kepler field. This initial release concerns data taken between 2011 May and August, using the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma. Four broadband filters were used, U, g, r, i, as well as one narrowband one, H{alpha}, reaching down to a 10{sigma} limit of {approx}20th mag in the Vega system. Observations covering {approx}50 deg{sup 2}, thus about half of the field, passed our quality control thresholds and constitute this first data release. We derive a global photometric calibration by placing the KIS magnitudes as close as possible to the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) photometry. The initial data release catalog containing around 6 million sources from all the good photometric fields is available for download from the KIS Web site ( as well as via MAST (KIS magnitudes can be retrieved using the MAST enhanced target search page{sub f}ov/search.php and also via Casjobs at MAST Web site


    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L


    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all

  13. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  14. Cover

    Frontiers of Biogeography, Editorial Office


    Frontiers of Biogeography new logo. This logo feeds on the theme created for the new IBS corporate image, and represents four overlapping hypervolumes in the form of a butterfly’s wings, flying over four niche response curves in the form of hills, mountains and the sea (see Dawson et al. in this issue for details).

  15. Cover


    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  16. COVER


    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  17. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  18. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  19. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo product covering a day V002

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo publicly available product covering a day to be used starting with MISR Release V4.2. (Suggested Usage: This file...

  20. Riparian vegetation abundance (percent cover) in the Elwha River estuary, Washington, in 2007 and 2014

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents riparian plant species abundance (percent cover) data from plots sampled in the Elwha River estuary, Washington, in 2007...

  1. Land-cover change detection

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James


    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  2. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    Tancer, Martin


    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  3. Cover crops use in agrosystems: Innovations and applications. Chapter 3

    Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dogliotti, S.; Zotarelli, L.; Cherr, C.M.; Leoni, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.


    Cover crops can reduce the dependence of farmers on agrochemicals while enhancing overall agrosystem’s performance. However, the inherent complexity of cover-crop-based systems hampers their adoption by conventional farmers. Therefore, special management skills and alternative research and technolog

  4. Cover Crop Chart: An Intuitive Educational Resource for Extension Professionals

    Liebig, Mark A.; Johnson, Holly; Archer, David; Hendrickson, John; Nichols, Kristine; Schmer, Marty; Tanaka, Don


    Interest in cover crops by agricultural producers has increased the need for information regarding the suitability of crops for addressing different production and natural resource goals. To help address this need, staff at the USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory developed a decision aid called the Cover Crop Chart (CCC). Visually…

  5. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    Rezaul Mahmood; Roger A. Pielke; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Dev Niyogi; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Clive McAlpine; Andrew M. Carleton; Robert Hale; Samuel Gameda; Adriana Beltrán-Przekurat; Bruce Baker; Richard McNider; David R. Legates; Marshall Shepherd; Jinyang Du; Peter D. Blanken; Oliver W. Frauenfeld; U.S. Nair; Souleymane. Fall


    Land cover changes (LCCs) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation. These impacts range from the local- and regional-scale to sub-continental and global-scale. It has been found that the impacts of regional-scale...

  6. TNT密闭环境中能量释放特性研究%Research on TNT Energy Release Characteristics in Enclosed Condition

    金朋刚; 郭炜; 任松涛; 王建灵; 高赞; 李鸿宾


    为了研究TNT在密闭空间中的能量释放特性,依据量热法原理测量了TNT炸药在不同环境中(真空、0.1 MPa空气、0.1 MPa氧气)的爆热;同时在自行设计的密闭爆炸仓内,采用PCB压力传感器和K型热电偶分别测量了TNT炸药在不同气氛(空气、氮气、纯氧气)中爆炸后的准静态压力和爆炸场温度。爆热测试试验结果表明,当环境中氧含量增加时,爆热也随之增加;密闭空间中爆炸参数测量结果表明,随着密闭环境中氧含量的增加,准静态压力和爆炸场温度均有所增加。这说明实际应用中TNT爆炸反应完全性较低,有大量能量未释放,密闭条件可以提高TNT爆炸能量释放率。%In order to study the energy release characteristics of TNT in enclosed condition, the detonation heat of TNT in different environments(vacuum,0. 1MPa air or 0. 1MPa oxygen) was tested by the calorimetric method. And the quasi-static pressure and explosion temperature of TNT in different air condition ( air, N2 and O2 ) were measured respec-tively using PCB company piezoelectric pressure sensors and thermocouple of type K. The detonation heat test results show that when the oxygen content of gas condition increases,the detonation heat of TNT also increases. The quasi-static pres-sure and explosion temperature tests also show that the same results. All of these indicate that in the practical application the completion of the TNT explosive reaction is much low, where there is a lot of energy is unable to be released, but the enclosed condition can improve the ratio of TNT energy released in explosion.

  7. Strategy research for the channel selection of releasing commercial information through Internet%商务信息网络发布的渠道选择策略研究

    王秦; 敖静海; 陈道志


    商务信息的网络发布可以提升商务信息的扩散范围、停留时间、表现形式、延伸效果和穿透能力,并且可以能动地进行信息跟踪,实现信息的有效沟通和交流,信息发布的效果十分明显。本文在分析网络发布渠道特点的基础上,提出商务信息网络发布渠道的选择策略,最后对商务信息网络发布的策略进行了一定的研究。%Web publishing of commercial information could improve commercial information’s expansion scope,elapsed time,expression form,extension effect and penetrating power,and actively trace information,so to communicate and exchange information effectively.The effect of releasing information is too distinctive.In this paper,based on the analyzing the characters of the main Internet releasing channels,the strategy for channel selection is presented about releasing commercial information.Finally,it is researched about the strategy for Internet distribution of commercial information.

  8. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Priscila de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  9. Research on the Heat Release Characters of TBX Explosion%温压炸药爆炸释热特性研究*

    金朋刚; 王晓峰; 郭炜; 任松涛; 王建灵; 高赞


    In order to study the heat release process of RDX based thermal-baric explosive (TBX), heat radiation flux sensor was used to measure the heat radiation flux histories of TNT , 852 and G-1 TBX under free-field and semi-enclosed conditions, respectively, in air blast experiments.The results shows that heat flux-time curves of detonation, an-aerobic combustion and aerobic combustion could be obtained from the heat radiation sensor .In semi-enclosed condition , G-1 presents three distinct heat release processes including detonation , anaerobic combustion and aerobic combustion , while TNT and 852 have only two heat release processes of detonation and anaerobic combustion .Taking the compositions of 852 and G-1 into account , comparative analysis of the heat radiation-time curves revealed that Al is involved in the three re-action stages of G-1.The experimental results under free-field and semi-enclosed conditions show that the reaction process of TBX is strongly affected by the test conditions , in that the semi-enclosed condition facilitates raising the heat release volume of TBX.%为了研究RDX基温压炸药的爆炸热量释放历程,对自由场和半密闭条件下的TNT、852及G-1温压炸药爆炸过程进行了空爆试验,采用热通量传感器记录了3种炸药在两种试验环境下爆炸过程中的热通量时间历程。结果表明,热通量传感器可以获得炸药爆轰、无氧燃烧及有氧燃烧3个阶段的热历程时间曲线;在半密闭空间中爆炸时,G-1温压炸药有3个明显的热量释放历程:爆轰、无氧燃烧和有氧燃烧;TNT和852炸药只有爆轰和有氧燃烧过程。结合852及G-1温压炸药配方组成,对比分析热量释放时间历程曲线认为,铝粉均参与了G-1温压炸药的3个反应阶段。对比自由场和半密闭条件试验结果发现,试验环境对温压炸药反应历程影响较大,半密闭条件有利于提高温压炸药的热量输出。

  10. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  11. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  12. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  13. 小湾水电站顶盖取水试验研究%Research on the Experiment of Getting Unit Cooling Water from Turbine Head Cover in Xiaowan Hydropower Plant

    朱丽辉; 武赛波


      介绍澜沧江小湾水电站顶盖取水试验,并对试验情况进行一定研究分析,供相关人员参考。%A brief introduction to the experiment of getting unit cooling water from turbine head cover in Xiaowan hydropower plant was presented. Several important findings are achieved based on the analysis of the results of the experiment.

  14. Research on the Spatial-temporal Change Characteristics of Land-cover in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区土地覆盖时空变化特点研究

    易玲; 赵晓丽; 刘斌; 汪潇


    采用"国家科技基础条件平台建设-地球系统科学数据共享网"中"中国1∶25万比例尺的土地覆盖数据库"数据资料,归纳广西全区尺度的土地覆盖特征,通过转换矩阵分析1980~2005年广西全区土地覆盖的时空变化特点,以期为实现可持续发展提供科学数据支持.%Based on "1∶25 million scale of China's land-cover database" from "Basic conditions for national science and technology platform- Earth System Science Data Sharing Network", the land-cover characteristics of Guangxi whole region scale were summarized. The spatial-temporal change characteristics of land-cover in Guangxi whole region from 1980 to 2005 were analyzed through conversion matrix, so as to provide scientific data support for achieving the sustainable development.

  15. Research on the Management of Dispersion Covering Internship in the Major of Manufacturing in Vocational High School%高职制造类专业分散顶岗实习管理研究

    吕莹; 张静; 辛庆旭


    Covering internship is an important part in the process of higher vocational education. In the article, it studied the main problems existing in the process of covering internship in the major of manufacturing in vocational high school, presented to fulfill practice process supervision by the participation of school, enterprises and students, and build up the dispersion practice management mechanism by establishing evaluation index system and perfecting operation conditions, provided the guarantee for the teaching quality of covering internship.%顶岗实习是高等职业教育过程中的重要组成部分。针对高职院校制造类专业顶岗实习过程中所出现的主要问题,提出学校、企业、学生三方共同参与并完成实习过程监督的顶岗实习管理方法。通过建立评价指标体系、完善运行条件等途径,构建协同创新的分散实习管理机制,为顶岗实习的教学质量提供保障。

  16. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  17. The Changing Midwest Assessment: land cover, natural resources, and people

    Robert Potts; Eric Gustafson; Susan I. Stewart; Frank R. Thompson; Kathleen Bergen; Daniel G. Brown; Roger Hammer; Volker Radeloff; David Bengston; John Sauer; Brian Sturtevant


    Documents changes in land cover, forests, selected natural resources, and human demographics and attitudes across the Midwest from roughly 1980 to 2000. The changing Midwest assessment: data and shapefiles are available from the Forest Service Research Data Archive....

  18. Research on algorithm of automatically recognizing andpositioning road manhole covers based on vehicle-mounted sensors%基于车载传感器的路面井盖自动定位识别算法研究



    The fast recognizing and positioning of municipal manhole covers is an important problem needed to be addressed for promoting digital management of modern cities. In view of the above problem, this paper proposed an algorithm, to automatically recognize and position road manhole covers under complex background in natural scene based on vehicle-mounted sensors. Taking the elliptical geometrical characteristic of manhole cover in perspective image captured by vehicle-mounted sensors as criterion, the algorithm firstly extracted edge information by employing vector edge detection method. Secondly constructed a contour list with boundary through contour tracing, then imitated and quickly generated all the possible elliptical targets in the contour list by means of least square fitting method. Subsequently eliminated the elliptical targets without relationship corresponding to road manhole covers according to their shape features, and last formed accurate results of recognition and position. Experiment shows that generally the algorithm is able to achieve real-time manhole cover targets recognition rapidly and effectively for images conforming to quality standard of data capturing.%市政井盖快速定位与识别是提升现代城市部件空间数字化管理水平需要解决的重要问题,针对该问题提出基于车载传感器的复杂背景下路面井盖目标自动定位识别算法.该算法以车载传感器获取的透视图像中井盖所具有的椭圆形几何特征为判据,先利用矢量边缘检测方法提取边缘信息,再运用轮廓跟踪法将边缘构造成轮廓链表,然后通过最小二乘法拟合与快速生成轮廓链表中可能存在的椭圆目标,并根据井盖的形状特征排除透视图中与路面井盖无对应关系的虚假椭圆目标,最终形成高精度定位识别结果.实证研究表明,对达到数据采集质量标准的图像,在一般情况下该算法能较好地实现其中市政井盖的实时定位识别.

  19. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Wenzhong Shi


    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  20. Research on Release of Structure Layer for RF MEMS Capacitive Switches%RF MEMS电容式开关结构层释放技术

    赵兴海; 李玉萍; 郑英彬; 高杨; 贾晓慧


    The fabrication process and the removal of polyimide sacrificial layer for RF MEMS capacitive switches are investigated. A Si3 N4 dielectric layer was deposited on the grounding wire layer using PECVD technology in this work, and then the DC bias gold line layer was sputtered on the dielectric layer Si3N4 ,so the isolation of DC and AC has been implemented. The wet and dry etching technology for removing the sacrificial layer has been discussed. The dry etching method induces the Si3N4 dielectric layer etched and damaged slightly. The structure layer has been released successfully by using wet etching combined with the critical point drying technology. The releasing process and parameters have been presented. The test pull-down voltage of RF MEMS capacitive Switch prototype is 30 V ~ 40 V and the pull-down distance is( 1.7±0.2) |xm, which are in agreement with the design.%研究了RF MEMS开关的制造工艺流程和聚酰亚胺牺牲层的去除工艺.在开关的设计和加工中采用在信号线两侧的地线上生长一层绝缘介质层,直流偏置线生成在绝缘介质层之上,与桥的锚点相连接,实现了交直流隔离.讨论了干法刻蚀和湿法刻蚀牺牲层技术.干法刻蚀容易造成绝缘介质层的刻蚀和损伤.采用湿法刻蚀结合临界点干燥技术,可以获得理想的微梁结构.通过测试,开关样品的下拉电压为34 V~40 V,下拉距离为(1.7±0.2)μm,满足设计要求.

  1. [Preparation and drug releasing property of curcumin nanoparticles].

    Liu, Zhan-jun; Han, Gang; Yu, Jiu-gao; Dai, Hong-guang


    To prepare curcumin nanoparticles and evaluate the in vitro release of curcumin. The chitosan-graft-vinyl acetate copolymers were synthesized by free radical polymerization. Curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation. The encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles and the in vitro release of curcumin were studied. The nanoparticles were discrete and uniform spheres, covered with positive charges. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles was up to 91.6%. The in vitro release profile showed the slower release rate of curcumin. The methods is simple. The nanoparticles possess good physical performance and sustained release character in vitro.

  2. Covering Numbers for Convex Functions

    Guntuboyina, Adityanand


    In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.

  3. The National Land Cover Database

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.


    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site:

  4. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.


    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    E. Kassianov


    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.


    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  7. Comparing network covers using mutual information

    Esquivel, Alcides Viamontes


    In network science, researchers often use mutual information to understand the difference between network partitions produced by community detection methods. Here we extend the use of mutual information to covers, that is, the cases where a node can belong to more than one module. In our proposed solution, the underlying stochastic process used to compare partitions is extended to deal with covers, and the random variables of the new process are simply fed into the usual definition of mutual information. With partitions, our extended process behaves exactly as the conventional approach for partitions, and thus, the mutual information values obtained are the same. We also describe how to perform sampling and do error estimation for our extended process, as both are necessary steps for a practical application of this measure. The stochastic process that we define here is not only applicable to networks, but can also be used to compare more general set-to-set binary relations.

  8. Historical Snow Cover and Water Resources Change in central Asia

    ZHOU, H.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.


    Seasonal snow cover is a vital source of river runoff in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. Decrease of seasonal snow cover is one of the major consequences of climate change in central Asia. To quantify the historical snow cover change, its relationship to global and regional atmospheric processes, and its impact on water resources, a new database for cryospheric research in central Asia has been created in It serves a data portal for snow cover, glacier, meteorology, hydrology and ice core data in central Asia, as well as a platform for further research collaborations. We analyze the historical snow cover change using data derived from AVHRR and MODIS images in 1986 - 2008. The results suggest that the snow cover extent in central Asia has declined significantly in general. We found significant decrease of seasonal snow cover in alpine regions surrounding major mountains (Tienshan, Pamir and Altai-Sayan) in summer; while in winter, northern part of Kazakhstan Steppe, mountains in Altai-Sayan and peripheral regions of Tienshan and Pamir mountains have seen significant strong increase of snow cover. Analysis of the relationship between snow cover extent and climate pattern indices shows a significant negative relationship between snow cover in Pamir mountains and Altai-Sayan mountains with Eastern Atlantic Pattern, and a significant negative relationship between snow cover in northern Aral-Caspian desert, Tienshan and the East Atlantic / West Russia pattern. And the Polar / Euraisa Pattern has a positive relationship with snow in Kazakhstan Steppe, Pamir, and Tienshan. The changing snow cover regime will affect not only the amount but also the timing of available water melting from snow.

  9. Nutrient exchange and release experiment and its simulation study in lake water-sediment interface

    XUE Lian-qing; HAO Zhen-chun


    The sediment distributed and insolated under lake was collected for experiments. The nutrient layer distribution conditions of sampled sediment and its physical and chemical characteristics were analyzed to simulate and assess the influence degree to lake water quality. Based on the dynamic water exchanging experiments the nutrient release process in sediment and influence mechanism to substance exchanging on water-sediment interface was studied, and the correlation between the changing content of total phosphors and total nitrogen in sediment and covered water were analyzed for setting up a simulation model. At the same time the influence degree is explained in detail. The experimental results indicated that even if clean water without nutrient contents was used for water exchangement so as to decrease pollution or prevent eutrophication, however owing to the vertical nutrient distribution in lake sediment, it will lead to the increasing release amount greatly especially when the organic nutrient contained in sediment turns into inorganic status because of isolation. Besides the release process of total phosphate (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were modeled and each nutrient's exchanging equation at interface caused by covered water nutrient concentration changing was set up. According to the simulating prediction, TP and TN content of cover water will also sustain a steady higher level in a long period. The nutrient release amount of sediment is not only affected by the covered water concentration but also connects with accumulative time. The experiments provide the fundamental theoretical and practical basis for taking ecological restoration project. And research is helpful to prevent or restore lake eutrophication.

  10. [Experimental research on the effects of different activators on the formation of platelet-rich gel and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma].

    Yang, Y; Zhang, W; Cheng, B


    Objective: To explore the effects of calcium gluconate and thrombin on the formation of platelet-rich gel (PRG) and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the clinical significance. Methods: Six healthy blood donors who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in our unit from May to August in 2016. Platelet samples of each donor were collected for preparation of PRP. (1) PRP in the volume of 10 mL was collected from each donor and divided into thrombin activation group (TA, added with 0.5 mL thrombin solution in dose of 100 U/mL) and calcium gluconate activation group (CGA, added with 0.5 mL calcium gluconate solution in dose of 100 g/L) according to the random number table, with 5 mL PRP in each group. Then the PRP of the two groups was activated in water bath at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The formation time of PRG was recorded, and the formation situation of PRG was observed within 1 hour of activation. After being activated for 1 h, one part of PRG was collected to observe the distribution of fibrous protein with HE staining, and another part of PRG was collected to observe platelet ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope (TEM). After being activated for 1 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the content of transforming growth factor β(1, )platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factorⅠby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2) Another 10 mL PRP from each donor was collected and grouped as above, and the platelet suspension was obtained after two times of centrifugation and resuspension with phosphate buffered saline, respectively. And then they were treated with corresponding activator for 1 h as that in experiment (1). Nanoparticle tracking analyzer was used to detect the concentrations of microvesicles with different diameters and total microvesicles derived from platelet. Data

  11. Kummer covers and braid monodromy

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge


    In this work we describe a method to reconstruct the braid monodromy of the preimage of a curve by a Kummer cover. This method is interesting, since it combines two techniques, namely, the reconstruction of a highly non-generic braid monodromy with a systematic method to go from a non-generic to a generic braid monodromy. This "generification" method is independent from Kummer covers and can be applied in more general circumstances since non generic braid monodromies appear more naturally and are oftentimes much easier to compute. Explicit examples are computed using these techniques.

  12. Best Practices for Controlling Lead and Copper Release

    Presentation draft, covering summary of current state-of-the-art knowledge for the best treatment strategies for minimizing lead release and controlling copper release. The presentation is intended to aid with compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule, but also provide a guide to...

  13. A comprehensive change detection method for updating the National Land Cover Database to circa 2011

    Jin, Suming; Yang, Limin; Danielson, Patrick; Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce; Xian, George


    The importance of characterizing, quantifying, and monitoring land cover, land use, and their changes has been widely recognized by global and environmental change studies. Since the early 1990s, three U.S. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) products (circa 1992, 2001, and 2006) have been released as free downloads for users. The NLCD 2006 also provides land cover change products between 2001 and 2006. To continue providing updated national land cover and change datasets, a new initiative in developing NLCD 2011 is currently underway. We present a new Comprehensive Change Detection Method (CCDM) designed as a key component for the development of NLCD 2011 and the research results from two exemplar studies. The CCDM integrates spectral-based change detection algorithms including a Multi-Index Integrated Change Analysis (MIICA) model and a novel change model called Zone, which extracts change information from two Landsat image pairs. The MIICA model is the core module of the change detection strategy and uses four spectral indices (CV, RCVMAX, dNBR, and dNDVI) to obtain the changes that occurred between two image dates. The CCDM also includes a knowledge-based system, which uses critical information on historical and current land cover conditions and trends and the likelihood of land cover change, to combine the changes from MIICA and Zone. For NLCD 2011, the improved and enhanced change products obtained from the CCDM provide critical information on location, magnitude, and direction of potential change areas and serve as a basis for further characterizing land cover changes for the nation. An accuracy assessment from the two study areas show 100% agreement between CCDM mapped no-change class with reference dataset, and 18% and 82% disagreement for the change class for WRS path/row p22r39 and p33r33, respectively. The strength of the CCDM is that the method is simple, easy to operate, widely applicable, and capable of capturing a variety of natural and

  14. Research on Fire Safety Design of Thermal Insulation Materials Covering on Exterior Wall of Building%建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全的选型设计探讨



    近年来,我国因建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全问题而导致特大火灾事故频发,尤其是上海胶州路教师公寓火灾、沈阳皇朝万鑫大厦火灾和北京央视大楼火灾,造成重大人员伤亡和财产损失,使得建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全成为人们关注的焦点.该文针对目前建筑外墙外保温材料选型设计中不注重防火安全的实际问题,分析了各种建筑外墙外保温材料防火性能,探讨其不同的使用局限性和优缺点,为建筑外墙外保温材料的选型设计提供参考.%In recent years the thermal insulation materials covering on the exterior wall for building fire safety problems caused the serious fire accidents, especially in the teacher apartment fire at Jiaozhou Road in Shanghai, the Dynasty wan Xin building fire in Shenyang and the CCTV building fire in Beijing, which caused the heavy casualties and the property losses, Therefore, the fire safety of the thermal insulation materials covering on the exterior wall has been a focus of attention.For solving the problem of the current moterials selection not paying attention to fire safety design, This paper analyzes the various fire performances of thermal insulation material covering on exterior wall, and their advantages and disadvantages, as a reference of selecting the thermal insulation material in the fire safety design.

  15. Assessment of the tung tree (Vernicia fordii) germplasm collection and latest cultivar release at the USDA-ARS Southern Horticultural Research Unit in Poplarville, MS

    Tung trees (Vernicia fordii, syn Aleurites fordii) and tung oil production have a long history in the gulf coast region. The Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL) in Poplarville, MS was formerly the USDA Tung Oil Research Station in the 1940s, 50s and 60s and still maintains an exte...

  16. 混流式水轮机顶盖振动信号的精细分频研究%Research on fine frequency division of vibration signal of head cover for francis turbine

    王海军; 郑韩慈


    高水头长引水隧洞电站在水力过渡过程中具有振荡周期长、振幅大、波动衰减周期长等特点,水轮机顶盖振动可以较好地反映该规律。本文依据真机试验,采用小波和小波包联合分析方法,对一大型电站变负荷振动试验中顶盖的振动响应测试信号进行了精细分频分析。结果表明:高水头长引水隧洞电站的水流脉动、尾水涡带和水击波频率较为接近,三者共同作用,导致顶盖强烈的振动响应;其中,水流脉动和尾水涡带是引起顶盖振动的最主要原因;同时也证明了小波和小波包联合分析方法是处理水电站振动信号的一种较好的方法。%The hydropower stations with high water head and long diversion tunnel have some characteris-tics such as long period of oscillation , large oscillation range and slow -attenuation wave in the process of hydraulic transient .The vibration of Francis turbine's head cover can reflect these characteristics .Based on a hydropower station with high water head and long diversion tunnel , the paper described the vibration of its head cover with a combination method of wavelet and wavelet packet analysis .The results show that the strong vibration resonance of head cover results from the three factors such as flow pulsation , tail wa-ter vortex and water hammer ,for their frequencies are close in the hydropower station with high head and long diversion tunnel .Flow pulsation and tail water vortex are the most main factors which cause the vi-bration of head cover .This paper also proved that the method combing wavelet with wavelet packet is a better tool in the treatment of vibration signal of hydropower station .

  17. Research of auto-sealing device for coal mine explosion protection door and cover%矿井防爆门、盖自动封堵装置研发

    董腾; 王海桥; 张永青; 柳光磊


    Explosion protection door and cover would be damaged if gas and dust exploded in coal mine underground , which caused air escape branch from main draught fan, ventilation system underground air chaos and invalid, poison gas diffusion, mash gas accumulation and caused secondary explosion. In order to reduce the loss and disaster consequence, maintain continuous regular ventilation underground after the disasters to improve the condition for survive and save, an auto-sealing device was designed. It could seal the coal mine ventilation shaft instead of explosion protection door and cover automatic and timely. When the sensor, which was set below the explosion-proof covers, sense the non-normal work state of the explosion-proof covers, it will produce the trigger signal, which will trigger the circuit control system and let it start the inflatable power equipment. The folded body of the sealing airbag will pop-up storage cavern under the control of inflated power. It will roll and expand along the support structure, fill the entire wellbore cross-section soon through the effect of the inflatable inflation and negative pressure which is created by main fan ventilation.%煤矿井底发生煤尘瓦斯爆炸事故时产生的冲击波会冲开风井防爆门、盖,引起主风机风流短路,井底风流紊乱、通风系统瘫痪,导致毒害气体扩散、瓦斯积聚,引发二次爆炸.为了减少因此造成的损失,研发了一种在防爆门、盖被摧毁后能自动封堵的装置,通过感应防爆门盖的损毁信号控制充气动力设备对气囊折叠体进行充气,折叠体被充气弹出储藏硐室,沿支撑架构延展、膨胀并充满井筒横截面,实施对风井的密封,以维持灾后井底持续通风,降低灾害后果,为井底幸存人员的生存与自救提供有利条件.

  18. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  19. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  20. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions


    di Matematica pura ed applicata, CLX:303–320, 1991. [3] H. Attouch and R. J-B Wets. A convergence theory for saddle functions. Transactions of the...P. L. Bartlett, J. Shawe-Taylor, and R. C. Williamson. Covering numbers for support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(1

  1. Research of releasing geographical space information according to SVG%基于SVG地理空间信息的发布



    首先介绍了一种新兴的、开放标准的、基于XML的文本式矢量图形描述语言SVG,然后讨论了SVG对于发布地理空间数据的意义、特征和优点及其具体的文档结构,并以插件Adobe SVG Viewer为例介绍其地图的缩放、漫游、动画、查找、复制等各项功能。最后,基于SVG/XML,阐述了SVG与XML的关系以及SVG各种现行的国内外常用实现方法,初步建立了SVG在WebGIS中的应用的体系结构。%The SVG which is a language of newly arisen,opening standard and according to XML text type vector sketch describing is introduced firstly in this paper,then the meaning of SVG for releasing geographical space information and the characteristics,advantages and its text file structures of SVG are discussed.Various functions of the plug-in Adobe SVG Viewer are introduced,such as the map zoom,travels extensively,animation,check to seek,replication etc,and play to show with the example of a series.Finally,According to SVG/XML,the relation between SVG and XML and some current methods which are carrying out inside and outside in common of SVG are elaborated,and the application of SVG in the WebGIS of system structure is built up primary.

  2. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XV: an investigation of polysiloxane anti-fouling/fouling-release coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt groups.

    Majumdar, Partha; Crowley, Elizabeth; Htet, Maung; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chisholm, Bret J


    As part of ongoing efforts aimed at the development of extensive structure−property relationships for moisture-curable polysiloxane coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties for potential application as environmental friendly coatings to combat marine biofouling, a combinatorial/high-throughput (C/HT) study was conducted that was focused on four different compositional variables. The coatings that were investigated were derived from solution blends of a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HO-PDMS-OH), QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and methyltriacetoxysilane. The compositional variables investigated were alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane, chain length of the monovalent alkyl group attached to the QAS nitrogen atom, concentration of the QAS-functional alkoxysilane, and molecular weight of the HO-PDMS-OH. Of these variables, the composition of the alkoxysilane functionality of the QAS-functional silane was a unique variable that had not been previously investigated. The antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) characteristics of the 24 unique coating compositions were characterized using HT assays based on three different marine microorganisms, namely, the two bacteria, Cellulophaga lytica and Halomonas pacifica, and the diatom, Navicula incerta. Coatings surfaces were characterized by surface energy, water contact angle hysteresis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A wide variety of responses were obtained over the compositional space investigated. ANOVA analysis showed that the compositional variables and their interactions significantly influenced AF/FR behaviors toward individual marine microorganisms. It was also found that utilization of the ethoxysilane-functional QASs provided enhanced AF character compared to coatings based on methoxysilane-functional analogues. This was attributed to enhanced surface segregation of QAS groups at the coating-air interface and confirmed by phase images using AFM.

  3. 紫外激光切割覆盖膜速度提升研究%The research on the UV laser cutting speed improvement for the cover layer



      Based on the characteristics of laser basic mode in laser cutting applications, this paper studies and verifies the effect of the laser frequency and the laser power in cutting cover layer, respectively. The experiment results show that the cutting speed can be improved form 200mm per second to 350mm per second in cutting the 39 µm thick cover layer.%  文章针对基模激光束在切割运用中的特点,分别从激光频率,激光功率两个方面对紫外激光切割覆盖膜速度的影响条件进行研究,并进行相关的实验验证。同时运用我们的研究结果将39µm厚的覆盖膜切割速度由200 mm/s提升到350 mm/s。

  4. 敷设去耦层水下简支撑板的振动特性%Research on the vibration characteristics of simply supported plate covered by a decoupling layer and immersed in water

    赵军; 何世平


    Simplying decoupling layer as spring,mean velocity and dry mean velocity loss of a pointing-excited finite plate covered by a decoupling layer are provided using modal analysis.Theoretical analysis show that the decoupling layer has little effect on the vibration of base plate at low frequency ( koa > 1 ) .This is because the vibration of base plate covered with a decoupling layer tend to the vibration of base plate in vacuo.The phenomenon of amplification decrease when the loss factor of decoupling layer increase.%将去耦层等效为弹性元件,利用简正模式法推导出重流体作用下敷设去耦层的有限薄板在点激励下的均方速度和干面均方速度插入损失.理论分析得出,在低频区域(k0α<<1),去耦层对板的振动影响较小;在高频区域(k0α>>1),敷设去耦层后板的振动趋向于真空中的振动,因此敷设后板的振动相对未敷设的板是放大的.随着去耦层的阻尼因子增加,放大现象减弱.

  5. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 901112W1. 11116 Cray Research, Inc., Cray Ada Compiler, Release 2.0, Cray X-MP/EA (Host & Target)


    9. Summary of parameter types 140 Interlanguage data access for Ada calling C 152 Table 10. Summary of parameter types 141 Pragma INTERFACZ for for... interlanguage programming. The conventions described in this manual apply only to software running on Cray Research systems. You can find descriptions of...these conventions in Interlanguage Programming Conventions, publication SN-3009. Ada also supports callback. A foreign routine can call an Ada routine by


    应济; 李俊; 王硕; 徐亮


    为避免静电微泵因驱动电压过高而出现吸合现象,建立描述静电泵膜吸合与释放现象的一维集中质量模型、二维分布式模型和三维有限元模型,对比研究静电致动泵膜在准静态下吸合与释放的循环过程,获得整个循环过程的泵膜挠曲线变化、泵腔体积变形、电容变化等大量的数据与曲线.比较结果表明,二维分布式模型求解效果最好,并利用三维有限元模型和宏模型的计算结果,验证该模型在泵膜大变形下计算吸合过程的准确性,获得的吸合电压为确定静电微泵驱动电压的上限值提供有效依据.%Electrostatically actuated circular microplates are widely used in MEMS( micro-electro-mechanical systems) devices such as micropumps and optical switches. All these devices exhibit an instability phenomenon known as pull-in instability, short circuit caused by pull-in with contact is destructive to micropump operation. To avoid pull-in instability caused by high driving voltage, pull-in voltage should be calculated accurately. 1D lumped model, 2D distributed model and 3D finite element model were proposed to simulate the deflection of micropump membrane subjected to nonlinear distributed electrostatic force. Hysteresis loop of micropump membrane, pull-in with contact and release were investigated comparatively by three models. Volume deformation of pump chamber, variation of pump membrane deflection and plate capacitance were also obtained. The 2D distributed model that is an ideally simplified model is more effective, pull-in voltage calculated by this model is in harmony with the results of 3D finite element model and macromodel, even when the membrane deformation is in the nonlinear elastic regime. The calculated pull-in voltage provides reference for setting the upper limit value of electrostatic micropump driving voltage.

  7. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.


    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  8. 柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片的分级研究%Research on Classification of Flexible Graphite Covered Wave-Serrated Metal Gaskets

    陈元; 任建民


    Standards of flexible graphite covered wave-serrated metal gaskets were analyzed. It’s found that the gasket pretightening in the condition of same pressure levels and different nominal size fluctuated around a certain value,gasket pretightening in the condition of same nominal size and different pressure levels were not identical.The finite element simulation of flexible graphite covered wave-serrated metal gaskets was carried out by using ANSYS WORKBENCH. The compression ratio of flexible graphite corrugated metal gaskets under different structural parameters was calculated. The result shows that the gaskets can be classified by pressure through adjusting the structural parameters. Accordingly, flexible graphite covered wave-serrated metal gaskets can be classified according to pressure.%对柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片的标准进行了剖析,发现同一压力级别不同名义尺寸的垫片,绝大部分的预紧比压在某一应力水平附近波动,同一名义尺寸不同压力级别的垫片预紧比压各不相同。利用ANSYS WORKBENCH 对柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片进行有限元数值模拟,计算出在规定预紧比压下不同结构参数的柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片的压缩率,结果表明在相同预紧比压作用下不同结构的垫片压缩率各不相同。即可以通过调整垫片结构参数达到调整垫片压缩回弹性能的目的。据此,可以实现柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片生产按压力等级区分。

  9. Research

    A possible strategy to influence students' understanding and perception ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data- ..... B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures.


    Michelson, C.


    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  11. Research on Remote Sensing Fusion Method of Land Cover Classification Based on DEM and MODIS%DEM和MODIS数据融合的土地覆盖分类遥感方法研究



    随着搭载在TERRA卫星上的中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS)的出现,它以数据丰富、时间分辨率高和覆盖范围广等特点,为植被遥感估产提供了较好的数据源。本文利用植被受坡度影响的特性,从数字高程模型(digital elevation models,简称DEM)中提取坡度信息,考虑到MODIS能提供多时相及丰富的数据,采用DEM产生的坡度和两个时相MODIS影像数据及植被指数复合提取植被面积,经过比较试验证明,在南方丘陵山区的复杂地形区域,多源信息复合相对于单纯利用单景影像数据可以明显提高土地分类估算的精度。%Because of the hilly region, more cloud and variety of plants, it is very difficult to perform the land cover classification. With the launch of TERRA, Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with abundant information, quickly acquiring data and wide range of coverage, is a new data for estimation of rice yield. This study considered the characteristics of hilly region, and the digital slope image derived from the DEM map and multitemporal MODIS were used for the purpose of improving the classification accuracy of MODIS in large hilly region. The results showed that the slope and mutitemporal MODIS image can improve the accuracy of land cover classification in hilly region than only one MODIS image.

  12. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    Liem, M.C.A.; Garcin, J.


    Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors), self-efficacy (personal factors), and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors) constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have large

  13. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    Liem, M.C.A.; Garcin, J.


    Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors), self-efficacy (personal factors), and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors) constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2015; 14(10): 1749-1754 ... prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix .... The friability test was performed using a Roche friabilator ...

  15. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    Hausel, Tamás


    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  16. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering


    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  17. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.


    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

  18. Research Progress on Microencapsulation of Poorly Soluble Solid Pesticides and Controlled Release%难溶性固体农药微胶囊化及控制释放研究进展



      难溶性固体化合物广泛存在于农药、医药等领域,其稳定性受多种环境因素影响,在应用上存在微胶囊化的需要。介绍了难溶性农药微胶囊化适用的制备方法、芯材释放速率的调控方法和影响因素的研究进展。%Poorly soluble solids existed extensively in pesticides, medicines and other fields. Their stabilities were affected by many environmental factors, therefore microencapsulations were needed in their applications. This article described the research progress on the suitable preparation methods of poorly soluble solid microencapsulations, the control methods of core release rates and influence factors.

  19. Research projects into the safety of nuclear power plants. Period cover 01. January - 30. June 2016. Progress report; Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum 01. Januar - 30. Juni 2016. Fortschrittsbericht



    Within its competence for energy research the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) sponsors research projects on the safety of nuclear power plants currently in operation. The objective of these projects is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such research projects by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work. The progress reports are published by the Project Management Agency/ Authority Support Division of GRS. The reports as of the year 2000 are available in the internet-based information system on results and data of reactor safety research ( The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research as well as to the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index (JSRI)''. The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties.

  20. The Research of Removing the Affect of Clouds Cover by Combining the Mulit-Sensor lmages%联合应用多传感器影象消除云层遮挡影响的研究

    方勇; 常本义


    In the process of mapping using optical remote sensing images, due to the limit of the conditions obtaining the remote sensing data and the affect of weather, the obtained images often are covered by clouds, which causes the losing of the information in local area and affects the quality of image map in some degree. In this paper, a method is proposed by fusion of multi-sensor images collected at different date to remove the affect due to cloud cover. It consists in two steps: firstly the auto registration is done around the region with clouds. In this step area-based grey match is used to get tie point, and statistical relational matching is done iterative to adjust the initial match result more reliable. So the two image can be registrated local area with high accuracy according to the final matching points. Secondly the image with cloud is replaced automatically by the other sensor image which has been radiation corrected through histogram matching so as to prevent the false edge from emerging during image mosaicing. At last, the test that SPOT image with clouds is replaced by TM image is done. The result demonstrates that the proposed method is possible and valuable, and the information in cloud area is recovered properly.%在利用光学遥感影象进行制图的过程中,由于受到获取遥感资料技术条件的限制,所获取的影象常常受到云层遮挡的影响,而造成局部地区信息丢失,针对此问题,提出了一种联合使用多传感器在不同时间段接收的影象,以消除云层遮挡影响的方法.该方法主要分为两个步骤,即首先是对云层覆盖地区不同时间的影象进行自动配准;然后对用来替换云层覆盖地区的影象进行辐射改正,以消除替换过程中出现的接缝.同时利用SPOT和TM影象进行了实验,实验结果表明该方法是有效的、可行的,能够较好地恢复云层遮挡地区的信息.

  1. 基于最优覆盖法的变电站无功补偿容量优化配置研究%Research on the optimal allocation of reactive power compensation capacity based on optimal cover method

    王一杰; 赵舫; 丁颖; 李丰伟; 蔡振华


    为有效寻找电网无功补偿配置的薄弱点,提出了一种新的无功补偿设备优化配置的方法.该方法根据110 kV变电站全年的无功负荷情况统计出无功负荷概率分布曲线,采用最优覆盖法建立无功补偿配置优化模型,并通过全局搜索寻求优化配置方案.通过对优化配置方案与实际补偿容量配置的比较,给出了无功补偿配置相对薄弱的变电站,为电力系统规划人员提供决策依据.%To find the weak points of power system reactive power compensation allocation, this paper presents an optimized configuration of the method, which gathers reactive power loads of 110 kV substation throughout the year to get the optimal probability curve, adopts optimal cover method to establish the optimized configuration model, and uses global search to find the optimal solution. Through the comparison between the optimized configuation scheme and the actual compensation capacity, this paper presents the substation with insufficient reactive power compensation allocation, which supplies effective recommendations for the power system planners.

  2. 液压缸端盖螺纹配合间隙划伤问题研究%Research on the Problem of the Thread Tit Clearance for the Hydraulic Cylinder End Cover



    Thread and sealing with various structures, due to its simple and compact structure, convenient assembly and disassembly, can save installation space and a large number of advantages applied in hydraulic components, especially as an end cover, a first port block seals are widely used in the hydraulic cylinder. However, the dismantling of the hydraulic cylinder has repeatedly found that the thread or seal seg-ment scratch. In this paper, through the mechanism analysis of the structure of the scratch, from the design and production of various aspects to find out the cause and influence factors, and put forward the solution measures.%螺纹与密封配合一体结构,由于其结构简单、紧凑,拆装方便,能节约安装空间等优点而大量应用在液压元件中,尤其作为端盖、堵头等端口密封件普遍应用在液压缸中.但是,拆解液压缸时多次发现螺纹或者密封段划伤的问题.该文通过对这种结构发生划伤的机理分析,从设计、生产各方面找出螺纹或密封划伤产生的原因和影响因素,并提出解决措施.

  3. Seasonal land-cover regions of the US

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John


    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The US Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1-km-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous US has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 15?? seasonal land-cover regions. Data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7500 000-scale map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment. -from Authors

  4. Smoke and Pollution Aerosol Effect on Cloud Cover

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Koren, Ilan


    Pollution and smoke aerosols can increase or decrease the cloud cover. This duality in the effects of aerosols forms one of the largest uncertainties in climate research. Using solar measurements from Aerosol Robotic Network sites around the globe, we show an increase in cloud cover with an increase in the aerosol column concentration and an inverse dependence on the aerosol absorption of sunlight. The emerging rule appears to be independent of geographical location or aerosol type, thus increasing our confidence in the understanding of these aerosol effects on the clouds and climate. Preliminary estimates suggest an increase of 5% in cloud cover.

  5. Research projects into the safety of nuclear power plants. Period covered: 01. July - 31. Dezember 2004. Progress report; Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum: 01. Juli - 31. Dezember 2004. Fortschrittsbericht



    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)



    This paper presents a new arc flow model for the one-dimensional bin covering problem and an algorithm to solve the problem exactly through a branch-and-bound procedure and the technique of column generation. The subproblems occuring in the procedure of branch-and-bound have the same structure and therefore can be solved by the same algorithm. In order to solve effectively the subproblems which are generally large scale, a column generation algorithm is employed. Many rules found in this paper can improve the performance of the methods.

  7. Green's conjecture for general covers

    Aprodu, Marian


    We establish Green's syzygy conjecture for classes of covers of curves of higher Clifford dimension. These curves have an infinite number of minimal pencils, in particular they do not verify a well-known Brill-Noether theoretic sufficient condition that implies Green's conjecture. Secondly, we study syzygies of curves with a fixed point free involution and prove that sections of Nikulin surfaces of minimal Picard number 9, verify the classical Green Conjecture but fail the Prym-Green Conjecture on syzygies of Prym-canonical curves. This provides an explicit locus in the moduli space R_g where Green's Conjecture is known to hold.

  8. Research

    A sequential mixed-methods research design was chosen. This research ... development of the questionnaire used in the second phase of the survey. Quantitative data ... Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheet, descriptive data analysis was applied .... undergraduate curriculum, and implementation and evaluation thereof,.

  9. Research



    Mar 2, 2015 ... Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research ... organizations[1-9]. ... facilitate research career paths, but few career models exist in Africa ..... international and local resources to clinical studies locally. The ability of ... investigators were seen as an important asset for the transfer of.

  10. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    Stoner, Martha Goff


    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  11. A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover

    HU Jun; YAN Chun-sheng; LIN Qing-chun


    A metamaterial was introduced into the cover of a patch antenna and its band structure was analyzed. The metamaterial cover with correct selection of the working frequency increases by 9.14 dB the patch antenna's directivity. The mechanism of metamaterial cover is completely different from that of a photonic bandgap cover. The mechanism of the metamaterial cover,the number of the cover's layers, and the distance between the layers, were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the metamaterial cover, which works like a lens, could effectively improve the patch antenna's directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.

  12. Commutator coverings of Siegel threefolds

    Gritsenko, V


    We investigate the existence and non-existence of modular forms of low weight with a character with respect to the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and discuss the resulting geometric consequences. Using an advanced version of Maa\\ss\\ lifting one can construct many examples of such modular forms and in particular examples of weight 3 cusp forms. Consequently we find many abelian coverings of low degree of the moduli space ${\\Cal A}_t$ of (1,t)-polarized abelian surfaces which are not unirational. We also determine the commutator subgroups of the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and its degree 2 extension $\\Gamma^+_t$. This has applications for the Picard group of the moduli stack ${\\underline{\\Cal A}}_t$. Finally we prove non-existence theorems for low weight modular forms. As one of our main results we obtain the theorem that the maximal abelian cover ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ of ${\\Cal A}_t$ has geometric genus 0 if and only if t=1, 2, 4 or 5. We also prove that ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ has geometric genus 1 for t=3 and 7.

  13. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H


    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Research



    Feb 17, 2012 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ..... However, this system has great potential to negatively affect access to ... Dr. Samuel Yaw Opoku: Defining the Concept and Research Design; ...

  15. Research



    Apr 26, 2016 ... Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in Bangui, Central ... Research .... Central African Republic Ministry of Health and corresponding ethics ..... In CAR, the management of BW remains embryonic. It is.

  16. Research



    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  17. Research



    Mar 11, 2011 ... ... to General Organization of Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Egypt, 2Department of .... Ethiopia at Max-Burger Research Institute, Leipzig, Germany ... [22] than Croatia (50%), Australia (53%), Thailand (41%), Italy (32.6%), ...

  18. Research

    7, No. 1 AJHPE. Research. A comprehensive approach to curriculum evaluation is deemed ... While evaluators are guided by the experiences of using different methods, ..... provided a follow-up in-depth exploration of the quantitative results.

  19. Research

    ... community in the design, conduct and/or evaluation of these activities. ... During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by ... A questionnaire survey was administered to all students registered for ... Data analysis.

  20. Research



    Feb 3, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). ( .... What is known about this topic ... India Co-ordinated Research Project. Ministry .... African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005 ...

  1. Research



    Dec 6, 2011 ... Asia indicate a high incidence of Kikuchi lymphadenitis [6]. However ... It is believed that information derived from this study will be of immense value to the attending physician and also form a baseline data for future research.

  2. Research

    judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual ... [5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined ... to evidence-based practice in final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students.

  3. Research

    curricula to address health systems changes and challenges .... Likert scale questions were used, along with open-ended qualitative questions. ... Clear communicator: Able to communicate important aspects of theory, research findings clearly ...

  4. researchers

    levels who is fluent in only Afrikaans and English. Differences in race .... The lack of knowledge of a particular vernacular often places a researcher firmly as an ..... discourse of African American women', Black women in the academy. Promises.

  5. Research


    May 6, 2014 ... Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, ... This design is useful to explore a topic, using qualitative ... interview a Delphi questionnaire was used to gather additional quantitative.

  6. Research

    Research. Clinical teaching is a technique used in the education of nurses. It ... learnt in a contextualised learning environment, which should support them in their ..... development of continuing professional development strategies. This study ...

  7. Research



    Mar 3, 2016 ... radiation therapy [9, 10]. The signs of obstructive ... year's undergraduate medical student: socio-demographic including age (in years), sex. .... awareness and enhance further research in this domain. Conclusion. Patients ...

  8. Research

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973


    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  9. Research



    Apr 29, 2016 ... performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. .... Ethical consideration: Permission to conduct research was sought from the County ..... Everybody Business: Strengthening.

  10. The Research of Hydrogeological Information Release Platform Based on WebGIS%基于 WebGIS的水文地质调查信息发布平台的研究

    肖兴平; 佟元清


    在WebGIS、数据库等信息技术支撑下,论述水文地质调查信息发布平台建设的相关方案,围绕水文地质数据特征、平台的体系结构、数据库与平台功能架构等方面进行研究,并提出具体的解决办法,实现了水文地质调查信息发布相关的数据库建设、软件平台开发.表明水文地质调查信息发布平台具有一定的服务专业机构和社会公众的能力,能够助推水文地质调查信息服务经济社会的力度.%This article discusses the in WebGIS and database supported by information technology,hydrological geological survey information release platform construction scheme,around the characteristics of hydrogeological data,platform system structure,database and the function of the platform architecture research,and put forward the specific solution solution,the hydrogeology survey information released related database building and software development platform. Show that the hydroge-ology survey information publishing platform has certain professional services organizations and the public ability,to efforts to boost hydrogeology survey information services,economic and social.

  11. Arrest of Avalanche Propagation by Discontinuities on Snow Cover

    Frigo, B.; Chiaia, B.


    results are supported also by other investigations, which suggested that increased spatial variability in the snow cover leads to a lower release probability of snow avalanches. The above studies are based on very different approaches, such as cellular automata (Kronholm and Birkeland, 2005) and statistical renormalization (Chiaia and Frigo, 2009) models, but come to the same conclusion, i.e. that the presence of randomly distributed weak zones increase the global robustness and toughness of the snow slope. From a practical engineering viewpoint, results could be used towards a new idea of active avalanche protection, based on the presence of natural (e.g., trees) or artificial objects throughout the slope, able to create low deposition zones as discontinuities in the snow cover. Key words: snow avalanche, fracture mechanics, crack arrester. References Chiaia, B., Cornetti, P., Frigo, B., 2008. Triggering of dry snow slab avalanches: Stress versus fracture mechanical approach Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 53 170-178. Chiaia, B., Frigo, B., 2009, A scale-invariant model for snow slab-avalanches, J. Stat. Phys., submitted Föhn, P.M.B., Camponovo, C., Krüsi, G., 1998. Mechanical and structural properties of weak snow layers measured in situ. Annals of Glaciology 26, 1-6. Jamieson, J.B., Johnston, C.D., 1992. A fracture-arrest model for unconfined dry slab avalanches. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 29, 61-66. Jamieson, B., Johnston, C.D., 2001. Evaluation of shear frame test for weak snowpack layers. Annals of Glaciology 32, 59-69. Kirchner, H.O.K., Michot, G., Schweizer, J., 2002. Fracture toughness of snow in shear and tension. Scripta Materialia 46, 425-429. Kronholm, K., Birkeland, K. W., 2005. Integrating spatial patterns into a snow avalanche cellular automata model, Geophysical Research Letters 32, L19504. McClung, D. M. 1979. Shear fracture precipitated by strain softening as a mechanism of dry slab avalanche release, J. Geophys. Res. 84(B7) 3519-3526. Schweizer, J., 1999

  12. "Sustained release formulation of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride "

    Dabbagh MA


    Full Text Available In this research, several formulations containing, an anti emetic agent (Metoclopramide hydrochloride, a hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and a hydrophobic polymer (ethylcellulose 10 cP were prepared by direct compression. Different factors such as: the effect of different ratios of the polymers, particle size, pressure force and differences of release in acidic and distilled water as media were investigated. After developing the ideal formulation, the effect of changing the ratio of drug in core: coating on the formulation was investigated. Coating of tablets with ethylcellulose, changed the release mechanism of drug and shifted it to near zero order release. The results showed that except when matrices were coated with ethylcellulose, drug release was proportioned to the square root of time, which might be due to the change of release pattern from matrix to reservoir system.

  13. 法国高等教育和科研部推出科研新政%French Ministry for Higher Education and Research Released New Measures to Promote Research



    In 2013 the French government is to push forward comprehensive reforms in education and scientiifc research ifelds in order to maintain its leading position and advantages in the world. The Ministry for Higher Education and Research of France is setting about to take the following measures for reforms:to revoke the Guéant Circular, to create the ASSISES, to carry out the Super-University Plan, to elaborate the New High Education and Research Law, to identify the priority for scientific research, to reinforce France’s influence on European research network and to strengthen the S&T personnel team construction etc.%2013年,法国新政府在教育和科研领域将逐步推进各项改革,其教研部拟推进的主要措施有:取消“盖昂通函”,推行决策会商工作机制,实施超级联合大学计划,颁布新高等教育和科研法,确定未来科研优先领域,强化对欧盟科研影响力和加强科研人才队伍建设等。法国政府希望通过采取以上措施,继续保持法国的世界科技强国地位和优势。

  14. Potential slab avalanche release area identification from estimated winter terrain: a multi-scale, fuzzy logic approach

    Veitinger, Jochen; Purves, Ross Stuart; Sovilla, Betty


    Avalanche hazard assessment requires a very precise estimation of the release area, which still depends, to a large extent, on expert judgement of avalanche specialists. Therefore, a new algorithm for automated identification of potential avalanche release areas was developed. It overcomes some of the limitations of previous tools, which are currently not often applied in hazard mitigation practice. By introducing a multi-scale roughness parameter, fine-scale topography and its attenuation under snow influence is captured. This allows the assessment of snow influence on terrain morphology and, consequently, potential release area size and location. The integration of a wind shelter index enables the user to define release area scenarios as a function of the prevailing wind direction or single storm events. A case study illustrates the practical usefulness of this approach for the definition of release area scenarios under varying snow cover and wind conditions. A validation with historical data demonstrated an improved estimation of avalanche release areas. Our method outperforms a slope-based approach, in particular for more frequent avalanches; however, the application of the algorithm as a forecasting tool remains limited, as snowpack stability is not integrated. Future research activity should therefore focus on the coupling of the algorithm with snowpack conditions.

  15. Research Activities.

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  16. The covering number of $M_{24}$

    Michael Epstein


    Full Text Available A  finite cover $\\mathcal{C}$ of a group $G$ is a finite collection of proper subgroups of $G$ such that $G$ is equal to the union of all of the members of $\\mathcal{C}$. Such a cover is called {\\em minimal} if it has the smallest cardinality among all finite covers of $G$. The  covering number of $G$, denoted by $\\sigma(G$, is the number of subgroups in a minimal cover of $G$. In this paper the covering number of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$ is shown to be 3336.

  17. Research



    Feb 25, 2013 ... Of these 56 eyes, the visual acuity in 49 eyes (87.5%) improved with pinhole. Twenty seven pupils had ... ( Research ... primary basic 1 to 6 and aged 5 to 15 years were included in the study. The United ...

  18. Research

    collaboration, but also in less tangible ways affecting quality of research.[5] ... Methods. A 40-hour workshop in biostatistical reasoning was conducted ... test median score was 68% (IQR 62 - 76%), with p<0.0001 for the overall comparison of pre- v. post-scores. ... limitations of a traditional lecture-based mode of instruction.

  19. Research



    Mar 13, 2014 ... &Corresponding author: Dr. Oliver Ezechi, Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, ... with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. ... Whether or not HCV directly impacts HIV disease ..... natural history, fibrosis, and impact of antiretroviral treatment:.

  20. Research

    understood in the profession, evolved from therapeutic activity (within a medi- cal model ... facilitate students' ability to examine institutional systems that hinder ..... don't have connections with each other … we went to the schools and were told ... for change or conduct action research projects that deal with occupational.

  1. Research



    Dec 11, 2015 ... ... Dschang, Cameroon, 2Division of Health Operations Research, Ministry of Public ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... not yet been investigated but may can be explained by weakness of .... Cameroonian market and why not apply for surveillance of.

  2. Research

    by teaching them skills on how to acquire and appraise knowledge for a particular ... [3] Similarities have been noted in the roles of lecturers that facilitate learning rather than ..... Student feedback related to facilitators of and barriers to learning. Facilitators of ... 'Sometimes time (clinical, research, social, sport) was limited.'.

  3. Research



    Aug 25, 2011 ... completely replaced animals with computer modeling, manikins and ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... developed internal guidelines on the use of animals in research in 2004 [13]. ... Only one institution used human cell cultures as a replacement to live animal use.

  4. Research



    Aug 5, 2013 ... In 2007, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended ... are taken nearer to the community through clinical outreach ... Sample size and Sampling procedure ... researchers shared and debated the way each of them understood .... this may involve selling off assets to get the money for transport.

  5. Research



    Apr 20, 2016 ... ... Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ... diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of premature CHD in a first ... was reviewed and approved by the Hospital's Research and Ethics .... apoptosis of peripheral adipocytes, decreased pre-adipocyte.

  6. Intracellular drug release nanosystems

    Fenghua Meng


    Full Text Available In order to elicit therapeutic effects, many drugs including small molecule anticancer drugs, proteins, siRNA, and DNA have to be delivered and released into the specific cellular compartments typically the cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells. Intracellular environment-responsive nanosystems that exhibit good extracellular stability while rapidly releasing drugs inside cancer cells have been actively pursued for effective cancer therapy. Here, we highlight novel designs of smart nanosystems that release drugs in response to an intracellular biological signal of cancer cells such as acidic pH in endo/lysosomal compartments, enzymes in lysosomes, and redox potential in cytoplasm and the cell nucleus.

  7. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG


    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  8. Absorption of Nickel, Chromium, and Iron by the Root Surface of Primary Molars Covered with Stainless Steel Crowns

    David Keinan


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the absorption of metal ions released from stainless steel crowns by root surface of primary molars. Study Design. Laboratory research: The study included 34 primary molars, exfoliated or extracted during routine dental treatment. 17 molars were covered with stainless-steel crowns for more than two years and compared to 17 intact primary molars. Chemical content of the mesial or distal root surface, 1 mm apically to the crown or the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ, was analyzed. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS was used for chemical analysis. Results. Higher amounts of nickel, chromium, and iron (5-6 times were found in the cementum of molars covered with stainless-steel crowns compared to intact molars. The differences between groups were highly significant (<.001. Significance. Stainless-steel crowns release nickel, chromium, and iron in oral environment, and the ions are absorbed by the primary molars roots. The additional burden of allergenic metals should be reduced if possible.

  9. The value of snow cover

    Sokratov, S. A.


    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  10. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz


    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  11. Study of LPG Release & Dispersion Model

    Mu Shanjun; Peng Xiangwei


    The current applicable release & dispersion models are reviewed. A typical model is developed on the basis of LPG storage conditions in China and the authors' research. The study is focused on the relationship between LPG composition and release rate, and on the influence of buildings or structures located in the surrounding area on the dispersion of gas plume. The established model is compared with existing models by the use of published field test data.

  12. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  13. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  14. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  15. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  16. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  17. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  18. 资阳市中心城区土地利用与土地覆被时空动态变化分析%Research of Land Use/Cover Spatial dynamic change in Downtown of Ziyang City

    倪喆; 何政伟; 邓辉; 陈晔


    According to the 1996 and 2008 two period Landsat images, This paper analyses Ziyang city12 years of land use change by using Geographic Information System spatial overlay analysis and mathematical statistics. The paper reveal the land use Variation characteristics of the area and spatial in the study area, The results show that construction land through expansion of culti-vated land occupied, the construction land use structure change greatly. Research results for sustainable use of land use planning and provide valid decision support.%  根据1996年和2008年两个时期的LandsatTM卫星影像资料,运用地理信息系统空间叠加分析和数理统计的方法,全面分析资阳市中心城区12年间土地利用方式的变化,从土地利用分布面积和空间两个方面分析其变化特征,结果表明建设用地通过占用耕地扩展,非建设用地结构发生明显变化。研究成果为土地利用规划和可持续利用提供有效的决策支持。

  19. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Final Report

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin Brian; Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gaither, Frank; Juro, Greg


    runway assignments to the Center scheduling tool. The PDRC concept also incorporates earlier NASA and FAA research into automation-assisted CFR coordination. The PDRC concept reduces uncertainty by automatically communicating coordinated release times with seconds-level precision enabling TMCs and FLMs to work with target times rather than windows. NASA has developed a PDRC prototype system that integrates the Center's TMA system with a research prototype Tower decision support tool. A two-phase field evaluation was conducted at NASA's North Texas Research Station in Dallas/Fort Worth. The field evaluation validated the PDRC concept and demonstrated reduced release time uncertainty while being used for tactical departure scheduling of more than 230 operational flights over 29 weeks of operations. This paper presents research results from the PDRC research activity. Companion papers present the Concept of Operations and a Technology Description.

  20. Miniature Release Mechanism Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will be...

  1. Thermodestruction of components of anticorrosion polymer cover

    Тихомирова, Татьяна Сергеевна


    This article concerns the processes of thermodestruction of multilayer polymer cover, which is widely used to protect the external surface of steel pipelines. The main purpose of the work is to prove the possibility of combination of various polymer components in one cover preserving the thermostability of the cover. The behavior of the separate modified components of the cover at high temperatures was analyzed using the differential-thermal analysis and the derivative thermogravimetry...

  2. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A


    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  3. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  4. Estimating mean plant cover from different types of cover data: a coherent statistical framework

    Damgaard, C


    Plant cover is measured by different methods and it is important to be able to estimate mean cover and to compare estimates of plant cover across different sampling methods in a coherent statistical framework...

  5. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  6. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David


    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  7. National land-cover pattern data

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; James E. Vogelmann; K. Bruce Jones


    Land cover and its spatial patterns are key ingredients in ecological studies that consider large regions and the impacts of human activities. Because humanity is a principal driver of land-cover change over large regions (Turner et al. 1990), land-cover data provide direct measures of human activity, and both direct and indirect measures of ecological conditions...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  9. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team


    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (, as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  10. 促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)结构及调控的研究进展%Research Progress on Structure and Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH)

    徐元青; 王建林; 邵宝平


    促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)最初被认为是一种下丘脑神经肽,但是越来越多的研究发现该激素具有多重功能,如参与类固醇生成、细胞增殖、受精、粘连细胞外基质和细胞迁移等生理功能的调节,并在动物的生长发育、生殖行为、妊娠、分娩等生命活动中起着至关重要的作用。主要对GnRH的结构特点及其调控进行了综述。%Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is firstly taken as a kind of hypothalamic neuropeptide, but more and more researches show that GnRH has multiple functions, such as participating in the regulation of generation of steroids, cell proliferation, fertilization, adhesion of extracellular matrix, cell migration, etc., and also plays a crucial role in the growth, reproductive behavior, pregnancy and delivery of animals. The structure and regulation of GnRH were summarized.

  11. Covering, Packing and Logical Inference


    of Operations Research 43 (1993). [34] *Hooker, J. N., Generalized resolution for 0-1 linear inequalities, Annals of Mathematics and A 16 271-286. [35...Hooker, J. N. and C. Fedjki, Branch-and-cut solution of inference prob- lems in propositional logic, Annals of Mathematics and AI 1 (1990) 123-140. [40

  12. 围堰对LNG储罐泄漏扩散规律影响研究%Research on Influences of Dike Dam on the Law of LNG Release and Dispersion

    刘隆; 孟波; 王启


    The paper used the Fluent package and based on CFD modeling technique to study the law of LNG release and dispersion,and then simulated effects of size of dike dam and tank value on shape of the LNG dense gas and range of explo-sion.It showed that the dike dam can prevent the LNG dense gas by the inside,and shorter the dike dam can prevent more LNG dense gas than the longer dike dam.The research also discovered that the influence of dike dam on larger LNG tank is clearer than that on smaller LNG tank.The research can provide scientific guidelines for site of LNG receiving terminals, establishment of emergency response plan,delimitation of exclusion zones and evaluation and claims of hazard suffered from accidence.%利用流体力学软件FLUENT对围堰存在情况下的 LNG 储罐泄漏扩散进行了数值模拟,并对不同围堰尺寸和不同储罐容积条件下泄漏扩散的气云形态变化和爆炸范围进行了对比。结果表明,围堰可以有效地阻止气云的扩散,使气云聚集在围堰内侧;随着围堰长度的减小,对 LNG 储罐泄漏扩散阻挡作用越来越明显;围堰对大型LNG储罐泄漏扩散的阻挡较小型储罐更加明显。研究结果对指导 LNG安全储运、使用及事故后果控制具有重要意义。

  13. DVD With High Gapacity Released


    After two years of research and development, the Center for International Cultural Exchange under the Ministry of Culture of China has recently released a new type of DVD which is double-faced, double-system and bears ten languages. Teststatistics show that all its indicators come up withthose of its foreign counterparts. Now it has beenput into mass production.This new type of DVD features the following performances. It is a high-clarity one, with the horizontal clarity more than 500. It has a superb sound effect, capable of recording various stereo signals such as DOLBY DIGITAL and DTS. It can record dubbing in eight languages and subtitles

  14. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the conterminous United States – Representing a decade of land cover change information

    Homer, Collin G.; Dewitz, Jon; Yang, Limin; Jin, Suming; Danielson, Patrick; Xian, George Z.; Coulston, John; Herold, Nathaniel; Wickham, James; Megown, Kevin


    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provides nationwide data on land cover and land cover change at the native 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The database is designed to provide five-year cyclical updating of United States land cover and associated changes. The recent release of NLCD 2011 products now represents a decade of consistently produced land cover and impervious surface for the Nation across three periods: 2001, 2006, and 2011 (Homer et al., 2007; Fry et al., 2011). Tree canopy cover has also been produced for 2011 (Coluston et al., 2012; Coluston et al., 2013). With the release of NLCD 2011, the database provides the ability to move beyond simple change detection to monitoring and trend assessments. NLCD 2011 represents the latest evolution of NLCD products, continuing its focus on consistency, production, efficiency, and product accuracy. NLCD products are designed for widespread application in biology, climate, education, land management, hydrology, environmental planning, risk and disease analysis, telecommunications and visualization, and are available for no cost at NLCD is produced by a Federal agency consortium called the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC) (Wickham et al., 2014). In the consortium arrangement, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) leads NLCD land cover and imperviousness production for the bulk of the Nation; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) completes NLCD land cover for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) coastal zones; and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) designs and produces the NLCD tree canopy cover product. Other MRLC partners collaborate through resource or data contribution to ensure NLCD products meet their respective program needs (Wickham et al., 2014).

  15. Science Outreach through Art: A Journal Article Cover Gallery

    McCullough, Ian


    Research faculty journal covers were used to create a gallery in the Science & Technology branch library at the University of Akron. The selection, presentation, and promotion process is shared along with copyright considerations and a review of galleries used for library outreach. The event and display was a great success attracting faculty…

  16. Cover-Copy-Compare and Spelling: One versus Three Repetitions

    Erion, Joel; Davenport, Cindy; Rodax, Nicole; Scholl, Bethany; Hardy, Jennifer


    Cover, copy, compare (CCC) has been used with success to improve spelling skills. This study adds to existing research by completing an analysis of the rewriting component of the intervention. The impact of varying the number of times a subject copied a word following an error was examined with four elementary age students. An adaptive alternating…

  17. EPICS release 3.11.6 specific documentation -- Release notes for EPICS 3.11.6



    These notes cover the following: (1) directions for switching to production APS release R3.11.6; (2) unbundling of channel access clients; (3) access security; (4) channel access additions; synchronous time support; and (5) description of major differences between R3.11.3 and R3.11.6 Also included is a list of new and/or updated documentation for the program.

  18. Release and deployment at Planon: a case study

    Jansen, R.L.; Ballintijn, G.C.; Brinkkemper, S.


    This case study report describes the research results of a case study at Planon into the processes of development, release, and deployment. The research was done to document the release and deployment processes at Planon, to uncover strengths and weaknesses in these processes, and to compare Planon

  19. A blending snow cover data base on MODIS and AMSR-E snow cover in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Xiaohua, H.; Wang, J.; Che, T.; Dai, L. Y.


    The algorithms of MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua versions of the snow products have been developed by the NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The MODIS global snow-cover products have been available through the NSIDC Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since February 24, 2000 to Terra and July 4, 2002 to Aqua. The MODIS snow-cover maps represent a potential improvement relative to hemispheric-scale snow maps that are available today mainly because of the improved spatial resolution and snow/cloud discrimination capabilities of MODIS, and the frequent global coverage. In China, the snow distribution is different to other regions. Their accuracy on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), however, has not yet been established. There are some drawbacks about NSIDC global snow cover products on QTP: 1. The characteristics of snow depth distribution on QTP: Thin, discontinuous. Our research indicated the MODIS snow-cover products underestimated the snow cover area in QTP. 2. The daily snow cover product from MODIS-Terra and Aqua can include the data gaps. 3. The snow products can separate snow from most obscuring clouds. However, there are still many cloud pixels in daily snow cover products. The study developed a new blending daily snow cover algorithm through improving the NSIDC snow algorithms and combining MODIS and AMSR-E data in QTP. The new snow cover products will provide daily snow cover at 500-m resolution in QTP. The new snow cover algorithm employs a grouped-criteria technique using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and other spectral threshold tests and image fusion technology to identify and classify snow on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The usefulness of the NDSI is based on the fact that snow and ice are considerably more reflective in the visible than in the shortwave IR part of the spectrum, and the reflectance of most clouds remains high in the short-wave IR, while the reflectance of snow is low. We propose a set of three steps, based on a

  20. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.


    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  1. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1



    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  2. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S


    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  3. Release of Chlorine and Sulfur during Biomass Torrefaction and Pyrolysis

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti; Flensborg, Julie Pauline; Shoulaifar, Tooran Khazraie


    The release of chlorine (Cl) and sulfur (S) during biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis has been investigated via experiments in two laboratory-scale reactors: a rotating reactor and a fixed bed reactor. Six biomasses with different chemical compositions covering a wide range of ash content and ash...... reporting that biomasses with a lower chlorine content release a higher fraction of chlorine during the pyrolysis process. A significant sulfur release (about 60%) was observed from the six biomasses investigated at 350 degrees C. The initial sulfur content in the biomass did not influence the fraction...

  4. Release-rate calorimetry of multilayered materials for aircraft seats

    Fewell, L. L.; Parker, J. A.; Duskin, F.; Speith, H.; Trabold, E.


    Multilayered samples of contemporary and improved fire-resistant aircraft seat materials were evaluated for their rates of heat release and smoke generation. Top layers with glass-fiber block cushion were evaluated to determine which materials, based on their minimum contributions to the total heat release of the multilayered assembly, may be added or deleted. The smoke and heat release rates of multilayered seat materials were then measured at heat fluxes of 1.5 and 3.5 W/cm2. Abrasion tests were conducted on the decorative fabric covering and slip sheet to ascertain service life and compatibility of layers

  5. RAVEN Beta Release

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  6. Controlled-release microchips.

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro


    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  7. Physiological functions of plant cell coverings.

    Hoson, Takayuki


    The cell coverings of plants have two important functions in plant life. Plant cell coverings are deeply involved in the regulation of the life cycle of plants: each stage of the life cycle, such as germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, and senescence, is strongly influenced by the nature of the cell coverings. Also, the apoplast, which consists of the cell coverings, is the field where plant cells first encounter the outer environment, and so becomes the major site of plant responses to the environment. In the regulation of each stage of the life cycle and the response to each environmental signal, some specific constituents of the cell coverings, such as xyloglucans in dicotyledons and 1,3,1,4-beta-glucans in Gramineae, act as the key component. The physiological functions of plant cell coverings are sustained by the metabolic turnover of these components. The components of the cell coverings are supplied from the symplast, but then they are modified or degraded in the apoplast. Thus, the metabolism of the cell coverings is regulated through the cross-talk between the symplast and the apoplast. The understanding of physiological functions of plant cell coverings will be greatly advanced by the use of genomic approaches. At the same time, we need to introduce nanobiological techniques for clarifying the minute changes in the cell coverings that occur in a small part within each cell.

  8. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Technology Description

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin; Robinson, Corissia; Null, Jody R.


    Center scheduling tool. The PDRC concept also incorporates earlier NASA and FAA research into automation-assisted CFR coordination. The PDRC concept helps reduce uncertainty by automatically communicating coordinated release times with seconds-level precision enabling TMCs to work with target times rather than windows. NASA has developed a PDRC prototype system that integrates the Center's TMA system with a research prototype Tower decision support tool. A two-phase field evaluation was conducted at NASA's North Texas Research Station (NTX) in Dallas-Fort Worth. The field evaluation validated the PDRC concept and demonstrated reduced release time uncertainty while being used for tactical departure scheduling of more than 230 operational flights over 29 weeks of operations. This paper presents the Technology Description. Companion papers include the Final Report and a Concept of Operations.

  9. Metal mobilization under alkaline conditions in ash-covered tailings.

    Lu, Jinmei; Alakangas, Lena; Wanhainen, Christina


    The aim of this study was to determine element mobilization and accumulation in mill tailings under alkaline conditions. The tailings were covered with 50 cm of fly ash, and above a sludge layer. The tailings were geochemically and mineralogically investigated. Sulfides, such as pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena along with gangue minerals such as dolomite, calcite, micas, chlorite, epidote, Mn-pyroxene and rhodonite were identified in the unoxidized tailings. The dissolution of the fly ash layer resulted in a high pH (close to 12) in the underlying tailings. This, together with the presence of organic matter, increased the weathering of the tailings and mobilization of elements in the uppermost 47 cm of the tailings. All primary minerals were depleted, except quartz and feldspar which were covered by blurry secondary carbonates. Sulfide-associated elements such as Cd, Fe, Pb, S and Zn and silicate-associated elements such as Fe, Mg and Mn were released from the depletion zone and accumulated deeper down in the tailings where the pH decreased to circum-neutral. Sequential extraction suggests that Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, S and Zn were retained deeper down in the tailings and were mainly associated with the sulfide phase. Calcium, Cr, K and Ni released from the ash layer were accumulated in the uppermost depletion zone of the tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Gang Chen


    Full Text Available Naturally occurring clay colloidal particles are heavily involved in sediment processes in the subsurface soil. Due to the import ance of these processes in the subsurface environment, the transport of clay colloidal particles has been studied in several disciplines, including soil sciences, petr ology, hydrology, etc. Specifically, in environmental engineering, clay colloid re lease and transport in the sediments have been extensively investigated, which are motiv ated by environmental concerns such as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in groundwater and the subsurface soil. Clay colloid release is resulted from physical alteration of subsurface sediments. Despite the potential importance of clay colloid activiti es, the detailed mechanisms of release and transport of clay colloidal particles with in natural sediments are poorly understood. Pore medium structure, properties and flow dynamics, etc. are factors that affect clay colloid generation, mobilization, and subse quent transport. Possible mechanisms of clay colloid generation in the sediments in clude precipitation, erosion and mobilization by changes in pore water chemistry and clay colloid release depends on a balance of applied hydrodynamic and resisting adhesive torques and forces. The coupled role of pore water chemistry and fluid hydrodynamics thus play key roles in controlling clay colloid release and transport in the sediment s. This paper investigated clay colloidal particle release and transport, especially th e colloidal particle release mechanisms as well as the process modeling in the sediments. In this research, colloidal particle release from intact sediment columns with variable length was examined and colloidal particle release curves were simulated using an im plicit, finite-difference scheme. Colloidal particle release rate coefficient was found to be an exponential function of the sediment depth. The simulated results demonstrated that transport parameters were

  11. Dynamic Research on the Drug Release in Oral Cavity of Nystatin Buccal Double-layer Films%制霉菌素口腔双层贴膜在口腔内释药动态研究

    唐锦心; 叶继锋


    目的:测定自制的制霉菌素口腔双层贴膜在口腔内释药过程.方法:采用剩余量法测定制霉菌素口腔双层贴膜在口腔内释药情况,测定制霉菌素口腔双层贴膜体外释放度,并比较体内外释放的相关性.结果:体外释放方程:ln(100-Q)=-0.089t+4.998,r=0.997 0,口腔内释药方程为ln(100-P)=-0.022t+5.014,r=0.993 5.以体内平均释放百分率(Y,%)对体外平均释放百分率(X,%)回归,得方程Y=0.990X+0.372,r=0.998 0.结论:体内外释放度具有良好的相关性,可以用体外释放度来预测药物的释放.%Objective: To determine the oral drug release properly in oral cavity of self-made nystatin buccal double-layer films. Method: The oral drug release in oral cavity of nystatin buccal double-layer films was detected by the residual quantity method, and the release in vitro was determined. The correlation of the release rate in vivo and in vitro was compared. Result: The equation of drug release in vitro was ln( 100-Q )= -0.089t+4.998( r =0.9970 ), and that of drug release in vivo was ln (100- P )=0.022t +5. 014( r =0. 993 5 ). The regression equation of average release rate in vivo ( Y% ) and the average release rate in vitro ( X% ) was Y = 0. 990X + 0. 372( r = 0. 998 0 ). Conclusion: The release rate in vivo and in vitro have a good correlation and the release rate in vitro can be used to predict the drug release in vivo.




    Full Text Available Culturas de cobertura são usadas para cobrir o solo e também podem liberar nitrogênio para o solo durante a mineralização. No entanto, é necessário identificar espécies que combinem liberação rápida de nutri- entes com maior persistência da palhada na superfície do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a degrada- ção da palha e a liberação de nitrogênio por culturas de cobertura sob plantio direto. O experimento de campo foi conduzido durante dois anos no verão (2008/2009 e 2009/2010 na região do Cerrado do Brasil. O delinea- mento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso no esquema fatorial. Os tratamentos foram a combinação de cinco plantas (quatro espécies de plantas de cobertura 1- Panicum maximum, 2- Brachiaria ruziziensis, 3- Brachiaria brizantha e 4- Pennisetum glaucum [milheto] e pousio como controle com seis épocas de avaliação (seis pri- meiras semanas após a aplicação de glifosato nessas plantas de cobertura. Entre as espécies avaliadas, Penise- tum glaucum e pousio tiveram rápida degradação da palhada e liberação de nitrogênio. As culturas de cobertura Panicum maximum, Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria ruziziensis se destacaram na produção de biomassa e na quantidade de nitrogênio nas suas palhadas, mas apresentaram baixos coeficientes de degradação e persistiram por mais tempo na superfície do solo em relação a Pennisetum glaucum e pousio.

  13. 40 CFR 372.22 - Covered facilities for toxic chemical release reporting.


    ..., 1987) major group or industry code listed in § 372.23(a), for which the corresponding North American... thereafter) subsector and industry codes are listed in § 372.23(b) and (c) by virtue of the fact that it... or industry code listed in § 372.23(a), or a primary NAICS subsector or industry code listed in § 372...

  14. 缓控释肥对烟草生长和烟叶品质的影响研究进展%Research Progress on Effects of Slow-Controlled Release Fertilizer on Growth and Quality of Tobacco

    朱换换; 符雷; 曾代龙; 祝春岗; 时向东


    The effects of slow -controlled release fertilizer on effectiveness of soil nutrients , tobacco growth and quality were summarized in this paper .The development of slow -controlled release fertilizer was also prospected .%本文综述了缓控释肥对土壤养分有效性、烟草生长和烟叶品质的影响,并对缓控释肥在未来的发展前景进行了展望。

  15. Clique Cover Width and Clique Sum

    Shahrokhi, Farhad


    For a clique cover $C$ in the undirected graph $G$, the clique cover graph of $C$ is the graph obtained by contracting the vertices of each clique in $C$ into a single vertex. The clique cover width of G, denoted by $CCW(G)$, is the minimum value of the bandwidth of all clique cover graphs of $G$. When $G$ is the clique sum of $G_1$ and $G_2$, we prove that $CCW(G) \\le 3/2(CCW(G_1) + CCW(G_2))$.

  16. Release of OLe peanut

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  17. Border cell release

    Mravec, Jozef


    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...

  18. Pan-STARRS Data Release 1

    Flewelling, Heather


    We present an overview of the first and second Pan-STARRS data release (DR1 and DR2), and how to use the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS) and the Pan-STARRS Science Interface (PSI) to access the images and the catalogs. The data will be available from the STScI MAST archive. The PSPS is an SQLServer database that can be queried via script or web interface. This database has relative photometry and astrometry and object associations, making it easy to do searches across the entire sky as well as tools to generate lightcurves of individual objects as a function of time. Both releases of data use the 3pi survey, which has 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y), roughly 60 epochs (12 per filter) and covers 3/4 of the sky and everything north of -30 degrees declination. The first release of data (DR1) will contain stack images, mean attribute catalogs and static sky catalogs based off of the stacks. The second release of data (DR2) will contain the time domain data. For the images, this will include single exposures that have been detrended and warped. For the catalogs, this will include catalogs of all exposures as well as forced photometry.

  19. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Early Data Release

    Allen, J T; Konstantopoulos, I S; Bryant, J J; Sharp, R; Cecil, G N; Fogarty, L M R; Foster, C; Green, A W; Ho, I -T; Owers, M S; Schaefer, A L; Scott, N; Bauer, A E; Baldry, I; Barnes, L A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bloom, J V; Brough, S; Colless, M; Cortese, L; Couch, W J; Drinkwater, M J; Driver, S P; Goodwin, M; Gunawardhana, M L P; Hampton, E J; Hopkins, A M; Kewley, L J; Lawrence, J S; Leon-Saval, S G; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, Á R; Lorente, N P F; Medling, A M; Mould, J; Norberg, P; Parker, Q A; Power, C; Pracy, M B; Richards, S N; Robotham, A S G; Sweet, S M; Taylor, E N; Thomas, A D; Tonini, C; Walcher, C J


    We present the Early Data Release of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is an ongoing integral field spectroscopic survey of ~3400 low-redshift (z<0.12) galaxies, covering galaxies in the field and in groups within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey regions, and a sample of galaxies in clusters. In the Early Data Release, we publicly release the fully calibrated datacubes for a representative selection of 107 galaxies drawn from the GAMA regions, along with information about these galaxies from the GAMA catalogues. All datacubes for the Early Data Release galaxies can be downloaded individually or as a set from the SAMI Galaxy Survey website. In this paper we also assess the quality of the pipeline used to reduce the SAMI data, giving metrics that quantify its performance at all stages in processing the raw data into calibrated datacubes. The pipeline gives excellent results throughout, with typical sky subtraction residuals of 0.9-1...

  20. CMS releases data on drug spending

    Robbins RA


    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (11/14/16) the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released data on spending for drugs under Medicare and Medicaid (1,2). Medicare paid $137.4 billion on drugs covered by its prescription drug benefit in 2015. About $8.7 billion of that spending occurred on drugs that had "large" price hikes, defined as a more than 25 percent increase between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, Medicaid paid $57.3 billion about $5.1 billion of ...

  1. CMS releases data on drug spending


    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (11/14/16) the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released data on spending for drugs under Medicare and Medicaid (1,2). Medicare paid $137.4 billion on drugs covered by its prescription drug benefit in 2015. About $8.7 billion of that spending occurred on drugs that had "large" price hikes, defined as a more than 25 percent increase between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, Medicaid paid $57.3 billion about $5.1 billion of ...

  2. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.


    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file

  3. Wildfire selectivity for land cover type: does size matter?

    Barros, Ana M G; Pereira, José M C


    Previous research has shown that fires burn certain land cover types disproportionally to their abundance. We used quantile regression to study land cover proneness to fire as a function of fire size, under the hypothesis that they are inversely related, for all land cover types. Using five years of fire perimeters, we estimated conditional quantile functions for lower (avoidance) and upper (preference) quantiles of fire selectivity for five land cover types - annual crops, evergreen oak woodlands, eucalypt forests, pine forests and shrublands. The slope of significant regression quantiles describes the rate of change in fire selectivity (avoidance or preference) as a function of fire size. We used Monte-Carlo methods to randomly permutate fires in order to obtain a distribution of fire selectivity due to chance. This distribution was used to test the null hypotheses that 1) mean fire selectivity does not differ from that obtained by randomly relocating observed fire perimeters; 2) that land cover proneness to fire does not vary with fire size. Our results show that land cover proneness to fire is higher for shrublands and pine forests than for annual crops and evergreen oak woodlands. As fire size increases, selectivity decreases for all land cover types tested. Moreover, the rate of change in selectivity with fire size is higher for preference than for avoidance. Comparison between observed and randomized data led us to reject both null hypotheses tested ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) and to conclude it is very unlikely the observed values of fire selectivity and change in selectivity with fire size are due to chance.

  4. Land cover detection with SAR images of Delta del Llobregat

    Godinho, R.; Borges, P. A. V.; Calado, H.; Broquetas, A.


    This work presents a study of a multitemporal set of C-band images collected by ERS-2, aiming to understand the differentiations of the backscatter intensity and the phase coherence of different land covers to find possible synergies that could improve land cover detection. The land cover analysis allowed to observe the perfect differentiation of urban areas from intensity images. The observation of multitemporal RGB compositions combining key dates of the different points of crops growth make possible to differentiate this land cover and also to observe fluctuations inside the class itself. This fluctuations present a pattern that correspond to the crop field structure, which suggests that more information can be obtained. The shrubs are difficult to detect from the intensity images, but once the observation is combined with coherence images the detection is possible. However, the coherence image must be generated from pairs of images with a temporal interval lower than three months, independently from the year of registration of each image due to the general decrease of coherence when larger intervals are used. The analysis allowed to observe the potential of this data to perfect distinguish urban, crops and shrubs. The study of the seasonal fluctuations of intensity for the crops land cover with precise ground truth for crops type and points of growth is proposed as a future line of research.

  5. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Randy Rentz


    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  6. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    Day, Pamela C


    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  7. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  8. Well-covered graphs and factors

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.


    A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...

  9. 29 CFR 1904.31 - Covered employees.


    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employees. 1904.31 Section 1904.31 Labor... Requirements § 1904.31 Covered employees. (a) Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all employees on your payroll, whether they are labor, executive,...

  10. 14 CFR 120.215 - Covered employees.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered employees. 120.215 Section 120.215... Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.215 Covered employees. (a) Each employee, including any... accordance with this subpart. This includes full-time, part-time, temporary, and intermittent...

  11. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Savage, Shari L.


    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  12. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Savage, Shari L.


    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  13. National Privacy Research Strategy

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — On July 1, NITRD released the National Privacy Research Strategy. Research agencies across government participated in the development of the strategy, reviewing...

  14. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  15. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity......We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...

  16. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Heather Dawn Evans


    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  17. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.


    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  18. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces.

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene


    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an N-way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an N-to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  19. Production and economic viability of banana managed with cover crops

    Francisca E. L. Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aimed to evaluate the yield and economic viability of three crop cycles of the banana cv. ‘Prata Anã’ in association with perennial herbaceous legumes, natural vegetation, or compared with the conventional management. The research was conducted using a complete randomized block design with split-split plots and four replicates. The plots were formed by four irrigation depths: 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop evapotranspiration, and the subplots by cover crops (Calopogonium muconoides, Pueraria phaseoloides, and natural cover without N addition or no cover crops with addition of N fertilization (conventional management. The subsubplots were formed by the second, third and fourth banana production cycles. Yield and economic viability of the cultivation were estimated for a period of seven years. The conventional management promoted greater yield and economic viability in the cultivation of ‘Prata Anã’ banana, due to the N fertilization. Managements with leguminous cover crops were also economically viable, but they should be investigated in combination with N fertilization and compared with the conventional method.

  20. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.


    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  1. Factors controlling alkalisalt deposition in recovery boiler- release mechanisms

    McKeough, P.; Kylloenen, H.; Kurkela, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group


    As part of a cooperative effort to develop a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers, an experimental investigation of the release of sulphur during black liquor pyrolysis has been undertaken. Previous to these studies, the mechanisms of sulphur release and the reasons for the observed effects of process conditions on sulphur release were very poorly understood. On the basis of the experimental results, the main reactions leading to sulphur release have been elucidated with a fair degree of certainty. Logical explanations for the variations of sulphur release with temperature and with liquor solids content have been proposed. The influence of pressure has been investigated in order to gain insights into the effects of mass transfer on the sulphur-release rate. In the near future, the research will be aimed at generating the kinetic data necessary for modelling the release of sulphur in the recovery furnace. (author)

  2. Carpal tunnel release

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L;


    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  3. EIA new releases


    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  4. Influence of snow-cover properties on avalanche dynamics

    Steinkogler, W.; Sovilla, B.; Lehning, M.


    Snow avalanches with the potential of reaching traffic routes and settlements are a permanent winter threat for many mountain communities. Snow safety officers have to take the decision whether to close a road, a railway line or a ski slope. Those decisions are often very difficult as they demand the ability to interpret weather forecasts, to establish their implication for the stability and the structure of the snow cover and to evaluate the influence of the snow cover on avalanche run-out distances. In the operational programme 'Italy-Switzerland, project STRADA' we focus on the effects of snow cover on avalanche dynamics, and thus run-out distance, with the aim to provide a better understanding of this influence and to ultimately develop tools to support snow safety officers in their decision process. We selected five avalanches, measured at the Vallée de la Sionne field site, with similar initial mass and topography but different flow dynamics and run-out distances. Significant differences amongst the individual avalanches could be observed for front and internal velocities, impact pressures, flow regimes, deposition volumes and run-out distances. For each of these avalanches, the prevailing snow conditions at release were reconstructed using field data from local snowpits or were modeled with SNOWPACK. Combining flow dynamical data with snow cover properties shows that erodible snow depth, snow density and snow temperature in the snow pack along the avalanche track are among the decisive variables that appear to explain the observed differences. It is further discussed, how these influencing factors can be quantified and used for improved predictions of site and time specific avalanche hazard.

  5. Nanoparticle release from dental composites.

    Van Landuyt, K L; Hellack, B; Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Hoet, P; Wiemann, M; Kuhlbusch, T A J; Asbach, C


    Dental composites typically contain high amounts (up to 60 vol.%) of nanosized filler particles. There is a current concern that dental personnel (and patients) may inhale nanosized dust particles (composite dust was analyzed in real work conditions. Exposure measurements of dust in a dental clinic revealed high peak concentrations of nanoparticles in the breathing zone of both dentist and patient, especially during aesthetic treatments or treatments of worn teeth with composite build-ups. Further laboratory assessment confirmed that all tested composites released very high concentrations of airborne particles in the nanorange (>10(6)cm(-3)). The median diameter of airborne composite dust varied between 38 and 70 nm. Electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the airborne particles originated from the composite, and revealed that the dust particles consisted of filler particles or resin or both. Though composite dust exhibited no significant oxidative reactivity, more toxicological research is needed. To conclude, on manipulation with the bur, dental composites release high concentrations of nanoparticles that may enter deeply into the lungs. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contact: Releasing the news

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  7. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry


    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  8. Protecting privacy in data release

    Livraga, Giovanni


    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  9. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  10. Himalayan glacier retreat delayed by debris cover

    Scherler, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.


    Variable retreat rates and paucity of mass-balance data complicate a coherent picture of the current state and future fate of Himalayan glaciers. We report frontal changes and remotely-sensed surface velocities from >250 glaciers in the greater Himalayan realm (Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Himalaya, West Kunlun Shan) between 2000 and 2008 that provide evidence for widespread meltdown, which is obscured by debris cover. While debris-free glaciers in Tibet and other low-relief areas have been mainly retreating, debris-covered glaciers in high-relief areas, such as the central Himalaya, were mostly stagnating and in-situ down wasting but not retreating. Only Karakoram glaciers show no signs of stagnation or appreciable retreat, despite high debris cover, suggesting no recent mass loss. Our study shows that regional differences in topographic relief account for substantial differences in debris cover and thus retreat behaviour that need to be considered when comparing glacier retreat rates. The combination of melt rates lowered by debris cover and healthier glaciers in the strongly glaciated Karakoram slows down current glacier wastage in High Asia. Predictions of future water availability and global sea level have so far neglected the effect of debris cover on glacier melt rates and thus likely overestimate the speed of glacier meltdown in the Himalaya and other steep mountain ranges where debris covered glaciers are common.

  11. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A


    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The migration behaviour of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) released in open ocean conditions

    Wysujack, K.; Westerberg, H.; Aarestrup, Kim


    with pop-up satellite transmitters and released at three different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and in the Sargasso Sea. The study covers tracking periods between 7 and 92 days. The distance between release point and estimated pop-up position ranged from 40 to 1000 km, the mean minimum...

  13. Releases of natural enemies in Hawaii since 1980 for classical biological control of weeds

    P. Conant; J. N. Garcia; M. T. Johnson; W. T. Nagamine; C. K. Hirayama; G. P. Markin; R. L. Hill


    A comprehensive review of biological control of weeds in Hawaii was last published in 1992, covering 74 natural enemy species released from 1902 through 1980. The present review summarizes releases of 21 natural enemies targeting seven invasive weeds from 1981 to 2010. These projects were carried out by Hawaii Department of Agriculture (HDOA), USDA Forest Service (USFS...

  14. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  15. Orbifold groups, quasi-projectivity and covers

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Matei, Daniel


    We discuss properties of complex algebraic orbifold groups, their characteristic varieties, and their abelian covers. In particular, we deal with the question of (quasi)-projectivity of orbifold groups. We also prove a structure theorem for the variety of characters of normal-crossing quasi-projective orbifold groups. Finally, we extend Sakuma's formula for the first Betti number of abelian covers of orbifold fundamental groups. Several examples are presented, including a compact orbifold group which is not projective and a Zariski pair of plane projective curves that can be told by considering an unbranched cover of the projective plane with an orbifold structure.

  16. Dicycle Cover of Hamiltonian Oriented Graphs

    Khalid A. Alsatami


    Full Text Available A dicycle cover of a digraph D is a family F of dicycles of D such that each arc of D lies in at least one dicycle in F. We investigate the problem of determining the upper bounds for the minimum number of dicycles which cover all arcs in a strong digraph. Best possible upper bounds of dicycle covers are obtained in a number of classes of digraphs including strong tournaments, Hamiltonian oriented graphs, Hamiltonian oriented complete bipartite graphs, and families of possibly non-Hamiltonian digraphs obtained from these digraphs via a sequence of 2-sum operations.

  17. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.


    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  18. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.


    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35??years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  19. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  20. The research of controlled release fertilizer experiment of corn on Ningxia south mountain area%宁夏南部山区玉米控释肥肥效试验



    Controlled release fertilizer had the advantages of reducing nitrogen nutrient volatilization and improving utilization rate of fertilizer.Controlled release fertilizer experiment results in Ningxia south mountainous showed that an average yield of corn was 11 096.1 kg/hm2 with the application of controlled release fertilizer, which was 9.0% higher than that of the custom fertilizer application;the yield of basal application 90 kg/hm2 controlled release fertilizer with 90 days was high and the benefit was good, which was 14.3%higher than yield of the custom fertilizer application and increased 2 145.66 yuan/hm 2.%控释肥具有减少氮素养分挥发,提高肥料利用率等优点,控释肥在宁夏南部山区试验结果表明,施用控释肥平均产量11096.1 kg/hm2,较习惯施肥增产9.0%,基施90 d控释肥600 kg/hm2产量高,效益好,较习惯施肥增产14.3%,增收2145.66元/hm2。

  1. 我国缓/控释肥料的应用效应研究进展%Research Advances on the Use Efficiency of Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    古慧娟; 石元亮; 于阁杰; 王晶


    世界缓/控释肥的消耗最逐年增长,越来越多的学者对缓/控释肥的应用效应进行了研究.在前人研究的基础上,从肥料效应、作物效应、环境效应、生物学效应四个方面对缓/控释肥的应用效应作一综述,并提出我国缓/控释肥所存在的问题及展望.%The consumption of the slow/controlled release fertilizer in the world is increasing year after year, and more and more scientists have studied the use efficiency of the slow/controlled release fertilizer. Based on many results of studies, the use efficiency of the slow/controlled release fertilizer were summarized in the paper from four aspects which are fertilizer, crop and environment and biology. The problems of the slow/controlled release fertilizer and further directions were also brought forward.

  2. 含氟灭火剂受热释放HF及抑制技术研究进展%Research progress of Hydrogen Fluoride Releasing of Heated Fluoride Containing Extinguishing and the Suppression Technique

    李云龙; 杜建科; 牛世栋


    含氟灭火剂已成为目前最常用的清洁气体灭火剂,但含氟灭火剂在灭火过程中HF释放的问题严重。综合分析了几种含氟灭火剂热解和遇火时的HF释放量及其影响因素,结合理论分析结果讨论了含氟灭火剂的HF释放机理,探讨了抑制含氟灭火剂HF释放量的技术措施,从而有效减少含氟灭火剂使用时HF的释放量,保证火场中人员和精密仪器的安全。%At present fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent has become the most commonly used clean gas fire extinguishing agent. But the HF releasing problem is becoming more and more serious when fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent works. This paper analyzes some influencing factors when fluorine-containing fire agents start to fire. And HF releasing mechanism is discussed combining the result of certain theories. Also it studies some techni-cal measures to restrain HF releasing. So,to ensure the safety of personnel and precision instruments in the fire,we should reduce the HF releasing from the fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent.

  3. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    G. Ragan


    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  4. Geomorphology and dynamics of supraglacial debris covers in the Western Alps

    Deline, P.; Gardent, M.; Kirkbride, M. P.; Le Roy, M.; Martin, B.


    In the alpine regions of France and NW Italy, many glaciers of a variety of sizes are at least partly debris-covered, but these have received less scientific research than clean glaciers. During the present period of glacier shrinkage - the area of glacier cover in France has reduced by 26% over the last 40 years -, growing debris cover needs to be understood as an influence on continuing retreat, with consequences for natural hazards, water resources and tourism. We present the results of a combined ongoing study of an inventory of debris-covered glaciers in France with site-specific studies of c. 12 glaciers of contrasting types, in order to understand spatial and temporal changes in supraglacial debris cover. Our specific aims are: 1. To understand the geomorphology of debris-covers and their formation, investigating the types of debris cover in relation to formative processes including extraglacial supply and development during transport. 2. To document the changing extents of supraglacial debris covers, using historical documents and aerial photographs. 3. To interpret areal changes in terms of glaciological and topographical controls on different glacier and debris cover types (catchment morphology, glacier structure, mass balance history, and rock wall collapse magnitude and frequency). 4. To understand the effect of debris cover on glacier dynamics and geomorphological evolution, related to insulation-related modifications to AAR, long profiles, and length changes on both short and long timescales. This includes investigation of the characteristics of debris-covered glacier depositional systems resulting from their modified dynamics.

  5. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  6. 45 CFR 152.19 - Covered benefits.


    ... offered by a PCIP shall not cover the following services: (1) Cosmetic surgery or other treatment for cosmetic purposes except to restore bodily function or correct deformity resulting from disease....

  7. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  8. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.


    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both...

  9. The Results: WLB's Cover Contest for Children

    Bartnofsky, Ruth


    Lists winners of a contest for a cover design among elementary school children, with entries submitted by school librarians from all over the country. Includes reproductions of some winning entries. (JS)

  10. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  11. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    Sankaran, M


    Full Text Available Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties (1...

  12. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  13. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.


    ... locations 36 (914) 24 (610) Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings 36 (914) 24 (610) (b... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation...

  14. Orbifoldization, covering surfaces and uniformization theory

    Bántay, P


    The connection between the theory of permutation orbifolds, covering surfaces and uniformization is investigated, and the higher genus partition functions of an arbitrary permutation orbifold are expressed in terms of those of the original theory.

  15. Heat release mechanism of energetics

    Kubota, N. [Third Research Center, Technical Research and development Institute (Japan)


    Determination of the heat release mechanism of energetic materials is a major subject of combustion study. In order to elucidate the combustion process of various types of energetic materials a generalized combustion wave structure was proposed and the heat release process was discussed. The heat release process was significantly different between the physical structures of the materials: homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. The thermal structure of an azide polymer was evaluated to demonstrate the heat release mechanism. (author) 6 refs.

  16. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    Scheib, R.M. [ed.


    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  17. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    Scheib, R.M. (ed.)


    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  18. Enhanced Historical Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Sets of the U.S. Geological Survey: Data Source Index Polygons

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This polygon data set provides ancillary information to supplement a release of enhanced U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historical land-use and land-cover data. The...


    Cover crops can provide multiple benefits to sustainable cropping systems including building soil organic matter, controlling soil and nutrient losses from fields, moderating radiation and moisture exchange, releasing nutrients for subsequent crops, and suppressing weed and pest populations. Many o...

  20. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.


    ... Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 79(g)(3), 85, 86) U.S. Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 246, 253) Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (21 U... the filing of an application by a party who believes the proceeding is covered by EAJA; whether the proceeding is covered will then be an issue for resolution in proceedings on the application. (c) If a...

  1. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  2. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.


    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  3. Sustained-release from nanocarriers: a review.

    Natarajan, Jayaganesh V; Nugraha, Chandra; Ng, Xu Wen; Venkatraman, Subbu


    Nanocarriers have been explored for delivering drugs and other bioactive molecules for well over 35years. Since the introduction of Doxil®, a nanoliposomal delivery system for the cancer drug doxorubicin, several products have been approved worldwide. The majority of these products focus on cancer chemotherapy, and utilize the size advantage of nanocarriers to obtain a favourable distribution of the drug carrier in the human body. In general, such carriers do not sustain drug release over more than a few days at best. In this review, we explore the reasons for this, and present an overview of successful research that is capable of generating sustained-release products in non-cancer applications. A variety of nanocarriers have been studied, and their advantages and shortcomings are highlighted in this review. The achievement of sustained release of bioactive molecules opens new doors in nanotherapeutics.

  4. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo


    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  5. Integrating global land cover datasets for deriving user-specific maps

    Tsendbazar, Nandika; Bruin, de Sytze; Herold, Martin


    Global scale land cover (LC) mapping has interested many researchers over the last two decades as it is an input data source for various applications. Current global land cover (GLC) maps often do not meet the accuracy and thematic requirements of specific users. This study aimed to create an improv

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  7. Is bioexsiccation releasing dioxins?

    Benfenati, E.; Mariani, G.; Lodi, M.; Reitano, G.; Fanelli, R. [' ' Mario Negri' ' Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan (Italy)


    Bioexsiccation is a relatively new process to treat urban solid wastes. We studied the possible release of dioxins from this process, measuring dioxin concentration in the emissions from a bioexsiccation plant. As a comparison, we measured atmospheric levels nearby the plant. The biofilter treating gaseous emissions was also evaluated to assess its efficiency. Dioxin concentrations in the biofilter effluent were lower than both those before the biofilter and the nearby atmosphere. In the last years the management and treatment of solid urban wastes produced some improved processes, in a general attempt to cope with the problem of the huge amount of wastes produced by the modern society. Bio-exsiccation of waste aims at affording a much more biologically inert and manageable material compared to the original waste. In this process the urban solid waste is kept under an air stream for about two weeks. The waste undergoes biological transformation, due to fermentation, which produces an increase of the temperature up to 60-70 C. At the end of the process the weight waste is typically reduced by one third, due to the loss of water and to the degradation of putrescible compounds. Since this is a relatively new industrial process, we studied the possible release of dioxins in the atmospheric emissions of the bioexsiccation plant.

  8. 帕利哌酮缓释片用于精神分裂症复发的研究进展%Research progress of paliperidone extended-release tablet applied in schizophrenia relapse



    帕利哌酮缓释片是目前临床常用的一种非典型抗精神病药物,临床作用机制是主要通过阻断全部的5-羟色胺2A(5-HT2A)受体和部分多巴胺D2(DA2)受体,进而发挥抗精神病的作用。近年来,随着帕利哌酮缓释片在临床上被广泛应用,许多临床研究提示帕利哌酮缓释片可有效控制精神分裂症患者的阳性症状、改善阴性症状和认知损害、提高患者的耐受性和依从性。帕利哌酮缓释片起效快,且可有效改善对其他非典型抗精神病药治疗无效患者的临床效果,为精神分裂症患者的全面康复提供有效的治疗。近年来的统计观察发现,帕利哌酮缓释片应用于急性期及首发精神分裂症患者的临床效果较好,临床治愈率满意,但帕利哌酮缓释片对精神分裂症复发的效果如何尚未报道。本院通过对住院或门诊复发精神分裂症患者应用帕利哌酮缓释片的观察,评价帕利哌酮缓释片治疗精神分裂症复发的临床效果。本研究对帕利哌酮缓释片治疗精神分裂症复发的研究进行综述。%Paliperidone extended-release tablet is used as a common atypical antipsychotic drugs,and its clinical mechanism of action is mainly blocking all 5-HT2A receptor and partial DA2 receptor in order to play the role of anti psychotic.In recent years,with the extensive use of paliperidone extended-release tablet in the clinic,many study showed that paliperidone extended-release tablet can effectively control the positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia,improve negative symptoms and cognitive impairment and improve the tolerance and compliance pa-tients.Paliperidone extended-release tablet with rapid action can effectively improve the clinical efficacy of other pa-tients treated inefficiently by other atypical antipsychotics therapy,and it can provide effective treatment for the com-prehensive rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia

  9. Texture classification of vegetation cover in high altitude wetlands zone

    Wentao, Zou; Bingfang, Wu; Hongbo, Ju; Hua, Liu


    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of datasets composed of texture measures and other features for the classification of vegetation cover, specifically wetlands. QUEST decision tree classifier was applied to a SPOT-5 image sub-scene covering the typical wetlands area in Three River Sources region in Qinghai province, China. The dataset used for the classification comprised of: (1) spectral data and the components of principal component analysis; (2) texture measures derived from pixel basis; (3) DEM and other ancillary data covering the research area. Image textures is an important characteristic of remote sensing images; it can represent spatial variations with spectral brightness in digital numbers. When the spectral information is not enough to separate the different land covers, the texture information can be used to increase the classification accuracy. The texture measures used in this study were calculated from GLCM (Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix); eight frequently used measures were chosen to conduct the classification procedure. The results showed that variance, mean and entropy calculated by GLCM with a 9*9 size window were effective in distinguishing different vegetation types in wetlands zone. The overall accuracy of this method was 84.19% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.8261. The result indicated that the introduction of texture measures can improve the overall accuracy by 12.05% and the overall kappa coefficient by 0.1407 compared with the result using spectral and ancillary data.

  10. Validation of Fractional Snow Cover from AVHRR using Landsat TM

    McKenzie, C.; Rittger, K.; Dozier, J.; Davis, R.


    The suite of NOAA satellites carrying the AVHRR sensor provides daily coverage of the world's snowpack. While another satellite-borne sensor, MODIS, may provide more accurate estimates of snow cover for operational forecasting, AVHRR provides a retrospective view, gaining a perspective of historical snowpack, which in turn can supplement operational forecasting. Here we validate a fractional snow cover algorithm for AVHRR in use by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The approach uses a binary decision tree trained from the theoretical reflectance of snow and non-snow spectra convolved to AVHRR bandwidths. The binary decision tree, which estimates fractional snow cover, uses bands 1 and 2 calibrated with an atmosphere optical model 6S, and a derived band 3, which estimates a reflectance component separated from the emitance component by using temperature data from channel 4, and assumptions about the surface emissivity. Using 26 Landsat TM scenes we validate 79 scenes from NOAA 9, 11, 12 and 14. We investigate the absolute differences from the fine resolution data as well as the relative differences between sensors on the two satellites. Errors of commission are eliminated with a temperature and/or elevation mask. Like most moderate resolution satellite data, georegistration errors contribute to the overall error and can be accounted for when comparing images. The AVHRR algorithm demonstrates sensitivity to fractional snow cover and performs well in comparison to TM.

  11. 宝天曼自然保护区油松生长释放研究%Research on Growth Release for Pinus tabulaeformis Baotianman National Reserve

    杨国馨; 叶永忠; 袁志良; 潘娜; 王婷


    Based on tree-ring samples of P. Tabulaeformis in Baotianman National Reserve, tree-rings were measured by basic way of dendrochronology method. P. Tabulaeformis trees's growth release events were decided by growth change percentage. The results showed that 77.78% of the P. Tabulaeformis tree samples had more than one growth release event, with average growth releases 4.6 times per tree. P. Tabulaeformis growth release events were increased as the tree ages increased because of opening gap. P. Tabulaeformis trees had 1.6,3.6,4.6 and 11.3 release times respectively in different age groups 31~40 a, 41-50 a,51~60 a and >60 a. The results showed that there were greater growth release events for P. Tabulaeformis trees in 1969 and 1999.%利用采自宝天曼自然保护区的一组油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)树轮样芯,根据树木年轮学的基本方法测量油松样芯的年轮宽度并交叉定年,通过生长变化率的大小对生长释放事件进行了判定.结果显示77.78%的油松有过一次以上的生长释放事件,平均每棵油松的释放次数为4.6次;随着油松年龄的增长,林窗逐渐开放,油松生长释放次数逐渐增多,不同年龄段31~40 a、41~50 a、51~60 a、>60 a的油松,平均每株释放次数分别为1.6、3.6、4.6、11.3次;不同年龄的油松在1969和1999年左右出现了较大的生长释放事件.

  12. Non-Pyrotechnic Latch and Release System for Aerospace and Other Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — American remote Vision Company (ARVC) will continue to research and develop a new non-pryotechnic latch and release sytem for use in servicing and flight release...

  13. Suitable Environmental Flow Release Criteria for Both Human and Riverine Ecosystems: Accounting for the Uncertainty of Flows

    Jian Tang


    Full Text Available Environmental flow (e-flow release criteria are key parameters in water resources management and riverine ecosystem protection. The previous methods for e-flow criterion determination are based on the historical flow time series without the consideration of flow uncertainty. Due to low possibility of reoccurrence of the historical flows and the uncertainty of future flows, the flow uncertainty needs to be integrated in the process of determining e-flow release criteria. In this research, a new method is proposed to determine the optimal e-flow release criteria under flow uncertainty accounting for both the human and riverine ecosystem needs. In the new method, the scenario tree method is applied to generate the scenarios of flows, which can cover most of possible flow conditions and can effectively reflect the uncertainty of flows; the Range of Variability Approach (RVA, a most commonly used method to assess the flow regime alteration, is refined by incorporating the uncertainty of flows. The Tang River in Northern China is taken as a case study to test the effectiveness of the new method. The results show that the previous method obviously overestimates the optimal e-flow release criteria and the new method can get more suitable criteria that are suitable for both human and riverine ecosystems.

  14. Identification and quantification of nitrogen cycling processes in cryptogamic covers

    Weber, Bettina; Wu, Dianming; Lenhart, Katharina; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Elbert, Wolfgang; Burrows, Susannah; Clough, Tim; Steinkamp, Jörg; Meusel, Hannah; Behrendt, Thomas; Büdel, Burkhard; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Sörgel, Matthias; Cheng, Yafang; Crutzen, Paul; Keppler, Frank; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich


    Cryptogamic covers (CC) comprise communities of photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, lichens, algae, and bryophytes together with heterotrophic bacteria, microfungi, and archaea in varying proportions. Depending on their habitat, cryptogamic rock covers, cryptogamic plant covers, and cryptogamic soil covers are distinguished. The latter comprise biological soil crusts (biocrusts), which globally occur under dryland conditions. In a first assessment of their global role, we quantified that CC fix ˜49 Tg of nitrogen (N) per year (Elbert et al., 2013), corresponding to ˜1/2 of the maximum terrestrial biological N fixation determined in the latest IPCC report. The fixed N is used for biomass formation and partially leached into the ground, where it can be taken up by plants or transformed into N oxides, being emitted into the atmosphere. We show that biocrusts release nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid (HONO), which are key species in the global cycling of nitrogen and in the production of ozone and hydroxyl radicals, regulating the oxidizing power and self-cleaning capacity of the atmosphere. Based on laboratory, field and satellite measurement data, we obtained a best estimate of 1.1 Tg a-1 of NO-N and 0.6 Tg a-1 of HONO-N being globally emitted by biocrusts, corresponding to ˜20% of the global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation (Weber et al., 2015). During full wetting and drying cycles, emissions peaked at low water contents suggesting NO- and HONO-formation under aerobic conditions during nitrification. Other measurements revealed that cryptogamic organisms release nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas of crucial importance for climate change. The emission rates varied with temperature, humidity, and N deposition, but divided by respiratory CO2 emission they formed an almost constant ratio, which allowed upscaling on the global scale. We estimated annual N2O emissions of 0.3 - 0.6 Tg by cryptogams, accounting for 4-9% of the global N2O

  15. Researching research

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola


    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  16. The effect of vegetation cover on the formation of glide-snow avalanches

    Feistl, Thomas; Bebi, Peter; Bartelt, Perry


    Glide snow avalanches release on steep, smooth slopes and can be prevented either by protection forests or by artificial defense structures. To minimize the risk for people and infrastructure, guidelines have been formulated concerning structure, height and distance between avalanche prevention bridges. These guidelines assure the major functions of the defense structures: first to prevent the release of avalanches and second to withstand the static and dynamic forces of the moving snow cover. The major functions of protection forests are generally similar and therefore guidelines on the maximum tolerable size of forest gaps exist in Switzerland. These guidelines are based on a static relationship between the pressure of the snow cover and the resistance of the defense structure and on empirical observations (forest). Whereas ground friction is only qualitatively taken into account, we assume it to play a crucial role in glide snow avalanche formation. To prove this assumption we collected data on the predominant vegetation cover of 67 release areas in the region of Davos, Switzerland. Our observations reveal a strong relationship between vegetation cover type, slope angle and slab length. We were able to quantify the Coulomb friction parameter μ by applying a physical model that accounts for the dynamic forces of the moving snow on the stauchwall, the fixed snow cover below the release area. The stauchwall resists the dynamic forces of the snow cover, until a critical strain rate is reached and then fails in brittle compression. This failure strongly depends on the friction between snow cover and soil. A typical value of μ for grassy slopes is 0.2. Snow characteristics like density are implemented in the model as constants. We compared the model results with the guidelines for defense structures and forest gap sizes and found accordance for certain friction parameter values. Forest gaps of 40 meter length and a 35° slope angle require friction values of 0

  17. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg


    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  18. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    Marieke Liem


    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors, self-efficacy (personal factors, and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have largely been based on general delinquents serving relatively short prison terms. This study aims to shed light on the influence of social, personal, and institutional factors on post-release success versus failure among paroled lifers. We conducted in-depth life-history interviews with 64 individuals who had served a life sentence, who were either re-incarcerated for another crime or parole violation, or were currently out on parole. The role of social factors in desistance among long-term incarcerated offenders was minimal. Rather, self-efficacy appeared to be a key element in post-release success. These findings suggest that research based on short-term incarcerated offenders cannot be directly translated to long-term incarcerated offenders. This group does not experience the same traditional turning points, such as establishing family ties and employment. Accordingly, long-term prisoners may go through a different process post-release that determines their success versus failure compared to general delinquents who serve shorter sentences.

  19. Second data release of the Kepler-INT Survey

    Greiss, S; Gänsicke, B T; Martín, E L; Groot, P J; Irwin, M J; González-Solares, E; Greimel, R; Fusillo, N P Gentile; Still, M


    This short document reports on the second data release of the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS, Greiss et al. 2012). The Kepler field, a 116 sq.deg region of the Cygnus and Lyra constellations, is the target of the most intensive search for transiting planets to date. The Kepler mission provides superior time series photometry, with an enormous impact on all areas of stellar variability. The initial release catalogue (Greiss et al. 2012) concerned data taken between May and August 2011, using the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma. Four broadband filters were used, U, g, r, i, as well as one narrowband one, H-alpha, reaching down to a limit of ~20th mag in the Vega system. Observations covering ~50 sq.deg passed our quality control thresholds and constituted the first data release. Here we report on the second data release, covering an additional ~63 sq.deg of the Kepler field. We apply the exact same quality control criteria and photometric calibration as in the initial release catalogue (see Greiss et a...

  20. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon


    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  1. International team releases design, cost for next great particle smasher

    Cho, Adrian


    "An internationl team has released a preliminary design and cost estimate for the International Linear Collider (ILC), the hoped-for straight-shot particle smasher that many researchers say is the future of their field."

  2. Development of KPLO Science Data Archive for Public Release

    Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y.-J.; Kim, B.-Y.


    Korea Aerospace Research Institute is carrying out development of KARI Planetary Data System for public release of the scientific measurement data of the Korean domestic science instruments onboard the Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter.

  3. Effect Research of Controlled Release Special Fertilizer on Rice in Qing'an County%控释专用肥在庆安县水稻上的应用效果研究



    The application effect of controlled release special fertilizer on rice-production in Qing'an county was carried out using Songjing No. 9. The result showed that compared to the equal nutrition of common compound fertilizer and high nitrogen fertilizer, the controlled release special fertilizer could increase the rice yield by 23.90% and 15.11%. The treatment 4, which decreasing the amount of controlled release special fertilizer by 30 %,could increase yield by 4.62 % compared with the common fertilizer.%为探索控释专用肥在黑龙江省对水稻生长及产量的影响,以松粳9号为试验材料,对控释肥在庆安县水稻生产上的应用效果进行了研究。结果表明:控释专用肥与等养分普通复合肥和常规高氮复合肥比较,可使水稻增产23.90%和15.11%。处理4在减少控释专用肥施用量30%的情况下,比常规施肥增产4.62%。

  4. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr


    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.


    A. A. Pivovarchik


    Full Text Available The results of researches on influence of separating coverings on such properties of castings as corrosion resistance, roughness of cast surface, casting density are given in article.

  6. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas ( The New Bedford, MA land cover...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010) Web Service

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas ( The Portland, ME land cover...

  8. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid

    ... Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  9. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David


    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  10. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Ivan L. Hand


    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  11. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.


    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  12. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution

    Cespedes, F.F.; Sanchez, M.V.; Garcia, S.P.; Perez, M.F. [University of Almeria, Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry


    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism.

  13. Watermarking -- Paving the Way for Better Released Documents

    Little, Keith; Carole, Miller; Schwindt, Paul; Zimmerman, Cheryl


    One of the biggest issues with regard to Released Documentation is making sure what you are looking at is. in fact. what you think it is. Is it Released or Not? Is it the Latest? How to be sure? In this brief session, we'll discuss the path Kennedy Space Center has taken in implementing Watermarking with ProductView . We'11 cover the premise, challenges, and implementation from our windchill 9.1 environment. Come join us and see if we can't save you some time and headaches in the long-run.

  14. Research on Prompt Release of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea%国际海洋法法庭迅速释放问题研究

    任虎; 姚妍韡


    Since the establishment of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS),there have been nine cases related to prompt release process,six of which were sentenced that the defendant coastal states should prompt release the detained vessels and crews,so as to effectively solve the disputes between coastal states and flag states.Because the rules on prompt release under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea are vague,and the tribunal is inconsistent on the judgement standard of the rationality of bond security and the substantive examination problem,it fails to form customary law in the practice field of prompt release.It can be determined that the judicial practice of the tribunal has played a positive role to perfect the related legal system of coastal countries.In order to maintain our marine rights,China should timely modify and improve the assistance system and solve the problem of bond security of prompt release,when Chinese fishermen are de-tained by foreign law enforcement.%国际海洋法法庭自成立以来共审理了9个迅速释放案件,其中6个案件判决被告沿海国迅速释放被扣押船只和船员,从而有效地解决了沿海国和船旗国之间的争议。因联合国海洋法公约迅速释放相关规定的模糊性,以及国际海洋法法庭在保证金合理性判断标准和实质性审查问题上所采取的非一致性立场,在迅速释放问题上尚未形成习惯法。应该肯定的是,国际海洋法法庭的司法实践对沿海国相关法律制度的完善起到积极作用。本文认为,为维护我国海洋权利不受非法侵犯,应及时修改和完善我国渔民被外国执法扣押时的国家援助制度,以及解决迅速释放时的保证金制度问题。

  15. Trigger release liposome systems: local and remote controlled delivery?

    Bibi, Sagida; Lattmann, E; Mohammed, Afzal R; Perrie, Yvonne


    Target-specific delivery has become an integral area of research in order to increase bioavailability and reduce the toxic effects of drugs. As a drug-delivery option, trigger-release liposomes offer sophisticated targeting and greater control-release capabilities. These are broadly divided into two categories; those that utilise the local environment of the target site where there may be an upregulation in certain enzymes or a change in pH and those liposomes that are triggered by an external physical stimulus such as heat, ultrasound or light. These release mechanisms offer a greater degree of control over when and where the drug is released; furthermore, targeting of diseased tissue is enhanced by incorporation of target-specific components such as antibodies. This review aims to show the development of such trigger release liposome systems and the current research in this field.

  16. Releases of radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant, 1954--1985

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.


    Radioactive releases from Savannah River Plant (SRP) facilities to air, water and earthen seepage basins have been monitored and tabulated throughout the history of the site. The purpose of this report is to provide a source of data on routine releases of radioactivity to air, water and seepage basins that can be used for analyses of trends, environmental impact, etc. As used in this report, routine radioactive releases means radioactive materials that are released through established effluents from process facilities. This report is not intended to provide interpretation of the release values, their transport and impact or information on spills, leaks, buried waste or special use facilities. These subjects are covered in other SRP publications. This report provides a summary of radioactive releases that reflects the release values contained in records and documents from startup through 1985. Releases are tabulated in the following categories: Annual radioactive releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Annual radioactive releases by receptor medium and radionuclide for 1954 through 1985; Monthly releases by emission source and radionuclide for 1981 through 1985. The presentation of all SRP routine radioactive releases data in these categories provides a reference for historic data on SRP releases. 34 refs.

  17. Cloud cover estimation optical package: New facility, algorithms and techniques

    Krinitskiy, Mikhail


    Short- and long-wave radiation is an important component of surface heat budget over sea and land. For estimating them accurate observations of the cloud cover are needed. While massively observed visually, for building accurate parameterizations cloud cover needs also to be quantified using precise instrumental measurements. Major disadvantages of the most of existing cloud-cameras are associated with their complicated design and inaccuracy of post-processing algorithms which typically result in the uncertainties of 20% to 30% in the camera-based estimates of cloud cover. The accuracy of these types of algorithm in terms of true scoring compared to human-observed values is typically less than 10%. We developed new generation package for cloud cover estimating, which provides much more accurate results and also allows for measuring additional characteristics. New algorithm, namely SAIL GrIx, based on routine approach, also developed for this package. It uses the synthetic controlling index ("grayness rate index") which allows to suppress the background sunburn effect. This makes it possible to increase the reliability of the detection of the optically thin clouds. The accuracy of this algorithm in terms of true scoring became 30%. One more approach, namely SAIL GrIx ML, we have used to increase the cloud cover estimating accuracy is the algorithm that uses machine learning technique along with some other signal processing techniques. Sun disk condition appears to be a strong feature in this kind of models. Artificial Neural Networks type of model demonstrates the best quality. This model accuracy in terms of true scoring increases up to 95,5%. Application of a new algorithm lets us to modify the design of the optical sensing package and to avoid the use of the solar trackers. This made the design of the cloud camera much more compact. New cloud-camera has already been tested in several missions across Atlantic and Indian oceans on board of IORAS research vessels.

  18. Ant Colony Optimization and Hypergraph Covering Problems

    Pat, Ankit


    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a very popular metaheuristic for solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems. Runtime analysis of ACO with respect to various pseudo-boolean functions and different graph based combinatorial optimization problems has been taken up in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the runtime behavior of an MMAS*(Max-Min Ant System) ACO algorithm on some well known hypergraph covering problems that are NP-Hard. In particular, we have addressed the Minimum Edge Cover problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover problem and the Maximum Weak- Independent Set problem. The influence of pheromone values and heuristic information on the running time is analysed. The results indicate that the heuristic information has greater impact towards improving the expected optimization time as compared to pheromone values. For certain instances of hypergraphs, we show that the MMAS* algorithm gives a constant order expected optimization time when the dominance of heuristic information is ...

  19. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    Small, Christopher


    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for each type of land cover. The same conditions that give rise to scale-free networks in general can produce power law distributions of component sizes for bounded spatial networks confined to a plane or surface. Progressive segmentation of a continuous field naturally results in growth of the network while the increasing perimeters of the growing components result in preferential attachment to the larger components with the longer perimeters. Progressive segmentation of two types of random continuous field results in progr...

  20. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani


    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.