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Sample records for release answers important

  1. How Pollination Ecology research can help answer important questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollination Ecology is a dynamic field of scientific research constantly adopting novel methods and making progress in understanding the interactions between plants and their pollinators. A recent paper listed the main scientific questions in this field focussing on the ecological and biological system itself. Here, we follow up on that paper and present some ideas on how to broaden our perspective and explore the role that pollination research can play in answering both ecological and societal questions relevant to a range of different stakeholders. We hope this paper may be useful to researchers aiming at improving both the scientific and societal impact of their research.

  2. Importance of vesicle release stochasticity in neuro-spike communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Hamideh; Akan, Ozgur B

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this paper is proposing a stochastic model for vesicle release process, a part of neuro-spike communication. Hence, we study biological events occurring in this process and use microphysiological simulations to observe functionality of these events. Since the most important source of variability in vesicle release probability is opening of voltage dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) followed by influx of calcium ions through these channels, we propose a stochastic model for this event, while using a deterministic model for other variability sources. To capture the stochasticity of calcium influx to pre-synaptic neuron in our model, we study its statistics and find that it can be modeled by a distribution defined based on Normal and Logistic distributions.

  3. Answering without answering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas; Jønch-Clausen, Heidi; Pontoppidan, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In the context of political press conferences, the authors explore a particular category of subtle evasions they term shifting. When shifting, the interviewee seemingly accepts to answer the journalist’s question. However, in providing the answer, the interviewee refocuses the question replacing...

  4. The effects of perception of risk and importance of answering and initiating a cellular phone call while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik; Atchley, Paul; Little, Todd D

    2009-05-01

    Recent data suggest that laws banning cellular phone use while driving may not change use patterns, especially among young drivers with high rates of mobile phone adoption. We examined reasons younger drivers choose or do not choose to talk on a phone while driving among a sample of young drivers (n=276) with very high ownership of cellular phones (over 99%) and a very high use of cellular phones while driving (100% for those that were primary operators of an automobile). Respondents were surveyed for patterns of use, types of call, perceived risk, and motivations for use. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the relationships between perceived risk of the behavior, emotionality of the call, perceived importance of the call, and how often calls were initiated versus answered. The model suggests that even though people believe that talking on a cellular phone while driving is dangerous, they will tend to initiate a cellular conversation if they believe that the call is important.

  5. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  6. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, E.; Hendrikx, J.; Fagre, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  7. How To Talk to Teens about Really Important Things: Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

    For parents of teenagers, talking about sex, drugs, lifestyle choices, AIDS, and divorce can be one of life's toughest challenges. This books serves as a guide for those who have found themselves ill prepared and ill at ease when discussing some of life's most important issues with teens. The book also helps to bridge the gap in parent-teen…

  8. Photovoltaic and economy. Answers to the 10 most important questions; Photovoltaik und Wirtschaftlichkeit. Antworten auf die 10 wichtigsten Fragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogtmann, Michael [DGS LV Franken e.V., Nuernberg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    An economic calculation of the planned PV plant is not an easy task due to various influencing factors. In most cases, the date or the year interested in which the plant is operating in the black. However if one wishes, at least roughly to estimate the efficiency of a PV system, so you have to deal with a whole range of factors that determine the profitability sustainably. Here are the 10 most important aspects are explained. [German] Eine Wirtschaftlichkeitsberechnung der geplanten PV-Anlage ist aufgrund verschiedener Einflussfaktoren keine einfache Aufgabe. In den meisten Faellen interessiert der Zeitpunkt bzw. das Jahr, ab dem der Anlagenbetrieb schwarze Zahlen schreibt. Will man allerdings wenigstens grob die Wirtschaftlichkeit einer PV-Anlage abschaetzen, so muss man sich mit einer ganzen Reihe von Faktoren auseinandersetzen, die die Wirtschaftlichkeit nachhaltig bestimmen. Nachstehend werden die 10 wichtigsten Aspekte erlaeutert.

  9. Dam pre-release as an important operation strategy in reducing flood impact in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah Ishak, Nurul; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    The 2014 flood was reported to be one of the worst natural disaster has ever affected several states in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Overwhelming rainfall was noted as one of the main factors causing such impact, which was claimed to be unprecedented to some extent. The state of Perak, which is blessed with four cascading dams had also experienced flood damage at a scale that was considered the worst in history. The rainfall received had caused the dam to reach danger level that necessitated additional discharge to be released. Safety of the dams was of great importance and such unavoidable additional discharge was allowed to avoid catastrophic failure of the dam structures. This paper discusses the dam pre-release as a significant dam management strategy in reducing flood impact. An important balance between required dam storage to be maintained and the risk element that can be afforded is the crucial factor in such enhanced operation strategy. While further possibility in developing a carefully engineered dam pre-release strategy can be explored for dam operation in Malaysia, this has already been introduced in some developed countries. Australia and South Africa are examples where pre-release has been practiced and proven to reduce flood risk. The concept involves controlling the dam lake level throughout the year, in reference to the rainfall data and the hydrological properties for the catchment area of the dams. Plentiful data analysis need to be done in contemplation of producing the optimal pre-release model. The amount of heavy rainfalls received is beyond human control but the distribution of the discharge from the dams can be further managed with the appropriate pre-release strategy.

  10. 31 CFR 539.406 - Importation into and release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into and release from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. 539.406 Section 539.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 539.406 Importation into and...

  11. Streptococcus mitis/human gingival fibroblasts co-culture: the best natural association in answer to the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Mara; D'Ercole, Simonetta; Zara, Susi; Cataldi, Amelia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    One of the major components of dental polymerized resin-based restorative materials is 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and its release in monomeric form interferes with the oral cavity environment. This study aimed to evaluate HEMA monomeric effects on the co-culture of Streptococcus mitis and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Streptococcus mitis DS12 and S. mitis ATCC 6249 were co-cultivated with HGF in the presence of HEMA (3 mM), for 48 and 72 h; the amount of sessile and planktonic cells, as well as the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell viability were analyzed in treated and untreated samples. The treatment of S. mitis/HGFs with HEMA did not produce significant effects on the bacterial adhesion and induced an increase in planktonic S. mitis ATCC 6249 population after 48 and 72 h. HEMA increased significantly the planktonic S. mitis ATCC 6249 viability when co-cultured with HGFs, while a cytotoxic effect on HGFs, without bacteria, was recorded. An increase of bacterial aggregation on HGFs was also detected with HEMA. Data obtained in this study suggest that HEMA exhibits a toxic effect mainly on eukaryotic cells and this effect can be modulated by co-cultivation with the S. mitis cells which, in the presence of the monomer, enhance their aggregation rate on HGFs. PMID:22229269

  12. Physiological response of some economically important freshwater salmonids to catch-and-release fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Wydoski, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Catch-and-release fishing regulations are widely used by fishery resource managers to maintain both the quantity and quality of sport fish populations. We evaluated blood chemistry disturbances in wild brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout Salmo trutta, cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii, and Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus that had been hooked and played for 1-5 min in waters of the intermountain western United States. A hatchery stock of brown trout was included for comparison. To assess time needed for recovery, additional test groups were played for 5 min and then released into net-pens, where they were held for up to 72 h. The osmoregulatory and metabolic disturbances associated with catch-and-release fishing under the conditions we tested were minimal and judged to be well within normal physiological tolerance limits. In fish that were held for recovery, the blood chemistry alterations that did occur appeared to be related to stress from confinement in the net-pens. Our results confirm the results of previous studies, showing that prerelease air exposure and handling cause more physiological stress than does either hooking per se or playing time. Fishery managers must be aware of the differences in the perceptions, attitudes, and values of different societal groups, some of which feel that catch-and-release fishing should be banned because it is cruel to the animals. On the basis of brain anatomy, it seems highly unlikely that fish experience pain in the same manner as humans experience it, because fish lack a neocortex, the brain structure that enables the sensation of pain in higher vertebrates. However, independent of the neurobiological argument, our results indicate that under conditions similar to those tested, fish subjected to catch and release are neither suffering nor particularly stressed. Improved education programs about the relatively benign physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing as a fishery management practice would

  13. Getting an Answer Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    porous medium. Still another derivation is required (and a different result is obtained) when two gases diffuse into a third gas from opposite ends of a constant-volume container. Graham's law is typically demonstrated either by diffusion through a porous frit or by diffusion of HCl and NH3 into air from opposite ends of a glass tube. Neither of these involves experimental conditions that satisfy the assumptions of the derivation presented in most texts. Also misleading are demonstrations in which perfume released in one place becomes detectable throughout a room, or a crystal of KMnO4 dissolves and disperses to form a uniformly colored aqueous solution. Unless special precautions are taken, dispersion of a substance into a fluid depends more on convection than on diffusion (4). In one case a study of student misconceptions about diffusion was based on the researcher's misconception that dispersion of a dye in water during a period of only a few minutes was an illustration of diffusion (5). If we can convince ourselves that we have accurately determined an expected result or demonstrated a principle, even though the experiment or demonstration should not give that result, then most students are also likely to be convinced. It is important that they learn that skepticism and courteous, rational discourse are important components of scientific progress. Persistent misconceptions such as the two described above provide a golden opportunity to involve students in such discourse. We could, for example, demonstrate both a method that works and one that does not, compare results, and ask students to suggest additional experiments that might resolve the issue. (Steel wool and 0.25 M acetic acid can be used to achieve a reproducible and reasonably accurate determination of the fraction of oxygen in air [6]. Davis [4] reports that rates of diffusion in an agar gel, which minimizes convection, are essentially the same as in water, which provides a way of showing how slow diffusion

  14. Important processes affecting the release and migration of radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barátová, Dana; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect significantly the transport of contaminants through the near field and far field of a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel were studied. The processes can be generally divided into (i) processes related to the release of radionuclides from the spent nuclear fuel; (ii) processes related to the radionuclide transport mechanisms (such as advection and diffusion); and (iii) processes affecting the rate of radionuclide migration through the multi-barrier repository system. A near-field and geosphere model of an unspecified geological repository sited in a crystalline rock is also described. Focus of the treatment is on the effects of the different processes on the activity flow of the major safety-relevant radionuclides. The activity flow was simulated for one spent fuel cask by using the GoldSim simulation tool. (orig.)

  15. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  16. The importance of bacterial utilization of released phytoplankton photosynthate in two humic forest lakes in southern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.I.; Salonen, K.

    1985-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of photosynthetically fixed dissolved organic carbon (PDOC) released from natural phytoplankton assemblages was studied in two small, extremely humic, forest lakes in southern Finland. Bacterial activity (measured us uptake of 14 C-glucose) and phytoplankton photosynthesis (measured as light uptake of 14 CO 2 ) could be most effectively separated using Nuclepore filters of pore 1-2 μm. Released PDOC was 10-67% of total phytoplankton carbon fixation during in situ experiments, and represented about 0.1% of total DOC. Net uptake of PDOC by bacteria was found to be about 20% during 24 hour laboratory incubations, although about 40% of PDOC present at the start of an experiment could be utilized by bacteria during a 24 hour period. PDOC does not provide a quantitatively important substrate supply fo bacterial respiration in humic forest lakes. (author)

  17. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  18. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  19. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  20. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  1. Mathematics year 5 answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  2. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human...

  3. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  4. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  5. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  6. Minimal Clinically Important Difference in Parkinson’s Disease as Assessed in Pivotal Trials of Pramipexole Extended Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Hauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID is the smallest change in an outcome measure that is meaningful for patients. Objectives. To calculate the MCID for Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS scores in early Parkinson’s disease (EPD and for UPDRS scores and “OFF” time in advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD. Methods. We analyzed data from two pivotal, double-blind, parallel-group trials of pramipexole ER that included pramipexole immediate release (IR as an active comparator. We calculated MCID as the mean change in subjects who received active treatment and rated themselves “a little better” on patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I minus the mean change in subjects who received placebo and rated themselves unchanged. Results. MCIDs in EPD (pramipexole ER, pramipexole IR for UPDRS II were −1.8 and −2.0, for UPDRS III −6.2 and −6.1, and for UPDRS II + III −8.0 and −8.1. MCIDs in APD for UPDRS II were −1.8 and −2.3, for UPDRS III −5.2 and −6.5, and for UPDRS II + III −7.1 and −8.8. MCID for “OFF” time (pramipexole ER, pramipexole IR was −1.0 and −1.3 hours. Conclusions. A range of MCIDs is emerging in the PD literature that provides the basis for power calculations and interpretation of clinical trials.

  7. Marine fouling release silicone/carbon nanotube nanocomposite coatings: on the importance of the nanotube dispersion state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigbeder, Alexandre; Mincheva, Rosica; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Claes, Michael; Dubois, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports on the influence of the dispersion quality of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a silicone matrix on the marine fouling-release performance of the resulting nanocomposite coatings. A first set of coatings filled with different nanofiller contents was prepared by the dilution of a silicone/MWCNTs masterbatch within a hydrosilylation-curing polydimethylsiloxane resin. The fouling-release properties of the nanocomposite coatings were studied through laboratory assays with the marine alga (seaweed) Ulva, a common fouling species. As reported previously (see Ref. [19]), the addition of a small (0.05%) amount of carbon nanotubes substantially improves the fouling-release properties of the silicone matrix. This paper shows that this improvement is dependent on the amount of filler, with a maximum obtained with 0.1 wt% of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The method of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the silicone matrix is also shown to significantly (p = 0.05) influence the fouling-release properties of the coatings. Dispersing 0.1% MWCNTs using the masterbatch approach yielded coatings with circa 40% improved fouling-release properties over those where MWCNTs were dispersed directly in the polymeric matrix. This improvement is directly related to the state of nanofiller dispersion within the cross-linked silicone coating.

  8. Answers to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    - teacher, learner or curriculum planner positions - result in different strategies or 'answers to modernity'. The research has taken place as a study of e-learning and virtual teachhing of Danish as a second language for adults. The fact that relations in virtual learning are established between physically......, locationally distant'. Based on a case study and interviews with e-learning teachers and learner participants in a virtual classroom setting and on extracts of the curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course, the aim of the paper is to discuss how different positions in an e-learning triangle...... absent individuals, who are locationnaly distant and may never meet, seems to necessitate different strategies towards e-learning, depending on the position in the learning triangle. The research results indicate, that teachers compensate for the disembedded social relations in e-llearning environments...

  9. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Novelty Detection via Answer Updating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiaoyan; Croft, W. B

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, we explore the use of question-answering techniques for novelty detection. New information is defined as new/previously unseen answers to questions representing a user's information need...

  11. Distribution-based estimates of minimum clinically important difference in cognition, arm function and lower body function after slow release-fampridine treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Mamoei, Sepehr; Ravnborg, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide distribution-based estimates of the minimal clinical important difference (MCID) after slow release fampridine treatment on cognition and functional capacity in people with MS (PwMS). METHOD: MCID values were determined after SR-Fampridine treatment in 105 PwMS. Testing...

  12. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    OpenAIRE

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  13. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  14. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  15. What Can the Answer be?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. What Can the Answer be? Reciprocal Basis in Two Dimensions and Other Nice Things. V Balakrishnan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp ... Author Affiliations. V Balakrishnan1. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India ...

  16. What can the Answer be?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lems is to ask what the answer could possibly be, under the constraints of the given problem. In the first part of this series, this approach is il- lustrated with some examples from elementary vector analysis. Scientific problems are very often first solved by a com- bination of analogy, educated guesswork and elimination.

  17. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  18. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  19. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  20. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  1. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  2. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler’s ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  4. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Adam; Murphy, Christophe; Dobson, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler's ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  5. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  6. Flexible Query Answering Systems 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -computer interaction. The overall theme of the FQAS conferences is innovative query systems aimed at providing easy, flexible, and intuitive access to information. Such systems are intended to facilitate retrieval from information repositories such as databases, libraries, and the World-Wide Web. These repositories......This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2006, held in Milan, Italy, on June 7--10, 2006. FQAS is the premier conference for researchers and practitioners concerned with the vital task of providing easy, flexible...... are typically equipped with standard query systems which are often inadequate, and the focus of FQAS is the development of query systems that are more expressive, informative, cooperative, and productive. These proceedings contain contributions from invited speakers and 53 original papers out of about 100...

  7. The importance of thin layer chromatography and UV microspectrophotometry in the analysis of reactive dyes released from wool and cotton fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Kenneth G; Holness, Julie-Ann; March, Bridget M

    2005-03-01

    Samples of reactively-dyed wool and cotton were obtained from a range of dye manufacturers, dye distributors and the Forensic Science Service (FSS) Fibre Data Collection. The wool fibers were red in color and had previously been compared using comparison microscopy (CM), visible range microspectrophotometry (VS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The cotton fibers were blue and black in color and had not been previously compared. Red, blue and black fibers were chosen because they are often encountered in casework. The usage of reactive dyes to color fibers has increased over the last 10-15 years and these are often seen in casework. Before techniques were available that allowed reactively-dyed fibers to be compared using TLC only CM and microspectrophotometry were routinely carried out. Many laboratories, who had a microspectrophotometer, only had a visible range instrument. It was therefore important to see which techniques provide additional information, that gives greater individuality to fibers, to that obtained from CM. The color was released from the wool and cotton fibres using alkaline hydrolysis and a cellulase enzyme respectively. Many of the red wool samples were differentiated from each other using CM. More differentiation was found using VS and even more when ultraviolet range microspectrophotometry (UV) or TLC was used. Two samples could only be differentiated using TLC because CM, VS and UV failed to separate them. The black cotton samples were predominately differentiated using CM but VS allowed for further differentiation. With the samples used in this project UV and TLC failed to separate the samples further. The blue cotton samples benefited from the use of CM, VS and either UV or TLC to reduce the number of matching pairs. All techniques aided differentiation although with this set TLC and UV proved to be complementary techniques. Results demonstrate that TLC and UV both yield important information over and above that obtained from CM and VS

  8. 31 CFR 10.64 - Answer; default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer; default. 10.64 Section 10.64... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.64 Answer; default. (a) Filing. The respondent's... need be adduced at a hearing. (d) Default. Failure to file an answer within the time prescribed (or...

  9. Mobile Information Access with Spoken Query Answering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Tom; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    window focused over the part which most likely contains an answer to the query. The two systems are integrated into a full spoken query answering system. The prototype can answer queries and questions within the chosen football (soccer) test domain, but the system has the flexibility for being ported...

  10. 6 CFR 13.9 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer. 13.9 Section 13.9 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.9 Answer. (a) The Defendant may request a hearing by serving an answer on the Reviewing Official within 30 days of service of...

  11. Country plan Zeeland, predesign. Policy note reactions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this note of the provincial executive of Zeeland the timely entered reactions on the predesign-country plan Zeeland, concerning the location of additional nuclear power plants in Borssele are elaborated. The relevance of the policy can be related to the character of the reactions on the predesign-country plan, as well as to the character of the answers and conclusions associated with them. The answers in this note may be important as explanations of the contents of the predesign-country plan. The remarks are arranged, summarized and answered as much as possible according to the arrangement of the predesign-country plan. By subject, in each case, first the corresponding reactions are summarized, next the reactions are answered. From the conclusions it appears if and to what extent reactions may give motivations for modifications in the predesign

  12. Country plan Zeeland, predesign. Official note reactions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this official note of the steering committee Streekplanwerk (country plan work) the timely entered reactions on the predesign-country plan Zeeland, concerning the location of additional nuclear power plants in Borssele are elaborated. The relevance of the policy can be related to the character of the reactions on the predesign-country plan, as well as to the character of the answers and conclusions associated with them. The answers in this note may be important as explanations of the contents of the predesign-country plan. The remarks are arranged, summarized and answered as much as possible according to the arrangement of the predesign-country plan. By subject, in each case, first the corresponding reactions are summarized, next the reactions are answered. From the conclusions it appears if and to what extent reactions may give motivations for modifications in the predesign

  13. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  14. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  15. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  16. Answer selection in a multi-stream open domain question answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; McDonald, S.; Tait, J.

    2004-01-01

    Question answering systems aim to meet users' information needs by returning exact answers in response to a question. Traditional open domain question answering systems are built around a single pipeline architecture. In an attempt to exploit multiple resources as well as multiple answering

  17. Interpretation of Genomic Data Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hyperbole and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in devlopingan era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in re-thinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:18582627

  18. Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan A; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval practice improves meaningful learning, and the most frequent way of implementing retrieval practice in classrooms is to have students answer questions. In four experiments (N=372) we investigated the effects of different question formats on learning. Students read educational texts and practised retrieval by answering short-answer, multiple-choice, or hybrid questions. In hybrid conditions students first attempted to recall answers in short-answer format, then identified answers in multiple-choice format. We measured learning 1 week later using a final assessment with two types of questions: those that could be answered by recalling information verbatim from the texts and those that required inferences. Practising retrieval in all format conditions enhanced retention, relative to a study-only control condition, on both verbatim and inference questions. However, there were little or no advantages of answering short-answer or hybrid format questions over multiple-choice questions in three experiments. In Experiment 4, when retrieval success was improved under initial short-answer conditions, there was an advantage of answering short-answer or hybrid questions over multiple-choice questions. The results challenge the simple conclusion that short-answer questions always produce the best learning, due to increased retrieval effort or difficulty, and demonstrate the importance of retrieval success for retrieval-based learning activities.

  19. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  20. Determinants of quality, latency, and amount of Stack Overflow answers about recent Android APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.g., the coercion operator in C++, or the difference between canonical and class names in Java, get asked often in one form or another, and answered very quickly. On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer. This is particularly the case with questions about current updates to or the introduction of new application programming interfaces (APIs). In a hyper-competitive online market, getting good answers to current programming questions sooner could increase the chances of an app getting released and used. So, can developers anyhow, e.g., hasten the speed to good answers to questions about new APIs? Here, we empirically study Stack Overflow questions pertaining to new Android APIs and their associated answers. We contrast the interest in these questions, their answer quality, and timeliness of their answers to questions about old APIs. We find that Stack Overflow answerers in general prioritize with respect to currentness: questions about new APIs do get more answers, but good quality answers take longer. We also find that incentives in terms of question bounties, if used appropriately, can significantly shorten the time and increase answer quality. Interestingly, no operationalization of bounty amount shows significance in our models. In practice, our findings confirm the value of bounties in enhancing expert participation. In addition, they show that the Stack Overflow style of crowdsourcing, for all its glory in providing answers about established programming knowledge, is less effective with new API questions. PMID:29547620

  1. Determinants of quality, latency, and amount of Stack Overflow answers about recent Android APIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaler, David; Filkov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.g., the coercion operator in C++, or the difference between canonical and class names in Java, get asked often in one form or another, and answered very quickly. On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer. This is particularly the case with questions about current updates to or the introduction of new application programming interfaces (APIs). In a hyper-competitive online market, getting good answers to current programming questions sooner could increase the chances of an app getting released and used. So, can developers anyhow, e.g., hasten the speed to good answers to questions about new APIs? Here, we empirically study Stack Overflow questions pertaining to new Android APIs and their associated answers. We contrast the interest in these questions, their answer quality, and timeliness of their answers to questions about old APIs. We find that Stack Overflow answerers in general prioritize with respect to currentness: questions about new APIs do get more answers, but good quality answers take longer. We also find that incentives in terms of question bounties, if used appropriately, can significantly shorten the time and increase answer quality. Interestingly, no operationalization of bounty amount shows significance in our models. In practice, our findings confirm the value of bounties in enhancing expert participation. In addition, they show that the Stack Overflow style of crowdsourcing, for all its glory in providing answers about established programming knowledge, is less effective with new API questions.

  2. Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine

    Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.

  3. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  4. Impact of introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and classical biological control releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on economically important fruit flies in French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Leblanc, Luc; Putoa, Rudolph; Eitam, Avi

    2007-06-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was discovered on Tahiti Island in July 1996. Eradication programs were conducted from 1997 to 2001, but failed. From 1998 to 2006, B. dorsalis was recovered from 29 different host fruit from the five Society Islands: Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine. Analysis of coinfestation patterns by B. dorsalis, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), and Bactrocera kirki (Froggatt) suggested B. dorsalis had displaced these two species and become the most abundant fruit fly in coastal areas. To suppress B. dorsalis populations, a classical biological control program was initiated to introduce the natural enemy Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) into French Polynesia from Hawaii. Wasps were released and established on Tahiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, and Huahine Islands. In guava, Psidium guajava L., collections for Tahiti, F. arisanus parasitism of fruit flies was 2.1, 31.8, 37.5, and 51.9% for fruit collected for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Based on guava collections in 2002 (before releases) and 2006 (after releases), there was a subsequent decrease in numbers of B. dorsalis, B. tryoni, and B. kirki fruit flies emerging (per kilogram of fruit) by 75.6, 79.3, and 97.9%, respectively. These increases in F. arisanus parasitism and decreases in infestation were similar for other host fruit. Establishment of F. arisanus is the most successful example of classical biological control of fruit flies in the Pacific area outside of Hawaii and serves as a model for introduction into South America, Africa, and China where species of the B. dorsalis complex are established.

  5. Answers to Questions: Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Electricity is an increasingly important part of our everyday lives. Its versatility allows one to heat, cool, and light homes; cook meals; watch television; listen to music; power computers; make medical diagnosis and treatment; explore the vastness of space; and study the tiniest molecules. Nuclear energy, second to coal, surpasses natural gas,…

  6. Two new indices to detect answer copying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotaridona, Leonardo; Meijer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test—S1 and S2—were proposed. The S1 index is similar to the K index (Holland, 1996) and the K2 index (Sotaridona & Meijer, 2002) but the distribution of the number of matching incorrect answers of the source and the copier is modeled by

  7. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement... complainant and the Commission fully and completely of the nature of any defense, including factual... as such and presented separately from any denials; (5) State the nature of the evidentiary support...

  8. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  9. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...

  10. 19 CFR 212.21 - Answer to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer to application. 212.21 Section 212.21 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 212.21...

  11. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. An Online Partner for Holocaust Remembrance Education: Students Approaching the Yahoo! Answers Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Holocaust education has gained increased importance in recent decades and attention has latterly been directed to the role of the Internet within the field. Of major importance within the virtual space are Question and Answer communities. We investigated the interactions taking place within the Yahoo! Answers community following questions posted…

  13. Smart query answering for marine sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Md Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  14. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  15. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  16. Answers to questions about removing krypton from the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor building. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    This document presents answers to frequently asked questions about the probable effects of controlled releases of the krypton presently contained within the reactor building of Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Also answered are questions about alternative means for removing the krypton

  17. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  18. Internet firewalls: questions and answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keith

    1996-03-01

    As organizations consider connecting to the Internet, the issue of internetwork security becomes more important. There are many tools and components that can be used to secure a network, one of which is a firewall. Modern firewalls offer highly flexible private network security by controlling and monitoring all communications passing into or out of the private network. Specifically designed for security, firewalls become the private network's single point of attack from Internet intruders. Application gateways (or proxies) that have been written to be secure against even the most persistent attacks ensure that only authorized users and services access the private network. One-time passwords prevent intruders from `sniffing' and replaying the usernames and passwords of authorized users to gain access to the private network. Comprehensive logging permits constant and uniform system monitoring. `Address spoofing' attacks are prevented. The private network may use registered or unregistered IP addresses behind the firewall. Firewall-to-firewall encryption establishes a `virtual private network' across the Internet, preventing intruders from eavesdropping on private communications, eliminating the need for costly dedicated lines.

  19. NUGs waiting on OEFC for answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    Non-utility generators of electric power (NUGs), holders of more than 80 power sales contracts with the former Ontario Hydro, are anxiously awaiting answers from the Ontario Electricity Finance Corporation (OEFC) regarding the rules for bidding for contracts. It appears that several important deadlines have passed without action by the OEFC, which could result in NUGs being denied the opportunity to bid for generation contracts. One action by the OEFC that was welcomed by the NUGs was the information that holders of NUG contracts are suppliers of power to a wholesale marketer, and it is that marketer who is obliged to comply with the Independent Market Operator (IMO) under the market rules. The information sent to NUG representatives specifically acknowledged that OEFC, which is responsible for managing power purchase contracts of the former Ontario Hydro, is itself a Wholesale Market Participant, which means that the costs related to bidding into the IMO under the new market rules, and the necessary upgrading of systems to allow for that, will be borne by the Marketer, or distributor of power, which in this case is the OEFC. This was one of the many outstanding issues between the NUGs and their counterparts in the power purchase agreements.

  20. Is there a definitive answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In addition to outlining the present status of safety performance assessment in the disposal of high-level spent nuclear fuel (for example, the criteria considered, the models used, and the scenarios predicted, ect.) the seminar was structured around future safety predictions within realistic geological time references, namely, the periods prior to, during, and subsequent to the next ice-age. The importance was underlined in understanding the drastic changes in climate that probably await us in Scandinavia, how these will influence a repository located deep in the bedrock and, in turn, the reliability of the engineered and natural barriers selected to safeguard future generations from biospheric contamination. Several questions were posed, such as, will the copper canisters serve their function, or will the formation of new, or the reactivation of older faults during glacial epochs, jeopardise our safety performance predictions, or will man himself impose the greatest safety threat? This condensed summary reflects some of the main opinions expressed and inferred during the seminar, both the positive and negative aspects, in the hope of representing a balanced overview of the present status of research concerning the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. At the beginning of each section a list of the main contributors is given and, where appropriate, individuals are referenced in the text. Because of the condensed nature of the summary, it is inevitable that some participants may have been underrepresented or quoted out of context. Any misrepresentation or misinterpretation of data discussed at the seminar is the responsibility of the translator. (au) (see INIS 22:44587 for the original report)

  1. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  2. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  3. One Answer to "What Is Calculus?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilgalis, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A number of questions are posed that can be answered with the aid of calculus. These include best value problems, best shape problems, problems involving integration, and growth and decay problems. (MP)

  4. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  5. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  6. Radiation protection in questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Hoppe, G.

    1976-01-01

    An easily surveyable catalogue of questions is presented which is to make it easier for medical personnel to get acquainted with the basic knowledge according to the X-ray Ordinance and to acquire the expert knowledge in radiation protection. The catalogue is arranged according to different subjects. There are several alternative answers to every question. The right answer is given in the solution index (annex). (HP) [de

  7. Interactions and user-perceived helpfulness in diet information social questions & answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Peilin

    2016-12-01

    Online health information seeking using social questions and answers (Social Q&A) sites has been increasingly popular in recent years. It calls for better understanding of health information seeking behaviour and interactions between information seekers and information providers. The study investigates how diet information seekers interact with information providers on WebMD Answers, which is a Social Q&A site devoted to health-related topics, and examines the factors that constitute a 'helpful' answer from an information seeker's perspective. Bales' interaction process analysis was applied as the framework to analyse 568 diet-related Q&As from WebMD Answers to identify interaction patterns. Most diet information seekers post questions anonymously and without any detailed description. Individual experts or health organisations provide most answers. Overall, answers are positively received and had a high satisfaction rating. It was also found that information seeker-perceived helpfulness does not depend on who answered the question but to how an information seeker posted the question. This study indicates that answers at WebMD Answers are helpful for diet information seekers. It sheds new light on the interactions during the Q&A process, preferred site functions and important factors that contribute to perceived helpful answers. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.

  9. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  10. The area postrema (AP) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are important sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) to decrease evoked phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Lynda; McCutcheon, James E; Boyle, Christina N; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lutz, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN. To determine whether and how peripheral amylin or sCT affect mesolimbic reward circuitry we utilized fast scan cyclic voltammetry under anesthesia to measure phasic DA release in the NAc evoked by electrical stimulation of the VTA in intact, AP lesioned and bilaterally PBN lesioned rats. Amylin (50μg/kg i.p.) did not change phasic DA responses compared to saline control rats. However, sCT (50μg/kg i.p.) decreased evoked DA release to VTA-stimulation over 1h compared to saline treated control rats. Further investigations determined that AP and bilateral PBN lesions abolished the ability of sCT to suppress evoked phasic DA responses to VTA-stimulation. These findings implicate the AP and the PBN as important sites for peripheral sCT to decrease evoked DA release in the NAc and suggest that these nuclei may influence hedonic and motivational processes to modulate food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  12. Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, W.E.; Theune, Mariet; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, F.

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section/paragraph that

  13. 29 CFR 1921.4 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 41 OF THE LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Prehearing Procedures § 1921.4 Answer. (a) Filing and service. Within 14 days after the...

  14. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  15. Question-answer sequences in survey interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, W.; Ongena, Y.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction analysis was used to analyze a total of 14,265 question-answer sequences of (Q-A Sequences) 80 questions that originated from two face-to-face and three telephone surveys. The analysis was directed towards the causes and effects of particular interactional problems. Our results showed

  16. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  17. Two new statistics to detect answer copying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test, S(1) and S(2) (subscripts), are proposed. The S(1) index is similar to the K-index (P. Holland, 1996) and the K-overscore(2), (K2) index (L. Sotaridona and R. Meijer, in press), but the distribution of the number of matching

  18. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  19. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  20. From Answer-Getters to Problem Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mike

    2017-01-01

    In some math classrooms, students are taught to follow and memorize procedures to arrive at the correct solution to problems. In this article, author Mike Flynn suggests a way to move beyond answer-getting to true problem solving. He describes an instructional approach called three-act tasks in which students solve an engaging math problem in…

  1. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  2. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. 21 CFR 17.9 - Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer. 17.9 Section 17.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES HEARINGS... Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD...

  4. DEFINITION OF TYPOS IN ANSWER OF STUDENT IN KNOWN CORRECT ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes method of typo detection in the answers for the questions with open answers. In such questions we know one or several correct answers defining relatively small dictionary of correct words contrasting the usual case of looking for typos in arbitrary text. This fact allows using more complex analysis methods and finding more possible typos, such as extra or missing separators. A typo correction module for the Correct Writing question type (for Moodle LMS was developed using proposed methods. 

  5. Safety Day Prize Competition: results and answers

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The three winners of the Safety Day Prize Competition are...   • 1st Prize: Fernando LEITE PEREIRA – smoke detector • 2nd Prize: Thomas DE BORTOLI – water filter jug • 3rd Prize: Matti KALLIOKOSKI – safety goggles Please see the image below for the answers to the questionnaire. If you have any questions regarding the Safety Day, please contact: safety.communication@cern.ch. And again, thank you to all the participants!

  6. Hydroelectricity - An Answer To Energy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois-Xausa, Maryse; Havard, David; Czerwinski, Francois; Teller, Olivier

    2010-09-15

    The energy challenges of the next 30 years appear daunting and, in certain cases, in conflict with one another. Their complexity is such that one solution alone cannot provide a full answer. It is nevertheless equally clear that hydro-electricity, being renewable, proven, highly efficient, storable and with still very significant resource potential, possesses a unique combination of attributes which will aid decision-makers to plan and execute energy development with confidence.

  7. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  8. Probability Aggregates in Probability Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Probability answer set programming is a declarative programming that has been shown effective for representing and reasoning about a variety of probability reasoning tasks. However, the lack of probability aggregates, e.g. {\\em expected values}, in the language of disjunctive hybrid probability logic programs (DHPP) disallows the natural and concise representation of many interesting problems. In this paper, we extend DHPP to allow arbitrary probability aggregates. We introduce two types of p...

  9. Examinations in radiology with commented answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmaack, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    This book is meant to be a help in the preparation for the examination in the subject of radiology. Original questions from the examinations of the past years and questions put by the author cover all subjects of the catalogue. All questions are answered, with additional comments in order to ensure the understanding of the subject, thus creating best preconditions for a successful examination. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications...

  11. To answer or not to answer? A field test of loss aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Krawczyk

    2011-01-01

    This study is a field experiment on loss aversion. The framing of scoring rules was differentiated in two exams at the University of Warsaw, with only half the students facing explicit penalty points in the case of giving an incorrect answer. Loss aversion predicts that less risk will be taken (less questions will be answered) when losses are possible but in fact, no treatment effect was observed.

  12. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.; Koelzer, W.

    Highly developed technologies, such as the nuclear power plant technology, have met with an increasing interest on the part of the general public during the last few years. As it is our duty to meet this demand for information and to supply the general public with objective and complete information on technical details, this series of brochures has been started. The present fourth and revised issue of 'Questions and answers on nuclear energy' explains the subjects in even greater detail and has been enlarged by an additional chapter on 'Waste disposal and waste management.' (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear power in Canada: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    To further public understanding of nuclear power generation, the Canadian Nuclear Association commissioned a special task force to coordinate contributions of experts in all parts of the nuclear industry. These contributions have been arranged in a question and answer format and are aimed at the average Canadian reader who is genuinely seeking factual information on nuclear power. Areas covered include electricity demand, comparison of nuclear generation with other forms of thermal electricity production, radiation sources and effects on man and his environment; features of different reactor types, thermal discharges and waste management. (O.T.)

  14. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  15. First trainer six practice tests with answers

    CERN Document Server

    May, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Six full practice tests with tips and training for the 2015 revised Cambridge English: First (FCE). First Trainer Second edition offers six practice tests for the revised Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam combined with easy-to-follow guidance and exam tips. The first two tests are fully guided with advice on how to tackle each paper. Extra practice activities, informed by the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a bank of real candidates' exam papers, focus on areas where students typically need the most help. This version contains a full answer key. Audio for the listening and speaking test activities is available online for download. Audio CDs featuring the listening material are also available, separately.

  16. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  18. How to answer the industry's opponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Full text: 1. Be seen and be heard out in the environmental field: Nuclear power reduces air pollution. - It is an answer to concerns over pollution in cities; - It is an answer to concerns over the earth's changing climate patterns due to the greenhouse effect; - The storage of nuclear waste is now harnessed. 2. Don't let people get away with untruths: The more an untrue notion is repeated, the more truthful it sounds. In confronting this attitude, always take care to denounce lies and assert truths. To this end, I suggest creating an international data bank for quotes, which would collect quotations and the words of internationally known and respected scientists, professors of medicine and experts. 3. Do not forget the basics. Energy power did not develop on the theme of the environment. And it will not do so in the future. Secure power supply and economic appeal are the two themes forming the platform for nuclear power. They must remain the base of our rationale. (author)

  19. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong

    2017-06-01

    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  1. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  2. THE EFFECT OF INTRASTRIATAL APPLICATION OF DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY ACTING DOPAMINE AGONISTS AND ANTAGONISTS ON THE INVIVO RELEASE OF ACETYLCHOLINE MEASURED BY BRAIN MICRODIALYSIS - THE IMPORTANCE OF THE POSTSURGERY INTERVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, P; DAMSMA, G; SCHRAM, Q; STOOF, JC; ZAAGSMA, J; WESTERINK, BHC

    The effect of intrastriatal application of D-1, D-2 and indirect dopaminergic drugs on the release of striatal acetylcholine as a function of the post-implantation intervals was studied using in vivo microdialysis. The dopamine D-2 agonists LY 171555 and (-)N0437 inhibited the release of striatal

  3. Training IBM Watson using Automatically Generated Question-Answer Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Gyuwan; Yoo, Jaeyoon; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Minseok; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    IBM Watson is a cognitive computing system capable of question answering in natural languages. It is believed that IBM Watson can understand large corpora and answer relevant questions more effectively than any other question-answering system currently available. To unleash the full power of Watson, however, we need to train its instance with a large number of well-prepared question-answer pairs. Obviously, manually generating such pairs in a large quantity is prohibitively time consuming and...

  4. Explicit Knowledge-based Reasoning for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Dick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for visual question answering which is capable of reasoning about contents of an image on the basis of information extracted from a large-scale knowledge base. The method not only answers natural language questions using concepts not contained in the image, but can provide an explanation of the reasoning by which it developed its answer. The method is capable of answering far more complex questions than the predominant long short-term memory-based approach, and outperform...

  5. Production and evaluation of (multimodal) answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, A.; Theune, Mariet; Bosma, W.E.; Maes, A.; Ainsworth, S.

    This paper describes two experiments carried out to investigate the production and evaluation of multimodal answer presentations in the context of a medical question answering system. In a production experiment participants had to produce answers to different types of questions. The results show

  6. 49 CFR 31.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 31.10 Section 31.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the defendant does not answer within the time prescribed in § 31.9...

  7. 6 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the Defendant does not answer within the time...

  8. The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

  9. A deep learning approach for predicting the quality of online health expert question-answering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ze; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Haiqin; Chen, Qing; Zuo, Decheng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: (1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; (2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which refrains the wisdom of crowd. The important information, such as the best answer and the number of users' votes, is missing. To tackle these issues, we prepare the first HQA research data set labeled by three medical experts in 90days and formulate the problem of predicting the quality of answers in the system as a classification task. We not only incorporate the standard textual feature of answers, but also introduce a set of unique non-textual features, i.e., the popular used surface linguistic features and the novel social features, from other modalities. A multimodal deep belief network (DBN)-based learning framework is then proposed to learn the high-level hidden semantic representations of answers from both textual features and non-textual features while the learned joint representation is fed into popular classifiers to determine the quality of answers. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of including the non-textual features and the proposed multimodal deep learning framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  11. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress’ Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and...

  12. The controversy over food irradiation ''open questions'' and reliable answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1950s and 60s, when ''going nuclear'' was the thing, research and development in the area of food irradiation was generously supported by governments, and was reported by the media with a very positive attitude. In the wake of the antinuclear movement that swept many countries in the 70s and 80s, food irradiation generally had a bad press and governmental support for R and D in this area was reduced more and more. In the meantime, the new technology has become a commerical reality in countries like Belgium, France and the Netherlands. In other countries, Germany for instance, the frightening claims of the opponents that irradiated foods are bad for health and nutritionally worthless - have been gradually replaced by the view: ''There are still too many open questions. A moratorium on food irradiation must be proclaimed until all the questions have been answered''. A situation where no more questions can be asked, will never be reached. However, reliable answers can be given to the important questions concerning nutritional and health quality of irradiated food, and environmental safety, technical efficacy, and economic feasibility of the process. The question that is stipp open, at least in some countries, is to what extent consumers, confused by conflicting claims of opponents and proponents and often misinformed about the difference between radiation and radioactivity, will buy foods labelled ''irradiated''. (orig.) [de

  13. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  14. Finding new answers to old questions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Last month, the NA63 collaboration presented its annual update at the 107th meeting of the SPS and PS experiments committee (SPSC). Among the many results presented were new insights into arenas of experimental quantum electrodynamics – including some that will have theorists heading back to the blackboard.   NA63 Collaboration members at work on the positron-production experiment. Image: NA63. Based at CERN’s SPS North Area, the NA63 experiment uses high-energy beams for crystalline studies of various electromagnetic processes. “This year has been very productive for us, both in terms of data gathering and data analysis,” says Ulrik Uggerhoj, NA63 collaboration spokesperson. “We’ve released results based on previous runs, assembled and tested an entirely new experimental set-up, and have also gathered enough data to keep us occupied during the 2013 shutdown.” In September, the collaboration announced a new result that con...

  15. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  16. Latent Space Embedding for Retrieval in Question-Answer Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Deepak; Garg, Dinesh; Shevade, Shirish

    2017-01-01

    Community-driven Question Answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers have become valuable sources of reusable information. CQA retrieval enables usage of historical CQA archives to solve new questions posed by users. This task has received much recent attention, with methods building upon literature from translation models, topic models, and deep learning. In this paper, we devise a CQA retrieval technique, LASER-QA, that embeds question-answer pairs within a unified latent space preservi...

  17. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, Th.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  18. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita [Hospital of the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, German WHO-REMPAN Collaboration Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for

  19. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress' Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bodil S A; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and Ritter, 1992). Building on these findings, 186 participants saw the photo of The Dress and were asked about the correct answer to the question about The Dress' colors (" blue and black," "white and gold," "other, namely…," or "there is no correct answer" ). Choice of the alternative "there is no correct answer" was interpreted as believing the question was not answerable. This answer was chosen more often by optimists and by people who reported they had not seen The Dress before. We also found that among participants who had seen The Dress photo before, 19%, perceived The Dress as "white and gold" but believed that the correct answer was "blue and black ." This, in analogy to previous findings about non-believed memories (Scoboria and Pascal, 2016), shows that people sometimes do not believe the colors they have perceived are correct. Our results suggest that individual differences related to optimism and previous experience may contribute to if the judgment of the individual perception of a photograph is enough to serve as a decision basis for valid conclusions about colors. Further research about color judgments under ambiguous circumstances could benefit from separating individual perceptual experience from beliefs about the correct answer to the color question. Including the option "there is no correct answer " may also be beneficial.

  20. ATP Release Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyuki Taruno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP has been well established as an important extracellular ligand of autocrine signaling, intercellular communication, and neurotransmission with numerous physiological and pathophysiological roles. In addition to the classical exocytosis, non-vesicular mechanisms of cellular ATP release have been demonstrated in many cell types. Although large and negatively charged ATP molecules cannot diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, conductive ATP release from the cytosol into the extracellular space is possible through ATP-permeable channels. Such channels must possess two minimum qualifications for ATP permeation: anion permeability and a large ion-conducting pore. Currently, five groups of channels are acknowledged as ATP-release channels: connexin hemichannels, pannexin 1, calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, also known as volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR anion channels, and maxi-anion channels (MACs. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in the field by molecular identification of CALHM1 as the action potential-dependent ATP-release channel in taste bud cells, LRRC8s as components of VRACs, and SLCO2A1 as a core subunit of MACs. Here, the function and physiological roles of these five groups of ATP-release channels are summarized, along with a discussion on the future implications of understanding these channels.

  1. Autism in 2016: the need for answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annio Posar

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable populations, also in view of proper prevention.

  2. The Most Reasonable Answer: Helping Students Build Better Arguments Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Wilkinson, Ian A. G.

    2017-01-01

    "The Most Reasonable Answer" is an innovative and comprehensive guide to engaging students in inquiry dialogue--a type of talk used in text-based classroom discussions. During inquiry dialogue, students collectively search for the most reasonable answers to big, controversial questions, and, as a result, enhance their argumentation…

  3. 36 CFR 1150.48 - PER: Citation, answer, amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PER: Citation, answer...; Pleadings and Motions § 1150.48 PER: Citation, answer, amendment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, other..., the citation shall request PER when it appears to the Executive Director that immediate and...

  4. 12 CFR 747.610 - Answer to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Procedures Applicable to Recovery of Attorneys Fees and Other Expenses Under the Equal Access to Justice Act in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.610 Answer to application. (a) Within 30 days after service... paragraph (b) of this section, failure to file an answer within the 30-day period will be treated as a...

  5. 49 CFR 1016.303 - Answer to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE RECOVERY OF EXPENSES... Answer to application. (a) Within 30 days after service of an application, counsel representing the... this section, failure to file an answer within the 30-day period may be treated as a consent to the...

  6. Answer Extraction Based on Merging Score Strategy of Hot Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Juan; ZHANG Chunxia; NIU Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Answer extraction (AE) is one of the key technologies in developing the open domain Question&an-swer (Q&A) system . Its task is to yield the highest score to the expected answer based on an effective answer score strategy. We introduce an answer extraction method by Merging score strategy (MSS) based on hot terms. The hot terms are defined according to their lexical and syn-tactic features to highlight the role of the question terms. To cope with the syntactic diversities of the corpus, we propose four improved candidate answer score algorithms. Each of them is based on the lexical function of hot terms and their syntactic relationships with the candidate an-swers. Two independent corpus score algorithms are pro-posed to tap the role of the corpus in ranking the candi-date answers. Six algorithms are adopted in MSS to tap the complementary action among the corpus, the candi-date answers and the questions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  7. XACML 3.0 in Answer Set Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic technique for transforming XACML 3.0 policies in Answer Set Programming (ASP). We show that the resulting logic program has a unique answer set that directly corresponds to our formalisation of the standard semantics of XACML 3.0 from [9]. We demonstrate how our results make...

  8. 17 CFR 8.13 - Answer to charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer to charges. 8.13 Section 8.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.13 Answer to...

  9. Effect of an evidence-based answering service on GPs and their patients : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.; Schuling, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For general practitioners (GPs), an important obstacle to practising evidence-based medicine is lack of time. An evidence-based answering service was developed that took over searching and appraisal of medical evidence from the GPs. GPs sent in questions, and the informationist

  10. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  11. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  12. Nuclear medicine board review. Questions and answers for self-assessment. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.; Zuckier, L.S.; Karam, M.; Cooper, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides thorough preparation for certification examinations by the American Board of Radiology (Nuclear Medicine section and Special Competency), the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, and the America Board of Nuclear Cardiology. More than 1,780 questions test the reader's knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radionuclides, single-photon applications, and positron emission tomography (PET). Features: - A convenient question and answer format, in which questions appear on the left and answers on the right, allowing the reader to rapidly quiz and review. - New chapters addressing the emergence of PET/CT. - Measurements provided in both American standard and SI metric units. Ideal for board exam preparation, this concise text is an up-to-date question and answer review for the most important topics in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  13. Yahoo! Answers as a Space for Informal Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Dettori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social spaces, where users can exchange information, opinions and resources, have achieved wide popularity and are gaining attention in many research fields, including education. Their actual potential support to learning, however, still requires investigation, especially because portals can widely differ as concerns purpose and internal structure. This paper aims to contribute in this respect, by concentrating on question answering, a kind of social space not yet widely discussed in education. We analyzed a small corpus of posts from the Languages section of Yahoo! Answers Italy, checking if the questions reveal some inclination to learning or just the desire to obtain a service and if the answers provided by the community members can be considered as reliable sources of knowledge. Our analysis highlights the presence of a variety of question/answer types, from mere information exchange or help for task completion, up to language-related questions prompting valuable short lessons. The quality of answers may widely vary as concerns pertinence, correctness and richness of supporting elements. We found a high number of purely task-oriented questions and answers, but also a higher number of learning-oriented questions and correct, informative answers. This suggests that this kind of social space actually has valuable potential for informal learning.

  14. Electricity. The answer to sustainable energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulcke, J.

    1996-01-01

    When debating the rational use of energy, it very often happens that all attention is drawn to the reduction of the use of electricity. Limiting, even eliminating the application of electric heating is seen as a rational choice. On the other hand, industrial consumers are urged to invest in combined heat and power, even without considering a thorough analysis of energy usage. Mastering such an environment is today's challenge for the electricity producers and distributors. Considering the fact that, for a majority of customers, the cost of electricity is more important than the cost of other energy sources, products and services has been developed which, lead to lower bills and lower energy use. From a marketing point of view, this approach introduces electro-thermy to the consumer thereby securing the electricity company of durable sales and even increases in sales. The high efficiency of electrothermal applications secures a reduction in primary energy use. (author)

  15. Autism in 2016: the need for answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola

    Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable populations, also in view of proper prevention. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de

  16. Autism in 2016: the need for answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annio Posar

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong and often devastating conditions that severely affect social functioning and self-sufficiency. The etiopathogenesis is presumably multifactorial, resulting from a very complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder prevalence observed during the last decades has led to placing more emphasis on the role of environmental factors in the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this narrative biomedical review was to summarize and discuss the results of the most recent and relevant studies about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis. Sources: A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine about the environmental factors hypothetically involved in the non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis, including: air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, electromagnetic pollution, vaccinations, and diet modifications. Summary of the findings: While the association between air pollutants, pesticides and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and risk for autism spectrum disorder is receiving increasing confirmation, the hypothesis of a real causal relation between them needs further data. The possible pathogenic mechanisms by which environmental factors can lead to autism spectrum disorder in genetically predisposed individuals were summarized, giving particular emphasis to the increasingly important role of epigenetics. Conclusions: Future research should investigate whether there is a significant difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among nations with high and low levels of the various types of pollution. A very important goal of the research concerning the interactions between genetic and environmental factors in autism spectrum disorder etiopathogenesis is the identification of vulnerable

  17. A Noisy-Channel Approach to Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    question “When did Elvis Presley die?” To do this, we build a noisy channel model that makes explicit how answer sentence parse trees are mapped into...in Figure 1, the algorithm above generates the following training example: Q: When did Elvis Presley die ? SA: Presley died PP PP in A_DATE, and...engine as a potential candidate for finding the answer to the question “When did Elvis Presley die?” In this case, we don’t know what the answer is

  18. Ontologies and adaptivity in dialogue for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, D

    2010-01-01

    Question answering (QA) has become one of the fastest growing topics in computational linguistics and information access. To advance research in the area of dialogue-based question answering, we propose a combination of methods from different scientific fields (i.e., Information Retrieval, Dialogue Systems, Semantic Web, and Machine Learning). This book sheds light on adaptable dialogue-based question answering. We demonstrate the technical and computational feasibility of the proposed ideas, the introspective methods in particular, by beginning with an extensive introduction to the dialogical

  19. Radiological accidents, scenarios, planning and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Delgado, Alexander.

    2008-01-01

    Radiological accidents, scenarios and the importance of a good planning to prevent and control these types of accidents are presented. The radiation can be only one of the risks in an accident, most of dominant radiological risks are not radiological (fire, toxic gases, etc.). The common causes of radiological accidents, potential risks such as external irradiation, internal contamination and the environment pollution are highlighted. In addition, why accidents happen and how they evolve is explained. It describes some incidents with the radiation occurred in Costa Rica from 1993 to 2007. The coordination of emergency management in Costa Rica in relation to a radiological accident, and some mechanisms of action that have practiced in other places are focuses. Among the final considerations are the need to finalize the national plan for radiological emergencies as a tool of empowerment for the teams of emergency care and the availability of information. Likewise the processes of communication, coordination and cooperation to avoid chaos, confusion and crisis are also highlighted [es

  20. Energy challenges: European viewpoints and French answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gjidara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union attempts to improve the European energy market so that it is better coordinated because in a unified Europe it is no longer possible to act in isolation. The production of energy form renewable sources of great proportions demands a mutually linked European energy market if the aims established in the “Energy and Climate” programme and adopted in 2009 are to be achieved. The aim of this paper is to establish how the principles of European Law influence legal norming in energy issues and in the battle against global warming. The development of energy which does not emit carbon dioxide is in accordance with the aims set by the European Union. In that area, this development relies on regions, and not just countries which are not always able to implement defined ambitious aims. Energy continues in the majority of cases to depend on the power of countries and European control is limited. The European Union participates mainly in the co-ordination and support of national policy, within provisions relating to trans-European networks and within environment protection policy. In principle, the measures relating to the choice of each country from the various sources of energy and on the general structure of providing energy have been unanimously accepted. Particular attention has been given to comparing the French legal rules which are applied in the development of renewable sources of energy and the adaptation of the law on renewable sources of energy and laws on environmental protection to urban planning and the importance of supervision with European legal standards of regulation.

  1. HSIP E911 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — 911 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) service area boundaries in New Mexico According to the National Emergency Number Association (NENA), a Public Safety...

  2. Appropriate technology: Often, the best answers can be found right ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... In each case, however, the technologies have done their job – they have led to lasting solutions ... Appropriate technology: Often, the best answers can be found right at home ... In a Bookless Society, Why Start With Books?

  3. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC's standards for protection against radiation

  4. chemistry teachers and their senior secondary students' answers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    STUDENTS' ANSWERS TO PICTORIAL AND VERBAL QUESTIONS IN. EVAPORATION ... chemical education have since changed focus along this direction. ... achievement on the conceptual understanding test in chemistry. Teachers feel ..... Nurrenbern, S. C. & Pickering, M. (1987) Two Kinds of Conceptual Problems in.

  5. A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Taddeo, Antonio; Van der Vegt, Wim; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Giesbers, B., Taddeo, A., van der Vegt, W., van Bruggen, J., Koper, R. (2007). A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper. Paper presented at the Cooper workshop, September 18, Crete, Greece.

  6. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  7. Learning Convolutional Text Representations for Visual Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhengyang; Ji, Shuiwang

    2017-01-01

    Visual question answering is a recently proposed artificial intelligence task that requires a deep understanding of both images and texts. In deep learning, images are typically modeled through convolutional neural networks, and texts are typically modeled through recurrent neural networks. While the requirement for modeling images is similar to traditional computer vision tasks, such as object recognition and image classification, visual question answering raises a different need for textual...

  8. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  9. Techniques for Reaeration of Hydropower Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    release improvement. However, selected reservoir aeration studies not conducted primarily for improving hydroturbine releases but which have application...for hydroturbine release reaeration were also reviewed. Because oxygen transfer mechanisms are vitally important to the development of more efficient...the key words turbine aeration, turbine vent, turbine I’ aspiration, hydroturbine aeration, tailrace aeration, draft tube vent, and vacuum breaker. A

  10. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ STRATEGIES IN ANSWERING TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nurhayati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing types of TOEFL questions seem the most difficult to be answered, the strategies used in answering each type of TOEFL questions, and the TOEFL score of the 8th semester of English Students in STKIP Setia Budhi Rangkasbitung Academic Year 2015/2016. TOEFl test, questionnaires, and interview were used as the instruments. The results showed that understanding idiom in listening, question of noun forms in structure and written expression, and reference question in reading comprehension are the most difficult question types. Related to the strategy, various ways are used in answering the TOEFL test. In addition, the TOEFL score of the eighth semester students of STKIP Setia Budhi was low.

  12. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  13. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  14. One size does not fit all: a qualitative content analysis of the importance of existing quality improvement capacity in the implementation of Releasing Time to Care: the Productive Ward™ in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica; Verrall, Tanya; Maben, Jill; Griffiths, Peter; Avis, Kyla; Baker, G Ross; Teare, Gary

    2014-12-19

    Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward™ (RTC) is a method for conducting continuous quality improvement (QI). The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health mandated its implementation in Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2012. Subsequently, a research team was developed to evaluate its impact on the nursing unit environment. We sought to explore the influence of the unit's existing QI capacity on their ability to engage with RTC as a program for continuous QI. We conducted interviews with staff from 8 nursing units and asked them to speak about their experience doing RTC. Using qualitative content analysis, and guided by the Organizing for Quality framework, we describe the existing QI capacity and impact of RTC on the unit environment. The results focus on 2 units chosen to highlight extreme variation in existing QI capacity. Unit B was characterized by a strong existing environment. RTC was implemented in an environment with a motivated manager and collaborative culture. Aided by the structural support provided by the organization, the QI capacity on this unit was strengthened through RTC. Staff recognized the potential of using the RTC processes to support QI work. Staff on unit E did not have the same experience with RTC. Like unit B, they had similar structural supports provided by their organization but they did not have the same existing cultural or political environment to facilitate the implementation of RTC. They did not have internal motivation and felt they were only doing RTC because they had to. Though they had some success with RTC activities, the staff did not have the same understanding of the methods that RTC could provide for continuous QI work. RTC has the potential to be a strong tool for engaging units to do QI. This occurs best when RTC is implemented in a supporting environment. One size does not fit all and administrative bodies must consider the unique context of each environment prior to implementing large-scale QI projects. Use of an

  15. Learning Domain-Specific Heuristics for Answer Set Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Balduccini, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the recent improvements in the performance of Answer Set Programming (ASP) solvers, when the search space is sufficiently large, it is still possible for the search algorithm to mistakenly focus on areas of the search space that contain no solutions or very few. When that happens, performance degrades substantially, even to the point that the solver may need to be terminated before returning an answer. This prospect is a concern when one is considering using such a solver in an in...

  16. Semantical Characterizations and Complexity of Equivalences in Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Eiter, Thomas; Fink, Michael; Woltran, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In recent research on non-monotonic logic programming, repeatedly strong equivalence of logic programs P and Q has been considered, which holds if the programs P union R and Q union R have the same answer sets for any other program R. This property strengthens equivalence of P and Q with respect to answer sets (which is the particular case for R is the empty set), and has its applications in program optimization, verification, and modular logic programming. In this paper, we consider more lib...

  17. Model answers in pure mathematics for a-level students

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, GA; Schofield, C W

    1967-01-01

    Model Answers in Pure Mathematics for A-Level Students provides a set of solutions that indicate what is required and expected in an Advanced Level examination in Pure Mathematics. This book serves as a guide to the length of answer required, layout of the solution, and methods of selecting the best approach to any particular type of math problem. This compilation intends to supplement, not replace, the normal textbook and provides a varied selection of questions for practice in addition to the worked solutions. The subjects covered in this text include algebra, trigonometry, coordinate geomet

  18. Reformulation of Crop and Management Factor in ANSWERS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayat Hidayat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop and management factor value is significantly corelated with outputs of ANSWERS model especially on soil erosion. Using daily crop and management factors (daily C factors, the ANSWERS model performs well in predicting soil erosion which is showed by determination coeffient (R2 = 0.89, model efficiency (0.86, and average of percentage model deviations (24.1%. Whereas using USLE C factor (2 cropping systems, predicted is much higher than measured soil erosion (over estimate. Output of the model is not statisfy; it is represented by model coefficient (0.40 and average of percentage model deviations (63.6%.

  19. Cambridge English First 2 with answers : authentic examination papers

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Student's Book is also available in a 'without answers' edition. Audio CDs (2) containing the exam Listening material and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  20. 7 CFR 900.52a - Answer to petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.52a... promptly upon the petitioner. (b) Contents. The answer shall specify which of the material allegations of...

  1. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  2. 5 CFR 1201.124 - Rights; answer to complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Original Jurisdiction Cases Special Counsel Disciplinary Actions... Special Counsel files a complaint proposing a disciplinary action against an employee under 5 U.S.C. 1215... Counsel disciplinary action complaint may file an answer with the Clerk of the Board within 35 days of the...

  3. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfianto, Moch.; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be used to enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving…

  4. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  5. 40 CFR 22.15 - Answer to the complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer to the complaint. 22.15 Section 22.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF... respondent has any knowledge. Where respondent has no knowledge of a particular factual allegation and so...

  6. Advertising, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles H.; Cyrus, Cinda L.

    This revised manual for individualized instruction of distributive education trainees at the high school or junior college level in basic advertising and sales promotion activities includes 15 self-study assignments, teaching suggestions, and a bibliography. Together with a separate answer key, each assignment provides student questions and…

  7. Question-Answer Pairs in Sign Language of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Vink, L.

    2017-01-01

    Several sign languages of the world utilize a construction that consists of a question followed by an answer, both of which are produced by the same signer. For American Sign Language, this construction has been analyzed as a discourse-level rhetorical question construction (Hoza et al. 1997), as a

  8. Apparel Marketing. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn

    This document on apparel marketing contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 16 assignments: (1) introduction to fashion and fashion merchandising; (2) current fashion; (3) careers in fashion; (4) buying; (5) retailing; (6) merchandise basics; (7) merchandise--promotion and…

  9. INTELLIGENT QUESTION-ANSWERING SYSTEM “MIVAR VIRTUAL CONSULTANT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Evgen’evna Adamova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of designing question-answering system “Mivar Virtual Consultant” using specialized information-technology platform for understanding meaning of text in the natural Russian language. The system is capable of accumulating knowledge from texts in the natural Russian language and managing this knowledge. The methodology for training virtual consultant is described.

  10. Chemistry teachers and their senior secondary students' answers to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to compare chemistry teachers' answers in a question related to evaporation with that of their senior secondary students. Two hundred and seventy six senior secondary students and their seven teachers participated in the study. The main data collecting instrument was the pictorial and verbal ...

  11. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  12. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  13. Optimizing Board Effectiveness with Gender Diversity : Are Quotas the Answer?

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie Durbin

    2011-01-01

    Women are underrepresented on corporate boards but are quotas the answer? Not according to the author. Annemarie Durbin cites evidence that using quotas to increase female representation can lead to tokenism, diminish the overall value of diversity on boards, affect board dynamics, and potentially lead to diluted commitments from existing female board directors. She recommends that, instea...

  14. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for hearing and answer. 785.4 Section 785.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785...

  15. A New Statistic for Detection of Aberrant Answer Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Duong, Minh Q.; Wood, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    As noted by Fremer and Olson, analysis of answer changes is often used to investigate testing irregularities because the analysis is readily performed and has proven its value in practice. Researchers such as Belov, Sinharay and Johnson, van der Linden and Jeon, van der Linden and Lewis, and Wollack, Cohen, and Eckerly have suggested several…

  16. Questions and Answers about RTI: A Guide to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Heather; Petruzzelli, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models continue to attract a great deal of attention, school and district leaders need to understand the structures needed, the personnel required, the challenges faced, and rewards realized from RTI. "Questions and Answers About RTI: A Guide to Success" is designed to guide a school or district through the…

  17. Is aggressive therapy the answer for all cases of emphysematous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is aggressive therapy the answer for all cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis: A report of three cases. S Kumar, S Neogi, KK Gautam. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2006-8808.110268.

  18. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  19. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  20. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  1. Towards more physiological manipulations of hormones in field studies: comparing the release dynamics of three kinds of testosterone implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets and beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Rene; Trappschuh, Monika; Gahr, Manfred; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Hormone manipulations are of increasing interest in the areas of physiological ecology and evolution, because hormones are mediators of complex phenotypic changes. Often, however, hormone manipulations in field settings follow the approaches that have been used in classical endocrinology, potentially using supra-physiological doses. To answer ecological and evolutionary questions, it may be important to manipulate hormones within their physiological range. We compare the release dynamics of three kinds of implants, silastic tubing, time-release pellets, and beeswax pellets, each containing 3mg of testosterone. These implants were placed into female Japanese quail, and plasma levels of testosterone measured over a period of 30 days. Testosterone in silastic tubing led to supraphysiological levels. Also, testosterone concentrations were highly variable between individuals. Time-release pellets led to levels of testosterone that were slightly supraphysiological during the first days. Over the period of 30 days, however, testosterone concentrations were more consistent. Beeswax implants led to a physiological increase in testosterone and a relatively constant release. The study demonstrated that hormone implants in 10mm silastic tubing led to a supraphysiological peak in female quail. Thus, the use of similar-sized or even larger silastic implants in males or in other smaller vertebrates needs careful assessment. Time-release pellets and beeswax implants provide a more controlled release and degrade within the body. Thus, it is not necessary to recapture the animal to remove the implant. We propose beeswax implants as an appropriate procedure to manipulate testosterone levels within the physiological range. Hence, such implants may be an effective alternative for field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear power and the environment: questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present information and answers to questions about nuclear power and the environment, e.g., questions on its effects on public health, safety, and welfare. Information on the overall U.S. energy outlook, with emphasis on nuclear power generation, is provided. Although proponents of nuclear power, the authors have attempted to present factual information and to maintain objectivity. Included are answers to questions on these aspects of nuclear power: the energy situation and nuclear power; economics and reliability; alternative technologies; radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle; fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste disposal; plutonium toxicity; nuclear plant security; thermal pollution; nuclear power plant siting--earthquakes; nuclear reactor safety; public risk and benefits; nuclear liability and insurance; breeder reactors; and thermonuclear fusion. (232 references)

  3. Who answers the call? Institutional moral agency and global justice

    OpenAIRE

    Klapdor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis asks who is able to answer the call to action that the problems of global injustice pose. It focuses on the concept of institutions such as states, intergovernmental organisations, corporations and non-governmental organisations as moral agents and whether such institutions can be said to be morally responsible for creating or responding to global injustice. It examines three theories of institutional moral agency as presented by Peter French, Toni Erskine and Onora O’Neill and th...

  4. Mergers and acquisitions. Frequently asked questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S M; Smeltzer, C H; Thomas, C

    2000-03-01

    This article is structured in a question/answer format based on interviews with Dr. Carolyn Hope Smeltzer and Salima Manji Lin of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Chicago, and Chuck Thomas of Hinshaw & Culbertson, Rockford. The questions come from CEO's, healthcare executives, and nurse executives at hospitals that are contemplating mergers or that have both succeeded and failed to merge their institutions. The experts share their knowledge.

  5. Answers to the questionnaire issued by the Co-Chairmen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gathers together the original answers to the questionnaire (forming INFCE/DEP./WG4-28) received during March to July 1978 from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, U.S.A. Later updating or amendment by the country concerned has been taken into account in the summary (INFCE/DEP./WG4-30)

  6. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  7. Answers to arguments of those who doubt of the reality of an anthropogenic climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The author aims at answering the arguments stated by climate sceptics who deny the existence of a climate change due to human activities. He addresses and discusses the understanding of climate and its modelling and answers to the following statements made by climate sceptics: climatology is a new science still in its infancy; factors which influence climate remain largely unknown, climate models predict the future by using past observations; the role of water vapour is ignored whereas it is essential; nothing proves that atmosphere composition changes are related to human activities; variations in solar radiations have a more important role than atmosphere composition. In the same way, the author answers statements related to the consequences of climate changes (sea level rise is not significant; ice melt does not result in sea level rise; the Earth has experienced much higher temperatures in the past without major damages), or related to the existence of a recent climate change (the notion of average temperature is meaningless; temperature has been increasing since the beginning of the century), or related to the difference between climatology and meteorology (it's an illusion to predict the climate within a century whereas it's impossible to make weather forecasts for next month; how can we believe in global warming when winter has been long and cold), and finally regarding the IPCC (the scientific consensus of the IPCC reports makes no sense; IPCC is a closed lobby for well paid international public servants; and so on.)

  8. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  9. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  10. Usability of Optical Mark Reader Sheet as an Answering Tool in Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Oku, Hidehisa; Scheller, Andreas; Yamaoka, Shintaro

    2017-01-01

    The research result on usability of Optical Mark Reader Sheet (OMRS) being used as the standard answering tool is reported. The use of OMRS significantly requires more answer time than the answer time without OMRS, and the use of assistive devices for OMRS has the possibility to reduce the answer time.

  11. Importance classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    Conventionally, the design of a nuclear reactor has been performed from a viewpoint of a safety function and the importance on earthquake-proof on the basis of not giving off the mainly included radioactivity outside. In this Niigataken-Chuetsuoki earthquake, there is almost no damage to the system, components and structure on safe also in the earthquake beyond assumption, and the validity of the design was checked. But, the situation peculiar to a big earthquake was also generated. The emergency plan room which should serve as a connection center with the exterior was not able to open a door and use at the beginning. Fire-extinguishing system piping fractured and self-defense fire fighting was not made. And so on. Discussion from the following three viewpoints was performed. 1st: The importance from a viewpoint which should maintain a function also with the disaster in case of an earthquake like an emergency plan room etc. 2nd: In the earthquake, since the safe system and un-safe system was influenced, the importance from a viewpoint which may have influence safely inquired when the un-safe system broke down. 3rd: Although it was not directly related safely, discussion from a viewpoint which influences fear of insecurity, such as taking out smoke, for example, was performed (author)

  12. The importance of stimulated gamma release from isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, H.

    1997-01-01

    The potential applications of the gamma-ray laser are discussed to illustrate the potential benefit of the development of this field of nuclear science, as well as the risks and responsibilities associated with isomer development beyond their current status as nuclear curiosities. The similarities and differences between the development of a gamma-ray laser based on nuclear isomers and the initial development of nuclear science and engineering are compared

  13. Development of Novel Protocol for Preclinical Monitoring the Release of Adjuvants Encapsulated Mucosal Delivery Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim-Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contributes in vaccines down-stream process by introducing a novel platform for in-vitro monitoring of vaccine-adjuvant delivery profile as a crucial preclinical optimizing step in mucosal vaccines. Nano and micro particles of Calcium phosphate (Cap vaccine-adjuvant were encapsulated in Chitosan and Alginate polymeric carriers. Adjuvants release profiles monitored in a permeable bag at 37°C, pH 2, incubated in isotonic buffer for 96 hours. The released Calcium in the outer buffer was monitored and compared in-addition to the carrier’s swelling and biophysical properties. The adjuvants and carriers did not interfere with the proliferation of cultured hepatocytes an indicator of their safe use; Chitosan’s viscosity and swelling were higher than Alginate. Chitosan’s Zeta-potential was significantly high positive, while Cap and Alginate were negative. The prepared CaP and Chitosan particles were in nano-size, while the ready-made CaP adjuvant and Alginate were in micro-size using zeta-seizer and scanning electron-micrograph. The release of nano-size particle was in ascending, extended and controlled manner compared to micro-size adjuvant. Moreover, nano-adjuvant release profile from Chitosan was superior compared to Alginate. The core controlling factors in vaccine-adjuvant sustained release includes; smaller adjuvant particles (nano-size, carrier’s low swelling, high viscosity and importantly carrier-adjuvant entrapment reversibility. Chitosan offers sustained ascending superior capacity in releasing Nano-Cap adjuvant. This novel in-vitro pre-clinical study answer a crucial downstream preparative step for optimizing mucosal vaccines before their direct routine in-vivo trial on animal regardless of adjuvant’s particle size or delivery kinetics.

  14. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  15. GEWEX SRB Shortwave Release 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The new Release 4 uses the newly processed ISCCP HXS product as its primary input for cloud and radiance data. The ninefold increase in pixel number compared to the previous ISCCP DX allows finer gradations in cloud fraction in each grid box. It will also allow higher spatial resolutions (0.5 degree) in future releases. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made since Release 3. These include recalculated atmospheric transmissivities and reflectivities yielding a less transmissive atmosphere. The calculations also include variable aerosol composition, allowing for the use of a detailed aerosol history from the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC). Ocean albedo and snow/ice albedo are also improved from Release 3. Total solar irradiance is now variable, averaging 1361 Wm-2. Water vapor is taken from ISCCP's nnHIRS product. Results from GSW Release 4 are presented and analyzed. Early comparison to surface measurements show improved agreement.

  16. If the Indicator Game is the Answer, Then What is the Question?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This contribution begins by arguing that indicators in themselves do not have effects, but that it is crucial to understand which questions in the wider culture and governance of academia their use speaks to. Drawing partly on the author’s own experience in university management but also as an STS...... scholar, five important questions are presented to which indicators provide a kind of answer: ranging from public accountability over public research investment to intellectual and existential uncertainty. It is argued that understanding the wider institutional and professional logics is crucial...

  17. Managing the Documentation Maze Answers to Questions You Didn't Even Know to Ask

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with a topic of critical importance for compliance with record-keeping regulations in pharmaceutical and medical device industries. It presents more than 750 questions and answers about documentation management, whether electronic or paper-based. It defines, through a Q&A approach, what document management actually is, and why it should be a core discipline in the industry. Questions and responses also address electronic system selection and validation, system security, user accountability, and audit trails, as well as standard operating procedures for supporting document syste

  18. Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brodie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are  most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.

  19. THE VACCINATION AGAINST VARICELLA. THE ANSWERS TO THE PEDIATRISTS QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella is a disease which can be stopped by methods of specific prophylaxis. At the same time, there are no official recommendations on vaccinal prophylaxis of varicella in Russia nowadays. The article presents the answers to the most frequently asked questions of pediatrists concerning vaccination techniques, its effectiveness and safety, and vaccination in epidemic nidus. Special attention was given to the questions of vaccinal prophylaxis of varicella in immunocompromised patients.Key words: varicella, prophylaxis, vaccination.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:114-119

  20. Energy and the greenhouse effect. Answers to 60 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.; De Wolff, J.J.; Folkert, R.J.M.; Hoekstra, J.; Ruijgrok, W.; Stortelder, B.J.M.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.; Ruiter, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this report is to clarify the complex interaction between the greenhouse effect and the energy sector in the Netherlands, focusing on the future of the energy supply and how changes in policies with respect to energy consumption can influence climatic change. The relation between energy sector and greenhouse effect is dealt with on the basis of 60 questions on the greenhouse effect, emission of greenhouse gases and energy scenarios, and concise answers. Calculations of consequences of future scenarios for the climate are executed by means of the KEMA-developed integrated scenario model for climatic change DIALOOG. 27 refs

  1. Everyone's answering: using technology to increase classroom participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filer, Debra

    2010-01-01

    A study was designed to assess the impact of a wireless technology known as an audience response system (ARS), commonly known clickers, on learning and student engagement in a nursing classroom. Students in the control group responded verbally to questions posed during lectures, while students in the intervention groups responded anonymously using the ARS. Although no significant improvement in postlecture quizzes was noted, students in ARS-enhanced lectures reported significantly higher satisfaction scores. The use of ARS promoted a sense of comfort, encouraged participation, and motivated students to answer questions and interact with the subject matter.

  2. Questions-answers - Ground-based wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  3. Usability testing of ANSWER: a web-based methotrexate decision aid for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda C; Adam, Paul M; Townsend, Anne F; Lacaille, Diane; Yousefi, Charlene; Stacey, Dawn; Gromala, Diane; Shaw, Chris D; Tugwell, Peter; Backman, Catherine L

    2013-12-01

    Decision aids are evidence-based tools designed to inform people of the potential benefit and harm of treatment options, clarify their preferences and provide a shared decision-making structure for discussion at a clinic visit. For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are considering methotrexate, we have developed a web-based patient decision aid called the ANSWER (Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool). This study aimed to: 1) assess the usability of the ANSWER prototype; 2) identify strengths and limitations of the ANSWER from the patient's perspective. The ANSWER prototype consisted of: 1) six animated patient stories and narrated information on the evidence of methotrexate for RA; 2) interactive questionnaires to clarify patients' treatment preferences. Eligible participants for the usability test were patients with RA who had been prescribed methotrexate. They were asked to verbalize their thoughts (i.e., think aloud) while using the ANSWER, and to complete the System Usability Scale (SUS) to assess overall usability (range = 0-100; higher = more user friendly). Participants were audiotaped and observed, and field notes were taken. The testing continued until no new modifiable issues were found. We used descriptive statistics to summarize participant characteristics and the SUS scores. Content analysis was used to identified usability issues and navigation problems. 15 patients participated in the usability testing. The majority were aged 50 or over and were university/college graduates (n = 8, 53.4%). On average they took 56 minutes (SD = 34.8) to complete the tool. The mean SUS score was 81.2 (SD = 13.5). Content analysis of audiotapes and field notes revealed four categories of modifiable usability issues: 1) information delivery (i.e., clarity of the information and presentation style); 2) navigation control (i.e., difficulties in recognizing and using the navigation control buttons); 3) layout (i.e., position of the

  4. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  5. Visual question answering using hierarchical dynamic memory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiayu; Li, Shiren; Duan, Zhikui; Huang, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) is one of the most popular research fields in machine learning which aims to let the computer learn to answer natural language questions with images. In this paper, we propose a new method called hierarchical dynamic memory networks (HDMN), which takes both question attention and visual attention into consideration impressed by Co-Attention method, which is the best (or among the best) algorithm for now. Additionally, we use bi-directional LSTMs, which have a better capability to remain more information from the question and image, to replace the old unit so that we can capture information from both past and future sentences to be used. Then we rebuild the hierarchical architecture for not only question attention but also visual attention. What's more, we accelerate the algorithm via a new technic called Batch Normalization which helps the network converge more quickly than other algorithms. The experimental result shows that our model improves the state of the art on the large COCO-QA dataset, compared with other methods.

  6. Exoplanets and Other Modern Answers to Old Astronomical Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2002-04-01

    The Greeks were the first to ask, or at least to write about asking, questions like whether there are other planets like earth and whether the universe is finite or infinite. In all cases, they answered both yes and not (since there were lots of Greeks and not much data). A good deal later (but still in the period called history, unless you are very old), astronomers started asking whether the duration of the universe was finite or infinite, what the stars are made of and what keeps them shining, and whether there are other galaxies like ours. All of these now how answers at some confidence level. Close to 100 planets outside our solar system have been reported, starting in 1995, but selection effects mean that none are like earth. Data from many sources (supernovae, radioactive elements, microwave radiation, and all) combine to say that the universe has a finite past but probably an infinite future and an extent that, if not infinite, is anyhow very much larger than a breadbox. The stars run on nuclear fusion, and there are oodles of galaxies. The talk will explore how we have learned some of these things and try to look forward to current unsolved problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  7. Why teach literature and medicine? Answers from three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne Hudson

    2013-12-01

    In this essay, I look back at some of the earliest attempts by the first generation of literature-and-medicine scholars to answer the question: Why teach literature and medicine? Reviewing the development of the field in its early years, I examine statements by practitioners to see whether their answers have held up over time and to consider how the rationales they articulated have expanded or changed in the following years and why. Greater emphasis on literary criticism, narrative ethics, narrative theory, and reflective writing has influenced current work in the field in ways that could not have been foreseen in the 1970s. The extraordinary growth of interest and work in the field nationally and, especially since 1996, internationally has included practitioners in many additional areas such as disability studies, film studies, therapeutic writing, and trauma studies. Along with the emergence of narrative medicine, this diverse community of scholars and practitioners-affiliated more through their use of narrative methodologies than the teaching of literature-makes the perennial challenge of evaluation and assessment even more complicated.

  8. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  9. Can Ethics answer to the modern environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Restrepo, Rubiel

    2012-01-01

    The human being has an indisputable biological and cultural specificity; however, he is constantly in touch with many things of the environment, he uses them, and often depletes beyond the capacity of recovery of that environment. Then, the modern and serious environmental problems arise, and end up compromising the survival of our species as well as every possible shape of life. These situation demands of the human being, attitudes and behaviors that show a responsibility for his environment as for himself, taking into account the gravity of his actions. That the human being gives an account of their own actions, correspond to what historically is known as moral which philosophical study is ethics. But a look to the historically constituted ethics shows that because of their prevailing anthropocentrism, they can not answer to the modern environmental problems. That why is necessary and urgent to think of an alternative ethic, in relation to its principles and its topics, as an answer to the gravity of the environmental issues.

  10. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  11. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkänen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N = 100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum.

  12. Does Correct Answer Distribution Influence Student Choices When Writing Multiple Choice Examinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Carnegie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summative evaluation for large classes of first- and second-year undergraduate courses often involves the use of multiple choice question (MCQ exams in order to provide timely feedback. Several versions of those exams are often prepared via computer-based question scrambling in an effort to deter cheating. An important parameter to consider when preparing multiple exam versions is that they must be equivalent in their assessment of student knowledge. This project investigated a possible influence of correct answer organization on student answer selection when writing multiple versions of MCQ exams. The specific question asked was whether the existence of a series of four to five consecutive MCQs in which the same letter represented the correct answer had a detrimental influence on a student’s ability to continue to select the correct answer as he/she moved through that series. Student outcomes from such exams were compared with results from exams with identical questions but which did not contain such series. These findings were supplemented by student survey data in which students self-assessed the extent to which they paid attention to the distribution of correct answer choices when writing summative exams, both during their initial answer selection and when transferring their answer letters to the Scantron sheet for correction. Despite the fact that more than half of survey respondents indicated that they do make note of answer patterning during exams and that a series of four to five questions with the same letter for the correct answer would encourage many of them to take a second look at their answer choice, the results pertaining to student outcomes suggest that MCQ randomization, even when it does result in short serial arrays of letter-specific correct answers, does not constitute a distraction capable of adversely influencing student performance. Dans les très grandes classes de cours de première et deuxième années, l

  13. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  14. NUFACT11 round table discussion questions and answers

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model, it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ(13) makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses, it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and asso...

  15. What is the size of a floating sheath? An answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Farina; Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-09-01

    The formation of a non-neutral boundary sheath in front of material surfaces is universal plasma phenomenon. Despite several decades of research, however, not all related issues are fully clarified. In a recent paper, Chabert pointed out that this lack of clarity applies even to the seemingly innocuous question ``What the size of a floating sheath?'' This contribution attempts to provide an answer that is not arbitrary: The size of a floating sheath is defined as the plate separation of an equivalent parallel plate capacitor. The consequences of the definition are explored with the help of a self-consistent sheath model, and a comparison is made with other sheath size definitions. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB TR 87.

  16. Biased calculations: Numeric anchors influence answers to math equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available People must often perform calculations in order to produce a numeric estimate (e.g., a grocery-store shopper estimating the total price of his or her shopping cart contents. The current studies were designed to test whether estimates based on calculations are influenced by comparisons with irrelevant anchors. Previous research has demonstrated that estimates across a wide range of contexts assimilate toward anchors, but none has examined estimates based on calculations. In two studies, we had participants compare the answers to math problems with anchors. In both studies, participants' estimates assimilated toward the anchor values. This effect was moderated by time limit such that the anchoring effects were larger when the participants' ability to engage in calculations was limited by a restrictive time limit.

  17. Retrievability - A too simple answer to a difficult question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odhnoff, C.

    2002-01-01

    Near to Stockholm in October, 1999, KASAM and IAEA held a joint seminar on Retrievability. There were some 40 participants from about ten countries. Consensus was not the objective, moreover, the discussions were conducted in a friendly spirit of respect and wish to understand different opinions. The retrievability option was incorporated into into broader concepts by a stepwise procedure designed to allow the possibility of steps being reversed, thereby reducing the dramatic difference between open and closed repositories. Each step would give you time to consider and best if the repository concept so far was up to expectations. Retrievability is not a simple answer, but it helps to make this question less complicated. (author)

  18. Question answer relationship strategy increases reading comprehension among Kindergarten students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QAR’s "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesop’s fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

  19. No easy answers science and the pursuit of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2005-01-01

    In No Easy Answers, Allan Franklin offers an accurate picture of science to both a general reader and to scholars in the humanities and social sciences who may not have any background in physics. Through the examination of nontechnical case studies, he illustrates the various roles that experiment plays in science. He uses examples of unquestioned success, such as the discoveries of the electron and of three types of neutrino, as well as studies that were dead ends, wrong turns, or just plain mistakes, such as the “fifth force,” a proposed modification of Newton's law of gravity. Franklin argues that science is a reasonable enterprise that provides us with knowledge of the natural world based on valid experimental evidence and reasoned and critical discussion, and he makes clear that it behooves all of us to understand how it works.

  20. Why do experts never have the answer to the public?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahagen, H.; Andersson, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Oskarshamn municipality is located on the Swedish south east coast and has about 27,000 inhabitants. Oskarshamn is hosting three nuclear reactors, the Interim Storage Facility where the spent fuel from Sweden's reactors is stored, the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory for underground research and the Encapsulation Laboratory where the welding technology is being developed. The industry is currently planning to apply for licensing of a disposal system for spent nuclear fuel between 2005 to 2010. Since 1992 Oskarshamn is a candidate municipality. Extensive efforts have been taken by the political leaders to initiate a public dialogue. A working model has been developed for the municipality work with seven policy statements (Openness and participation - everything on the table - real influence. EIA our platform - development of the basis for a decision by parties together, decisions independently. The Council our reference group - competent elected officials responsible towards the voters. The public - a resource - concrete plans and clear study results a prerequisite for public engagement and influence. The environmental groups - a resource - the environmental groups and their experts give us valuable contributions. Stretching of SKB to clear answers - we build competence so we can ask the difficult questions - we ask until we get clear answers. The competent authorities - our experts - the authorities visible throughout the process, our decision after statement by the competent authorities. The goal is to have a completely open process with all facts on the table in order to be able to take decisions on ''good grounds'' should the question for the next step in site selection be put to the municipality from the industry. The paper describes the work in Oskarshamn related to spent nuclear fuel and also reflects on the issue of retrievability from a public perspective. (author)

  1. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  2. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  3. Can online networks provide quality answers to questions about occupational safety and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-05-01

    To assess whether experts can provide high-quality answers to occupational safety and health (OSH) questions in online Question & Answer (Q&A) networks. The authors evaluated the quality of answers provided by qualified experts in two Dutch online networks: ArboAntwoord and the Helpdesk of the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases. A random sample of 594 answers was independently evaluated by two raters using nine answer quality criteria. An additional criterion, the agreement of answers with the best available evidence, was explored by peer review of a sample of 42 answers. Reviewers performed an evidence search in Medline. The median answer quality score of ArboAntwoord (N=295) and the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases Helpdesk (N=299) was 8 of 9 (IQR 2). The inter-rater reliability of the first nine quality criteria was high (κ 0.82-0.90, p<0.05). A question answered by two or more experts had a greater probability of a high-quality score than questions answered by one expert (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 9.0). Answers most often scored insufficient on the use of evidence to underpin the answer (36% and 38% for the networks, respectively) and on conciseness (35% and 31%, respectively). Peer review demonstrated that 43%-72% of the answers in both online networks were in complete agreement with the best available evidence. OSH experts are able to provide quality answers in online OSH Q&A networks. Our answer quality appraisal instrument was feasible and provided information on how to improve answer quality.

  4. CMU OAQA at TREC 2015 LiveQA: Discovering the Right Answer with Clues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    between question and answer passage, we employ a recurrent neural network based approach [6, 7] that uses a multilayer stacked bidirectional Long...similarity scoring over the title and body texts, and b) a recurrent neural network approach that estimates the relevance of a candi- date answer text given a...Di Wang and Eric Nyberg. A recurrent neural network based answer ranking model for web question answering. In SIGIR Workshop on Web Question

  5. Towards automatic generation of multimodal answers to medical questions: a cognitive engineering approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Charlotte; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons; Bosma, W.E.; van der Sluis, I; Theune, Mariet; Reiter, E.; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a production experiment carried out to determine which modalities people choose to answer different types of questions. In this experiment participants had to create (multimodal) presentations of answers to general medical questions. The collected answer presentations were coded

  6. 6 CFR 13.11 - Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ. 13.11 Section 13.11 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.11 Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the...

  7. Researcher might have found answer to 'birth of the universe'

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A National Taiwan University (NTU) research team has discovered a new physical phenomenon that could challenge the well-accepted theory about the birth of the universe. However,Lee Shih-chang, a researcher at Academia Sinica's Institute of Physics, said the new scientific research results will be accepted only after an academic paper detailing the research process and conclusions is released and the research results are verified by experts in the field.

  8. Withholding answers during hands-on scientific investigations? Comparing effects on developing students' scientific knowledge, reasoning, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin

    2018-03-01

    As more concerns have been raised about withholding answers during science teaching, this article argues for a need to detach 'withholding answers' from 'hands-on' investigation tasks. The present study examined students' learning of light-related content through three conditions: 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (hands-on only: HO), 'hands-on' + 'withholding' (hands-on investigation with answers withheld: HOW), and no 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (direction instruction: DI). Students were assessed in terms of how well they (1) knew the content taught in class; (2) reasoned with the learned content; and (3) applied the learned content to real-life situations. Nine classes of students at 4th and 5th grades, N = 136 in total, were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. ANCOVA results showed that students in the hands-on only condition reasoned significantly better than those in the other two conditions. Students in this condition also seemed to know the content fairly better although the advance was not significant. Students in all three conditions did not show a statistically significant difference in their ability to apply the learned content to real-life situations. The findings from this study provide important contributions regarding issues relating to withholding answers during guided scientific inquiry.

  9. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  10. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  11. The effect of assessment form to the ability of student to answer the problem correctly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifian Dimas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is an important part of education. For educators, are collecting information about students learning and information about the learning process. For students, the assessment is the process of informing them about the progress of learning. Effective assessment process is responsive to the strengths, needs and clearly articulated student learning objectives. This research was aimed to know the effect of assessment form towards students ability in answering the problem correctly on kinematics and dynamics of motion. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. The data collecting method are assessment test and interview. Assessment test instrument are written test and animation form test. The question we use was taken "Force Concept Inventory" on kinematics and dynamics concepts. The sample are 36 student of 6th terms student of Physics Undergraduate Departement in Sebelas Maret University. The result shows that for kinematics concept, more students answer correctly for test presented in animation form but for dynamics concept conventional test is better.

  12. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  13. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  14. Sellafield (release of radioactivity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J; Goodlad, A; Morris, M

    1986-02-06

    A government statement is reported, about the release of plutonium nitrate at the Sellafield site of British Nuclear Fuels plc on 5 February 1986. Matters raised included: details of accident; personnel monitoring; whether radioactive material was released from the site; need for public acceptance of BNFL activities; whether plant should be closed; need to reduce level of radioactive effluent; number of incidents at the plant.

  15. Heat release rate of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. M. Stark; R. H. White; C. M. Clemons

    1997-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites are becoming more important as a material that fulfills recycling needs. In this study, fire performance tests were conducted on several compositions of wood and plastic materials using the Ohio State University rate of heat release apparatus. Test results included five-minute average heat release rate in kW/m2 (HRR avg) and maximum heat release...

  16. [Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution?

  17. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in COPD: Is exercise the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A

    2018-05-01

    Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer.

  18. Controlled release of biofunctional substances by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The release behaviour of a drug from flat circular capsules obtained by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures and with different hydrophilic properties has been studied. The effect of various factors on release property was investigated. The release process could be divided into three parts, an initial quick release stage, stationary state release stage and a retarded release stage. Release behaviour in the stationary state was examined using Noyes-Whitney and Higuchi equations. It was shown that the hydrophilic property of polymer matrix expressed by water content was the most important effect on diffusion and release rate. Rigidity of the polymer may also affect diffusivity. The first quick release step could be attributed to rapid dissolution of drug in the matrix surface due to polymer swelling. (author)

  19. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  20. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009

  1. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes de; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do

    2017-06-13

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas-Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  2. New to Teaching: WebQuests as a Tool to Support Children in Carrying out Research Using Secondary Sources to Answer Their Scientific Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James; Pope, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The "working scientifically" strand of the new primary science curriculum for England has re-emphasised the importance of children having opportunities to carry out different types of enquiries to answer their scientific questions. To promote this as an ongoing aim of primary science education, it is equally important for trainee primary…

  3. Fission product release mechanisms and groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, F.C.; Brito, A.C.; Liu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    During CANDU postulated accidents the reactor fuel is estimated to be exposed to a variety of conditions. These conditions are dynamic and, during the course of an accident, the fuel may experience a wide range of temperatures and conditions from highly oxidizing to mildly reducing environments. The exposure of the reactor fuel to these environments and temperatures may affect its stoichiometry and release performance. In this paper a review of the important fission product release mechanisms is presented, the results of three out-of-pile experimental programs are summarized, and fission product release groups, for both oxidizing and reducing conditions are proposed. (author)

  4. Fission product release mechanisms and groupings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesia, F C; Brito, A C; Liu, Y [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); and others

    1996-12-31

    During CANDU postulated accidents the reactor fuel is estimated to be exposed to a variety of conditions. These conditions are dynamic and, during the course of an accident, the fuel may experience a wide range of temperatures and conditions from highly oxidizing to mildly reducing environments. The exposure of the reactor fuel to these environments and temperatures may affect its stoichiometry and release performance. In this paper a review of the important fission product release mechanisms is presented, the results of three out-of-pile experimental programs are summarized, and fission product release groups, for both oxidizing and reducing conditions are proposed. (author) 92 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  6. The Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis: what answers from consuming countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomart, Th.; Pirani, S.; De la Faire, A.

    2009-01-01

    The disruption of gas supplies that occurred in the beginning of 2009 as a result of the Russian-Ukrainian disagreements, represents the most serious gas crisis that Europe has had to face since natural gas is imported from Russia, i.e. 40 years ago. Before the occurrence of this crisis, such a scenario was excluded by most of geopolitical experts who so far had based their analyses on the interdependence between Russia and European Union. Will this crisis change the relationship between European Union and Russia on the one hand, and with Ukraine on the other hand? Do we have to consider it as an incident without further consequences or is it the very first case of a series of unexpected coming crises? How Europe should organize itself to supply more efficient answers in the future? These are the questions debated during this round table organized by the French gas association (AFG) on April 6, 2009. (J.S.)

  7. An RDF/OWL knowledge base for query answering and decision support in clinical pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samwald, Matthias; Freimuth, Robert; Luciano, Joanne S; Lin, Simon; Powers, Robert L; Marshall, M Scott; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Dumontier, Michel; Boyce, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Genetic testing for personalizing pharmacotherapy is bound to become an important part of clinical routine. To address associated issues with data management and quality, we are creating a semantic knowledge base for clinical pharmacogenetics. The knowledge base is made up of three components: an expressive ontology formalized in the Web Ontology Language (OWL 2 DL), a Resource Description Framework (RDF) model for capturing detailed results of manual annotation of pharmacogenomic information in drug product labels, and an RDF conversion of relevant biomedical datasets. Our work goes beyond the state of the art in that it makes both automated reasoning as well as query answering as simple as possible, and the reasoning capabilities go beyond the capabilities of previously described ontologies.

  8. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  9. If the Indicator Game is the Answer, Then What is the Question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Irwin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution begins by arguing that indicators in themselves do not have effects, but that it is crucial to understand which questions in the wider culture and governance of academia their use speaks to. Drawing partly on the author’s own experience in university management but also as an STS scholar, five important questions are presented to which indicators provide a kind of answer: ranging from public accountability over public research investment to intellectual and existential uncertainty. It is argued that understanding the wider institutional and professional logics is crucial if “better tunes” are to be developed in response to the indicator game: both to strengthen the standing and identity of the field and to support emerging scholars in this challenging context. The paper closes by inviting STSers––and particularly our professional institutions––to celebrate and, at the same time, take a stand for our diverse values, academic practices and notions of quality.

  10. Anaphora in question-answer sessions in university ELF contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Identity chains (Hasan 1984 ˗ strings of co-referential noun phrases ˗ constitute a lesser researched area in the field of ELF, as has the more general area of cohesion (but see Hüttner 2009, Christiansen 2011. Following on the work on anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, and on cohesion (e.g. Halliday and Hasan 1976, Halliday 2004, Christiansen (2009a/b, 2011 focuses on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. The interactive perspective of discourse (seen as the process of which text is the product: see Widdowson 1984: 100 is especially relevant to an ELF context of spontaneous spoken interaction. As Guido (2008 evidences, different inter-cultural concerns constitute a crucial dimension to the complex multi-code interaction. Consequently, the diverse ways in which speakers from different L1 backgrounds employ anaphors and construct identity chains are key elements in the co-construction of a dialogic text. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions set in multicultural contexts are analysed qualitatively. The different ways that participants construct identity chains (e.g. whether they use full forms of various kinds or anaphoric pro-forms are classified. The analysis focuses on both how individual anaphors are resolved and how relations between anaphors and antecedent triggers are encoded, and how identity chains are constructed and organized individually. The objective is to identify which kinds of noun phrase (various subtypes of full and pro-forms are used by diverse groups of EFL speakers both in relation to their own contributions and to those of other speakers (with a threefold distinction made between the same turn of the same speaker, a different turn of the same speaker, and a different turn by a different speaker.

  11. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions and Answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ 13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R and D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R and D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  12. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  13. Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Since 1974 a number of organisations have been working closely together in this pollutant register (PRTR) project to collect and formally establish the yearly releases of pollutants to air, water and soil in the Netherlands. Results of this project serve to underpin the national environmental policy. Data is in this way also provided for the many environmental reports to international organisations such as the European Union and the United Nations, e.g. the National Inventory Report for the Kyoto Protocol. This website shows the yearly releases (emissions) of the most important pollutants in the Netherlands. You can explore the emission data through various channels, such as maps, graphs and tables. But you can also download all the details into your own database. The data shown in this website is updated 2 to 3 times a year. The current release shows emissions for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005 and 2006 The 2006 emissions are preliminary data and not yet shown in the maps. We expect to add an extra year in August 2008 [nl

  14. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED. Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods: Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results: Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion: EM residents’ ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. [West J Emerg Med. 2011

  15. Barriers and decisions when answering clinical questions at the point of care: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Sorensen, Kristi J; Wilkinson, John M; Berger, Richard A

    2013-11-25

    Answering clinical questions affects patient-care decisions and is important to continuous professional development. The process of point-of-care learning is incompletely understood. To understand what barriers and enabling factors influence physician point-of-care learning and what decisions physicians face during this process. Focus groups with grounded theory analysis. Focus group discussions were transcribed and then analyzed using a constant comparative approach to identify barriers, enabling factors, and key decisions related to physician information-seeking activities. Academic medical center and outlying community sites. Purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians, interviewed in 11 focus groups. Insufficient time was the main barrier to point-of-care learning. Other barriers included the patient comorbidities and contexts, the volume of available information, not knowing which resource to search, doubt that the search would yield an answer, difficulty remembering questions for later study, and inconvenient access to computers. Key decisions were whether to search (reasons to search included infrequently seen conditions, practice updates, complex questions, and patient education), when to search (before, during, or after the clinical encounter), where to search (with the patient present or in a separate room), what type of resource to use (colleague or computer), what specific resource to use (influenced first by efficiency and second by credibility), and when to stop. Participants noted that key features of efficiency (completeness, brevity, and searchability) are often in conflict. Physicians perceive that insufficient time is the greatest barrier to point-of-care learning, and efficiency is the most important determinant in selecting an information source. Designing knowledge resources and systems to target key decisions may improve learning and patient care.

  16. Exhaustively characterizing feasible logic models of a signaling network using Answer Set Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziolowski, Carito; Videla, Santiago; Eduati, Federica; Thiele, Sven; Cokelaer, Thomas; Siegel, Anne; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-09-15

    Logic modeling is a useful tool to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be generated by training a network containing the prior knowledge to phospho-proteomics data. The training can be performed using stochastic optimization procedures, but these are unable to guarantee a global optima or to report the complete family of feasible models. This, however, is essential to provide precise insight in the mechanisms underlaying signal transduction and generate reliable predictions. We propose the use of Answer Set Programming to explore exhaustively the space of feasible logic models. Toward this end, we have developed caspo, an open-source Python package that provides a powerful platform to learn and characterize logic models by leveraging the rich modeling language and solving technologies of Answer Set Programming. We illustrate the usefulness of caspo by revisiting a model of pro-growth and inflammatory pathways in liver cells. We show that, if experimental error is taken into account, there are thousands (11 700) of models compatible with the data. Despite the large number, we can extract structural features from the models, such as links that are always (or never) present or modules that appear in a mutual exclusive fashion. To further characterize this family of models, we investigate the input-output behavior of the models. We find 91 behaviors across the 11 700 models and we suggest new experiments to discriminate among them. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing in a global and exhaustive manner the family of feasible models, with important implications for experimental design. caspo is freely available for download (license GPLv3) and as a web service at http://caspo.genouest.org/. Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. santiago.videla@irisa.fr.

  17. On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H

    1986-01-01

    There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor.

  18. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information

  19. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  20. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  1. Randomized controlled trials in evidence-based mental health care: getting the right answer to the right question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essock, Susan M; Drake, Robert E; Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of clinical research is to answer this question: Would a new treatment, when added to the existing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)--in particular, double-blind RCTs--have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, however, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using a particular allocation rule for assigning patients to treatments (random assignment) that does not mimic real-world practice. "Favorable" results from an RCT indicating that a new treatment is superior to existing treatments are neither necessary nor sufficient for establishing a "yes" answer to the question posed above. Modeled on an experimental design, RCTs are expensive in time and money and must compare simple differences in treatments. Findings have a high internal validity but may not address the needs of the field, particularly where treatment is complex and rapidly evolving. Design of clinical research needs to take account of the way treatments are allocated in actual practice and include flexible designs to answer important questions most effectively.

  2. Two layers LSTM with attention for multi-choice question answering in exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin

    2018-03-01

    Question Answering in Exams is typical question answering task that aims to test how accurately the model could answer the questions in exams. In this paper, we use general deep learning model to solve the multi-choice question answering task. Our approach is to build distributed word embedding of question and answers instead of manually extracting features or linguistic tools, meanwhile, for improving the accuracy, the external corpus is introduced. The framework uses a two layers LSTM with attention which get a significant result. By contrast, we introduce the simple long short-term memory (QA-LSTM) model and QA-LSTM-CNN model and QA-LSTM with attention model as the reference. Experiment demonstrate superior performance of two layers LSTM with attention compared to other models in question answering task.

  3. Teaching Teenagers with Autism to Answer Cell Phones and Seek Assistance When Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A; Rodriguez, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Three participants with autism were taught to answer a cell phone and to follow directions to seek assistance when lost in community settings. During baseline, none of the participants answered a cell phone or sought assistance. Following instruction at school and in the community, all participants learned to answer the cell phone and follow instructions to seek assistance from a naïve adult by exchanging a communication card. Generalization probes were conducted in non-training community sit...

  4. Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 1--development of sustained-release granule--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Furuhashi, Kaoru; Ohno, Yukiko; Ito, Mikio

    2009-02-01

    Progesterone (P) is an important hormone for the establishment of pregnancy, and its administration is useful for luteal insufficiency. Considering the problems of commercially available oral and injection drugs, hospital-formulated vaginal suppositories are clinically used. However, since the half-life of P suppositories is short, it is difficult to maintain its constant blood concentration. To sustain drug efficacy and prevent side-effects, we are attempting to develop sustained-release suppositories by examining the degree of sustained-release of active ingredients. In this study, we examined the combinations of granulation methods and release systems for the preparation of sustained-release granules of P, and produced 13 types of sustained-release granules. We also examined the diameter, content, and dissolution of each type of granules, and confirmed that the sustained-release of all types of granules was satisfactory. Among the sustained-release granules, we selected granules with a content and a degree of sustained-release suitable for sustained-release suppositories.

  5. Investigation of delayed fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayet, Nicolas

    1996-05-01

    The study of the fission gas release process in the high burnup rig IFA-562 has revealed a particular fuel behaviour: a delay in the fission gas release process. It appeared that an important release of gas was measured by the pressure transducers once the power had decreased, whereas, during steady-state operation, the pressure did not increase very much. After examinations, the gap size has been concluded to be the main parameter involving this delay. However the burnup could have been a potential factor, its role is mainly to close the gap by swelling. The observations of low burnup rods have shown the same delayed fission gas release, the gap being small by design and closed essentially by thermal expansion. The study of the kinetics has demonstrated the time-independency of the phenomenon. Thus the proposed mechanism driving this delayed fission gas release would involve three consecutives stages. During steady-state, the gas is released into the interlinkage network of grain boundary bubbles and cracks. Due to the closed gap, the gas is trapped in some void volumes, unable to escape the pellet. During power reduction, the gap and some old/new cracks open, immediately providing a path for the gas to the pressure transducers and explaining this delay in the fission gas release. (author)

  6. 14 CFR 232.5 - Filing and service of applications, answers, and replies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MAIL, REVIEW OF ORDERS OF POSTMASTER... written application, answer, or reply filed under this part, and the formal specifications of papers...

  7. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  8. APASS Data Release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Arne A.; Levine, Stephen; Terrell, Dirk; Welch, Douglas L.; Munari, Ulisse; Kloppenborg, Brian K.

    2018-06-01

    The AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS) has been underway since 2010. This survey covers the entire sky from 7.5 knowledge of the optical train distortions. With these changes, DR10 includes many more stars than prior releases. We describe the survey, its remaining limitations, and prospects for the future, including a very-bright-star extension.

  9. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  10. 131I release from a HTGR during the LOFC accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, J.E.

    1975-03-01

    The time-dependent release of 131 I from both the core and the containment building of a high temperature gas-cooled (HTGR) reactor during the loss of forced coolant (LOFC) accident is studied. A simplified core release model is combined with a containment building release model so that the total amount of the isotope released to the environment can be calculated. The time-dependent release of 131 I from the core during the LOFC accident is primarily a function of the time-dependent core temperatures and the failed fuel release constants. The most important factor in calculating the amount of the isotope released to the environment is the total amount released into the containment building. (U.S.)

  11. Tritium behavior intentionally released in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Yamanishi, T.; Willms, R. S.; Carlson, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    To construct a fusion reactor with high safety and acceptability, it is necessary to establish and to ensure tritium safe handling technology. Tritium should be well-controlled not to be released to the environment excessively and to prevent workers from excess exposure. It is especially important to grasp tritium behavior in the final confinement area, such as the room and/or building. In order to obtain data for actual tritium behavior in a room and/or building, a series of intentional Tritium Release Experiments (TREs) were planned and carried out within a radiologically controlled area (main cell) at Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) in Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under US-JAPAN collaboration program. These experiments were carried out three times. In these experiments, influence of a difference in the tritium release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope for the initial tritium behavior in the room were suggested. Tritium was released into the main cell at TSTA/LANL. The released tritium reached a uniform concentration about 30 - 40 minutes in all the experiments. The influence of the release point and the amount of hydrogen isotope were not found to be important in these experiments. The experimental results for the initial tritium behavior in the room were also simulated well by the modified three-dimensional eddy flow analysis code FLOW-3D. (authors)

  12. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  13. Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed. (author)

  14. Industrial Control System Cyber Security: Questions And Answers Relevant To Nuclear Facilities, Safeguards And Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; Moskowitz, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL MARKET IN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Marius Andrieş

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available All participants in capital markets are asking how to finance investments or to invest money available. The answer to these questions depends on the situation you have: deficit or surplus capital. This article addresses issues concerning the place and role of capital market within the financial markets and in financing investments, trying to highlight the growing importance of this subsystem, shown both to economic agents and to all categories of investors.

  16. China's energy and environmental quandary: is LNG the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.F.; King, B.S.

    1996-01-01

    Economic growth in China has inevitably lead to an increased energy demand to fuel industrial production, infrastructural and domestic needs. To date much of China's generating capacity has been coal-based, without flue gas desulphurisation. The serious environmental effects of such a policy are being reexamined in the light of rapid growth in demand. This paper argues that power generation by combined cycle gas turbines and fuelled by natural gas, supplied as LNG could provide a solution. Imported LNG to fuel such turbines could, it is argued, be used to generate electricity at prices competitive with imported coal and other sources of domestic gas. (UK)

  17. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  18. College and University Counseling Centers: Questions in Search of Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, John B.

    2006-01-01

    College and university counseling centers are being influenced by changing populations of students and the concerns of a variety of constituencies and stakeholders about mental health issues. Although counseling centers can be important institutional resources in matters of recruitment, retention, and risk management, new legal and ethical issues…

  19. Decontamination for free release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, K A; Elder, G R [Bradtec Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1997-02-01

    Many countries are seeking to treat radioactive waste in ways which meet the local regulatory requirements, but yet are cost effective when all contributing factors are assessed. In some countries there are increasing amounts of waste, arising from nuclear plant decommissioning, which are categorized as low level waste: however with suitable treatment a large part of such wastes might become beyond regulatory control and be able to be released as non-radioactive. The benefits and disadvantages of additional treatment before disposal need to be considered. Several processes falling within the overall description of decontamination for free release have been developed and applied, and these are outlined. In one instance the process seeks to take advantage of techniques and equipment used for decontaminating water reactor circuits intermittently through reactor life. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  1. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  2. Massive radiological releases profoundly differ from controlled releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascucci-Cahen, Ludivine; Patrick, Momal

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors report identification and assessment of different types of costs associated with nuclear accidents. They first outline that these cost assessments must be as exhaustive or comprehensive as possible. While referring to past accidents, they define the different categories of costs: on-site costs (decontamination and dismantling, electricity not produced on the site), off-site costs (health costs, psychological costs, farming losses), image-related costs (impact on food and farm product exports, decrease of other exports), costs related to energy production, costs related to contaminated areas (refugees, lands). They give an assessment of a severe nuclear accident (i.e. an accident with important but controlled radiological releases) in France and outline that it would be a national catastrophe which could be however managed. They discuss the possible variations of the estimated costs. Then, they show that a major accident (i.e. an accident with massive radiological releases) in France would be an unmanageable European catastrophe because of the radiological consequences, of high economic costs, and of huge losses

  3. Can Workers Answer Their Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Challenges and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their

  4. A Flexible Question-and-Answer Task for Measuring Speech Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a new speech task based on simple questions and answers. The task differs from a traditional sentence recall task in that it involves an element of comprehension and can be implemented in an ongoing fashion. It also contains two target items (the question and the answer that may be associated with different voices and locations to create dynamic listening scenarios. A set of 227 questions was created, covering six broad categories (days of the week, months of the year, numbers, colors, opposites, and sizes. All questions and their one-word answers were spoken by 11 female and 11 male talkers. In this study, listeners were presented with question-answer pairs and asked to indicate whether the answer was true or false. Responses were given as simple button or key presses, which are quick to make and easy to score. Two preliminary experiments are presented that illustrate different ways of implementing the basic task. In the first experiment, question-answer pairs were presented in speech-shaped noise, and performance was compared across subjects, question categories, and time, to examine the different sources of variability. In the second experiment, sequences of question-answer pairs were presented amidst competing conversations in an ongoing, spatially dynamic listening scenario. Overall, the question-and-answer task appears to be feasible and could be implemented flexibly in a number of different ways.

  5. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1002] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition) AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food...

  6. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  7. Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

  8. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  9. 39 CFR 961.7 - Answer to Petition and Supplement to Petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer to Petition and Supplement to Petition. 961... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO EMPLOYEE HEARING PETITIONS UNDER SECTION 5 OF THE DEBT COLLECTION ACT § 961.7 Answer to Petition and Supplement to Petition. If the employee's Petition states reasons to support the...

  10. Consciousness as a process of queries and answers in architectures based on in situ representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, F.; van der Velde, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Functional or access consciousness can be described as an ongoing dynamic process of queries and answers. Whenever we have an awareness of an object or its surroundings, it consists of the dynamic process that answers (implicit) queries like "What is the color or shape of the object?" or "What

  11. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  12. A Strategy for Detection of Inconsistency in Evaluation of Essay Type Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Archana; Chaudhary, Banshi D.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of evaluation of essay type answer books involving multiple evaluators for courses with large number of enrollments is likely to be affected due to heterogeneity in experience, expertise and maturity of evaluators. In this paper, we present a strategy to detect anomalies in evaluation of essay type answers by multiple evaluators based…

  13. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300...

  14. Statistical Methods for the detection of answer copying on achievement tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains a collection of studies where statistical methods for the detection of answer copying on achievement tests in multiple-choice format are proposed and investigated. Although all methods are suited to detect answer copying, each method is designed to address specific

  15. I Don't Know. The Effect of Question Polarity on No-opinion Answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, N.; van de Pol, Jasper; Krouwel, A.P.M.; de Vreese, Claes; Holleman, Bregje

    2018-01-01

    A new type of political attitude survey that has gained popularity in Europe and in the United States is the voting advice application (VAA). VAAs provide users with a voting advice based on their answers to a set of attitude questions. In the calculation of this advice, no-opinion answers are

  16. 8 CFR 280.12 - Answer and request or order for interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any argument made. If a personal interview is requested, the evidence in opposition to the imposition... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer and request or order for interview... IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.12 Answer and request or order for interview. Within 30 days...

  17. Modeling Answer Change Behavior: An Application of a Generalized Item Response Tree Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul; van der Linden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel application of a generalized item response tree model to investigate test takers' answer change behavior. The model allows us to simultaneously model the observed patterns of the initial and final responses after an answer change as a function of a set of latent traits and item parameters. The proposed application is illustrated…

  18. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  19. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  20. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  1. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  2. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  3. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    one correct answer was due to the answers from 5 (10.9% questions changing from correct to incorrect, while the answers to 6 questions (13.0% changed from incorrect to correct. The ability to provide correct answers differed among the various resources. Google and Cochrane provided the correct answers about 50% of the time while PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, UpToDate, Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews and InfoPOEMs were more likely to be associated with incorrect answers. Physicians also seemed unable to determine when they needed to search for informationi n order to make an accurate decision.Conclusion – Clinician‐selected electronic information resources did not guarantee accuracy in the answers provided to simulated clinical questions. At times the use of these resources caused physicians to change self‐determined correct answers to incorrect ones. The authors state that this was possibly due to factors such as poor choice of resources, ineffective search strategies, time constraints and automation bias. Library and information practitioners have an important role to play in identifying and advocating for appropriate information resources to be integrated into the electronic medical record systems provided by healthcare institutions to ensure evidence based health care delivery.

  4. Splitting Computation of Answer Set Program and Its Application on E-service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As a primary means for representing and reasoning about knowledge, Answer Set Programming (ASP has been applying in many areas such as planning, decision making, fault diagnosing and increasingly prevalent e-service. Based on the stable model semantics of logic programming, ASP can be used to solve various combinatorial search problems by finding the answer sets of logic programs which declaratively describe the problems. Itrs not an easy task to compute answer sets of a logic program using Gelfond and Lifschitzrs definition directly. In this paper, we show some results on characterization of answer sets of a logic program with constraints, and propose a way to split a program into several non-intersecting parts step by step, thus the computation of answer sets for every subprogram becomes relatively easy. To instantiate our splitting computation theory, an example about personalized product configuration in e-retailing is given to show the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Challenges to Professional Football Companies and their Answers with Particular Regard to Organisational Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bács Éva Bába Ms

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional football has been going through a period of unprecedented economic growth since the ’90s. Football ventures are increasingly becoming medium-sized companies. There have also been organizational changes, reflected in changes in the legal forms of professional football clubs, and in the use of modern controlling, planning, risk and financial management. Important questions remain unanswered with regard to the financing of football clubs, such as the impact of risks or the market value of capital costs. In addition to liquidity and the above, the acceptance of the determinational dependence of certain capital funds on sports results and the development of a strategy suitable for the optimal target system are also important requirements. In this article, we would like to present the answers football companies have given to the challenges they have been facing which affect their organisational system. In the light of international comparison, we examine the status of Hungarian football, which was once world famous and enjoyed better times in the past.

  6. Correlation of recent fission product release data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Lorenz, R.A.; Nakamura, T.; Osborne, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    For the calculation of source terms associated with severe accidents, it is necessary to model the release of fission products from fuel as it heats and melts. Perhaps the most definitive model for fission product release is that of the FASTGRASS computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. There is persuasive evidence that these processes, as well as additional chemical and gas phase mass transport processes, are important in the release of fission products from fuel. Nevertheless, it has been found convenient to have simplified fission product release correlations that may not be as definitive as models like FASTGRASS but which attempt in some simple way to capture the essence of the mechanisms. One of the most widely used such correlation is called CORSOR-M which is the present fission product/aerosol release model used in the NRC Source Term Code Package. CORSOR has been criticized as having too much uncertainty in the calculated releases and as not accurately reproducing some experimental data. It is currently believed that these discrepancies between CORSOR and the more recent data have resulted because of the better time resolution of the more recent data compared to the data base that went into the CORSOR correlation. This document discusses a simple correlational model for use in connection with NUREG risk uncertainty exercises. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  8. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  9. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  10. Residualization is not the answer: Rethinking how to address multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Here I show that a commonly used procedure to address problems stemming from collinearity and multicollinearity among independent variables in regression analysis, "residualization", leads to biased coefficient and standard error estimates and does not address the fundamental problem of collinearity, which is a lack of information. I demonstrate this using visual representations of collinearity, hypothetical experimental designs, and analyses of both artificial and real world data. I conclude by noting the importance of examining methodological practices to ensure that their validity can be established based on rational criteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Canine and feline obesity: frequently asked questions and their answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becvarova, Iveta

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of obesity is simple and warrants intervention because of the association between obesity and increased morbidity. Pet owner commitment, a proper feeding plan, and regular monitoring are the keys to a successful weight loss program. Treatment of obesity involves caloric restriction and/or diet change. Therapeutic weight loss diets differ in fiber, moisture, and digestible carbohydrate contents, and the diet choice should be tailored to the individual patient. Appropriate feeding management is equally important. To protect against the recurrence of obesity, owners should be educated on how to monitor body condition score and adjust the feeding program to maintain proper body condition.

  12. Net improvement of correct answers to therapy questions after pubmed searches: pre/post comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Keepanasseril, Arun; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2013-11-08

    Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

  13. Importance of an EIA to achieve acceptance, tolerance and participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkemark, G. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The article tries to answer the two questions: How are important decisions made in Sweden? and What role do the Environmental Impact Statements and Environmental Evaluations play in the decision-making process? Examples are given from two important Swedish projects outside the nuclear field, and a discussion about the coming issue of a waste repository is presented.

  14. Validation of software releases for CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsche, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The CMS software stack currently consists of more than 2 Million lines of code developed by over 250 authors with a new version being released every week. CMS has setup a validation process for quality assurance which enables the developers to compare the performance of a release to previous releases and references. The validation process provides the developers with reconstructed datasets of real data and MC samples. The samples span the whole range of detector effects and important physics signatures to benchmark the performance of the software. They are used to investigate interdependency effects of all CMS software components and to find and fix bugs. The release validation process described here is an integral part of CMS software development and contributes significantly to ensure stable production and analysis. It represents a sizable contribution to the overall MC production of CMS. Its success emphasizes the importance of a streamlined release validation process for projects with a large code basis and significant number of developers and can function as a model for future projects.

  15. Preparation of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Lingling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To prepare venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets.Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose(HPMC and methyl cellulose(MC were used as main materials to prepare sustained-release tablets of velafaxine hydrochloride and the influence of important factors on in vitro release curves of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was investigated.Results:The optimal prescription included 100 mg HPMC,25 mg MC,and 2.5% glidant in one tablet prepared with 30kN.The tablets were prepared with the method of wet granulation by NO.16 mesh sieve.The tablets exhibited good sustained-release property in phosphate buffered solution (pH=6.8.The as-prepared venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets have good sustained-release property.

  16. Some answers to new challenges in optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, W.

    2008-09-01

    The visible trend in the implementation of new technologies and creation of new products is the continuous reduction of feature sizes. However, in the same way as the feature sizes are decreasing, the theoretical and practical constraints of making them and ensuring their quality are increasing. Consequently, modern production and inspection technologies are confronted with a bundle of challenges. An important barrier for optical imaging and sensing is the diffraction limited lateral resolution. The observation of this physical limitation is of increasing importance, not only for microscopic techniques but also for the application of 3D-measurement techniques on wafer scale level. A further challenge is the reliable detection of imperfections and material faults within the production chain. This means in-line metrology/defectoscopy is a must for future production systems. Only the real-time feedback of the inspection results into the production process can contribute to a consistent quality assurance in processes with high cost risk. Moreover the reliable measurement of free form surfaces, both technical and optical, the assurance of the traceability and the certified assessment of the uncertainty of the measurement results are ongoing challenges. The challenges and the physical limitations are addressed here by new approaches for testing semiconductor structures with enhanced resolution, the measurement of aspheric lenses with increased flexibility and the inspection of micro components with improved traceability.

  17. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  18. Riola release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables

  19. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  20. Answers to science questions from the "stop faking it!" guy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular Science 101 columns, from NSTA member journal Science and Children, proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling Stop Faking It! series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to the expanding universe, and atomic clocks to curveballs all with his trademark wit and irreverence. The 33 short columns, plus a new introduction, provide an introductory science course of sorts, covering topics in life science, Earth and space science, physical science, technology, and more perfect for K-8 teachers, homeschoolers, or parents who just want to boost their science know-how. Easily understood prose and lively illustrations by cartoonist Brian Diskin make this volume an engaging and, more important, readable course you can pass with flying colors.

  1. Revisiting sample size: are big trials the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurati Buse, Giovanna A L; Botto, Fernando; Devereaux, P J

    2012-07-18

    The superiority of the evidence generated in randomized controlled trials over observational data is not only conditional to randomization. Randomized controlled trials require proper design and implementation to provide a reliable effect estimate. Adequate random sequence generation, allocation implementation, analyses based on the intention-to-treat principle, and sufficient power are crucial to the quality of a randomized controlled trial. Power, or the probability of the trial to detect a difference when a real difference between treatments exists, strongly depends on sample size. The quality of orthopaedic randomized controlled trials is frequently threatened by a limited sample size. This paper reviews basic concepts and pitfalls in sample-size estimation and focuses on the importance of large trials in the generation of valid evidence.

  2. History, Philosophy and Science Teaching: Some Answers to ``How?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa de Carvalho, Anna Maria; Infantosi Vannucchi, Andréa

    The study of the history and philosophy of science in school science courses is highly recommended. This paper deals with the methodological aspects derived from research in science education and how they have to be taken into account in order to generate effective classroom activities, so that history and philosophy are not relegated to the status of additional rhetoric of conclusions in an extensive curricula. This is illustrated with the analysis of episodes ___ transcribed from videotape records ___ which took place when such activity was introduced into high school physics classes. This analysis has shown that students, when working in cooperative groups over problematic historical episodes, may come to discuss essential features of science. This not only provides a more realistic view of science, but also enhances cognitive and argumentation skills, besides emphasizing the importance of teachers' guidance.

  3. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  4. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  5. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  6. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  7. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  8. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  9. Why do Americans stink at math? Some of the answer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Bishop

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, a lengthy and persuasive article appeared in the New York Times Magazine written by the author as an introduction to her new book by the same eye-catching name: Why Do Americans Stink at Math? by Elizabeth Green Ms. Green’s basic premise is that somehow Japanese classrooms modified their style from the purportedly traditional approach of rote response and memorization of meaningless algorithms to the American style of teaching mathematics following the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM Standards. Unfortunately, her article - and, presumably, book - represent so much education industry misinformation that it almost cries out for clarification/correction. Herein is an attempt toward that end. It is far from complete but I will try to cover the high points. In summary, Ms. Green has referenced much of the same source material as mentioned herein but a deeper look at those sources leads to quite a different interpretation of the past and, more importantly, implications for trying to improve performance in mathematics in many American precollegiate schools. For the record, there are many American precollegiate schools with exemplary mathematics performance.

  10. Question of Consciousness: to Quantum Mechanics for the Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpenko Ivan A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the possible role of consciousness in quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating the apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation and the properties of the microcosm. The reasons for discrepancies between the results of observations of the microcosm and macrocosm and the potential association of consciousness with these reasons are closely investigated. The mentioned connection is meant to be interpreted in the sense that the probable requirement for a complete understanding of quantum theory is the adequate description of consciousness within it and that the correct theory of consciousness should include quantum-mechanical theoretical apparatus. In this context, the question about the methods of scientific cognition is discussed, in particular, the problem of the place and the importance of intellectual intuition in science and philosophy of science. The author draws the conclusions about the current state of the “measuring” consciousness. problem in its relationship with

  11. Is Polis the Answer? Hannah Arendt on Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bokiniec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconsider Hannah Arendt’s most influential works from the point of view of her attitude towards democracy and analysis of the way it may contribute to the contemporary understanding and redefinition of the very notion of what democracy is.The paper begins with the reconstruction of Arendt’s anthropology in order to ground her political reflections. The next part discusses the basic characteristics of counsel democracy in forms of spontaneous, local organizations and associations in which every citizen could freely and equally participate, as they show through her analysis of revolutions. The last part deals with different and contradictory interpretations of Arendt’s attitude towards democracy and the question whether her proposition is a practical, revolutionary proposition or an idealist utopia. The interpretation of Arendt’s project emphasizing her democratic and reformative approach is defended. The conclusion states Hannah Arendt’s important contribution to the contemporary reflection on democracy in view of her recognition of the power of grassroots collective actions and their role in contemporary political sphere and the necessity of such formed at grass­roots and spontaneous level actions and associations as a unique safety valve for the society, as well as a counterbalance for mass society.  

  12. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 212 original questions and answers, including comments. 5. rev. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1983-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (orig.) [de

  13. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources,

  14. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reutov, Valentin P; Schechter, A N

    2010-01-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  15. Using ontology databases for scalable query answering, inconsistency detection, and data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dejing

    2011-01-01

    An ontology database is a basic relational database management system that models an ontology plus its instances. To reason over the transitive closure of instances in the subsumption hierarchy, for example, an ontology database can either unfold views at query time or propagate assertions using triggers at load time. In this paper, we use existing benchmarks to evaluate our method—using triggers—and we demonstrate that by forward computing inferences, we not only improve query time, but the improvement appears to cost only more space (not time). However, we go on to show that the true penalties were simply opaque to the benchmark, i.e., the benchmark inadequately captures load-time costs. We have applied our methods to two case studies in biomedicine, using ontologies and data from genetics and neuroscience to illustrate two important applications: first, ontology databases answer ontology-based queries effectively; second, using triggers, ontology databases detect instance-based inconsistencies—something not possible using views. Finally, we demonstrate how to extend our methods to perform data integration across multiple, distributed ontology databases. PMID:22163378

  16. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  17. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  18. Solar energy is for now. [Question/answer session with Dr. Barry Commoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Commoner, in a question/answer format, presents his views on the energy crisis, the part played by OPEC, the part played by the wastage of energy to the problem. He discusses the vulnerability of our economy to the destruction of energy supplies. In discussing alternative energy sources, Commoner says that ''there are only two possible sources of renewable energy. One is solar. . .and the other is nuclear with the breeder.'' But he does feel that the choice for nuclear ''would be a disastrous mistake, partly for obvious environmental reasons and questions of nuclear proliferation but, even more important, for economic considerations. . .'' Solar energy is economical and all the technology exists, he adds. ''Right now, throughout the central band of the USA, it is economic to replace 50 to 60 percent of your conventional heating by building solar collectors,'' he continues. He further discusses other alternative energy sources in the interview and concludes with his views on how seriously energy problems in the U.S. affect the rest of the world. (MCW)

  19. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future......Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items...

  20. Is the Bakken Formation the Answer to our Energy Independence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Hall, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Bakken Formation has garnered substantial attention due to an unprecedented surge in US domestic oil production, much of it from shale oil from the Bakken. The sheer size of the formation coupled with technological advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracking have led many, including the former head of BP, to speculate that domestic shale oil will free the US from its dependence upon foreign oil entirely. Shale oil is indeed likely to provide a significant contribution to our domestic energy portfolio, but real problems exist in the form of physical limitations. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the most important fields in the Bakken Formation are depleting rapidly. Mckenzie and Mountrail Counties, the two largest oil producing counties in North Dakota, account for over 50% of North Dakota's total oil production. However, Mountrail County appears to have hit peak production between the months of March and April 2012. The decline is especially apparent in the Mountrail County's two largest producing fields, suggesting that much of production occurs in concentrated areas and many of these fields with high profitability are undergoing rapid production declines. In order to maintain a consistent level of production and offset these growing declines, an increasing number of wells must be drilled throughout the lifetime of a field. Energy Return on Investment (EROI), the ratio of energy outputs over energy inputs, can be utilized to determine the profitability of resource base. Preliminary EROI analysis indicates that newly developed fields in the Bakken are less profitable and yield far less energy than the larger producing predecessors such as those in Mountrail County. Will the smaller fields ultimately compensate for the steep declines witnessed in the larger fields? If current trends continue, ultimate production from the Bakken will be far less than predicted. This poses significant financial implications for the future of shale oil and US

  1. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  2. Psychoanalysis on the couch: can neuroscience provide the answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    Over a century after Freud's attempt to establish psychoanalysis as a natural science, there is renewed interest in the integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific findings within a single theoretical and experimental framework. However, it is important that any intellectual exchange is not motivated only by declining confidence in psychoanalytic theory and practice or awareness of the rising fortunes of the brain sciences. The present paper considers three possible ways in which psychoanalysis and neuroscience might be integrated. These include the investigation of the neurological organisation of psychoanalytically defined phenomena; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their neurobiological evidence; and the use of neuroimaging techniques to assess the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment. The author argues that these exercises are unlikely to provide psychoanalysis with the "unlimited opportunities for overcoming its uncertainties and doubts" that some have anticipated. For instance, the argument that mapping psychoanalytically defined phenomena in the brain may provide biological validity to these phenomena should be considered an expression of logical confusion; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their biological evidence is critically dependent on speculative interpretation of what the theories predict at neuronal level; and the supposedly objective evaluation of the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment on the basis of neurobiological data relies on the subjective reports of the patient and analyst. In light of this conclusion, there are a number of outstanding questions which remain to be addressed, including whether psychoanalysis should adhere to scientific canons and whether this would necessarily require an experimental methodology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dams release methane even in temperate zoned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Wohlen lake (near Bern) is a retaining dam built 90 years ago that has undergone a campaign to measure the quantity of methane released. The campaign lasted 1 year and the result was unexpected: 0.15 g/m 2 *day which one of the highest release rates in temperate zones. This result is all the more stunning since water stays only 2 days in average in the reservoir and that the drowned area is not important. In fact the river Aar that feeds the lake is loaded with organic matter coming from humane activities: agriculture and 3 sewage plants. This organic matter decays in the lake releasing methane. (A.C.)

  4. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...

  5. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  6. Field Office Telephone Service - Monthly National Answer Rate and Busy Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides information at the national level by month for federal fiscal year 2013 onward for answer rate and busy rate for calls to our field offices....

  7. Science Matters Podcast: Questions and Answers with EPA's Dr. Peter Grevatt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Peter Grevatt, the director of EPA's Office of Children's Health Protection, as he answers questions about children's health, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  8. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  9. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  10. Access Answers: A Digest of LISTSERVS of Interest to Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a digest of LISTSERVS of interest to access services for the period of April to June 2011. It presents questions and answers from Interlibrary Loan (ILL) people, CIRCPLUS, and OFFCAMP.

  11. DEM Solutions Develops Answers to Modeling Lunar Dust and Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne; Calle, Carlos; LaRoche, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    system. Computer-aided design (CAD) models of real particles can be imported to obtain an accurate representation of their shape. EDEM(TradeMark) uses particle-scale behavior models to simulate bulk solids behavior. In addition to particle size and shape, the models can account for physical properties of particles along with interaction between particles and with equipment surfaces and surrounding media, as needed to define the physics of a particular process.

  12. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE MONITORING: UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY CAN BE AN ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rinaudo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During archaeological excavations it is important to monitor the new excavated areas and findings day by day in order to be able to plan future excavation activities. At present, this daily activity is usually performed by using total stations, which survey the changes of the archaeological site: the surveyors are asked to produce day by day draft plans and sections which allow archaeologists to plan their future activities. The survey is realized during the excavations or just at the end of every working day and drawings have to be produced as soon as possible in order to allow the comprehension of the work done and to plan the activities for the following day. By using this technique, all the measurements, even those not necessary for the day after, have to be acquired in order to avoid a ‘loss of memory’. A possible alternative to this traditional approach is aerial photogrammetry, if the images can be acquired quickly and at a taken distance able to guarantee the necessary accuracy of a few centimeters. Today the use of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles can be considered a proven technology able to acquire images at distances ranging from 4 m up to 20 m: and therefore as a possible monitoring system to provide the necessary information to the archaeologists day by day. The control network, usually present at each archaeological site, can give the stable control points useful for orienting a photogrammetric block acquired by using an UAV equipped with a calibrated digital camera and a navigation control system able to drive the aircraft following a pre-planned flight scheme. Modern digital photogrammetric software can solve for the block orientation and generate a DSM automatically, allowing rapid orthophoto generation and the possibility of producing sections and plans. The present paper describes a low cost UAV system realized by the research group of the Politecnico di Torino and tested on a Roman villa archaeological site located in

  13. Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered

  14. Model answers for Yes/No questions from EFL students in public senior high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Dirgeyasa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the typical categories of answers to Yes/No questions most used by students at selected Public Senior High Schools in Medan, Indonesia. These schools were classified into top favorite, medium favorite and non-favorite schools. Through a stratified clustered random sampling technique, six schools were chosen consisting of two schools from each classification. A number of 40 students were chosen from three class X, three class XI and three class XII at each of the six chosen schools, making a total sample of 720 students with 360 sets of dialogue scripts. Data was collected through documentation-recording dialogues. The data was transcribed and analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results of the research showed that: 1 the categories of the students’ answers to the Yes/No questions were distributed variously in terms of the six models. However, the distribution of the answers was not proportionally equal amongst all the models, 2 the dominant distribution of the answers was the third model with the formula Yes/No+additional information such as confirming, supporting, etc., reaching 37% of the total answers, whilst the least common models were the sixth and fourth categories respectively, which had 1% and 3% of the answers respectively, and finally 3 there was no significant difference in the distribution of the students’ answers in terms of the class of school whether top favorite, medium favorite or non-favorite. In conclusion, the ways to answer Yes/No questions need to be developed amongst students by their teachers by teaching and learning using natural, real life-like situations and in contextual ways.

  15. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  16. The Importance of Gilson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Redpath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author aims at answering why preserving, reading, and understanding the work of Étienne Gilson is crucial for the Western civilization if one wishes to be able to understand precisely the problems that are besetting the West and how one can best resolve them. He claims that among all the leading intellectuals of the past or present generation, no one has better diagnosed the philosophical ills of Western culture and better understood the remedy for those ills than has Étienne Gilson.

  17. Life cycle of petroleum biodegradation metabolite plumes, and implications for risk management at fuel release sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemo, Dawn A; O'Reilly, Kirk T; Mohler, Rachel E; Magaw, Renae I; Espino Devine, Catalina; Ahn, Sungwoo; Tiwary, Asheesh K

    2017-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a 5-y research study of the nature and toxicity of petroleum biodegradation metabolites in groundwater at fuel release sites that are quantified as diesel-range "Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons" (TPH; also known as TPHd, diesel-range organics (DRO), etc.), unless a silica gel cleanup (SGC) step is used on the sample extract prior to the TPH analysis. This issue is important for site risk management in regulatory jurisdictions that use TPH as a metric; the presence of these metabolites may preclude site closure even if all other factors can be considered "low-risk." Previous work has shown that up to 100% of the extractable organics in groundwater at petroleum release sites can be biodegradation metabolites. The metabolites can be separated from the hydrocarbons by incorporating an SGC step; however, regulatory agency acceptance of SGC has been inconsistent because of questions about the nature and toxicity of the metabolites. The present study was conducted to answer these specific questions. Groundwater samples collected from source and downgradient wells at fuel release sites were extracted and subjected to targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nontargeted two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) analyses, and the metabolites identified in each sample were classified according to molecular structural classes and assigned an oral reference dose (RfD)-based toxicity ranking. Our work demonstrates that the metabolites identified in groundwater at biodegrading fuel release sites are in classes ranked as low toxicity to humans and are not expected to pose significant risk to human health. The identified metabolites naturally attenuate in a predictable manner, with an overall trend to an increasingly higher proportion of organic acids and esters, and a lower human toxicity profile, and a life cycle that is consistent with the low-risk natural attenuation paradigm adopted

  18. Formulation and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Controlled-Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of several formulation variables on in ... The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the optimized formulation was compared ... Results: The core tablets exhibited extended release consisting of drug release from the embedded ... important factor in medical treatment with respect ... The solvents for high-performance liquid.

  19. Impact of Answer-Switching Behavior on Multiple-Choice Test Scores in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan BAŞTÜRK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiple- choice format is one of the most popular selected-response item formats used in educational testing. Researchers have shown that Multiple-choice type test is a useful vehicle for student assessment in core university subjects that usually have large student numbers. Even though the educators, test experts and different test recourses maintain the idea that the first answer should be retained, many researchers argued that this argument is not dependent with empirical findings. The main question of this study is to examine how the answer switching behavior affects the multiple-choice test score. Additionally, gender differences and relationship between number of answer switching behavior and item parameters (item difficulty and item discrimination were investigated. The participants in this study consisted of 207 upper-level College of Education students from mid-sized universities. A Midterm exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions was used. According to the result of this study, answer switching behavior statistically increase test scores. On the other hand, there is no significant gender difference in answer-switching behavior. Additionally, there is a significant negative relationship between answer switching behavior and item difficulties.

  20. The 'Sentinel Node' Concept: More Questions Raised than Answers Provided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1998-01-01

    -guided detection of the sentinel node. At present, a multitude of studies are conducted in a variety of tumors and sites, aiming at further refinements of the technique or at clinical evaluation in comparison with established lympadenectomy. The results may well change many aspects of our operative strategy in the near future. However, assuming a technically optimized procedure, will this solve the underlying tumor biological and clinical problem with respect to the necessity and efficacy of a regional lymph node dissection in node-positive cases? This is not the case; moreover, there are additional questions raised and left unanswered so far. Without any doubt, the rate of unnecessary diagnostic lymph node dissections can be considerably reduced as soon as the sentinel node concept is sufficiently validated for general use outside clinical trials. This would be a clear step forward. It is undetermined, however, how far a cancer patient with a positive sentinel node-thus already proven lymphatic metastases-would still profit from a more or less extensive lymph node dissection. It might be sufficient to use the staging information obtained through the sentinel node's status alone to decide upon adjuvant therapies. A further aspect arises from the possibility for investigating this single and supposedly most representative lymph node in far more detail than it would be possible for the large number of nodes previously sampled in conventional lymphatic dissections. This more extensive work-up may include serial sectioning, immunological and molecular techniques to enhance the sensitivity for micrometastases detection. However, very little is known about the true prognostic significance of such conventionally occult micrometastases, and even less experience exists as to the value of adjuvant therapies in those cases. Thus, while the sentinel node procedure will probably enable a more precise though less invasive lymphatic staging of malignant disease, it raises a number of important

  1. Minimizing lead release levels in secondary smelters slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenkler, E.S.; Graham, S.; Ghosh, R.; Greenhut, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Five lead-containing slags and four mattes were analyzed to reveal microstructure, semi-quantitative microchemistry, and phases present. To determine if the slags could be incorporated as a glass so that lead release levels could be stabilized, glass batches were formulated based on slag compositions. Leaching tests showed that all materials that were fritted in a glass batch had lower lead release levels than non-adjusted materials, and all could satisfy EPA test requirements. The mole ratio of glass modifiers to glass formers played an important role in the extent of lead release. Small additions of phosphate to a batch had a significant effect on lowering lead release levels

  2. Radioactive releases into the environment under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Although accidents involving the release of radioactive materials and the unplanned exposure of people can occur at any stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, most attention has been focused on reactor accidents. Although no power reactor accidents involving exposure of the public have yet occured, it should be recognized that the probability of such accidental releases cannot be reduced to zero. Since the inventory of radioactive materials in power reactors is very large, it is usual to postulate, for safety assessments, that a release of fission products takes place in spite of all protective measures. This postulated release is of importance for reactor siting and for preparing emergency plans. (HP) [de

  3. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Lynn V; Baude, Mathilde; Roberts, Stuart P M; Phillips, James; Green, Mike; Carvell, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, an opportunity arose in England to develop an agri-environment package for wild pollinators, as part of the new Countryside Stewardship scheme launched in 2015. It can be understood as a 'policy window', a rare and time-limited opportunity to change policy, supported by a narrative about pollinator decline and widely supported mitigating actions. An agri-environment package is a bundle of management options that together supply sufficient resources to support a target group of species. This paper documents information that was available at the time to develop such a package for wild pollinators. Four questions needed answering: (1) Which pollinator species should be targeted? (2) Which resources limit these species in farmland? (3) Which management options provide these resources? (4) What area of each option is needed to support populations of the target species? Focussing on wild bees, we provide tentative answers that were used to inform development of the package. There is strong evidence that floral resources can limit wild bee populations, and several sources of evidence identify a set of agri-environment options that provide flowers and other resources for pollinators. The final question could only be answered for floral resources, with a wide range of uncertainty. We show that the areas of some floral resource options in the basic Wild Pollinator and Farmland Wildlife Package (2% flower-rich habitat and 1 km flowering hedgerow), are sufficient to supply a set of six common pollinator species with enough pollen to feed their larvae at lowest estimates, using minimum values for estimated parameters where a range was available. We identify key sources of uncertainty, and stress the importance of keeping the Package flexible, so it can be revised as new evidence emerges about how to achieve the policy aim of supporting pollinators on farmland.

  4. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed

  5. Dual-controlled release system of drugs for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Controlled release systems have been noted to allow drugs to enhance their ability for bone regeneration. To this end, various biomaterials have been used as the release carriers of drugs, such as low-molecular-weight drugs, growth factors, and others. The drugs are released from the release carriers in a controlled fashion to maintain their actions for a long time period. Most research has been focused on the controlled release of single drugs to demonstrate the therapeutic feasibility. Controlled release of two combined drugs, so-called dual release systems, are promising and important for tissue regeneration. This is because the tissue regeneration process of bone formation is generally achieved by multiple bioactive molecules, which are produced from cells by other molecules. If two types of bioactive molecules, (i.e., drugs), are supplied in an appropriate fashion, the regeneration process of living bodies will be efficiently promoted. This review focuses on the bone regeneration induced by dual-controlled release of drugs. In this paper, various dual-controlled release systems of drugs aiming at bone regeneration are overviewed explaining the type of drugs and their release materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Is it necessary to import biofuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.

    1997-01-01

    This conference paper discusses whether it is necessary to import biofuels into Denmark. As far as resources and capacities are concerned, the answer is no. From a commercial point of view the answer is yes. The electricity utilities and the district heating companies have established import as an alternative to domestic production of biomass. This is because agreements among suppliers had led to the absence of competition on price. This tendency to form cartels are seen for straw and chips. With pellets the situation is different; the market is controlled by the supply of shavings and filings from the furniture industry. This means that the market is very sensitive to changes in the export of furniture to Germany. Importing pellets has been difficult because of transportation problems. The prices of biofuels have been slightly falling. From 2005 the need for bioenergy will increase beyond the domestic resources of straw and chips. To secure that the Danish prices will not exceed those on the world market, in spite of the governmentally planned choice of fuels, some import of biomass will be required. 5 figs

  7. Released radioactivity reducing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeaki.

    1992-01-01

    Upon occurrence of a reactor accident, penetration portions of a reactor container, as a main leakage source from a reactor container, are surrounded by a plurality of gas-tight chambers, the outside of which is surrounded by highly gas-tightly buildings. Branched pipelines of an emergency gas processing system are introduced to each of the gas-tight chambers and they are joined and in communication with an emergency gas processing device. With such a constitution, radioactive materials are prevented from leaking directly from the buildings. Further, pipeline openings of the emergency gas processing facility are disposed in the plurality highly gas-tight penetration chambers. If the radioactive materials are leaked from the reactor to elevate the pressure in the penetration chambers, the radioactive materials are introduced to a filter device in the emergency gas processing facility by way of the branched pipelines, filtered and then released to the atmosphere. Accordingly, the reliability and safety of the system can be improved. (T.M.)

  8. Containment and release management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.R.; Pratt, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Reducing the risk from potentially severe accidents by appropriate accident management strategies is receiving increased attention from the international reactor safety community. Considerable uncertainty still surrounds some of the physical phenomena likely to occur during a severe accident. The USNRC, in developing its research plan for accident management, wants to ensure that both the developers and implementers of accident management strategies are aware of the uncertainty associated with the plant operators' ability to correctly diagnose an accident, as well as the uncertainties associated with various preventive and mitigative strategies. The use of a particular accident management strategy can have both positive and negative effects on the status of a plant and these effects must be carefully weighed before a particular course of action is chosen and implemented. By using examples of severe accident scenarios, initial insights are presented here regarding the indications plant operators may have to alert them to particular accident states. Insights are also offered on the various management actions operators and plant technical staff might pursue for particular accident situations and the pros and cons associated with such actions. The examples given are taken for the most part from the containment and release phase of accident management, since this is the current focus of the effort in the accident management area at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 2 refs

  9. Released radioactivity reducing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yumi.

    1995-01-01

    A water scrubber is disposed in a scrubber tank and a stainless steel fiber filter is disposed above the water scrubber. The upper end of the scrubber tank is connected by way of a second bent tube to a capturing vessel incorporating a moisture removing layer and an activated carbon filter. The exit of the capturing vessel is connected to a stack. Upon occurrence of an accident of a BWR-type power plant, gases containing radioactive materials released from a reactor container are discharged into the water scrubber from a first bent tube through a venturi tube nozzle, and water soluble and aerosol-like radioactive materials are captured in the water. Aerosol and splashes of water droplets which can not be captured thoroughly by the water scrubber are captured by the stainless steel fiber filter. Gases passing through the scrubber tank are introduced to a capturing vessel through a second bent tube, and organic iodine is captured by the activated carbon filter. (I.N.)

  10. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  11. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  12. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3)…

  13. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter Residual Solvents that applies to both human...

  14. The influence of source term release parameters on health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-08-01

    In this study, the influence of source term release parameters on the health effects was examined. This is very useful in identifying the relative importance of release parameters and can be an important factor in developing a strategy for reducing offsite risks. The release parameters investigated in this study are release height, heat content, fuel burnup, release time, release duration, and warning time. The health effects affected by the change of release parameters are early fatalities, cancer fatalities, early injuries, cancer injuries, early fatality risk, population weighted early fatality risk, population weighted cancer fatality risk, effective whole body population dose, population exceeding an early acute red bone marrow dose of 1.5 Sv, and distance at which early fatalities are expected to occur. As release height increases, the values of early health effects such as early fatalities and injuries decrease. However, the release height dose not have significant influences on late health effects. The values of both early and late health effects decrease as heat content increases. The increase fuel burnup, i.e., the increase of core inventories increases the late health effects, however, has small influence on the early health effects. But, the number of early injuries increases as the fuel burnup increases. The effects of release time increase shows very similar influence on both the early and late health effects. As the release time increases to 2 hours, the values of health effects increase and then decrease rapidly. As release duration increases, the values of late health effects increase slightly, however, the values of early health effects decrease. As warning time increases to 2 hours, the values of late health effects decrease and then shows no variation. The number of early injuries decreases rapidly as the warning time increases to 2 hours. However, the number of early fatalities and the early fatality risk increase as the warning time increases

  15. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  16. America's Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Math and Science Initiative, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. arm of technology giant Siemens Corp. recently reported it has 3,000 jobs open because of the dearth of skilled workers. More than half of those open jobs require science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) skills. A recent study by ManpowerGroup found that a record 52 percent of U.S. employers have difficulty filling critical…

  17. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  18. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  19. Noble Gas Release Signal as a Precursor to Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S. J.; Lee, H.; Gardner, W. P.

    2017-12-01

    We present empirical results of rock strain, microfracturing, acoustic emissions, and noble gas release from laboratory triaxial experiments for a granite, basalt, shale and bedded rock salt. Noble gases are released and measured real-time during deformation using mass spectrometry. The gas release represents a precursive signal to macrofracture. Gas release is associated with increased acoustic emissions indicating that microfracturing is required to release gas and create pathways for the gas to be sensed. The gas released depends on initial gas content, pore structure and its evolution during deformation, the deformation amount, matrix permeability, deformation style and the stress/strain history. Gases are released from inter and intracrystalline sites; release rate increases as strain and microfracturing increases. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history and age, fluids present, and radioisotope concentrations that affect radiogenic noble gas isotope (e.g. 4He,40Ar) production. Noble gas emission and its relationship to crustal processes such as seismicity and volcanism, tectonic velocities, qualitative estimates of deep permeability, age dating of groundwater, and a signature of nuclear weapon detonation. Our result show that mechanical deformation of crustal materials is an important process controlling gas release from rocks and minerals, and should be considered in techniques which utilize gas release and/or accumulation. We propose using noble gas release to signal rock deformation in boreholes, mines and waste repositories. We postulate each rock exhibits a gas release signature which is microstructure, stress, strain, and/or permanent deformation dependent. Calibration of such relationships, for example relating gas release per rock unit volume to strain may be used to quantify rock deformation and develop predictive models.Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and

  20. Permutation importance: a corrected feature importance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, André; Toloşi, Laura; Sander, Oliver; Lengauer, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    In life sciences, interpretability of machine learning models is as important as their prediction accuracy. Linear models are probably the most frequently used methods for assessing feature relevance, despite their relative inflexibility. However, in the past years effective estimators of feature relevance have been derived for highly complex or non-parametric models such as support vector machines and RandomForest (RF) models. Recently, it has been observed that RF models are biased in such a way that categorical variables with a large number of categories are preferred. In this work, we introduce a heuristic for normalizing feature importance measures that can correct the feature importance bias. The method is based on repeated permutations of the outcome vector for estimating the distribution of measured importance for each variable in a non-informative setting. The P-value of the observed importance provides a corrected measure of feature importance. We apply our method to simulated data and demonstrate that (i) non-informative predictors do not receive significant P-values, (ii) informative variables can successfully be recovered among non-informative variables and (iii) P-values computed with permutation importance (PIMP) are very helpful for deciding the significance of variables, and therefore improve model interpretability. Furthermore, PIMP was used to correct RF-based importance measures for two real-world case studies. We propose an improved RF model that uses the significant variables with respect to the PIMP measure and show that its prediction accuracy is superior to that of other existing models. R code for the method presented in this article is available at http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/ approximately altmann/download/PIMP.R CONTACT: altmann@mpi-inf.mpg.de, laura.tolosi@mpi-inf.mpg.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Solar import from Africa : The Italian and the European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliavacca, G.; L'Abbate, A.; Calisti, R.; Soranno, M.; Brancucci Martinez-anido, C.; Alecu, C.; Vandenbergh, M.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    Goal of the present work is to provide a first preliminary analysis on the effect of African solar energy import on the Italian system at 2030. In particular, the aim is to provide a first preliminary answer to questions like: · what flow will prevail in Italy at 2030 (wind from the Northern border

  2. The Relative Importance of the Channels of Monetary Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance channels of monetary policy which are working in Zambia. It answers the ... several ways through which monetary policy affect the balance sheets of economic agents and hence ... economies, especially those with flexible exchange rate regimes. ..... transmission channels work endogenously or exogenously.

  3. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Farnaz; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. Method This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed), and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP). Results Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one. PMID:22952502

  4. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Abootalebi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. "n Method: This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed, and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP. Results: Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion: The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one.

  5. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  6. Women, pharmacy and the World Wide Web: could they be the answer to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Hussainy, Safeera; Marriott, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how giving women access to evidence-based information in weight management through pharmacies, and by utilising the World Wide Web, is a much needed step towards dealing with the obesity crisis. Women's needs should be considered when developing evidence-based information on weight. Excess weight places them at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, infertility and complications following pregnancy and giving birth. Women are also an important population group because they influence decision-making around meal choices for their families and are the biggest consumers of weight-loss products, many of which can be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacies are readily accessible primary healthcare locations and given the pharmacist's expertise in being able to recognise underlying causes of obesity (e.g. medications, certain disease states), pharmacies are an ideal location to provide women with evidence-based information on all facets of weight management. Considering the exponential rise in the use of the World Wide Web, this information could be delivered as an online educational resource supported by other flexible formats. The time has come for the development of an online, evidence-based educational resource on weight management, which is combined with other flexible formats and targeted at women in general and according to different phases of their lives (pregnancy, post-partum, menopause). By empowering women with this knowledge it will allow them and their families to take better control of their health and wellbeing, and it may just be the much needed answer to complement already existing resources to help curb the obesity epidemic. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. The ontology-based answers (OBA) service: a connector for embedded usage of ontologies in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Wingender, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    The semantic web depends on the use of ontologies to let electronic systems interpret contextual information. Optimally, the handling and access of ontologies should be completely transparent to the user. As a means to this end, we have developed a service that attempts to bridge the gap between experts in a certain knowledge domain, ontologists, and application developers. The ontology-based answers (OBA) service introduced here can be embedded into custom applications to grant access to the classes of ontologies and their relations as most important structural features as well as to information encoded in the relations between ontology classes. Thus computational biologists can benefit from ontologies without detailed knowledge about the respective ontology. The content of ontologies is mapped to a graph of connected objects which is compatible to the object-oriented programming style in Java. Semantic functions implement knowledge about the complex semantics of an ontology beyond the class hierarchy and "partOf" relations. By using these OBA functions an application can, for example, provide a semantic search function, or (in the examples outlined) map an anatomical structure to the organs it belongs to. The semantic functions relieve the application developer from the necessity of acquiring in-depth knowledge about the semantics and curation guidelines of the used ontologies by implementing the required knowledge. The architecture of the OBA service encapsulates the logic to process ontologies in order to achieve a separation from the application logic. A public server with the current plugins is available and can be used with the provided connector in a custom application in scenarios analogous to the presented use cases. The server and the client are freely available if a project requires the use of custom plugins or non-public ontologies. The OBA service and further documentation is available at http://www.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/projects/oba.

  8. Analysis of Students’ Incorrect Answers on the Topic of Roman Numerals in The Fourth-Grade of Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvianiresa, D.; Jupri, Al

    2017-02-01

    Mathematics has an important role in solving problems related to mathematical symbols. Mathematics topics are related to the daily life of students, as well as mathematics in the primary school level. In this paper, we report the results of research that aims to understand the difficulties of primary school students towards mathematics, especially on the topic of Roman numerals. The subject of this research included 38 students of fourth grade students from a primary school in the city of Bandung. The results showed that the teacher is more likely do the learning to deliver topic directly to students, rather than having to relatethe learning with a real context. In addition, after the teacher gave some exercises to students, we observed that there are some students’ answers that are unpredictable and made errors. Unexpected answers are caused by student’s unconscientious, misunderstanding, or inability to memorize in seven Roman numeral in general. The results of this analysis can be used to develop teacher competence in the teaching and learning process in the future. In this way, we expect the teacher can prepare various student responses to the given problems in the learning process.

  9. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  10. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  11. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  12. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  13. Towards automatic recognition of irregular, short-open answers in Fill-in-the-blank tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of student knowledge in Learning Management Systems such as Moodle is mostly conducted using close-ended questions (e.g. multiple-choice whose answers are straightforward to grade without human intervention. FILL-IN-THE-BLANK tests are usually more challenging since they require test-takers to recall concepts and associations not available in the statement of the question itself (no choices or hints are given. Automatic assessment of the latter currently requires the test-taker to give a verbatim answer, that is, free of spelling or typographical mistakes. In this paper, we consider an adapted version of a classical text-matching algorithm that may prevent wrong grading in automatic assessment of FILL-IN-THE-BLANK questions whenever irregular (similar but not exact answers occur due to such types of error. The technique was tested in two scenarios. In the first scenario, misspelled single-word answers to an Internet security questionnaire were correctly recognized within a two letter editing tolerance (achieving 99 % accuracy. The second scenario involved short-open answers to computer programming quizzes (i.e. small blocks of code requiring a structure that conforms to the syntactic rules of the programming language. Twenty-one real-world answers written up by students, taking a computer programming course, were assessed by the method. This assessment addressed the lack of precision in terms of programmer-style artifacts (such as unfamiliar variable or function nomenclature and uses an admissible tolerance of up to 20 % letter-level typos. These scores were satisfactory corroborated by a human expert. Additional findings and potential enhancements to the technique are also discussed.

  14. The Effect of Answering in a Preferred Versus a Non-Preferred Survey Mode on Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Smyth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that offering respondents their preferred mode can increase response rates, but the effect of doing so on how respondents process and answer survey questions (i.e., measurement is unclear. In this paper, we evaluate whether changes in question format have different effects on data quality for those responding in their preferred mode than for those responding in a non-preferred mode for three question types (multiple answer, open-ended, and grid. Respondents were asked about their preferred mode in a 2008 survey and were recontacted in 2009. In the recontact survey, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two modes such that some responded in their preferred mode and others did not. They were also randomly assigned to one of two questionnaire forms in which the format of individual questions was varied. On the multiple answer and open-ended items, those who answered in a non-preferred mode seemed to take advantage of opportunities to satisfice when the question format allowed or encouraged it (e.g., selecting fewer items in the check-all than the forced-choice format and being more likely to skip the open-ended item when it had a larger answer box, while those who answered in a preferred mode did not. There was no difference on a grid formatted item across those who did and did not respond by their preferred mode, but results indicate that a fully labeled grid reduced item missing rates vis-à-vis a grid with only column heading labels. Results provide insight into the effect of tailoring to mode preference on commonly used questionnaire design features.

  15. openPDS: protecting the privacy of metadata through SafeAnswers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye

    Full Text Available The rise of smartphones and web services made possible the large-scale collection of personal metadata. Information about individuals' location, phone call logs, or web-searches, is collected and used intensively by organizations and big data researchers. Metadata has however yet to realize its full potential. Privacy and legal concerns, as well as the lack of technical solutions for personal metadata management is preventing metadata from being shared and reconciled under the control of the individual. This lack of access and control is furthermore fueling growing concerns, as it prevents individuals from understanding and managing the risks associated with the collection and use of their data. Our contribution is two-fold: (1 we describe openPDS, a personal metadata management framework that allows individuals to collect, store, and give fine-grained access to their metadata to third parties. It has been implemented in two field studies; (2 we introduce and analyze SafeAnswers, a new and practical way of protecting the privacy of metadata at an individual level. SafeAnswers turns a hard anonymization problem into a more tractable security one. It allows services to ask questions whose answers are calculated against the metadata instead of trying to anonymize individuals' metadata. The dimensionality of the data shared with the services is reduced from high-dimensional metadata to low-dimensional answers that are less likely to be re-identifiable and to contain sensitive information. These answers can then be directly shared individually or in aggregate. openPDS and SafeAnswers provide a new way of dynamically protecting personal metadata, thereby supporting the creation of smart data-driven services and data science research.

  16. Gaseous release of radioactive iodine from decaying plants. I. Release following foliar and root uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene; Grauby, Andre

    1975-12-01

    Iodine uptake by plants is a significant link in the contamination of the food chain. Long half-live iodine was studied considering foliar and root uptake, loss by rain scavenging, residue decay or outgassing in order to assess two aspects of the problem: the importance of outgassing and the effect of the route of transfer on iodine losses. It appeared that iodine release was a function of the vegetal type, there were differences according to the pattern of absorption (via leaf or root) and the processes of iodine release were usually related to biochemical mechanisms [fr

  17. AnswerTree – a hyperplace-based game for collaborative mobile learning

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Adam; Goulding, James; Brown, Elizabeth; Swan, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present AnswerTree, a collaborative mobile location-based educational game designed to teach 8-12 year olds about trees and wildlife within the University of Nottingham campus. The activity is designed around collecting virtual cards (similar in nature to the popular Top TrumpsTM games) containing graphics and information about notable trees. Each player begins by collecting one card from a game location, but then he or she can only collect further cards by answering question...

  18. Single best answer MCQs: a new format for the FRCR part 2a exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoubrie, P.; McKnight, L.

    2008-01-01

    The single best answer multiple-choice question (MCQ) format has many advantages over traditional true/false format MCQs. From 2009, the Royal College of Radiologists will be adopting this format for written examinations. This article describes the background of this decision and the evidence behind it. There are numerous benefits to examiners and candidates alike from adopting this format. Using examples, the usual structure of the format of this type of questions is explained, how they are written, and tips provided on how to prepare for and answer them

  19. Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Contexts and Answers of Questions from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Shilin; Cong, Gao; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forum discussions often contain vast amounts of questions that are the focuses of discussions. Extracting contexts and answers together with the questions will yield not only a coherent forum summary but also a valuable QA knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a general framework based...... on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance. Experimental results show that our techniques are very promising....

  20. Answers to selected problems in multivariable calculus with linear algebra and series

    CERN Document Server

    Trench, William F

    1972-01-01

    Answers to Selected Problems in Multivariable Calculus with Linear Algebra and Series contains the answers to selected problems in linear algebra, the calculus of several variables, and series. Topics covered range from vectors and vector spaces to linear matrices and analytic geometry, as well as differential calculus of real-valued functions. Theorems and definitions are included, most of which are followed by worked-out illustrative examples.The problems and corresponding solutions deal with linear equations and matrices, including determinants; vector spaces and linear transformations; eig

  1. Algorithmic solution of arithmetic problems and operands-answer associations in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, C; Barrouillet, P; Fayol, M

    2001-05-01

    Many developmental models of arithmetic problem solving assume that any algorithmic solution of a given problem results in an association of the two operands and the answer in memory (Logan & Klapp, 1991; Siegler, 1996). In this experiment, adults had to perform either an operation or a comparison on the same pairs of two-digit numbers and then a recognition task. It is shown that unlike comparisons, the algorithmic solution of operations impairs the recognition of operands in adults. Thus, the postulate of a necessary and automatic storage of operands-answer associations in memory when young children solve additions by algorithmic strategies needs to be qualified.

  2. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  3. Comparing the use of an online expert health network against common information sources to answer health questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-02-02

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%-54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference

  4. Release plan for Big Pete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    This release plan is to provide instructions for the Radiological Control Technician (RCT) to conduct surveys for the unconditional release of ''Big Pete,'' which was used in the removal of ''Spacers'' from the N-Reactor. Prior to performing surveys on the rear end portion of ''Big Pete,'' it shall be cleaned (i.e., free of oil, grease, caked soil, heavy dust). If no contamination is found, the vehicle may be released with the permission of the area RCT Supervisor. If contamination is found by any of the surveys, contact the cognizant Radiological Engineer for decontamination instructions

  5. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  6. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  7. The ALICE Software Release Validation cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzano, D; Krzewicki, M

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important steps of software lifecycle is Quality Assurance: this process comprehends both automatic tests and manual reviews, and all of them must pass successfully before the software is approved for production. Some tests, such as source code static analysis, are executed on a single dedicated service: in High Energy Physics, a full simulation and reconstruction chain on a distributed computing environment, backed with a sample “golden” dataset, is also necessary for the quality sign off. The ALICE experiment uses dedicated and virtualized computing infrastructures for the Release Validation in order not to taint the production environment (i.e. CVMFS and the Grid) with non-validated software and validation jobs: the ALICE Release Validation cluster is a disposable virtual cluster appliance based on CernVM and the Virtual Analysis Facility, capable of deploying on demand, and with a single command, a dedicated virtual HTCondor cluster with an automatically scalable number of virtual workers on any cloud supporting the standard EC2 interface. Input and output data are externally stored on EOS, and a dedicated CVMFS service is used to provide the software to be validated. We will show how the Release Validation Cluster deployment and disposal are completely transparent for the Release Manager, who simply triggers the validation from the ALICE build system's web interface. CernVM 3, based entirely on CVMFS, permits to boot any snapshot of the operating system in time: we will show how this allows us to certify each ALICE software release for an exact CernVM snapshot, addressing the problem of Long Term Data Preservation by ensuring a consistent environment for software execution and data reprocessing in the future. (paper)

  8. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  9. Peroxisome protein import: a complex journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Alison; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Warriner, Stuart L

    2016-06-15

    The import of proteins into peroxisomes possesses many unusual features such as the ability to import folded proteins, and a surprising diversity of targeting signals with differing affinities that can be recognized by the same receptor. As understanding of the structure and function of many components of the protein import machinery has grown, an increasingly complex network of factors affecting each step of the import pathway has emerged. Structural studies have revealed the presence of additional interactions between cargo proteins and the PEX5 receptor that affect import potential, with a subtle network of cargo-induced conformational changes in PEX5 being involved in the import process. Biochemical studies have also indicated an interdependence of receptor-cargo import with release of unloaded receptor from the peroxisome. Here, we provide an update on recent literature concerning mechanisms of protein import into peroxisomes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Drugstore Selling and Merchandising, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. David

    This manual on drugstore selling and merchandising, together with a separate answer key, is intended for trainees in distributive education. The 18 self-study assignments, developed by an instructional coordinator with the aid of college professors and leaders in business, cover a wide range of topics, from effective sales techniques to specific…

  11. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  12. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  13. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  14. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established.... The agency is also seeking comments from industry on the Reportable Food Registry requirements, and... the implementation of the Reportable Food Registry on September 8, 2009, and informs industry about...

  15. Differences in Visual Attention between Those Who Correctly and Incorrectly Answer Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian M.; Larson, Adam M.; Loschky, Lester C.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how visual attention differed between those who correctly versus incorrectly answered introductory physics problems. We recorded eye movements of 24 individuals on six different conceptual physics problems where the necessary information to solve the problem was contained in a diagram. The problems also contained areas…

  16. Making Stone Soup: Evaluating a Recall-Oriented Multi-Stream Question Answering Stream for Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahn, D.D.; Jijkoun, V.; Müller, K.E.; de Rijke, M.; Schlobach, K.S.; Mishne, G.A.; Peters, C.; Clough, P.D.; Jones, G.J.F.; Gonzalo, J.; Kluck, M.; Magnini, B.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the participation of the University of Amsterdam in the Question Answering track at CLEF 2004.We took part in the monolingual Dutch task and, for the first time, also in the bilingual English to Dutch task. This year¿s system is a further elaboration and refinement of the multi-stream

  17. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Ba-Rayyan, Faten A.

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  18. 40 CFR 305.22 - Answer to the request for a hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer to the request for a hearing. 305.22 Section 305.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... to which the Claims Official has any knowledge. When the Claims Official has no knowledge of a...

  19. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  20. Is There a Future for Teacher Ed Curriculum? An Answer from History and Moral Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Is there a future for teacher ed "curriculum"? The author contends that he is not sure if there is a future for teacher ed curriculum, but if such a future is to exist, the answer will come only from history and moral philosophy. In this article, the author opines that individuals cannot make good decisions about the future of teacher ed…

  1. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  2. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sukenik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up of Echolalia and Question Answering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; Faw, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    A long-term followup (from 26 to 57 months) of echolalia and correct question-answering was conducted with six mentally retarded adult subjects identified from three previously published studies. Echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6 percent of the followups. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. (Author/DB)

  4. Petroleum, Convenience, & Automotive Marketing [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozek, Ed; Faught, Suzanne G.

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a petroleum-related business, such as a full-service gas station, convenience store, or automotive specialty service shop. The student manual contains 16…

  5. Copyright Catechism II. Practical Answers to Everyday School Dilemmas. Copyright Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This book contains valid, real-world copyright questions posed by real-life educators--all answered by a knowledgeable and experienced school attorney. Poor economic conditions have driven publishers to be more aggressive with pursuing improper use of their copyrighted materials. At the same time, new technologies are complicating old copyright…

  6. What's the Right Answer? Team Problem-Solving in Environments of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2009-01-01

    Whether in the workplace or the classroom, many teams approach problem-solving as a search for certainty--even though certainty rarely exists in business. This search for the one right answer to a problem creates unrealistic expectations and often undermines teams' effectiveness. To help teams manage their problem-solving process and communication…

  7. Differences in visual attention between those who correctly and incorrectly answer physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sanjay Rebello1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how visual attention differed between those who correctly versus incorrectly answered introductory physics problems. We recorded eye movements of 24 individuals on six different conceptual physics problems where the necessary information to solve the problem was contained in a diagram. The problems also contained areas consistent with a novicelike response and areas of high perceptual salience. Participants ranged from those who had only taken one high school physics course to those who had completed a Physics Ph.D. We found that participants who answered correctly spent a higher percentage of time looking at the relevant areas of the diagram, and those who answered incorrectly spent a higher percentage of time looking in areas of the diagram consistent with a novicelike answer. Thus, when solving physics problems, top-down processing plays a key role in guiding visual selective attention either to thematically relevant areas or novicelike areas depending on the accuracy of a student’s physics knowledge. This result has implications for the use of visual cues to redirect individuals’ attention to relevant portions of the diagrams and may potentially influence the way they reason about these problems.

  8. Mina Shaughnessy in the 1990s: Some Changing Answers in Basic Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlexander, Patricia J.

    Although Mina Shaughnessy remains influential in the basic writing field, her answers to the vital questions of who basic writers are and why they underachieve as writers are changing. Whether she intended to or not, Shaughnessy's book "Errors and Expectations" (published in 1977) was a major force in forming an image of basic writers as…

  9. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Aydemir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To do this, questions were asked in different ways and answers were requested in different formats in synchronous virtual sessions. The participants consisted of 28 postgraduate students registered in an online criminal justice program at a university located in the North-East part of Turkey. Data was collected in the context of a Research Methods in Security Sciences course during 2012–2013 fall semester. Results showed effects of question type on learner interest, while answer format has an effect on usefulness of online activities. In conclusion, to increase interest in synchronous virtual classrooms by asking questions, instead of closed-ended questions, open-ended questions which everybody can answer should be preferred.

  10. Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering…

  11. Supermarket Special Departments. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn; Summerall, Mary

    This document on food marketing for supermarket special departments contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 11 assignments: (1) supermarkets of today; (2) merchandising; (3) pharmacy and cosmetics department; (4) housewares and home hardware; (5) video/camera/electronics…

  12. Detection of Answer Copying Based on the Structure of a High-Stakes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the Variable Match Index (VM-Index), a new statistic for detecting answer copying. The power of the VM-Index relies on two-dimensional conditioning as well as the structure of the test. The asymptotic distribution of the VM-Index is analyzed by reduction to Poisson trials. A computational study comparing the VM-Index with the…

  13. Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

  14. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  15. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  16. 8 CFR 1280.12 - Answer and request or order for interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... submitted in support of any argument made. If a personal interview is requested, the evidence in opposition... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer and request or order for interview... for interview. Within 30 days following the service of the Notice of Intention to Fine (which period...

  17. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  18. A Social Learning Management System Supporting Feedback for Incorrect Answers Based on Social Network Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we propose a Social Learning Management System (SLMS) enabling real-time and reliable feedback for incorrect answers by learners using a social network service (SNS). The proposed system increases the accuracy of learners' assessment results by using a confidence scale and a variety of social feedback that is created and shared…

  19. Questions and Answers Explaining the New Tax Rules Applicable to Tax-Sheltered Annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David E.; Spuehler, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and subsequent legislation have radically altered the rules needed to maintain favorable tax status of tax-sheltered annuity plans for college employees. Application of the new rules is complex. Critical questions facing institutions and organizations are answered, and potential liabilities facing educational employers…

  20. Modeling of fission product release in integral codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Raman, Rupak K.; Gaikwad, Avinash J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that stroke the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station in March 11, 2011 has intensified the needs of detailed nuclear safety research and with this objective all streams associated with severe accident phenomenology are being revisited thoroughly. The present paper would cover an overview of state of art FP release models being used, the important phenomenon considered in semi-mechanistic models and knowledge gaps in present FP release modeling. Capability of FP release module, ELSA of ASTEC integral code in appropriate prediction of FP release under several diversified core degraded conditions will also be demonstrated. Use of semi-mechanistic fission product release models at AERB in source-term estimation shall be briefed. (author)

  1. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  2. Release of CFC-11 from disposal of polyurethane foam waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Jensen, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The halocarbon CFC-11 has extensively been used as a blowing agent for polyurethane (PUR) insulation foams in home appliances and for residential and industrial construction. Release of CFCs is an important factor in the depletion of the ozone layer. For CFC-11 the future atmospheric concentrations...... will mainly depend on the continued release from PUR foams. Little is known about rates and time frames of the CFC release from foams especially after treatment and disposal of foam containing waste products. The CFC release is mainly controlled by slow diffusion out through the PUR. From the literature...... and by reevaluation of an old reported experiment, diffusion coefficients in the range of 0.05-1.7.10(-14) m(2) s(-1) were found reflecting differences in foam properties and experimental designs. Laboratory experiments studying the distribution of CFC in the foam and the short-term releases after shredding showed...

  3. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... The SR dosage forms that release drugs pH independently in .... were determined; Post compression parameters such as weight variation test, hardness, ... Based on the ICH guidelines 12, the stability studies were carried out ...

  5. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, Roger.

    1986-01-01

    The nearly endless variety of interesting and challenging problems makes physics research enjoyable. Most of us would choose to be physicists even if physics had no practical applications. However, physics does have practical applications. This workshop deals with one of those applications, namely ion beam fusion. Not all interesting and challenging atomic physics questions are important for ion beam fusion. This paper suggests some questions that may be important for ion beam fusion. It also suggests some criteria for determining if a question is only interesting, or both interesting and important. Importance is time dependent and, because of some restrictions on the flow of information, also country dependent. In the early days of ion beam fusion, it was important to determine if ion beam fusion made sense. Approximate answers and bounds on various parameters were required. Accurate, detailed answers were not needed. Because of the efforts of many people attending this workshop, we now know that ion beam fusion does make some sense. We must still determine if ion beam fusion truly makes good sense. If it does make good sense, we must determine how to make it work. Accurate detailed answers are becoming increasingly important. (author)

  6. A medical consultation service on Facebook: descriptive analysis of questions answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helve, Otto

    2014-09-04

    Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children's fever and pain. During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution.

  7. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  8. Mediastinoscopic Bilateral Bronchial Release for Long Segmental Resection and Anastomosis of the Trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Park, In Kyu; Bae, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Yoohwa

    2011-01-01

    The extent of resection and release of the trachea is important for successful anastomosis. Bilateral bronchial dissection is one of the release techniques for resection of the lower trachea. We present the experience of cervical video-assisted mediastinoscopic bilateral bronchial release for long segmental resection and anastomosis of the lower trachea.

  9. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.

    2014-01-01

    . We provide the scientific community with the entire set of wide-field images. Furthermore, the published database contains photometry of 759 024 objects and surface brightness analysis for 42 275 and 41 463 galaxies in the V and B band, respectively. The completeness depends on the image quality......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90......Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...

  10. Simulated food effects on drug release from ethylcellulose: PVA-PEG graft copolymer-coated pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschert, Susanne; Siepmann, Florence; Leclercq, Bruno; Carlin, Brian; Siepmann, Juergen

    2010-02-01

    Food effects might substantially alter drug release from oral controlled release dosage forms in vivo. The robustness of a novel type of controlled release film coating was investigated using various types of release media and two types of release apparatii. Importantly, none of the investigated conditions had a noteworthy impact on the release of freely water-soluble diltiazem HCl or slightly water-soluble theophylline from pellets coated with ethylcellulose containing small amounts of PVA-PEG graft copolymer. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of fats, carbohydrates, surfactants, bile salts, and calcium ions in the release medium did not alter drug release. Furthermore, changes in the pH and differences in the mechanical stress the dosage forms were exposed to did not affect drug release from the pellets. The investigated film coatings allowing for oral controlled drug delivery are highly robust in vitro and likely to be poorly sensitive to classical food effects in vivo.

  11. Taylor dispersion in premixed combustion: Questions from turbulent combustion answered for laminar flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Joel; Pearce, Philip; Al-Malki, Faisal

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of Taylor dispersion in premixed combustion and use it to clarify fundamental issues related to flame propagation in a flow field. In particular, simple analytical formulas are derived for variable density laminar flames with arbitrary Lewis number Le providing clear answers to important questions arising in turbulent combustion, when these questions are posed for the case of one-scale laminar parallel flows. Exploiting, in the context of a laminar Poiseuille flow model, a thick flame distinguished asymptotic limit for which the flow amplitude is large with the Reynolds number Re fixed, three main contributions are made. First, a link is established between Taylor dispersion [G. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 219, 186 (1953), 10.1098/rspa.1953.0139] and Damköhler's second hypothesis [G. Damköhler, Ber. Bunsen. Phys. Chem. 46, 601 (1940)] by describing analytically the enhancement of the effective propagation speed UT due to small flow scales. More precisely, it is shown that Damköhler's hypothesis is only partially correct for one-scale parallel laminar flows. Specifically, while the increase in UT due to the flow is shown to be directly associated with the increase in the effective diffusivity as suggested by Damköhler, our results imply that UT˜Re (for Re≫1 ) rather than UT˜√{Re} , as implied by Damköhler's hypothesis. Second, it is demonstrated analytically and confirmed numerically that, when UT is plotted versus the flow amplitude for fixed values of Re, the curve levels off to a constant value depending on Re. We may refer to this effect as the laminar bending effect as it mimics a similar bending effect known in turbulent combustion. Third, somewhat surprising implications associated with the dependence of UT and of the effective Lewis number Leeff on the flow are reported. For example, Leeff is found to vary from Le to Le-1 as Re varies from small to large values. Also, UT is found to be a monotonically increasing function

  12. Air radioactivity: to assess risks. Tools answer citizen questions. The Opera-Air network: the journey of a filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Damien; Gariel, Jean-Christophe; Bruno, Valerie; Debayle, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Very highly efficient filters containing a porous glass fibre fabric are used in industrial installations to trap radioactive or toxic particles in order to limit their release, notably in accidental situations. Thus this set of articles discusses various issues related to the use of such filters. A first one describes how air radioactivity is continuously monitored by two coexisting networks: Opera-Air and Teleray. It indicates where air radioactivity comes from, and how the origin of a release can be determined, and outlines the importance of modelling tools. Air monitoring about the Gravelines nuclear power plant is briefly presented with a drawing. A second article comments the existence of numerous tools which are used as information channels about the monitoring of air radioactivity: web sites, mobile application, and so on. The last article briefly describes the journey of a filter from its removal on a Monday to a complete and validated analysis which lasts between two and four weeks

  13. Hydraulic running and release tool with mechanical emergency release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a setting tool for connection in a well string to position a tubular member in a well bore. It comprises: a mandrel adapted to be connected to the well string; an outer sleeve surrounding the mandrel and releasably secured thereto; a latch nut releasably connected to the outer sleeve; piston means sealingly engaging the mandrel; shear means releasably securing the piston to the latch nut to maintain the latch nut releasably connected to the tubular member; the mandrel having port means for conducting fluid pressure from the well string to release the piston means from and the latch nut; cooperating engageable surfaces on the piston and latch nut to reengage them together after the piston moves a predetermined longitudinal distance relative to the latch nut; and additional cooperating engageable surfaces on the latch nut and the outer sleeve which are engageable when the piston and engaged latch nut are moved a predetermined additional longitudinal distance by fluid pressure to secure the engaged piston and latch nut with the outer sleeve for retrieval along with the mandrel from the well bore

  14. Release enhancement of tritium from graphite by addition of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Masakatsu; Masaki, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    The release behavior of tritium from graphite was studied in pure He and He + H 2 atmosphere. The release from powdered graphite was significantly enhanced in hydrogen environment. Apparent diffusion coefficients of tritium in graphite also became much higher in an atmosphere containing hydrogen than values obtained in pure helium atmosphere. A careful investigation of the release processes resulted in the conclusion that the most important process of tritium behaviour in graphite was diffusion, but the desorption process of tritium from the surface played a significant role. The enhancement of the desorption process was controlled by atomic hydrogen. (orig.)

  15. Release behavior of drugs from various natural gums and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupama; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Malviya, Rishabha

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are the high molecular weight compounds of natural or synthetic origin, widely used in drug delivery of formulations. These polymers are further classified as hydrophilic or hydrophobic in nature. Depending upon this characteristic, polymers exhibit different release behavior in different media. This property plays an important role in the selection of polymers for controlled, sustained or immediate release formulations. The review highlights the literatures related to the research made on several polymers regarding the release kinetics which made them a novel approach for modifying the action of the particular formulation.

  16. Printing Tablets with Fully Customizable Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajuan; Soh, Siowling

    2015-12-16

    Personalizing the release profiles of drugs is important for different people with different medical and biological conditions. A technically simple and low-cost method to fabricate fully customizable tablets that can deliver drugs with any type of release profile is described. The customization is intuitively straightforward: the desired profile can simply be "drawn" and printed by a 3D printer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  18. Animal models: an important tool in mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Javier; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A

    2007-12-01

    Animal models of fungal infections are, and will remain, a key tool in the advancement of the medical mycology. Many different types of animal models of fungal infection have been developed, with murine models the most frequently used, for studies of pathogenesis, virulence, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy. The ability to control numerous variables in performing the model allows us to mimic human disease states and quantitatively monitor the course of the disease. However, no single model can answer all questions and different animal species or different routes of infection can show somewhat different results. Thus, the choice of which animal model to use must be made carefully, addressing issues of the type of human disease to mimic, the parameters to follow and collection of the appropriate data to answer those questions being asked. This review addresses a variety of uses for animal models in medical mycology. It focuses on the most clinically important diseases affecting humans and cites various examples of the different types of studies that have been performed. Overall, animal models of fungal infection will continue to be valuable tools in addressing questions concerning fungal infections and contribute to our deeper understanding of how these infections occur, progress and can be controlled and eliminated.

  19. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  20. Nuclear Energy is the Answer to Cope with the Lack of Energy and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnu Arya Wardhana

    2009-01-01

    This paper of nuclear energy is the answer to cope with the lack of energy and global warming based on the analysis of energy demand which is increasing rapidly, meanwhile the energy reserve is limited and decreased. Mostly world′s energy is generated by fossil fuel energy, mainly oil and coal. Fossil fuel energy and industrial activities produce green house gases (GHG) such as : COx, CH 4 , N 2 O, and CFC which cause of global warming. Global warming gives bad impact to environment and to human being. Every country in the world needs sufficient energy, but the energy resources is limited and decreased. The answer for this solution must be an energy source which does not produce green house gases. Why nuclear energy is chosen to cope with the lack of energy and global warming will be explained briefly in this paper. (author)

  1. Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

    Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

  2. Estimating the Probability of Traditional Copying, Conditional on Answer-Copying Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeff; Ghattas, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Statistics for detecting copying on multiple-choice tests produce p values measuring the probability of a value at least as large as that observed, under the null hypothesis of no copying. The posterior probability of copying is arguably more relevant than the p value, but cannot be derived from Bayes' theorem unless the population probability of copying and probability distribution of the answer-copying statistic under copying are known. In this article, the authors develop an estimator for the posterior probability of copying that is based on estimable quantities and can be used with any answer-copying statistic. The performance of the estimator is evaluated via simulation, and the authors demonstrate how to apply the formula using actual data. Potential uses, generalizability to other types of cheating, and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  3. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCES OF DIFFERENT SVM IMPLEMENTATIONS WHEN USED FOR AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF DESCRIPTIVE ANSWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sunil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the performances of models built using various SVM implementations during the multiclass classification task of automated evaluation of descriptive answers. The performances were evaluated on five datasets each with 900 samples and with each of the datasets treated using symmetric uncertainty feature selection filter. We quantitatively analyzed the best SVM implementation technique from amongst the 17 different SVM implementation combinations derived by using various SVM classifier libraries, SVM types and Kernel methods. Accuracy, F Score, Kappa and Area under ROC curve are used as model evaluation metrics in order to evaluate the models and rank them according to their performances. Based on the results, we derived the conclusion that SMO classifier when used with Polynomial kernel is the overall best performing classifier applicable for auto evaluation of descriptive answers.

  4. The Impact of Question Format, Context, and Content on Survey Answers in Early and Late Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diersch Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-reports in surveys are often influenced by the presented question format and question context. Much less is known about how these effects influence the answers of younger survey respondents. The present study investigated how variations in response format, answer scale frequency, and question order influence self-reports of two age groups: younger (11–13 years old and older (16–18 years old adolescents. In addition, the impact of the respondents’ level of familiarity with the question content was taken into account. Results indicated that younger adolescents are more strongly influenced by the presented question format and context than older adolescents. This, however, was dependent on the particular question content, implying that response effects are more pronounced when questions deal with issues that lie outside of the respondents’ field of experience. Implications of these findings in survey research with younger respondents are discussed.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCES OF VARIOUS MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS DURING AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF DESCRIPTIVE ANSWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sunil Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation of descriptive answers evaluation is the need of the hour because of the huge increase in the number of students enrolling each year in educational institutions and the limited staff available to spare their time for evaluations. In this paper, we use a machine learning workbench called LightSIDE to accomplish auto evaluation and scoring of descriptive answers. We attempted to identify the best supervised machine learning algorithm given a limited training set sample size scenario. We evaluated performances of Bayes, SVM, Logistic Regression, Random forests, Decision stump and Decision trees algorithms. We confirmed SVM as best performing algorithm based on quantitative measurements across accuracy, kappa, training speed and prediction accuracy with supplied test set.

  6. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N.; Norpoth, J.

    2009-09-01

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  7. Calculations in support of a potential definition of large release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Davis, R.E.; Mubayi, V.

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated a hierarchy of safety goals with the qualitative safety goals as Level I of the hierarchy, backed up by the quantitative health objectives as Level II and the large release guideline as Level III. The large release guideline has been stated in qualitative terms as a magnitude of release of the core inventory whose frequency should not exceed 10 -6 per reactor year. However, the Commission did not provide a quantitative specification of a large release. This report describes various specifications of a large release and focuses, in particular, on an examination of releases which have a potential to lead to one prompt fatality in the mean. The basic information required to set up the calculations was derived from the simplified source terms which were obtained from approximations of the NUREG-1150 source terms. Since the calculation of consequences is affected by a large number of assumptions, a generic site with a (conservatively determined) population density and meteorology was specified. At this site, various emergency responses (including no response) were assumed based on information derived from earlier studies. For each of the emergency response assumptions, a set of calculations were performed with the simplified source terms; these included adjustments to the source terms, such as the timing of the release, the core inventory, and the release fractions of different radionuclides, to arrive at a result of one mean prompt fatality in each case. Each of the source terms, so defined, has the potential to be a candidate for a large release. The calculations show that there are many possible candidate source terms for a large release depending on the characteristics which are felt to be important

  8. Does the Model of Evaluation Based on Fair Value Answer the Requests of Financial Information Users?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitea Neluta; Sarac Aldea Laura

    2010-01-01

    Does the model of evaluation based on the fair value answers the requests of the financial information users? The financial situations have as purposes the presentation of the information concerning the enterprise financial position, the performances and modifications of this position which, according to IASB and FASB, must be credible and useful. Both referential maintain the existence of several conventions regarding assessment, like historical cost, actual cost, the realizable value or act...

  9. ASPMT(QS): Non-Monotonic Spatial Reasoning with Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Wałęga, Przemysław Andrzej; Bhatt, Mehul; Schultz, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The systematic modelling of \\emph{dynamic spatial systems} [9] is a key requirement in a wide range of application areas such as comonsense cognitive robotics, computer-aided architecture design, dynamic geographic information systems. We present ASPMT(QS), a novel approach and fully-implemented prototype for non-monotonic spatial reasoning ---a crucial requirement within dynamic spatial systems-- based on Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories (ASPMT). ASPMT(QS) consists of a (qualitative) s...

  10. Non-Monotonic Spatial Reasoning with Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Wałęga, Przemysław Andrzej; Schultz, Carl; Bhatt, Mehul

    2016-01-01

    The systematic modelling of dynamic spatial systems is a key requirement in a wide range of application areas such as commonsense cognitive robotics, computer-aided architecture design, and dynamic geographic information systems. We present ASPMT(QS), a novel approach and fully-implemented prototype for non-monotonic spatial reasoning -a crucial requirement within dynamic spatial systems- based on Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories (ASPMT). ASPMT(QS) consists of a (qualitative) spatial re...

  11. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    OpenAIRE

    Fajrin Azwary; Fatma Indriani; Dodon T. Nugrahadi

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML). AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering...

  12. General technical comments on climate change - comment 1: Answers to five questions posed at the conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firor, J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to answer the following five questions: (1) what are the projections of global average temperature increase? (2) What are the prospects for projecting regional climate change? (3) Do the climate models produce outlooks for a group of climate variables closely related to sociatal impacts? (4) What is the feasibility and what are the costs of proposed geoengineering options for responding to climate change? (5) What climate variables co-vary with global average temperature

  13. What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Waltenberg , Fábio

    2004-01-01

    D. Waltenberg, F. (2004). What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics. Les Cahiers de Recherche du Girsef, 32.; What is justice in education? How can we evaluate whether given distributions of educational inputs or educational outcomes are just or not? How should a society distribute its educational resources? How can we evaluate the level of (un)fairness of a schooling system? In this paper, we try to provide a basic framework for thinking about ...

  14. Parental influence on children's answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Dantas, Laíza Rocha; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; da Silva, Bruno Rafael Cruz; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Siqueira, Maria Betânia Lins Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children's answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children's self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents' version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children's responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children's OHRQoL.

  15. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  16. EBM apps that help you search for answers to your clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windish, Donna

    2014-06-01

    In the age of smartphones and tablets, it has become common place to find apps that help you do or find almost anything. The quality and breadth of medical apps has improved greatly in recent years. You can now find medical apps that recreate textbooks, search for current articles, calculate likelihood ratios and find point-of-care answers to clinical questions. This article describes and reviews apps aimed at helping clinicians search for evidence to support the practice of EBM.

  17. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded...

  18. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  19. The importance of coughs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-14

    Mar 14, 2012 ... how important it can be. It is at best ... e. rise of intrathoracic pressure up to 200mm Hg., f. glottic opening and ... The differential diagnosis may be reviewed from knowledge .... cigarette smoking is an important example. 3.

  20. The new history of psychology II: Some (different) answers to Watrin's four questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Adrian C

    2017-05-01

    This article is mainly a response to the article by João Paulo Watrin, "The Ambiguous 'New History of Psychology': Some New Questions to Brock (2017)" (Watrin, 2017), which was itself a reply to my article, "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" (Brock, 2017). Watrin (2017) suggested that previous writers have conflated the terms "critical history" and "new history." They are said to differ, in that although the former is merely a name for a loose collection of approaches to the history of psychology, the latter involves rhetoric about the historiographical commitments of critical history. He also disputed the validity of the distinction between "old" and "new" history. I suggest that he is wrong on all these points. Watrin then poses and answers four rhetorical questions on Whig history, textbooks, critical thinking, and ad hominem arguments, and I provide alternative answers to all of them. After suggesting that our different views can be attributed to different agendas, I conclude with some reflections on how professional historians and psychologists can work together. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).