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Sample records for relaxor lead lanthanum

  1. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limame, K.; Sayouri, S.; Yahyaoui, M.M.; Housni, A.; Jaber, B.

    2016-01-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb_1_−_xLa_xTi_1_−_x_/_4O_3 (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T_m, of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T_m.

  2. Investigation of the relaxor behavior of sol gel processed lanthanum lead titanium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limame, K. [Centre Régional des Metiers de l' Education et de la Formation (CRMEF) de Fès, Rue deKuwait, BP 49, Fès (Morocco); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Sayouri, S., E-mail: ssayouri@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Yahyaoui, M.M. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Housni, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Appliquée, (LPTA), FSDM, B.P. 1796, Fès-Atlas, Fès (Morocco); Institut Supérieur des Professions Infirmières et Techniques de Santé (ISPITS), Fès (Morocco); Jaber, B. [Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), Angle Avenue Allal El Fassi avenue des FAR, Quartie Hay Ryad, BP8027 Nation Unies, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-08-01

    A series of La doped lead titanate samples, with composition Pb{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x/4}O{sub 3} (PLTx), where x=0.00; 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.07; 0.08; 0.10; 0.12; 0.14; 0.16; 0.18; 0.21 and 0.22 was prepared using the sol–gel process. Addition of La gives rise to the two well-known phenomena: diffuseness and relaxation around the ferro-to-paraelectric transition; the two parameters related to these phenomena, and which give a satisfactory interpretation of them, have been estimated using the Uchino's quadratic law. This diffuse phase transition (DPT) has been investigated with the help of the Landau–Devonshire cluster theory and the model of Cheng et al., to show that polar regions may be generated around the DPT and far from the temperature, T{sub m}, of the maximum of the dielectric permittivity, which have as a direct consequence a non vanishing polarization even if T>T{sub m}.

  3. Characterization of dense lead lanthanum titanate ceramics prepared from powders synthesized by the oxidant peroxo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Alexandre H. [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod.Washington Luis km 235, CP 676 Sao Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Souza, Flavio L., E-mail: flavio.souza@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adelia 166, Bangu, Santo Andre, SP 09210-170 (Brazil); Chiquito, Adenilson J., E-mail: chiquito@df.ufscar.br [Departamento de Fisica, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod.Washington Luis km 235, CP 676 Sao Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Longo, Elson, E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Francisco Degni, CP 355 Araraquara, SP 14801-907 (Brazil); Leite, Edson R., E-mail: derl@power.ufscar.br [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod.Washington Luis km 235, CP 676 Sao Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Camargo, Emerson R., E-mail: camargo@ufscar.br [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, UFSCar-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod.Washington Luis km 235, CP 676 Sao Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    Nanosized powders of lead lanthanum titanate (Pb{sub 1-x}La{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) were synthesized by means of the oxidant-peroxo method (OPM). Lanthanum was added from 5 to 30% in mol through the dissolution of lanthanum oxide in nitric acid, followed by the addition of lead nitrate to prepare a solution of lead and lanthanum nitrates, which was dripped into an aqueous solution of titanium peroxo complexes, forming a reactive amorphous precipitate that could be crystallized by heat treatment. Crystallized powders were characterized by FT-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, showing that tetragonal perovskite structure is obtained for samples up to 25% of lanthanum and cubic perovskite for samples with 30% of lanthanum. Powders containing 25 and 30% in mol of lanthanum were calcined at 700 deg. C for 2 h, and in order to determine the relative dielectric permittivity and the phase transition behaviour from ferroelectric-to-paraelectric, ceramic pellets were prepared and sintered at 1100 or 1150 deg. C for 2 h and subjected to electrical characterization. It was possible to observe that sample containing 25% in mol of La presented a normal behaviour for the phase transition, whereas the sample containing 30% in mol of La presented a diffuse phase transition and relaxor behaviour.

  4. Characterization of dense lead lanthanum titanate ceramics prepared from powders synthesized by the oxidant peroxo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Alexandre H.; Souza, Flavio L.; Chiquito, Adenilson J.; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.; Camargo, Emerson R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanosized powders of lead lanthanum titanate (Pb 1-x La x TiO 3 ) were synthesized by means of the oxidant-peroxo method (OPM). Lanthanum was added from 5 to 30% in mol through the dissolution of lanthanum oxide in nitric acid, followed by the addition of lead nitrate to prepare a solution of lead and lanthanum nitrates, which was dripped into an aqueous solution of titanium peroxo complexes, forming a reactive amorphous precipitate that could be crystallized by heat treatment. Crystallized powders were characterized by FT-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, showing that tetragonal perovskite structure is obtained for samples up to 25% of lanthanum and cubic perovskite for samples with 30% of lanthanum. Powders containing 25 and 30% in mol of lanthanum were calcined at 700 deg. C for 2 h, and in order to determine the relative dielectric permittivity and the phase transition behaviour from ferroelectric-to-paraelectric, ceramic pellets were prepared and sintered at 1100 or 1150 deg. C for 2 h and subjected to electrical characterization. It was possible to observe that sample containing 25% in mol of La presented a normal behaviour for the phase transition, whereas the sample containing 30% in mol of La presented a diffuse phase transition and relaxor behaviour.

  5. Lattice dynamics and dielectric spectroscopy of BZT and NBT lead-free perovskite relaxors - comparison with lead-based relaxors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Savinov, Maxim; Kamba, Stanislav; Hlinka, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2015), 320-332 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * polar phonons * polar nanoregions * dielectric spectroscopy * off-centred ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.858, year: 2015

  6. A polarized Raman study of the relaxor and ferroelectric states of La-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Marssi, M.; Farhi, R.; Viehland, D.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics with La/Zr/Ti ratios of 6/40/60, 12/40/60, 5/65/35, and 9/65/35 have been studied by polarized Raman scattering. In the two former (tetragonal-type) compositions, selection rules were rather well defined and allowed an assignment of the Raman lines at lower temperature. These selection rules disappeared for 6/40/60 but remained for 12/40/60 even at higher temperatures. The behavior of the two latter (rhombohedral-type compositions) was quite different. No assignment of lines could be done. In addition, the spectra recorded in parallel and crossed polarizations were almost identical for 5/65/35 regardless of temperature. A very smeared paraelectric to ferroelectric transition was evidenced by Raman intensity measurements for this composition. On the contrary, selection rules were always present for the relaxor composition 9/65/35 which were similar to those for 12/40/60 and 6/40/60. This suggests that both tetragonal and rhombohedral-type local polar order is present for 9/65/35. The spectra of the field induced ferroelectric phase for 9/65/35 revealed no selection rules, similar to 5/65/35. This is attributed to the onset of only medium range ferroelectric order. Finally, Raman spectra recorded on powders of every composition did not reveal any selection rules, suggesting that intergranular effects might play a significant role in the behavior of these materials. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Phase transformations in lead zirconate-titanate doped with lanthanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishchuk, V M; Morozov, E M

    1979-07-01

    Presented are the results of studies on the character of phase transitions of the lead-lanthanum zirconate-titanate (LLZT) system. The replacement of lead by lanthanum leads to the expansion of the region of antisegnetoelectric (ASE) states of solid solutions of lead zirconate-titanate (LZT) in the direction of PbTiO/sub 3/ concentration growth. An intermediate region is revealed between segnetoelectric (SE) and ASE states, material properties in which depend on their prehistory: annealed samples are in the ASE state, whereas the application of electric field exceeding some critical value induces the SE state. A family of phase diagrams obtained at consequent replacement of lead by lanthanum permits to identify phase states in any series of LLZT with a constant ratio of Zr:Ti, in the x/65/35 series in particular. Thermally depolarized state of materials of this series at x<6.5 is shown to be antisegnetoelectric at all the temperatures below the Curie point Tsub(c), and heating causes phase transition of ASE..-->..PE (paraelectric state) at Tsub(c). Polarized samples being heated, a successiveness of phase transitions of SE..-->..ASE takes place at T/sub 0/, and that of ASE reversible PE at Tsub(C) (Tsub(0)..ASE phase transition in the LZT system.

  8. Lanthanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of phosphate in the blood can cause bone problems. Lanthanum is in a clsas of medications ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  9. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X D

    1995-10-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO{sub 3}. Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X.D.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO 3 . Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Molten salt synthesis of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zongying; Xing Xianran; Li Lu; Xu Yeming

    2008-01-01

    Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (Pb 0.95 La 0.03 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PLZT) was synthesized by one step molten salt method with the starting materials of PbC 2 O 4 , La 2 O 3 , ZrO(NO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O and TiO 2 in the NaCl-KCl eutectic mixtures in the temperature range of 700-1000 deg. C. The single phase of (Pb 0.95 La 0.03 )(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 powders was prepared at a temperature as low as 850 deg. C for 5 h. The effects of process parameters, such as soaking temperature and time, salt species, and the amount of flux with respect to the starting materials were investigated. The growth process of the PLZT particles in the molten salt undergoes a transition from a diffusion controlled mechanism to an interfacial reaction controlled mechanism at 900 deg. C

  12. Nanosized lead lanthanum titanate (PLT) ceramic powders synthesized by the oxidant peroxo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Emerson R. [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod.Washingtin Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos SP 13565-9905 (Brazil)], E-mail: camargo@ufscar.br; Barrado, Cristiano M. [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod.Washingtin Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos SP 13565-9905 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Caue [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, Sao Carlos SP 13560-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: caue@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Longo, Elson [Department of Biochemistry, Chemistry Institute of Araraquara, UNESP-Sao Paulo State University, Rua Francisco Degni, CP 355, Araraquara SP 14801-907 (Brazil)], E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br; Leite, Edson R. [LIEC-Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Department of Chemistry, UFSCar-Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod.Washingtin Luis km 235, CP 676, Sao Carlos SP 13565-9905 (Brazil)], E-mail: derl@power.ufscar.br

    2009-05-05

    For the first time it is reported the synthesis of lead titanate modified with rare earth by the oxidant-peroxo method (OPM). Lanthanum was added up to 20% in mol through the dissolution of lanthanum oxide in nitric acid, followed by the addition of a solution of lead and lanthanum nitrate into an aqueous solution of titanium peroxo complexes. The amorphous precipitate formed was heat-treated at different temperatures in the range from 400 to 900 deg. C for crystallization. Powders were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Tetragonal perovskite structure was observed for the samples up to 15% of lanthanum substitution and cubic perovskite for sample with 20% of lanthanum. Crystallographic domains calculated by Scherrer equation showing a probable suppression of the crystallite growth in function of lanthanum content. It was observed shifting to lower frequencies of Raman modes in the range between 100 and 400 cm{sup -1} and the vanishing of the A1(2TO) and E(1LO) modes could be attributed to transition phase from tetragonal to cubic. Electronic microscopy image revealed that the powders annealed at height temperature are spherical with sharp size distribution.

  13. Nanosized lead lanthanum titanate (PLT) ceramic powders synthesized by the oxidant peroxo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Emerson R.; Barrado, Cristiano M.; Ribeiro, Caue; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time it is reported the synthesis of lead titanate modified with rare earth by the oxidant-peroxo method (OPM). Lanthanum was added up to 20% in mol through the dissolution of lanthanum oxide in nitric acid, followed by the addition of a solution of lead and lanthanum nitrate into an aqueous solution of titanium peroxo complexes. The amorphous precipitate formed was heat-treated at different temperatures in the range from 400 to 900 deg. C for crystallization. Powders were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Tetragonal perovskite structure was observed for the samples up to 15% of lanthanum substitution and cubic perovskite for sample with 20% of lanthanum. Crystallographic domains calculated by Scherrer equation showing a probable suppression of the crystallite growth in function of lanthanum content. It was observed shifting to lower frequencies of Raman modes in the range between 100 and 400 cm -1 and the vanishing of the A1(2TO) and E(1LO) modes could be attributed to transition phase from tetragonal to cubic. Electronic microscopy image revealed that the powders annealed at height temperature are spherical with sharp size distribution.

  14. Small polaron conduction in lead modified lanthanum ferrite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargav, K.K.; Ram, S.; Majumder, S.B., E-mail: subhasish@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • La{sub 0.8}Pb{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} (ε{sub r} ∼ 30,000) shows higher dielectric constant than LaFeO{sub 3} (∼14,000). • Lower A-site dopant content, the dielectric maxima shift to higher temperature. • The frequency dependence of ε{sub r} and tan δ vs. temperature exhibit CDC like behavior. • R{sub g} and R{sub gb} of Pb modified LaFeO{sub 3} follow small polaron hopping conduction model. - Abstract: In the present work we have illustrated the physics of the electrical characteristics of nanocrystalline La{sub 1−x}Pb{sub x}FeO{sub 3,} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) powder prepared using auto-combustion synthesis. The effect of lead doping on the dielectric, impedance and ac conductivity characteristics of lanthanum ferrite has systematically been investigated. The synthesized powders were phase pure and crystallized into centro-symmetric Pnma space group. As compared to pure LaFeO{sub 3} ceramics (dielectric constant ∼ 14,000), the dielectric constant is grossly increased (∼30,000) in Pb doped LaFeO{sub 3}. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant of 10.0 at.% Pb doped LaFeO{sub 3} exhibits dielectric maxima similar to that observed in ferroelectric ceramics with non-centrosymmetric point group. For La{sub 0.8}Pb{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} ceramics, the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant and loss tangent at various temperatures (300–450 K) exhibit typical colossal dielectric constant (CDC) like behavior. From the impedance spectroscopy we have estimated the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance of Pb doped LaFeO{sub 3} that follow a small polaron hopping conduction model. Long range movement of the charge carriers govern the CDC behavior.

  15. Boosting the Recoverable Energy Density of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Ceramic Thick Films through Artificially Induced Quasi-Relaxor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddigari, Mahesh; Palneedi, Haribabu; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Lim, Kyung Won; Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Ryu, Jungho

    2018-06-08

    Dielectric ceramic film capacitors, which store energy in the form of electric polarization, are promising for miniature pulsed power electronic device applications. For a superior energy storage performance of the capacitors, large recoverable energy density, along with high efficiency, high power density, fast charge/discharge rate, and good thermal/fatigue stability, is desired. Herein, we present highly dense lead-free 0.942[Na 0.535 K 0.480 NbO 3 ]-0.058LiNbO 3 (KNNLN) ferroelectric ceramic thick films (∼5 μm) demonstrating remarkable energy storage performance. The nanocrystalline KNNLN thick film fabricated by aerosol deposition (AD) process and annealed at 600 °C displayed a quasi-relaxor ferroelectric behavior, which is in contrast to the typical ferroelectric nature of the KNNLN ceramic in its bulk form. The AD film exhibited a large recoverable energy density of 23.4 J/cm 3 , with an efficiency of over 70% under the electric field of 1400 kV/cm. Besides, an ultrahigh power density of 38.8 MW/cm 3 together with a fast discharge speed of 0.45 μs, good fatigue endurance (up to 10 6 cycles), and thermal stability in a wide temperature range of 20-160 °C was also observed. Using the AD process, we could make a highly dense microstructure of the film containing nano-sized grains, which gave rise to the quasi-relaxor ferroelectric characteristics and the remarkable energy storage properties.

  16. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La0.05Li0.85NbO3) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang; Portelles, Jorge; Heiras, J.; Hurtado-Macias, A.; Farias, J.R.; González-Hernández, J.; Yacamán, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H 2 atmosphere in stoichiometric La 0.05 Li 0.85 NbO 3 nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10 −3 emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm 2 , remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm 2 , coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO 3 perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO 6 related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  17. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La0.05Li0.85NbO3) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang; Portelles, Jorge; Heiras, J.; Hurtado-Macias, A.; Farias, J. R.; González-Hernández, J.; Yacamán, M. J.; López, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H2 atmosphere in stoichiometric La0.05Li0.85NbO3 nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10-3 emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm2, remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm2, coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO3 perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO6 related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  18. Effect of lead dioxide on the radiation decomposition of hydrated lanthanum nitrate (Preprint No. RES-05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.F.; Bedekar, A.G.; Chiplunkar, N.R.

    1988-02-01

    The rate of radiation induced decomposition of lanthanum nitrate is found to increase in the presence of lead dioxide as a heterophase impurity. Further, the rate also increases with increasing mole percent of the oxide. The results are explained on the basis of energy transfer processes taking place at the interface between nitrate and oxide crystals. (aut hor). 9 refs

  19. Influence of tellurite on lifetime for samarium doped lanthanum lead borate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    Samarium substituted tellurium lanthanum lead borate glass is prepared using melt quenching technique. Luminescence spectra have been recorded upon excitation with 402 nm various transitions from 4G5/2 level, for samarium doped tellurite glasses are studied and also lifetime for all the samples exhibit single exponential behaviour of decay curve. Luminescence spectra of present glasses show quenching effect due to cross-relation channels of samarium ions. The lifetime of glass samples decrease as the tellurite concentration is decreased. So, it evidences that to attain longer lifetime for lasing material one can tune the host by selecting concentration of tellurite.

  20. Relaxor behavior in lead-free Ba(Ti1−xScx/2Nbx/2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bensemma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid solutions of (1−xBaTiO3-xBaSc1/2Nb1/2O3 (BT-BSN with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction technique. The effects of the Ba(Sc1/2Nb1/2O3 addition on the phase composition, dielectric properties, as well as polarization-electric field (P-E loops of the BT-BSN solid solution were investigated. The room-temperature X-ray diffraction analyses of all the ceramics revealed a perovskite phase after sintering at 1350 °C with a composition-dependent symmetry. Temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity and losses have been explored: ceramics of compositions x ≤ 0.075 showed normal ferroelectric behavior, while ceramics with x ≥ 0.1 were of relaxor type. The degree of diffuseness and the relaxor effect increase while the transition temperature (TC or Tm decreases when both scandium and niobium are introduced in the BaTiO3 lattice. Ceramics of composition x = 0.125 exhibited interesting relaxor characteristics at 10 kHz: ΔTm = 20 K, ɛr = 12,000, and Tm = 140 K. In addition, modeled using Vogel–Fülcher relation, this same composition showed the fitting parameters: Ea = 0.0503 eV, f0 = 1.129 × 1014 Hz and TVF = 166.85 K.

  1. Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric ceramics in NaNbO.sub.3./sub.-Sr.sub.0.5./sub.NbO.sub.3./sub.-LiNbO.sub.3./sub. solid solution system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raevskaya, S. I.; Dellis, J.L.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Prosandeev, S. A.; Raevski, I. P.; Lisitsina, S.O.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 317, - (2005), s. 241-243 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffuse phase transition * lead-free relaxors * solid solutions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  2. Novel optically active lead-free relaxor ferroelectric (Ba0.6Bi0.2Li0.2)TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hitesh; Rao, Vaibhav; Barvat, Arun; Pal, Prabir; Kumar, Ashok; Dutta, Soma; Tomar, M; Gupta, Vinay; Scott, J F

    2016-01-01

    We discovered a near-room-temperature lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric (Ba 0.6 Bi 0.2 Li 0.2 )TiO 3 (BBLT) having A-site compositionally disordered ABO 3 perovskite structure. Microstructure-property relations revealed that the chemical inhomogeneities and development of local polar nano-regions (PNRs) are responsible for dielectric dispersion as a function of probe frequencies and temperatures. Rietveld analysis indicates mixed crystal structure with 80% tetragonal structure (space group P4mm) and 20% orthorhombic structure (space group Amm2), which is confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron diffraction (HRTEM). Dielectric constant and tangent loss dispersion with and without illumination of light obey nonlinear Vogel–Fulcher (VF) relations. The material shows slim polarization–hysteresis (P – E) loops and excellent displacement coefficients (d 33 ∼ 233 pm V −1 ) near room temperature, which gradually diminish near the maximum dielectric dispersion temperature (T m ) . The underlying physics for light-sensitive dielectric dispersion was probed by x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), which strongly suggests that mixed valence of bismuth ions, especially Bi 5+ ions, comprise most of the optically active centers. Ultraviolet photoemission measurements showed most of the Ti ions are in 4 +  states and sit at the centers of the TiO 6 octahedra; along with asymmetric hybridization between O 2 p and Bi 6 s orbitals, this appears to be the main driving force for net polarization. This BBLT material may open a new path for environmental friendly lead-free relaxor-ferroelectric research. (paper)

  3. The effect of physiologic aqueous solutions on the perovskite material lead-lanthanum-zirconium titanate (PLZT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J.; Meen, James K.; Fox, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Perovskite compounds, including Lead-Lanthanum-Zirconium Titanate (PLZT), have wide technological application because of their unique physical properties. The use of PLZT in neuro-prosthetic systems, such as retinal implants, have been discussed in a number of publications. Since inorganic lead is a retinotoxic compound that produces retinal degeneration, the long-term stability of PLZT in aqueous biological solutions must be determined. Objective We evaluated the stability and effects of prolonged immersion of a PLZT-coated crystal in a buffered balanced salt solution. Materials and Methods Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) using a JEOL JSM 5410 microscope equipped with EDS were utilized to evaluate the samples before and after prolonged immersion. Results We found that lead and other constituents of PLZT leached into the surrounding aqueous medium. Discussion By comparing the unit cell of PLZT with that of CaTiO3, which has been found to react with aqueous fluids, Lead is in the same site in PLZT as Ca is in CaTiO3. It is thus reasonable that PLZT will react with aqueous solutions. Conclusion The results suggest that PLZT must either be coated with a protective layer or is not appropriate for long-term in vivo or in vitro biological applications. PMID:22697294

  4. Develop techniques for ion implantation of PLZT [lead-lanthanum-zirconate-titanate] for adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishko, C.R.; Brimhall, J.L.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Stahl, K.A.; Toburen, L.H.

    1987-09-01

    Research was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop high photosensitivity adaptive optical elements utilizing ion implanted lanthanum-doped lead-zirconate-titanate (PLZT). One centimeter square samples were prepared by implanting ferroelectric and anti-ferroelectric PLZT with a variety of species or combinations of species. These included Ne, O, Ni, Ne/Cr, Ne/Al, Ne/Ni, Ne/O, and Ni/O, at a variety of energies and fluences. An indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode coating was designed to give a balance of high conductivity and optical transmission at near uv to near ir wavelengths. Samples were characterized for photosensitivity; implanted layer thickness, index of refraction, and density; electrode (ITO) conductivity; and in some cases, residual stress curvature. Thin film anti-ferroelectric PLZT was deposited in a preliminary experiment. The structure was amorphous with x-ray diffraction showing the beginnings of a structure at substrate temperatures of approximately 550 0 C. This report summarizes the research and provides a sampling of the data taken during the report period

  5. Effect of compositional variations in the lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate system on electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, K.; Park, S.E.; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Cross, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of compositional modifications on the electrical properties of lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate (PLZST) ceramics, as well as to examine their electrically induced phase-change behavior. Variations in the Ti:Sn ratio were evaluated. Increased Ti 4+ content produced the following: decreased switching field, related to an increased antiferroelectric-ferroelectric (AFE-FE) transition temperature; constant hysteresis (ΔE) correlated with a constant temperature of the maximum dielectric constant (T max ); a sharper dielectric-constant maximum peak; and increased room-temperature dielectric constant (K). Variations in the Zr:Sn ratio also were evaluated. Increased Zr 4+ content produced the following: increased hysteresis with increased T max , decreased maximum dielectric constant, and decreased switching field with increased AFE-FE transition temperature (T AFE-FE ). From these results, with respect to compositional modifications, the AFE-FE switching field (E AFE-FE ) and ΔE were observed to be dependent strongly on T AFE-FE and T max , respectively. Negligible change existed in the strain achievable at the switching field, which remained constant for all compositions at ∼0.16%. The significance of this research was the ability demonstrated to tailor the properties of phase-change materials through compositional modifications

  6. Nd3+-doped lanthanum lead boro-tellurite glass for lasing and amplification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.; Manasa, P.; Srinatha, N.

    2018-01-01

    Nd3+-doped lanthanum lead boro-tellurite glass samples were prepared by conventional melt quenching method and their structural, thermal, fluorescence, and decay times of the glasses were investigated. Prepared glass samples exhibits amorphous nature and shows good thermal stability in the temperature range of 100-800 °C. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis was carried out and the intensity parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4, 6) also spontaneous radiative probability and stimulated-.emission cross-sections were estimated. The magnitude of Ωλ confirms the covalency nature. The near infrared emission spectra were measured by 808 nm excitation in which the emission intensity is found to be high at 1060 nm for the 4F3/2 → 4F11/2 transition. The stimulated cross section, effective band width and branching ratios are found to be 8.910 × 10-20 cm2, 21.57 nm and 53.72 % respectively, for 4F3/2 → 4F11/2 transition. The derived gain bandwidth, figure of merit, threshold and saturation intensity found to be comparable to some of the glass systems. Furthermore, the time decay rate found to decrease from 100 μs to 27 μs when the concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mol% of Nd3+ ions and also all follow the single exponential behaviour which is attributed to the self quenching effect due to the cross-relaxation channels.

  7. Raman spectroscopy study of Na.sub.1/2./sub.Bi.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub.-BaTiO.sub.3./sub. lead-free single crystal relaxor piezoelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregora, Ivan; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Simon, Elizabeth; Berta, Milan; Savinov, Maxim; Hlinka, Jiří; Luo, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 404, č. 1 (2010), s. 220-2 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA ČR GA202/06/0411; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : bismuth sodium niobate * lead-free titanates * relaxor * Raman spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  8. Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric properties of (111) oriented lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Soma; Antony Jeyaseelan, A.; Sruthi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thick film with molecular formula of Pb 0.92 La 0.08 (Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 ) 0.98 O 3 was grown preferentially along (111) direction on Pt/SiO 2 /Si (platinum/silicon oxide/silicon) substrate by spin coating of chemical solution. The directional growth of the film was facilitated by platinum (Pt) (111) template and rapid thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy revealed the preferential growth of the PLZT film. The film was characterized for ferroelectric and detailed piezoelectric properties in a parallel plate capacitor (metal–PLZT–metal) configuration. Ferroelectric characterization of the film showed saturated hysteresis loop with remanent polarization and coercive electric field values of 10.14 μC/cm 2 and 42 kV/cm, respectively, at an applied field of 300 kV/cm. Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33,f ) was measured by employing converse piezoelectric effect where electrical charge response and displacement were measured with electrical voltage excitation on the sample electrodes. The effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e 31,f ) was derived from charge measurement with an applied mechanical excitation strain by using the four point bending method. d 33,f and e 31,f coefficients of PLZT films were found to be 380 pm/V and − 0.831 C/m 2 respectively. - Highlights: • PLZT (111) film is prepared by spin coating of chemical sol on Pt (111) template. • Piezoelectric d 33 value (380 pm/V) of PLZT film is found 20% higher than PZT. • Transverse piezocoefficient e 31,f of PLZT film is reported for the first time

  9. Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric properties of (111) oriented lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Soma, E-mail: som@nal.res.in; Antony Jeyaseelan, A.; Sruthi, S.

    2014-07-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thick film with molecular formula of Pb{sub 0.92}La{sub 0.08}(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}){sub 0.98}O{sub 3} was grown preferentially along (111) direction on Pt/SiO{sub 2}/Si (platinum/silicon oxide/silicon) substrate by spin coating of chemical solution. The directional growth of the film was facilitated by platinum (Pt) (111) template and rapid thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy revealed the preferential growth of the PLZT film. The film was characterized for ferroelectric and detailed piezoelectric properties in a parallel plate capacitor (metal–PLZT–metal) configuration. Ferroelectric characterization of the film showed saturated hysteresis loop with remanent polarization and coercive electric field values of 10.14 μC/cm{sup 2} and 42 kV/cm, respectively, at an applied field of 300 kV/cm. Longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33,f}) was measured by employing converse piezoelectric effect where electrical charge response and displacement were measured with electrical voltage excitation on the sample electrodes. The effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e{sub 31,f}) was derived from charge measurement with an applied mechanical excitation strain by using the four point bending method. d{sub 33,f} and e{sub 31,f} coefficients of PLZT films were found to be 380 pm/V and − 0.831 C/m{sup 2} respectively. - Highlights: • PLZT (111) film is prepared by spin coating of chemical sol on Pt (111) template. • Piezoelectric d{sub 33} value (380 pm/V) of PLZT film is found 20% higher than PZT. • Transverse piezocoefficient e{sub 31,f} of PLZT film is reported for the first time.

  10. Influence of crystal phases on electro-optic properties of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2010-02-01

    We describe here how we have improved the crystal qualities and controlled the crystal phase of the lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) film without changing the composition ratio using an oxygen-pressure crystallization process. A PLZT film deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate with the largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 498 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the film. Additionally, a fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitor with platinum electrodes has been realized by reducing the oxygen vacancies in the films.

  11. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La{sub 0.05}Li{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3}) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A., E-mail: cdiazmoreno@utep.edu [Department of Physics of University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang [Department of Physics of University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Portelles, Jorge [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, San lázaro y L, 10400 (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. 22860 (Mexico); Heiras, J. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. 22860 (Mexico); Hurtado-Macias, A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., Miguel de Cervantes #120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Farias, J.R. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, UACJ, Avenida del Charro #450 N. Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, C.P. 32310 (Mexico); González-Hernández, J. [Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial, Santiago de Querétaro 76130, Qro (Mexico); Yacamán, M.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); and others

    2017-07-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H{sub 2} atmosphere in stoichiometric La{sub 0.05}Li{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10{sup −3} emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm{sup 2}, coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO{sub 3} perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO{sub 6} related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  12. BaZr.sub.0.5./sub.Ti.sub.0.5./sub.O.sub.3./sub.: Lead-free relaxor ferroelectric or dipolar glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipič, C.; Kutnjak, Z.; Pirc, R.; Canu, G.; Petzelt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 22 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 224105. ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectric * dipolar glass * dielectric relaxation * Edwards-Anderson parameter Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  13. Thickness effect on the structure, grain size, and local piezoresponse of self-polarized lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, M.; Araújo, E. B., E-mail: eudes@dfq.feis.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, UNESP—Univ. Estadual Paulista, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Shvartsman, V. V. [Institute for Materials Science, University Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen (Germany); Shur, V. Ya. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kholkin, A. L. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-08-07

    Polycrystalline lanthanum lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates to study the effects of the thickness and grain size on their structural and piezoresponse properties at nanoscale. Thinner PLZT films show a slight (100)-orientation tendency that tends to random orientation for the thicker film, while microstrain and crystallite size increases almost linearly with increasing thickness. Piezoresponse force microscopy and autocorrelation function technique were used to demonstrate the existence of local self-polarization effect and to study the thickness dependence of correlation length. The obtained results ruled out the bulk mechanisms and suggest that Schottky barriers near the film-substrate are likely responsible for a build-in electric field in the films. Larger correlation length evidence that this build-in field increases the number of coexisting polarization directions in larger grains leading to an alignment of macrodomains in thinner films.

  14. Stable Ferroelectric Behavior of Nb-Modified Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 Lead-Free Relaxor Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Ahmed, Tanveer; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Crystal structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and electric field-induced strain properties of lead-free Nb-modified 0.96Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BKT-BMT) piezoelectric ceramics were investigated. Crystal structure analysis showed a gradual phase transition from tetragonal to pseudocubic phase with increasing Nb content. The optimal piezoelectric property of small-signal d 33 was enhanced up to ˜ 68 pC/N with a lower coercive field ( E c) of ˜ 22 kV/cm and an improved remnant polarization ( P r) of ˜ 13 μC/cm2 for x = 0.020. A relaxor-like behavior with a frequency-dependent Curie temperature T m was observed, and a high T m around 320°C was obtained in the investigated system. This study suggests that the ferroelectric properties of BKT-BMT was significantly improved by means of Nb substitution. The possible shift of depolarization temperature T d toward high temperature T m may have triggered the spontaneous relaxor to ferroelectric phase transition with long-range ferroelectric order without any traces of a nonergodic relaxor state in contradiction with Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based systems. The possible enhancement in ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties near the critical composition x = 0.020 may be attributed to the increased anharmonicity of lattice vibrations which may facilitate the observed phase transition from a low-symmetry tetragonal to a high-symmetry cubic phase with a decrease in the lattice anisotropy of an undoped sample. This highly flexible (at a unit cell level) narrow compositional range triggers the enhancement of d 33 and P r values.

  15. Grain growth kinetics and electrical properties of lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (9/65/35) based ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, R. Alvarez; Guerrero, F.; Botero, E. R.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.; Guerra, J. D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the microstructural characteristics on the dielectric and electrical properties has been investigated for Nd 3+ doped lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics, obtained by the conventional solid-state reaction method, by taking into account different sintering conditions. The grain growth mechanism has been investigated and a cubic-type grain growth law was observed for samples with grain size varying from 1.00 up to 2.35 μm. The porosity and grain size dependences of the phase transition parameters, such as the maximum dielectric permittivity and its corresponding temperature (ε m and T m , respectively) were also investigated. The ac conductivity analyses followed the universal Jonscher law. The behavior of the frequency exponent (s) was analyzed through the correlated barrier hopping model. Both ac and dc conductivity results have been correlated with the observed microstructural features

  16. Energy storage properties and relaxor behavior of lead-free Ba1-xSm2x/3Zr0.15Ti0.85O3 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Lingxia; Yu, Shihui; Kang, Xinyu; Chen, Siliang

    2017-10-24

    Lead-free Ba 1-x Sm 2x/3 Zr 0.15 Ti 0.85 O 3 (BSZT) ceramics were synthesized by a solid state reaction route. The microstructure, dielectric relaxor behavior and energy storage properties of BSZT ceramics were studied. The growth of grain size was suppressed with the increase of Sm addition and kept in the submicrometer scale. Successive substitution of Sm 3+ for Ba 2+ disrupted the long-range dipole and promoted the increase of polar nano-region (PNR) size, resulting in the enhanced degree of relaxor behavior. The increasing PNR size also lead to the slimmer hysteresis loops and improved the energy storage efficiency. Furthermore, high saturated polarization (P max ) and low remnant polarization (P r ) were obtained due to the formation of defect dipoles, which facilitated the switch of PNRs and contributed to the enhancement of energy storage density. The x = 0.003 sample was found to exhibit a higher energy storage density of 1.15 J cm -3 and an energy storage efficiency of 92%. The result revealed that the BSZT ceramics may be a good candidate for energy storage application.

  17. Soft phonon anomalies in relaxor ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, Gen; Gehring, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    A review is given of the phonon anomalies, which have been termed waterfalls', that were recently discovered through a series of neutron inelastic scattering measurements on the lead-oxide relaxor systems PZN-xPT, PMN, and PZN. We discuss a simple coupled-mode model that has been used successfully to describe the basic features of the waterfall, and which relates this unusual feature to the presence of polar micro-regions. (author)

  18. Soft phonon anomalies in relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, Gen [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Gehring, Peter M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A review is given of the phonon anomalies, which have been termed waterfalls', that were recently discovered through a series of neutron inelastic scattering measurements on the lead-oxide relaxor systems PZN-xPT, PMN, and PZN. We discuss a simple coupled-mode model that has been used successfully to describe the basic features of the waterfall, and which relates this unusual feature to the presence of polar micro-regions. (author)

  19. The effect of physiologic aqueous solutions on the perovskite material lead-lanthanum-zirconium titanate (PLZT): potential retinotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J; Meen, James K; Fox, Donald A

    2013-03-01

    Perovskite compounds, including lead-lanthanum-zirconium titanate (PLZT), have wide technological application because of their unique physical properties. The use of PLZT in neuro-prosthetic systems, such as retinal implants, has been discussed in a number of publications. Since inorganic lead is a retinotoxic compound that produces retinal degeneration, the long-term stability of PLZT in aqueous biological solutions must be determined. We evaluated the stability and effects of prolonged immersion of a PLZT-coated crystal in a buffered balanced salt solution. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) using a JEOL JSM 5410 microscope equipped with EDS were utilized to evaluate the samples before and after prolonged immersion. We found that lead and other constituents of PLZT leached into the surrounding aqueous medium. By comparing the unit cell of PLZT with that of CaTiO(3), which has been found to react with aqueous fluids, Lead is in the same site in PLZT as Ca is in CaTiO(3). It is thus reasonable that PLZT will react with aqueous solutions. The results suggest that PLZT must either be coated with a protective layer or is not appropriate for long-term in vivo or in vitro biological applications.

  20. Role of random electric fields in relaxors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel; Stock, Christopher; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Chi, Songxue; Leão, Juscelino; Long, Xifa; Xie, Yujuan; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Gehring, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    PbZr1–xTixO3 (PZT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1–xTixO3 (PMN-xPT) are complex lead-oxide perovskites that display exceptional piezoelectric properties for pseudorhombohedral compositions near a tetragonal phase boundary. In PZT these compositions are ferroelectrics, but in PMN-xPT they are relaxors because the dielectric permittivity is frequency dependent and exhibits non-Arrhenius behavior. We show that the nanoscale structure unique to PMN-xPT and other lead-oxide perovskite relaxors is absent in PZT and correlates with a greater than 100% enhancement of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient in PMN-xPT relative to that in PZT. By comparing dielectric, structural, lattice dynamical, and piezoelectric measurements on PZT and PMN-xPT, two nearly identical compounds that represent weak and strong random electric field limits, we show that quenched (static) random fields establish the relaxor phase and identify the order parameter. PMID:24449912

  1. Enhanced electrocaloric analysis and energy-storage performance of lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics for potential solid-state refrigeration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Fu; Huang, Xian-Xiong; Tang, Xin-Gui; Jiang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Biao; Lu, Sheng-Guo

    2018-01-10

    The unique properties and great variety of relaxer ferroelectrics make them highly attractive in energy-storage and solid-state refrigeration technologies. In this work, lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics are prepared and studied. The giant electrocaloric effect in lanthanum modified lead titanate ceramics is revealed for the first time. Large refrigeration efficiency (27.4) and high adiabatic temperature change (1.67 K) are achieved by indirect analysis. Direct measurements of electrocaloric effect show that reversible adiabatic temperature change is also about 1.67 K, which exceeds many electrocaloric effect values in current direct measured electrocaloric studies. Both theoretical calculated and direct measured electrocaloric effects are in good agreements in high temperatures. Temperature and electric field related energy storage properties are also analyzed, maximum energy-storage density and energy-storage efficiency are about 0.31 J/cm 3 and 91.2%, respectively.

  2. Relaxor type perovskites: Primary candidates of nano-polar regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    between Pb and O ions. Kleeman et al5 ... sputtering,13 sol–gel14 etc. In the present work ..... Hence the barium-based non lead relaxor materials have been of ..... Kingon A I, Streiffer, Basceri C and Summerfelt S R 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Bull.

  3. The influence of the coexistence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric states on the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, V M; Baumer, V N; Sobolev, V L

    2005-01-01

    We present results of detailed investigation of the crystal structure of Pb 1-3x/2 La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 solid solutions. In this letter our attention is concentrated on the series of solid solutions with x = 6% usually referred to as relaxor ferroelectrics. We have established the reasons for the non-cubic crystal structure of these solid solutions at the temperatures below T C . It is demonstrated that the peculiarities of the properties of Pb 1-3x/2 La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 depend on the position of a particular solid solution with respect to the hysteresis ferroelectric-antiferroelectric region in the 'Ti-content-temperature' phase diagram. (letter to the editor)

  4. Electron Emission And Beam Generation Using Ferroelectric Cathodes (electron Beam Generation, Lead Lanthanum Zicronate Titanate, High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplfier)

    CERN Document Server

    Flechtner, D D

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, researchers at CERN published the discovery of significant electron emission (1– 100 A/cm2) from Lead- Lanthanum-Zirconate-Titanate (PLZT). The publication of these results led to international interest in ferroelectric cathodes studies for use in pulsed power devices. At Cornell University in 1991, experiments with Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) compositions were begun to study the feasibility of using this ferroelectric material as a cathode in the electron gun section of High Power Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier Experiments. Current-voltage characteristics were documented for diode voltages ranging from 50– 500,000 V with anode cathode gaps of.5– 6 cm. A linear current-voltage relation was found for voltages less than 50 kV. For diode voltages ≥ 200 kV, a typical Child-Langmuir V3/2 dependence was observed...

  5. Electric properties and phase transition behavior in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics with low zirconate content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Lou, Qi-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Dong, Xian-Lin; Wang, Gen-Shui

    2015-11-01

    The phase transitions, dielectric properties, and polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.42Sn0.58-xTix)O3 (0.13≤ x ≤0.18) (PLZST) bulk ceramics were systematically investigated. This study exhibited a sequence of phase transitions by analyzing the change of the P-E hysteresis loops with increasing temperature. The antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary of PLZST with the Zr content of 0.42 was found to locate at the Ti content between 0.14 and 0.15. This work is aimed to improve the ternary phase diagram of lanthanum-doped PZST with the Zr content of 0.42 and will be a good reference for seeking high energy storage density in the PLZST system with low-Zr content. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51202273, 11204304, and 11304334) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261000).

  6. Relaxor-like behavior of lead-free Sr.sub.2./sub.LaTi.sub.2./sub.Nb.sub.3./sub.O.sub.15./sub. ceramics with tetragonal tungsten bronze structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Kamba, Stanislav; Veljko, Sergiy; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Knížek, Karel; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 5 (2007), 054115/1-054115/6 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403; GA ČR GA202/04/0993; GA MŠk OC 101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * dielectric spectroscopy * dipolar glass * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2007

  7. Relaxor-PT Single Crystal Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-PbTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals have been widely used in a broad range of electromechanical devices, including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers. This paper reviews the unique properties of these single crystals for piezoelectric sensors. Design, fabrication and characterization of various relaxor-PT single crystal piezoelectric sensors and their applications are presented and compared with their piezoelectric ceramic counterparts. Newly applicable fields and future trends of relaxor-PT sensors are also suggested in this review paper.

  8. Phonon localization transition in relaxor ferroelectric PZN-5%PT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, Michael E.; Christianson, Andrew D.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Sahul, Raffi

    2017-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric behavior occurs in many disordered ferroelectric materials but is not well understood at the atomic level. Recent experiments and theoretical arguments indicate that Anderson localization of phonons instigates relaxor behavior by driving the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs). Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to observe phonon localization in relaxor ferroelectric PZN-5%PT (0.95[Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ]–0.05PbTiO 3 ) and detect additional features of the localization process. In the lead, up to phonon localization on cooling, the local resonant modes that drive phonon localization increase in number. The increase in resonant scattering centers is attributed to a known increase in the number of locally off centered Pb atoms on cooling. The transition to phonon localization occurs when these random scattering centers increase to a concentration where the Ioffe-Regel criterion is satisfied for localizing the phonon. Finally, we also model the effects of damped mode coupling on the observed phonons and phonon localization structure.

  9. Magnetodielectric effect in relaxor/ferrimagnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveed Ul-Haq, M., E-mail: naveedulhaq07@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Institute for Materials Sciences and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany); Yunus, Tayyaba; Mumtaz, Arif [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shvartsman, V.V.; Lupascu, Doru C. [Institute for Materials Sciences and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Single phase ferroelectric (relaxor)/ferrimagnetic composites are synthesized. • The composite shows magnetodielectric effect. • Effect of interface strain is discussed. • MD is explained via defining a local order parameter q(T). - Abstract: We report on the effect of an applied static magnetic field on the dielectric properties of ferroelectric relaxor/ferrimagnetic composites consisting of [Ba(Sn{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7})O{sub 3}]{sub 0.8}–[CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sub 0.2} (BST{sub 0.8}–CFO{sub 0.2}). The pure Ba(Sn{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7})O{sub 3} (BST30) as well as the composites, were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that BST30 and CFO coexist in the composite without any secondary phase. The real and the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity were studied as a function of temperature, with and without static magnetic field, respectively. Relaxor characteristics such as dielectric permittivity and its peak temperature are observed to vary with the magnetic field. This is explained in the context that the applied magnetic field creates magnetostriction in the ferrite phase which is transferred to the relaxor phase via the interface coupling. The strain in the relaxor phase results in the reorientation of local polarization entities, polar nano regions (PNRs), which alters the dielectric characteristics of the sample. This effect is explained in relation to local order parameter q(T) which is found to increase in a certain temperature range above the typical ferroelectric temperature regime with the application of magnetic field.

  10. Adsorption of lithium-lanthanum films on the (100) tungsten face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, M.S.; Smereka, T.P.; Babkin, G.V.; Palyukh, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The method of contact potential difference is used to investigate combined adsorption of lithium-lanthanum on the (100) tungsten face. The data on work functions and thermal stability of mixed lithium-lanthanum films are obtained. The presence of lanthanum on the W(100) surface leads to appearance of minimum of work functions unobserved for the Li-W(100) system, minimum work functions and optimum lithium concentration in a mixed film are decreased at initial lanthanum coating increase. The presence of lanthanum on the W(100) face leads to lithium adsorption heat decrease

  11. A Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis Model for Relaxor Ferroelectric Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raye, Julie K; Smith, Ralph C

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a homogenized free energy model which characterizes the temperature-dependent hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities inherent to relaxor ferroelectric materials...

  12. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  13. Electrochemical reduction of lanthanum trichloride in a molten equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagolevskaya, A.L.; Kuznetsov, S.A.; Polyakov, E.G.; Stangrit, P.T.

    1987-09-20

    The authors used linear voltamperometry for the investigation of the mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum. The mechanism for the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride in molten equimolar NaCl-KCl may be seen as consisting of a slow irreversible electrode reaction with a subsequent rapid irreversible chemical reaction. Lanthanum ions in a lower oxidation state were not found upon the prolonged maintenance of metallic lanthanum in molten NaCl-KCl-LaCl/sub 3/. Only an increase in the concentration of lanthanum(III) chloride in the melt was noted. The appearance of oxygen anions in the melt does not lead to a change in the mechanism of the cathodic reduction of lanthanum chloride but reduces the concentration of this chloride due to the formation of lanthanum oxochloride which is insoluble in the melt.

  14. The lineshape of inelastic neutron scattering in the relaxor ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlovski, M.; Piesiewicz, T.; Stephanovich, V.A.; Weron, A.; Wymyslowski, A.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of theoretical and experimental investigations of relaxor ferroelectrics by inelastic neutron scattering method are considered. The simple model to description of the peculiarities of inelastic neutron scattering lineshapes in ferroelectric relaxors is suggested. The essence of this model is to consider the interaction of the phonon subsystem of relaxor ferroelectrics with the ensemble of defects and impurities. The modification of the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is presented. The optimization of planning of experiment by the modified LHS method is considered [ru

  15. Piezoresponse force microscopy of ferroelectric relaxors =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Dmitry

    Nesta tese, ferroelectricos relaxor (I dont know uf the order is correct) de base Pb das familias (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PLZT), Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), Pb(Zn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) foram investigados e analisados. As propriedades ferroelectricas e dielectricas das amostras foram estudadas por metodos convencionais de macro e localmente por microscopia de forca piezoelectrica (PFM). Nos cerâmicos PLZT 9.75/65/35 o contraste da PFM a escala nanometrica foi investigado em funcao do tamanho e orientacao dos graos. Apurou-se que a intensidade do sinal piezoelectrico das nanoestruturas diminui com o aumento da temperatura e desaparece a 490 K (La mol. 8%) e 420 K (9,5%). Os ciclos de histerese locais foram obtidos em funcao da temperatura. A evolucao dos parâmetros macroscopicos e locais com a temperatura de superficie sugere um forte efeito de superficie nas transicoes de fase ferroelectricas do material investigado. A rugosidade da parede de dominio e determinada por PFM para a estrutura de dominio natural existente neste ferroelectrico policristalino. Alem disso, os dominios ferroelectricos artificiais foram criados pela aplicacao de pulsos electricos a ponta do condutor PFM e o tamanho de dominio in-plane foi medido em funcao da duracao do pulso. Todas estas experiencias levaram a conclusao de que a parede de dominio em relaxors do tipo PZT e quase uma interface unidimensional. O mecanismo de contraste na superficie de relaxors do tipo PLZT e medido por PFMAs estruturas de dominio versus evolucao da profundidade foram estudadas em cristais PZN-4,5%PT, com diferentes orientacoes atraves da PFM. Padroes de dominio irregulares com tamanhos tipicos de 20-100 nm foram observados nas superficies com orientacao das amostras unpoled?. Pelo contrario, os cortes de cristal exibem dominios regulares de tamanho micron normal, com os limites do dominio orientados ao longo dos planos cristalograficos permitidos. A existencia de nanodominios em cristais com orientacao

  16. Encephalopathy caused by lanthanum carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Pilar; Cacharro, Luis Maria; Garcia-Cosmes, Pedro; Rosado, Consolacion; Tabernero, Jose Matias

    2011-06-01

    Lanthanum carbonate is a nonaluminum, noncalcium phosphate-binding agent, which is widely used in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. Until now, no significant side-effects have been described for the clinical use of lanthanum carbonate, and there are no available clinical data regarding its tissue stores. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old patient who was admitted with confusional syndrome. The patient received 3750 mg of lanthanum carbonate daily. Examinations were carried out, and the etiology of the encephalopathy of the patient could not be singled out. The lanthanum carbonate levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were high, and the syndrome eased after the drug was removed. The results of our study confirm that, in our case, the lanthanum carbonate did cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although lanthanum carbonate seems a safe drug with minimal absorption, this work reveals the problem derived from the increase of serum levels of lanthanum carbonate, and the possibility that it may cross the BBB. Further research is required on the possible pathologies that increase serum levels of lanthanum carbonate, as well as the risks and side-effects derived from its absorption.

  17. Debye’s temperature and heat capacity for Sr0.15Ba0.85Bi2Nb2O9 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peláiz-Barranco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A lead-free relaxor ferroelectric, Sr0.15Ba0.85Bi2Nb2O9, was synthesized via solid-state reaction and the temperature-dependence of the heat capacity was measured in a wide temperature range. The dielectric permittivity was also measured between 500Hz and 5MHz in the same temperature range. No anomaly has been detected in the heat capacity curve for the whole temperature range covered in the present experiments, while broad peaks have been observed in the dielectric permittivity with high frequency dispersion. A typical relaxor behavior has been observed from the dielectric analysis. The Debye’s temperature has showed a minimum value near the freezing temperature. The results are discussed considering the spin-glass model and the high frequency dispersion, which has been observed for the studied relaxor system.

  18. Visualization of dielectric constant-electric field-temperature phase maps for imprinted relaxor ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, J. C.; Kim, T. H.; Maeng, W.; Brewer, A. A.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Saenrang, W.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Schlom, D. G.; Li, F.; Chen, L.-Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric phase transition behavior of imprinted lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate relaxor ferroelectric thin films was mapped as a function of temperature and dc bias. To compensate for the presence of internal fields, an external electric bias was applied while measuring dielectric responses. The constructed three-dimensional dielectric maps provide insight into the dielectric behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric films as well as the temperature stability of the imprint. The transition temperature and diffuseness of the dielectric response correlate with crystallographic disorder resulting from strain and defects in the films grown on strontium titanate and silicon substrates; the latter was shown to induce a greater degree of disorder in the film as well as a dielectric response lower in magnitude and more diffuse in nature over the same temperature region. Strong and stable imprint was exhibited in both films and can be utilized to enhance the operational stability of piezoelectric devices through domain self-poling.

  19. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO 3 ) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO 3 (La) 0.80 Sr 0. 2 0 Cr 0.92 Co 0.08 O 3 ) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: pH (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La) 0.80 Sr 0. 2 0 Cr 0.92 Co 0.08 O 3 products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline pH and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 degree C/4 hours presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  20. Relaxor ferroelectrics: back to the single-soft-mode picture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hehlen, B.; Al-Sabbagh, M.; Al-Zein, A.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 15 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 155501. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * ferroelectrics * light-scattering * hyper-Raman * dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  1. Dynamics of nanoscale polarization fluctuations in a uniaxial relaxor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondrejkovič, Petr; Kempa, Martin; Kulda, J.; Frick, B.; Appel, M.; Combet, J.; Dec, J.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 16 (2014), "167601-1"-"167601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : strontium barium niobate * relaxor ferroelectrics * dielectric relaxations * neutron backscattering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  2. Cytocompatibility of a free machining titanium alloy containing lanthanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Siemers, Carsten; Willumeit, Regine; Rösler, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Titanium alloys like Ti6Al4V are widely used in medical engineering. However, the mechanical and chemical properties of titanium alloys lead to poor machinability, resulting in high production costs of medical products. To improve the machinability of Ti6Al4V, 0.9% of the rare earth element lanthanum (La) was added. The microstructure, the mechanical, and the corrosion properties were determined. Lanthanum containing alloys exhibited discrete particles of cubic lanthanum. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance were slightly decreased but are still sufficient for many applications in the field of medical engineering. In vitro experiments with mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human bone-derived cells (MG-63, HBDC) were performed and revealed that macrophages showed a dose response below and above a LaCl3 concentration of 200 microM, while MG-63 and HBDC tolerated three times higher concentrations without reduction of viability. The viability of cells cultured on disks of the materials showed no differences between the reference and the lanthanum containing alloy. We therefore propose that lanthanum containing alloy appears to be a good alternative for biomedical applications, where machining of parts is necessary.

  3. Ferroelectric relaxor Ba(TiCe)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ang; Zhi Jing; Yu Zhi

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 solid solutions (y=0-0.3) has been studied. A small amount of Ce doping (y=0.02) has weak influence on the dielectric behaviour of Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 . With increasing Ce concentration, three phase transitions of pure BaTiO 3 are pinched into one rounded dielectric peak with frequency dispersion, and the relaxation time follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation. The evolution from a normal ferroelectric to a ferroelectric relaxor is emphasized. High strains (S=∼0.1-0.19%) with a small hysteresis under ac fields are obtained in ferroelectric relaxors Ba(Ti 1-y Ce y )O 3 . The physical mechanism of the relaxation process, the pinching effect of the phase transitions and their influence on the ferroelectric and electrostrictive behaviour are discussed. (author)

  4. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  5. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica; Acosta, Matias; Daniels, John E.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature at which the electric field induced long-range ordered ferroelectric state undergoes transition into the short-range ordered relaxor state, TF-R, is commonly defined by the onset of strong dispersion of the dielectric permittivity. However, this combined macroscopic property and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature. These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxor transition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes associated with different polarization reversal processes. Such diagrams are useful tools for identifying the best operational temperature regimes for a given composition in actuator applications.

  6. Relaxor properties of barium titanate crystals grown by Remeika method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Michel; Tiagunov, Jenia; Dul'kin, Evgeniy; Mojaev, Evgeny

    2017-06-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) crystals have been grown by the Remeika method using both the regular KF and mixed KF-NaF (0.6-0.4) solvents. Typical acute angle "butterfly wing" BT crystals have been obtained, and they were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (including energy dispersive spectroscopy), conventional dielectric and acoustic emission methods. A typical wing has a triangular plate shape which is up to 0.5 mm thick with a 10-15 mm2 area. The plate has a (001) habit and an atomically smooth outer surface. Both K+ and F- solvent ions are incorporated as dopants into the crystal lattice during growth substituting for Ba2+ and O2- ions respectively. The dopants' distribution is found to be inhomogeneous, their content being almost an order of magnitude higher (up to 2 mol%) at out surface of the plate relatively to the bulk. A few μm thick surface layer is formed where a multidomain ferroelectric net is confined between two≤1 μm thick dopant-rich surfaces. The layer as a whole possess relaxor ferroelectric properties, which is apparent from the appearance of additional broad maxima, Tm, in the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity around the ferroelectric phase transition. Intense acoustic emission responses detected at temperatures corresponding to the Tm values allow to observe the Tm shift to lower temperatures at higher frequencies, or dispersion, typical for relaxor ferroelectrics. The outer surface of the BT wing can thus serve as a relaxor thin film for various electronic application, such as capacitors, or as a substrate for BT-based multiferroic structure. Crystals grown from KF-NaF fluxes contain sodium atoms as an additional impurity, but the crystal yield is much smaller, and while the ferroelectric transition peak is diffuse it does not show any sign of dispersion typical for relaxor behavior.

  7. Temperature dependent polarization reversal mechanism in 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2) TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 relaxor ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Hudspeth, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    and structural investigation of the polarization reversal process in the prototypical lead-free relaxor 0.94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.06Ba(Zr0.02Ti0.98)O3 reveals that an applied electric field can trigger depolarization and onset of relaxor-like behavior well below TF-R. The polarization reversal process can...... as such be described as a combination of (1) ferroelectric domain switching and (2) a reversible phase transition between two polar ferroelectric states mediated by a non-polar relaxor state. Furthermore, the threshold fields of the second, mediated polarization reversal mechanism depend strongly on temperature....... These results are concomitant with a continuous ferroelectric to relaxortransition occurring over a broad temperature range, during which mixed behavior is observed. The nature of polarization reversal can be illustrated in electric-field-temperature (E-T) diagrams showing the electric field amplitudes...

  8. Complexometric determination of lanthanum and calcium in lanthanum chromite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of complexometric determination of lanthanum and calcium in lanthanum chromite, based on sequential titration of La and Ca by EDTA solution, where as an indicator eriochrome brack T with NaCl mixture in the ratio of 1:100 is used, are determined. Cr (3) effect was removed by its oxidation up to Cr (6) with perchloric acid; at first La was determined in presence of urotropine buffer, then Ca at pH 9.5-10 in presence of ammonia buffer. For reaction acceleration method of back titration of EDTA excess by zinc salt solution was used. Standard deviation in La and Ca determination is not over 0.2 and 0.1 % respectively

  9. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  10. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  11. Relaxor-ferroelectric BaLnZT (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Sc) ceramics for actuator and energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sarit K.; Mallick, Kaushik; Tiwari, B.; Sinha, E.; Rout, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    Lead free ceramics Ba1-x Ln2x/3Zr0.3Ti0.7O3 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Eu and Sc), x = 0.02-0.10 are investigated for electrostrictive effect and energy storage properties in the proximity of relaxor-paraelectric phase boundary. Relaxor phase evidence from slim hysteresis loop and low remnant polarization are the key parameters responsible for improve the electrostrictive effect and energy storage properties simultaneously. With increase in rare earth content negative strain disappeared and almost hysteresis free strain is achieved. Strain-hysteresis profile in term of S-E, S-E 2 and S-P 2 is used to analyze the electrostrictive behavior of these ceramics. An average strain (S%) ˜ 0.03%, is accomplished at initial concentrations of x = 0.02-0.04 and electrostrictive coefficients (Q 11, and M 11) as well as the energy storage density is improved by a factor of 1.2 and 2.6 respectively when compare with pure (x = 0.0) ceramic. Above x ≥ 0.06, all compositions show a stable behavior which suggested the possibilities of these relaxor ceramics towards high precision actuators and energy storage application.

  12. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Kai-Christian; Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na 1/2 Bi 1/2 TiO 3 (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions

  13. Development of “fragility” in relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-zhen, E-mail: wangyizhen80@gmail.com [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Bioengineering Program and Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Department, Lehigh University, 19 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, Lan; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Hai-yan [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology, Guangzhou 510663 (China); Frank Zhang, X. [Bioengineering Program and Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Department, Lehigh University, 19 Memorial Drive West, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Fu, Jun [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the “Super-Arrhenius (SA)” relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the “fragility” property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-x%PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN − x%PT) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 20.0, we in-depth study the “fragility” properties of the SA relaxation in PMN − x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the “fragility” at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between “fragility” and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the “fragility” of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN − x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature T{sub c}. A reasonable physical scenario, based on our “configurational-entropy-loss” theory and Nowick's “stress-induced-ordering” theory, was proposed.

  14. Development of “fragility” in relaxor ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-zhen; Chen, Lan; Xiong, Xiao-min; Zhang, Jin-xiu; Wang, Hai-yan; Frank Zhang, X.; Fu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (RFs), a special class of the disordered crystals or ceramics, exhibit a pronounced slowdown of their dynamics upon cooling as glass-forming liquids, called the “Super-Arrhenius (SA)” relaxation. Despite great progress in glass-forming liquids, the “fragility” property of the SA relaxation in RFs remains unclear so far. By measuring the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation in the typical relaxor Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -x%PbTiO 3 (PMN − x%PT) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 20.0, we in-depth study the “fragility” properties of the SA relaxation in PMN − x%PT. Such fascinating issues as the mechanism of the “fragility” at an atomic scale, the roles of the systematic configurational entropy change and interaction among relaxing units (RUs, including polar nanoregions and free dipoles) and the relation between “fragility” and ferroelectric order are investigated. Our results show that both the “fragility” of the temperature-dependent SA relaxation and ferroelectric order in the PMN − x%PT systems investigated arise thermodynamically from the configurational-entropy loss due to the attractive interaction among RUs, and develops as a power law, possibly diverging at the finite critical temperature T c . A reasonable physical scenario, based on our “configurational-entropy-loss” theory and Nowick's “stress-induced-ordering” theory, was proposed

  15. Lanthanum Containing Polymer's Modification to PP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Shaojun; Zhang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP)'s low impact strength limits its usages. Adding some a rare earth polymer can enhance PP's tensile strength and impact strength. Acrylic lanthanum was prepared by the reaction between lanthanum oxide and acrylic acid. The IR spectrum prove that and optimum reacting conditions are that the bulk ratio of La(AA) 3 and MMA is not less than one and temperature is about 80 ℃. Lanthanum containing Polymer were added into PP. When percent of addition only was 3%, strength were enhanced 10% , and impact strength 40%. SEM shows the compatibility of rare earth polymer and PP; lanthanum containing polymer can form physical crosslinking between PP's molecules, then every particle's surface connect with several PP molecules and the PP mechanical property were enhanced.

  16. Signal amplification of dopamine using lanthanum hexacyanoferrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rare earth metal hexacyanoferrates, for e.g., lanthanum ... to facilitate the electrochemical reactions of biological molecules.9,10 In general ... bic acid and potassium hexacyanoferrate (Merck) were ... were prepared using doubly distilled water.

  17. Properties of gallium lanthanum sulphide glass

    OpenAIRE

    Bastock, P.; Craig, C.; Khan, K.; Weatherby, E.; Yao, J.; Hewak, D.W.

    2015-01-01

    A series of gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glasses has been studied in order to ascertain properties across the entire glass forming region. This is the first comprehensive study of GLS glass over a wide compositional range.

  18. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Chen, Long-Qing (Penn); (Xian Jiaotong); (CIW); (Simon); (TRS Techn); (Wollongong)

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50–80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  19. The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Yang, Tiannan; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Jianli; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R; Chen, Long-Qing

    2016-12-19

    The discovery of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in relaxor-ferroelectric solid solution single crystals is a breakthrough in ferroelectric materials. A key signature of relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions is the existence of polar nanoregions, a nanoscale inhomogeneity, that coexist with normal ferroelectric domains. Despite two decades of extensive studies, the contribution of polar nanoregions to the underlying piezoelectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics has yet to be established. Here we quantitatively characterize the contribution of polar nanoregions to the dielectric/piezoelectric responses of relaxor-ferroelectric crystals using a combination of cryogenic experiments and phase-field simulations. The contribution of polar nanoregions to the room-temperature dielectric and piezoelectric properties is in the range of 50-80%. A mesoscale mechanism is proposed to reveal the origin of the high piezoelectricity in relaxor ferroelectrics, where the polar nanoregions aligned in a ferroelectric matrix can facilitate polarization rotation. This mechanism emphasizes the critical role of local structure on the macroscopic properties of ferroelectric materials.

  20. Advances in the Growth and Characterization of Relaxor-PT-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Pb(Zr1−xTixO3 (PZT polycrystalline ceramics, relaxor-PT single crystals offer significantly improved performance with extremely high electromechanical coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, making them promising materials for piezoelectric transducers, sensors and actuators. The recent advances in crystal growth and characterization of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric single crystals are reviewed in this paper with emphases on the following topics: (1 the large crystal growth of binary and ternary relaxor-PT-based ferroelectric crystals for commercialization; (2 the composition segregation in the crystals grown from such a solid-solution system and possible solutions to reduce it; (3 the crystal growth from new binary and ternary compositions to expand the operating temperature and electric field; (4 the crystallographic orientation dependence and anisotropic behaviors of relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals; and (5 the characterization of the dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric properties of the relaxor-PT-based ferroelectriccrystals under small and large electric fields.

  1. High-pressure structure of Pb-based relaxor ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Bernd J.; Mihailova, Boriana; Paulmann, Carsten; Welsch, Anna-Maria; Bismayer, Ulrich [Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Angel, Ross J. [Crystallography Laboratory, Virgina Tech, Blacksburg (United States); Marshall, William G. [ISIS Neutron Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Engel, Jens M. [Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Gospodinov, Marin [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrova, Dimitrina [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); South-West University Neofit Rilski, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-01

    The pressure-induced phase transitions that occur in the perovskite-type relaxor ferroelectric PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) and Pb{sub 0.78}Ba{sub 0.22}Sc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST-Ba) were studied with combined neutron powder diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. An increase in the intensities of h,k,l=all odd reflections is observed while the intensity of h,h,h peaks, h=2n+1, does not change with pressure, indicating a glide-plane pseudo-symmetry of the structural distortion along the left angle 111 right angle cubic directions. Rietveld refinement to the neutron powder data shows that the high-pressure phase has either R anti 3c or R anti 3 symmetry, depending on whether the presence of 1:1 octahedral cation ordering is neglected or taken into account, and comprises anti-phase octahedral tilts of type a{sup -}a{sup -}a{sup -} that continuously evolve with pressure.

  2. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  3. Corrosion and electrochemical properties of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashov, N.D.; Matveeva, T.V.

    The kinetics of the corrosion rate of lanthanum at 25 0 in air of different relative humidities, distilled water, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, potassium hydroxide of different concentrations and at 100 0 C in distilled water and potassium hydroxide have been studied. In air at 22--100% relative humidity, the corrosion rate of lanthanum increases with time and with increasing humidity. In distilled water and in potassium hydroxide solutions, the corrosion rate of lanthanum increases with time and decreasees when the concentration of alkali exceeds 20%. With increasing concentration of the acids, the corrosion rate of lanthanum increases in hydrochloric acid and nitric acid and passes through a maximum in sulfuric acid (20%) and phosphoric acid (60%). The values of the corrosion rates of lanthanum in 40% nitric acid, 35% hydrochloric acid, 20% sulfuric acid, 60% phosphoric acid, and 40% hydrofluoric acid are 8 x 10 5 ; 4.4 x 10 4 ; 1.3 x 10 3 ; 9 g/m 2 h respectively

  4. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Man; Goodenough, John B.; Huang, Keqin; Milliken, Christopher

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800°C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800°C was achieved. our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum galiate and achieve higher power density at 800°C from solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. Fuel cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Man [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Goodenough, J.B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Huang Keqin [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Center for Materials Science and Engineering; Milliken, C. [Cerematec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Single cells with doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte material were constructed and tested from 600 to 800 C. Both ceria and the electrolyte material were mixed with NiO powder respectively to form composite anodes. Doped lanthanum cobaltite was used exclusively as the cathode material. While high power density from the solid oxide fuel cells at 800 C was achieved, our results clearly indicate that anode overpotential is the dominant factor in the power loss of the cells. Better anode materials and anode processing methods need to be found to fully utilize the high ionic conductivity of the doped lanthanum gallate and achieve higher power density at 800 C from solid oxide fuel cells. (orig.)

  6. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  7. Trimethylphosphide isomerization in lanthanum ions presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, M.A.; Massabni, A.M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The integration between the trimethilphosphide and the lanthanum ions carry to the formation of solid complexes in a relation of 6:1 where the ligand is the phosphonate what is resultant of the isomerization of trimetylphosphite. By the RMN -1 H and infra-red spectra the products were characterized. (L.M.J.) [pt

  8. Influence of lanthanum distribution on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of BaBi4-xLaxTi4O15 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Anita; Goyal, Parveen K.; Thakur, O.P.; Shukla, A.K.; Sreenivas, K.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and electrical properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) ceramics prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method have been investigated. Raman spectra reveals the distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi 2 O 2 ) 2+ layers of BaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 ceramics. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε′) increases and considerable reduction in the low frequency (10 −2 to 10 Hz) dielectric losses and in dc conductivity (σ dc ) are seen with lanthanum substitution. A critical La content of x ∼0.20 in BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 exhibits a well-defined relaxor behavior as seen from the temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric parameters ε′(T) and ε″(T). The dielectric data fit well to the modified Curie–Weiss law and the Lorentz-type relation and show increasing diffuseness in the phase transition with increasing La content. The temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time obtained from the Cole–Cole model shows a good fit to the non-linear Vogel–Fulcher relation. Improvements in the remnant polarization and a stable piezoelectric charge coefficient are seen up to a La content of x ∼0.20. The observed increase in dielectric loss and σ dc in addition to the diminished ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties for higher La content are explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation due to the preferential incorporation of La into the (Bi 2 O 2 ) 2+ layers as evidenced through the Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • La distribution in BaBi 4-x La x Ti 4 O 15 ceramics is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy. • Low and a nearly constant loss over wide frequency range (10 −2 –10 7  Hz) obtained. • Critical La content x = 0.2 identified for high resistivity and ideal relaxor characteristics. • Improved P-E hysteresis loops and large remnant polarization measured. • Changes in the

  9. Statistical mechanical lattice model of the dual-peak electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric relaxors and the role of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Alford, Neil McN; Valant, Matjaz; Manos, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable effort, the microscopic origin of the electrocaloric (EC) effect in ferroelectric relaxors is still intensely discussed. Ferroelectric relaxors typically display a dual-peak EC effect, whose origin is uncertain. Here we present an exact statistical mechanical matrix treatment of a lattice model of polar nanoregions forming in a neutral background and use this approach to study the characteristics of the EC effect in ferroelectric relaxors under varying electric field and pressure. The dual peaks seen in the EC properties of ferroelectric relaxors are due to the formation and ordering of polar nanoregions. The model predicts significant enhancement of the EC temperature rise with pressure which may have some contribution to the giant EC effect.

  10. Effect of various lanthanum sol-gel coatings on the 330Cb (Fe-35Ni-18Cr-1Nb-2Si) oxidation at 900 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscail, H., E-mail: buscail@iut.u-clermont1.fr [Clermont Universite- LVEEM, 8 rue J.B. Fabre, BP 219, 43006 Le Puy en Velay (France); Issartel, C.; Riffard, F.; Rolland, R.; Perrier, S. [Clermont Universite- LVEEM, 8 rue J.B. Fabre, BP 219, 43006 Le Puy en Velay (France); Fleurentin, A. [CETIM, 52 av Felix Louat, BP 80067, 60304 Senlis (France); Josse, C. [L' ICB UMR5209 CNRS, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2011-11-01

    The influence of a lanthanum sol-gel coating on the oxide scale adherence has been studied during the 330Cb (Fe-35Ni-18Cr-1Nb-2Si) oxidation at 900 deg. C, in air. The alloy oxidation is performed in order to generate a protective chromia scale acting as a good barrier against carburization. Argon annealing of lanthanum sol-gel coatings have been performed at various temperatures in order to find the best conditions to insure the scale adherence. Kinetic results show that lanthanum sol-gel coatings lead to a lower oxidation rate compared to blank specimens. Thermal cycling tests on lanthanum the sol-gel coated specimen show that the oxide scale formed at 900 deg. C, in air, is adherent.

  11. Electrochemical properties of lanthanum nitride with calcium nitride additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesunova, R.P.; Fishman, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the electrochemical properties of lanthanum nitride with calcium nitride added. The lanthanum nitride was obtained by nitriding metallic lanthanum at 870 K in an ammonia stream. The product contained Cl, Pr, Nd, Sm, Fe, Ca, Cu, Mo, Mg, Al, Si, and Be. The calcium nitride was obtained by nitriding metallic calcium in a nitrogen stream. The conductivity on the LaN/C 3 N 2 system components are shown as a function of temperature. A table shows the solid solutions to be virtually electronic conductors and the lanthanum nitride a mixed conductor

  12. Properties of lanthanum hexaboride a compilation

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, D J

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanum hexaboride is useful because it possesses a high melting point (2210C), a low work function, one of the highest known electron emissivities, and is stable in vacuum. This volume summarises the extant data on the properties of this material, including the: bulk modulus, conductivity, crystal structure, Debye temperature, defect structure, elastic constants, electronic structure, emissivity, Fermi surface, hardness, heat capacity, magnetoresistance, reflectivity, resistivity, specific heat, surface structure, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric power, toughness and work function. The

  13. Preparation and characterization of perovskite structure lanthanum gallate and lanthanum aluminate based oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuai

    2009-01-01

    The present work was initiated to study the synthesis and properties of lanthanum gallate based oxides as intermediate temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells. The wet chemical method, polymer complexing route, was used to prepare the precursor powders. To further investigate the polymer complexing method, it was also applied to the preparation of lanthanum aluminate based oxides.   Single perovskite phase La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 can be prepared by the polymer complexing meth...

  14. Effects of polyaluminum chloride and lanthanum-modified bentonite on the growth rates of three Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, Fabiana; van Oosterhout, Frank; Becker, Vanessa; Attayde, José Luiz; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical lakes, eutrophication often leads to nuisance blooms of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. In laboratory experiments, we tested the combined effects of flocculant polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and lanthanum-modified bentonite (LMB) on the sinking and growth rates of three C.

  15. Aging and Barkhausen Noise in the Relaxor Ferroelectric SBN:La and PMN/PT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lambert K.; Colla, Eugene V.; Weissman, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics form a diverse class of materials which exhibit frequency-dependent freezing into a disordered state. The relation to other cooperative glassy freezing, such as in spin glasses, remain uncertain. Previous aging investigations on several relaxors already indicate diverse behavior (E.V. Colla phet al., Phys. Rev. B 63, 134107 (2001)). We present results on aging behavior on PMN/PT (90/10) and SBN:La. SBN:La, believed to fit a random-field Ising model, exhibits complicated aging behavior with a low-temperature regime lacking the memory effects characteristic of spin-glass-like aging seen in the perovskites PMN and PMN/PT. Further information on the glassy freezing is provided via Barkhausen noise experiments using a balanced capacitance bridge technique capable of measuring random noise despite a large systematic background signal [E.V. Colla phet al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 017601 (2002).].

  16. Fast polarization mechanisms in the uniaxial tungsten-bronze relaxor strontium barium niobate SBN-81

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Kempa, Martin; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Bednyakov, Petr; Hlinka, Jiří; Dec, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Dec (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 18034. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09142S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15014 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * tungsten-bronzes * dielectric response * phonons * broad-band spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  17. Origin of dielectric relaxor behavior in PVDF-based copolymer and terpolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Osti, Naresh C.; Jalarvo, Niina; Misture, Scott T.; Diallo, Souleymane Omar; Mamontov, Eugene; Luo, Y.; Keum, Jong-Kahk; Littrell, Ken

    2018-04-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit frequency-dispersion of their dielectric permittivity peak as a function of temperature, the origin of which has been widely debated. Microscopic understanding of such behavior for polymeric ferroelectrics has presented new challenges since unlike traditional ceramic ferroelectrics, dielectric relaxation in polymers is a consequence of short-range molecular dynamics that are difficult to measure directly. Here, through careful analysis of atomic-level H-atom dynamics as determined by Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS), we show that short-range molecular dynamics within crystalline domains cannot explain the macroscopic frequency-dispersion of dielectric properties observed in prototypical polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF)-based relaxor ferroelectrics. Instead, from multiscale quantitative microstructural characterization, a clear correlation between the amount of crystalline-amorphous interfaces and dielectric relaxation is observed, which indicates that such interfaces play a central role. These results provide critical insights into the role of atomic and microscopic structures towards relaxor behavior in ferroelectric polymers, which will be important for their future design.

  18. Origin of dielectric relaxor behavior in PVDF-based copolymer and terpolymer films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Pramanick

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor ferroelectrics exhibit frequency-dispersion of their dielectric permittivity peak as a function of temperature, the origin of which has been widely debated. Microscopic understanding of such behavior for polymeric ferroelectrics has presented new challenges since unlike traditional ceramic ferroelectrics, dielectric relaxation in polymers is a consequence of short-range molecular dynamics that are difficult to measure directly. Here, through careful analysis of atomic-level H-atom dynamics as determined by Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS, we show that short-range molecular dynamics within crystalline domains cannot explain the macroscopic frequency-dispersion of dielectric properties observed in prototypical polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF-based relaxor ferroelectrics. Instead, from multiscale quantitative microstructural characterization, a clear correlation between the amount of crystalline-amorphous interfaces and dielectric relaxation is observed, which indicates that such interfaces play a central role. These results provide critical insights into the role of atomic and microscopic structures towards relaxor behavior in ferroelectric polymers, which will be important for their future design.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations for describing the ferroelectric-relaxor crossover in BaTiO3-based solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padurariu, Leontin; Enachescu, Cristian; Mitoseriu, Liliana

    2011-01-01

    The properties induced by the M 4+ addition (M = Zr, Sn, Hf) in BaM x Ti 1-x O 3 solid solutions have been described on the basis of a 2D Ising-like network and Monte Carlo calculations, in which BaMO 3 randomly distributed unit cells were considered as being non-ferroelectric. The polarization versus temperature dependences when increasing the M 4+ concentration (x) showed a continuous reduction of the remanent polarization and of the critical temperature corresponding to the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and a modification from a first-order to a second-order phase transition with a broad temperature range for which the transition takes place, as commonly reported for relaxors. The model also describes the system's tendency to reduce the polar clusters' average size while increasing their stability in time at higher temperatures above the Curie range, when a ferroelectric-relaxor crossover is induced by increasing the substitution (x). The equilibrium micropolar states during the polarization reversal process while describing the P(E) loops were comparatively monitored for the ferroelectric (x = 0) and relaxor (x = 0.3) states. Polarization reversal in relaxor compositions proceeds by the growth of several nucleated domains (the 'labyrinthine domain pattern') instead of the large scale domain formation typical for the ferroelectric state. The spatial and temporal evolution of the polar clusters in BaM x Ti 1-x O 3 solid solutions at various x has also been described by the correlation length and correlation time. As expected for the ferroelectric-relaxor crossover characterized by a progressive increasing degree of disorder, local fluctuations cause a reducing correlation time when the substitution degree increases, at a given temperature. The correlation time around the Curie temperature increases, reflecting the increasing stability in time of some polar nanoregions in relaxors in comparison with ferroelectrics, which was experimentally proved in

  20. Lanthanum trilactate: Vibrational spectroscopic study - infrared/Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, M.; Novák, Vít; Bartůněk, V.; Člupek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 87, Nov (2016), s. 123-128 ISSN 0924-2031 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lanthanum trilactate * tris(2-hydroxypropanoato-O1,O2) * lanthanum tris[2-(hydroxy-kappa O)propanoato-kappa O] * Raman spectra * infrared spectra * DFT Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.740, year: 2016

  1. Bio-accumulation of lanthanum from lanthanum modified bentonite treatments in lake restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, G.; Van Oosterhout, F.; Lürling, M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) is one of the available mitigating agents used for the reduction of the phosphorus (P) recycling in eutrophic lakes. The potential toxicity of the La from LMB to aquatic organisms is a matter of concern. In this study the accumulation of La was

  2. Modification of TiO2 nanoparticles through lanthanum doping and PEG templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Milanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure and lanthanum doped titania nanopowders were synthesized through a room temperature sol-gel method using a template of polyethylene glycol (PEG. The progress of the synthesis in terms of phase formation and size of nanoparticles was monitored by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM analysis. After calcination at 450 °C in air, the results have shown the presence of small particles crystallized predominantly in the form of anatase phase, with significant agglomeration. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements confirmed that all prepared powders are mesoporous with an average pore diameter in range 3.1–3.8 nm. The addition of lanthanum ions leads to the nanopowders with the highest specific surface (BET area (203 m2/g. The obtained powders were compared to TiO2 prepared without a template.

  3. Chemical approach to neutral-ionic valence instability, quantum phase transition, and relaxor ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kumai, Reiji; Okimoto, Yoichi; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Neutral-ionic (NI) phase transition is a reversible switching of organic charge-transfer complexes between distinct valence states by external stimuli. This phase transformation in the low-dimensional system is demonstrated to provide a variety of novel dielectric, structural, and electronic properties. Importantly, ionization of the electron donor-acceptor pairs is usually accompanied by a ferroelectric or antiferroelectric order of the molecular lattice, leading to huge dielectric response near the transition point. Although these characteristics are potentially useful for future electronic and optical applications, the thermally accessible NI transition (TINIT) is still an extremely rare case. The TINIT compounds including some new materials are overviewed in order to provide convenient guides to their design and experimental identifications. The phase transition and dielectric properties can be closely controlled in various ways depending on chemical and physical modifications of the crystals. Among them, a quantum phase transition and relaxor ferroelectricity, both of which are currently attracting subjects from both scientific and practical perspectives, are highlighted as the first achievements in organic charge-transfer complexes

  4. Effect of La doping on the ferroic order in Pb-based perovskite-type relaxor ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, B. J.; Welsch, A.-M.; Mihailova, B.; Angel, R. J.; Zhao, J.; Paulmann, C.; Engel, J. M.; Marshall, W. G.; Gospodinov, M.; Petrova, D.; Bismayer, U.

    2011-04-01

    The structural alteration induced by the substitution of three-valent cations with an isotropic electronic outermost shell for Pb2+ in perovskite-type relaxors was investigated in the solid solutions Pb1-xLaxSc(1+x)/2Ta(1-x)/2O3, x =0.08 (PST-La) and Pb1-xLaxSc(1+x)/2Nb(1-x)/2O3, x =0.23 (PSN-La). In order to distinguish the “charge” effects from “strain” effects associated with the incorporation of La3+ in the structure, Sr-containing PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 was characterized as well. The structure of the compounds was analyzed by in situ Raman spectroscopy, single-crystal x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction at different temperatures or pressures. It is shown that the embedding of La3+ strongly affects the ferroic structural species due to strain effects through a disturbance of the system of lone-pair electrons associated with Pb2+ and a decrease in the tolerance factor. La doping suppresses the dynamical coupling between off-centered Pb and B-site cations and enhances antiphase BO6 octahedral tilting which, depending on the level of doping, may lead to long-range order of antiphase BO6 tilts at ambient conditions and frustrated antiferroelectric order of Pb ions at low temperatures.

  5. Revised energy levels of singly ionized lanthanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzelçimen, Feyza; Tonka, Mehdi; Uddin, Zaheer; Bhatti, Naveed Anjum; Windholz, Laurentius; Kröger, Sophie; Başar, Gönül

    2018-05-01

    Based on the experimental wavenumbers of 344 spectral lines from calibrated Fourier transform (FT) spectra as well as wavenumbers of 81 lines from the wavelength tables from literature, the energy of 115 fine structure levels of singly ionized lanthanum has been revised by weighted global fits. The classifications of the lines are provided by numerous previous investigations of lanthanum by different spectroscopic methods and authors. For the high accurate determination of the center of gravity wavenumbers from the experimental spectrum, the hyperfine constants of the involved levels have been taken into account, if possible. For the 94 levels with known hyperfine constants the accuracy of energy values is better than 0.01 cm-1. For 34 levels the magnetic dipole hyperfine constants A have been determined from FT spectra as part of this work. For four of these 34 levels even electric quadrupole hyperfine constants B could be estimated. For levels, which have experimentally unknown hyperfine constants and which are connected only by lines not found in the FT spectra but taken from literature, the uncertainties of energy values are about a factor of 10 higher. A list of all revised level energies together with a compilation of hyperfine structure data is given as well as a list of all lines used.

  6. Lanthanum deposition corresponds to white lesions in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-23

    Although lanthanum deposition in the stomach has been most frequently reported to occur as white lesions, no study has investigated whether the white lesions observed during esophagogastroduodenoscopy are truly lanthanum-related. Here, we retrospectively investigated the amount of lanthanum in endoscopic biopsy specimens. We reviewed four patients showing gastric white spots or annular whitish mucosa in the gastric white lesions (Bw) and peripheral mucosa where the white substance was not endoscopically observed (Bp) during biopsy. We also reviewed three patients with diffuse whitish mucosa and three patients with no whitish lesions. We performed scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to quantify the lanthanum elements (wt%) in the biopsy specimens. The amount of lanthanum in the Bw ranged from 0.15-0.31 wt%, whereas that of Bp was 0.00-0.13 wt%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum in the Bw, endoscopically presented with white spots or annular whitish mucosa, was significantly higher than that of no whitish lesions (0.05-0.14 wt%, P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum was also higher in the diffuse whitish mucosa (0.21-0.23 wt%) compared with no whitish lesions (P < 0.01). This study is the first to reveal that pathological lanthanum deposition corresponds to the endoscopically observed white lesions in the gastric mucosa. Therefore, during esophagogastroduodenoscopy, physicians should pay attention to possible presence of white lesions in patients treated with oral lanthanum carbonate to ensure prompt identification of associated issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of non-stoichiometric lanthanum sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, E.; Danielson, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The lanthanum sulfides are promising candidate materials for high-efficiency thermoelectric applications at temperatures up to 1300 0 C. The nonstoichiometric lanthanum sulfides (LaS /SUB x/ , where 1.33 2 //rho/ can be chosen. The thermal conductivity remains approximately constant with stoichiometry, so a material with an optimum value of α 2 //rho/ should possess the optimum figure-of-merit. Data for the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of non-stoichiometric lanthanum sulfides is presented, together with structural properties of these materials

  8. Advantages and Challenges of Relaxor-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals for Electroacoustic Transducers- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Jinwook; Luo, Jun; Geng, Xuecang

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) based ferroelectric crystals with the perovskite structure have been investigated over the last few decades due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients (d33 > 1500 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 90%), far outperforming state-of-the-art ferroelectric polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics, and are at the forefront of advanced electroacoustic applications. In this review, the performance merits of relaxor-PT crystals in various electroacoustic devices are presented from a piezoelectric material viewpoint. Opportunities come from not only the ultrahigh properties, specifically coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, but through novel vibration modes and crystallographic/domain engineering. Figure of merits (FOMs) of crystals with various compositions and phases were established for various applications, including medical ultrasonic transducers, underwater transducers, acoustic sensors and tweezers. For each device application, recent developments in relaxor-PT ferroelectric crystals were surveyed and compared with state-of-the-art polycrystalline piezoelectrics, with an emphasis on their strong anisotropic features and crystallographic uniqueness, including engineered domain - property relationships. This review starts with an introduction on electroacoustic transducers and the history of piezoelectric materials. The development of the high performance relaxor-PT single crystals, with a focus on their uniqueness in transducer applications, is then discussed. In the third part, various FOMs of piezoelectric materials for a wide range of ultrasound applications, including diagnostic ultrasound, therapeutic ultrasound, underwater acoustic and passive sensors, tactile sensors and acoustic tweezers, are evaluated to provide a thorough understanding of the materials’ behavior under operational conditions. Structure-property-performance relationships are then established. Finally, the impacts and challenges of relaxor

  9. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery, crystal growth

  10. Preparation of lanthanum sulfide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of lanthanum complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peisen; LI Huanyong; JIE Wanqi

    2011-01-01

    γ-La2S3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of lanthanum complex La(Et2S2CN)3·phen at low temperature. The obtained sample was characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and element analysis. The decomposition mechanism of lanthanum complex was studied by thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The results showed that the obtained samples were cubic phase particles with uniform sizes among 10-30 nm and γ-La2S3 was prepared by decomposition of La(Et2S2CN)3 phen via La4(Et2S2CN)3 as an intermediate product. The band gap of γ-La2S3 was 2.97 eV, which was bigger than bulk crystal because of pronounced quantum confinement effect.

  11. Lanthanum additions and the toughness of ultra-high strength steels and the determination of appropriate lanthanum additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, Warren M.; Maloney, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of commercial heats of AF1410 steel suggest that under appropriate conditions additions of rare-earth elements can significantly enhance fracture toughness. This improvement in toughness is not due to an extremely low inclusion volume fraction but is apparently due to the formation of larger and more widely spaced inclusions. The purpose of this work is to discuss our experience in using rare-earth additions to laboratory scale vacuum induction melted and subsequently vacuum arc remelted heats of ultra-high strength steels to achieve inclusion distributions similar to those observed in commercial heats modified with lanthanum additions. The results indicate that lanthanum additions of 0.015 wt.% to low sulfur steels which have been well deoxidized using carbon-vacuum deoxidation can result in lanthanum rich inclusions which are similar in size, volume fraction and spacing to those obtained in commercially produced heats of ultra-high strength steel to which lanthanum has been added. The heat of steel to which lanthanum additions of 0.015 wt.% were made had significantly higher toughness than did the heat of the same steel in which the sulfur had been gettered as small and closely spaced particles of MnS and which had an inclusion volume fraction similar to that of the heat modified by the addition of 0.015 wt.% lanthanum. This improvement in toughness was attributed to an increase in inclusion spacing. An addition of 0.06 wt.% lanthanum was excessive. Such an addition of lanthanum resulted in a huge volume fraction of large cuboidal inclusions which primarily contain lanthanum and oxygen and which are extremely detrimental to toughness

  12. High-resolution 2-D Bragg diffraction reveal heterogeneous domain transformation behavior in a bulk relaxor ferroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanick, Abhijit, E-mail: apramani@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Stoica, Alexandru D.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    In-situ measurement of fine-structure of neutron Bragg diffraction peaks from a relaxor single-crystal using a time-of-flight instrument reveals highly heterogeneous mesoscale domain transformation behavior under applied electric fields. It is observed that only ∼25% of domains undergo reorientation or phase transition contributing to large average strains, while at least 40% remain invariant and exhibit microstrains. Such insights could be central for designing new relaxor materials with better performance and longevity. The current experimental technique can also be applied to resolve complex mesoscale phenomena in other functional materials.

  13. Cerium doped lanthanum halides: fast scintillators for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selles, O.

    2006-12-01

    This work is dedicated to two recently discovered scintillating crystals: cerium doped lanthanum halides (LaCl 3 :Ce 3+ and LaBr 3 :Ce 3+ ).These scintillators exhibit interesting properties for gamma detection, more particularly in the field of medical imaging: a short decay time, a high light yield and an excellent energy resolution. The strong hygroscopicity of these materials requires adapting the usual experimental methods for determining physico-chemical properties. Once determined, these can be used for the development of the industrial manufacturing process of the crystals. A proper comprehension of the scintillation mechanism and of the effect of defects within the material lead to new possible ways for optimizing the scintillator performance. Therefore, different techniques are used (EPR, radioluminescence, laser excitation, thermally stimulated luminescence). Alongside Ce 3+ ions, self-trapped excitons are involved in the scintillation mechanism. Their nature and their role are detailed. The knowledge of the different processes involved in the scintillation mechanism leads to the prediction of the effect of temperature and doping level on the performance of the scintillator. A mechanism is proposed to explain the thermally stimulated luminescence processes that cause slow components in the light emission and a loss of light yield. Eventually the study of afterglow reveals a charge transfer to deep traps involved in the high temperature thermally stimulated luminescence. (author)

  14. Effect of lanthanum doping on electrical and electromechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    temperature, Tc increased with the increase of lanthanum content. ... By adding oxide group softeners, hardeners and stabi- ... pressed with 2% polyvinyl alcohol as binder under a ... study are dependent on temperature and are shown in.

  15. Influence of lanthanum distribution on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Anita [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Goyal, Parveen K., E-mail: goyalphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, ARSD College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110 021 (India); Thakur, O.P. [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 054 (India); Shukla, A.K. [Department of Physics, Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida 201301 (India); Sreenivas, K., E-mail: kondepudysreenivas@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Structural and electrical properties of Lanthanum substituted barium bismuth titanate BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) ceramics prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method have been investigated. Raman spectra reveals the distribution of lanthanum into the perovskite layers and (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers of BaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε′) increases and considerable reduction in the low frequency (10{sup −2} to 10 Hz) dielectric losses and in dc conductivity (σ{sub dc}) are seen with lanthanum substitution. A critical La content of x ∼0.20 in BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} exhibits a well-defined relaxor behavior as seen from the temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric parameters ε′(T) and ε″(T). The dielectric data fit well to the modified Curie–Weiss law and the Lorentz-type relation and show increasing diffuseness in the phase transition with increasing La content. The temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time obtained from the Cole–Cole model shows a good fit to the non-linear Vogel–Fulcher relation. Improvements in the remnant polarization and a stable piezoelectric charge coefficient are seen up to a La content of x ∼0.20. The observed increase in dielectric loss and σ{sub dc} in addition to the diminished ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties for higher La content are explained in terms of changing oxygen vacancy concentration and structural relaxation due to the preferential incorporation of La into the (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers as evidenced through the Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • La distribution in BaBi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} ceramics is analyzed through Raman spectroscopy. • Low and a nearly constant loss over wide frequency range (10{sup −2}–10{sup 7} Hz) obtained. • Critical La content x = 0.2 identified for high resistivity and ideal relaxor

  16. Adsorption of lithium-lanthanum films on W (112) face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, M.S.; Smereka, T.P.; Palyukh, B.M.; Babkin, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The method of contact potential difference is employed to study the electron adsorption properties (the work function phi and adsorption heat q) lithium films on a lanthanized W(112) surface. It is found that the work function of mixed lithium-lanthanum films is intermediate between phi of the summands. The presence of lanthanum on a W(112) face reduces the adsorption heat of lithium

  17. Pressure behaviour of the superconducting transition temperature of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glocker, R.

    1977-01-01

    The dissertation has the following chapters: 1) Introduction, 2) Fundamentals of the microscopic theory of superconductivity, 3) Calculation of the first momentum of the Eliashberg function, 4) Determination of the average values of frequency, 5) The relativistic cellular method and its application to lanthanum, 6) Results of the calculation of the electron-phonon coupling cosntants for f.c.c. lanthanum, 7) Phonon dispersion and phonon state density. (orig.) [de

  18. Phases in lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lanthanum-nickel-aluminum (LANA) alloys will be used to pump, store and separate hydrogen isotopes in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF). The aluminum content (y) of the primary LaNi 5 -phase is controlled to produce the desired pressure-temperature behavior for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen. However, secondary phases cause decreased capacity and some may cause undesirable retention of tritium. Twenty-three alloys purchased from Ergenics, Inc. for development of RTF processes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to determine the distributions and compositions of constituent phases. This memorandum reports the results of these characterization studies. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of these alloys is a useful first step in selecting materials for specific process development tests and in interpreting results of those tests. Once this information is coupled with data on hydrogen plateau pressures, retention and capacity, secondary phase limits for RTF alloys can be specified

  19. Synthesis and Stability of Lanthanum Superhydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geballe, Zachary M. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015 USA; Liu, Hanyu [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015 USA; Mishra, Ajay K. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015 USA; Permanent address: HP& SRPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-85 India; Ahart, Muhtar [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015 USA; Somayazulu, Maddury [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015 USA; Meng, Yue [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Baldini, Maria [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20015 USA; Hemley, Russell J. [Institute of Materials Science and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 USA

    2017-12-15

    Recent theoretical calculations predict that megabar pressure stabilizes very hydrogen-rich simple compounds having new clathrate-like structures and remarkable electronic properties including room-temperature superconductivity. X-ray diffraction and optical studies demonstrate that superhydrides of lanthanum can be synthesized with La atoms in an fcc lattice at 170 GPa upon heating to about 1000 K. The results match the predicted cubic metallic phase of LaH10 having cages of thirty-two hydrogen atoms surrounding each La atom. Upon decompression, the fcc-based structure undergoes a rhombohedral distortion of the La sublattice. The superhydride phases consist of an atomic hydrogen sublattice with H-H distances of about 1.1 Å, which are close to predictions for solid atomic metallic hydrogen at these pressures. With stability below 200 GPa, the superhydride is thus the closest analogue to solid atomic metallic hydrogen yet to be synthesized and characterized.

  20. High-temperature corrosion of lanthanum in equimole mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochergin, V.P.; Obozhina, R.N.; Dragoshanskaya, T.I.; Startsev, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigation into the process of lanthanum corrosion in the molted equimole NaCl-KCl mixture after the change of test time, temperature and lanthanum trichloride were summarized. It was shown that polarization of lanthanum anode in equimole NaCl-KCl melt is controlled by La 3+ diffusion from near-electrode layer to electrolyte depth, which results in decrease of corrosion rate in time. The established electrochemical properties of metallic lanthanum in equimole NaCl-KCl mixture must be considered when improving the technology of electrochemical production of lanthanum or its alloys of molten chlorides of lanthanum and alkaline metals

  1. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, S.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.; Stokes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  2. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60% near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB. Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.

  3. Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi2O3-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K; Sreenivas, K

    2009-03-01

    Bi2O3-doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba1-xBix(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3, have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi3+ substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi3+ content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi3+ ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

  4. Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi2O3-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K; Sreenivas, K

    2009-01-01

    Bi 2 O 3 -doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba 1-x Bi x (Zr 0.05 Ti 0.95 )O 3 , have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi 3+ substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi 3+ content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi 3+ ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

  5. Kinetics of Domain Switching by Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation in Relaxor-Based Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zibin; Hong, Liang; Wang, Feifei; An, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaolin; Ringer, Simon; Chen, Long-Qing; Luo, Haosu; Liao, Xiaozhou

    2017-12-01

    Ferroelectric materials have been extensively explored for applications in high-density nonvolatile memory devices because of their ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain-switching behavior under electric loading or mechanical stress. However, the existence of ferroelectric and ferroelastic backswitching would cause significant data loss, which affects the reliability of data storage. Here, we apply in situ transmission electron microscopy and phase-field modeling to explore the unique ferroelastic domain-switching kinetics and the origin of this in relaxor-based Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-33 % PbTiO3 single-crystal pillars under electrical and mechanical stimulations. Results showed that the electric-mechanical hysteresis loop shifted for relaxor-based single-crystal pillars because of the low energy levels of domains in the material and the constraint on the pillars, resulting in various mechanically reversible and irreversible domain-switching states. The phenomenon can potentially be used for advanced bit writing and reading in nonvolatile memories, which effectively overcomes the backswitching problem and broadens the types of ferroelectric materials for nonvolatile memory applications.

  6. Study of lanthanum aluminate for cost effective electrolyte material for SOFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, O. N.; Shahi, A. K.; Singh, P.

    2018-05-01

    The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 (abbreviated LAO) has been prepared by easy processing of auto-combustion synthesis using lanthanum nitrate and aluminium nitrate salts as precursors and citric acid as the fuel. The XRD analysis reveals that as synthesized material exhibits only single phase having rhombohedral structure. The measured density and theoretical density have been deliberated. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity of LAO increases with increasing the temperature which leads to increased mobility of oxide ion. The major contribution of such a significant value of ionic conductivity of LAO can be inferred to grain boundary resistance.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Carbonate Octahydrate for the Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a new approach to prepare lanthanum carbonate via reactions between lanthanum chloride and NaHCO3. In the reaction, small amount of NaHCO3 solution was firstly added to the acidic lanthanum chloride solution to generate lanthanum carbonate nuclei and then NaHCO3 is added to the lanthanum chloride at a constant speed. This approach makes both precipitation reaction and neutralization reaction take place simultaneously. Consequently, lanthanum carbonate is produced at low pH environment (pH below 4.0 so that the risk of generating lanthanum carbonate hydroxide is reduced. The product of the above reaction is validated by EDTA titration, elemental analysis, and XRD characterization. In addition, we established a FTIR spectroscopic method to identify La(OHCO3 from La2(CO32·8H2O. Lanthanum carbonate exhibits considerable ability to bind phosphate.

  8. Mechanical properties of dense to porous alumina/lanthanum hexaaluminate composite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negahdari, Zahra; Willert-Porada, Monika; Pfeiffer, Carolin

    2010-01-01

    For development of new composite materials based on lanthanum hexaaluminate and alumina ceramics, a better understanding of the microstructure-properties relationship is essential. In this paper, attention was focused on the evaluation of mechanical properties of lanthanum hexaaluminate/alumina particulate composite. It was found out that the lanthanum hexaaluminate content plays a critical role in determination of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite ceramics. In situ formation of plate-like lanthanum hexaaluminate in the ceramic matrix was accompanied with formation of pores so that the microstructure shifted from dense to porous. Increasing the lanthanum hexaaluminate content up to a certain value enhanced the fracture toughness, increased the hardness, and increased the elastic modulus of the composite materials. Further increase in the lanthanum hexaaluminate content degraded the hardness as well as the elastic modulus of composite ceramics. The influence of lanthanum hexaaluminate on mechanical properties was described by means of microstructure, porosity, and intrinsic characteristics of lanthanum hexaaluminate.

  9. Tetragonal and rhombohedral induced polar order from the relaxor state of PbZn sub 1 sub / sub 3 Nb sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Lebon, A; Calvarin, G

    2003-01-01

    Structural and dielectric characterizations of the relaxor ferroelectric PbZn sub 1 sub / sub 3 Nb sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3 (PZN) were carried out on single crystals in the temperature range of the dielectric anomaly (370 K = 1.5 kV cm sup - sup 1. The microscopic origin of these PNRs can be discussed in relation with recent nuclear magnetic resonance and structural results reported in other isomorphous relaxors.

  10. Mechanical properties of lanthanum and yttrium chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, S.W.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In an operating high-temperature (1000{degrees}C) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the interconnect separates the fuel (P(O{sub 2}){approx}10{sup -16} atm) and the oxidant (P(O2){approx}10{sup 0.2} atm), while being electrically conductive and connecting the cells in series. Such severe atmospheric and thermal demands greatly reduce the number of viable candidate materials. Only two materials, acceptor substituted lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite, meet these severe requirements. In acceptor substituted chromites (Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} for La{sup 3+}), charge compensation is primarily electronic in oxidizing conditions (through the formation of Cr{sup 4+}). Under reducing conditions, ionic charge compensation becomes significant as the lattice becomes oxygen deficient. The formation of oxygen vacancies is accompanied by the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} ions to Cr{sup 3+} and a resultant lattice expansion. The lattice expansion observed in large chemical potential gradients is not desirable and has been found to result in greatly reduced mechanical strength.

  11. Synthesis and stability of lanthanum superhydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geballe, Zachary M.; Liu, Hanyu; Mishra, Ajay K.; Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Baldini, Maria [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Meng, Yue [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, IL (United States); Hemley, Russell J. [Institute of Materials Science and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Recent theoretical calculations predict that megabar pressure stabilizes very hydrogen-rich simple compounds having new clathrate-like structures and remarkable electronic properties including room-temperature superconductivity. X-ray diffraction and optical studies demonstrate that superhydrides of lanthanum can be synthesized with La atoms in an fcc lattice at 170 GPa upon heating to about 1000 K. The results match the predicted cubic metallic phase of LaH{sub 10} having cages of thirty-two hydrogen atoms surrounding each La atom. Upon decompression, the fcc-based structure undergoes a rhombohedral distortion of the La sublattice. The superhydride phases consist of an atomic hydrogen sublattice with H-H distances of about 1.1 Aa, which are close to predictions for solid atomic metallic hydrogen at these pressures. With stability below 200 GPa, the superhydride is thus the closest analogue to solid atomic metallic hydrogen yet to be synthesized and characterized. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Optical and photoemission studies of lanthanum hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, D.J.; Peterson, D.T.; Weaver, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of optical absorptivity and photoemission measurements on lanthanum hydrides, LaH/sub x/ (1.98 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 2.89) are reported. The low energy (hν less than or equal to 0.5 eV) optical features in LaH/sub x/ are attributed to the filling of octahedral sites. Higher energy interband absorption involves states within the d-band complex, analogous to other dihydrides. As x increases above 2.0, the optical features change rapidly due to the increase in the number of occupied octahedral sites. Various band structure studies suggest that LaH 3 might be a semiconductor. Photoemission results show that as x increases, the d-derived states at E/sub F/ are drawn down and that for LaH 2 89 only very weak valence band emission is observed. The hydrogen-derived bonding bands are shown centered approx. 5 eV below E/sub F/. Observed chemical shifts in the La 5p/sub 1/2 3/2/ cores are discussed for 1.98 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 2.89

  13. Origin of the "waterfall" effect in phonon dispersion of relaxor perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlinka, J; Kamba, S; Petzelt, J; Kulda, J; Randall, C A; Zhang, S J

    2003-09-05

    We have undertaken an inelastic neutron scattering study of the perovskite relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3 with 8% PbTiO3 (PZN-8%PT) in order to elucidate the origin of the previously reported unusual kink on the low frequency transverse phonon dispersion curve (known as the "waterfall effect"). We show that its position (q(wf)) depends on the choice of the Brillouin zone and that the relation of q(wf) to the size of the polar nanoregions is highly improbable. The waterfall phenomenon is explained in the framework of a simple model of coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the acoustic and optic phonon branches.

  14. Origin of the "Waterfall" Effect in Phonon Dispersion of Relaxor Perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Hlinka, J.; Kamba, S.; Petzelt, J.; Kulda, J.; Randall, C. A.; Zhang, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have undertaken an inelastic neutron scattering study of the perovskite relaxor ferroelectric \\ud P\\ud b\\ud (\\ud Z\\ud n\\ud 1\\ud /\\ud 3\\ud N\\ud b\\ud 2\\ud /\\ud 3\\ud )\\ud O\\ud 3\\ud with 8% \\ud P\\ud b\\ud T\\ud i\\ud O\\ud 3\\ud (PZN-8%PT) in order to elucidate the origin of the previously reported unusual kink on the low frequency transverse phonon dispersion curve (known as the “waterfall effect”). We show that its position (\\ud q\\ud w\\ud f\\ud ) depends on the choice of the Brillouin zone and tha...

  15. Determination of main components in lanthanum titanates blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizonenko, T.N.; Timchenko, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Conditions for complexonometric determination of lanthanum in the presence of titanium using the disguising of the latter are studied. A method is suggested for lanthanum and titanium determination in a blend of lanthanum titanate which is used to grow monocrystals. Sulfosalicylic acid is chosen as a disguising agent. La has been determined by complexonometric titration using EDTA with xylenol orange in urotropin. The total contents of La and Ti have been determined by titration of EDTA excess with standard solution of zinc sulfate. Ti content has been calculated from the difference between the first two determinations. Reproducibility of Ti and La determination in the blend (n=21) is characterized by the following: at 19.73% La and 57.21% Ti there are (19.72+-0.16)% La and (57.10+-0.22)% Ti, Sr equals 0.0071 and 0.0034, respectively

  16. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  17. Functionalization of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires by atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mi; Yuan Jinying; Yuan Weizhong; Yin Yingwu; Hong Xiaoyin

    2007-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been used to prepare a core-shell hybrid nanostructure successfully: a hard core of single-crystalline lanthanum hydroxide nanowires and a soft shell of polystyrene (PS) brushes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicated that the resulting products presented special structures and different thicknesses of polymer layers. The chemical components and grafted PS quantities of the samples were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The polymers showed narrow polydispersity, which proved that the lanthanum hydroxide nanowires initiated the 'living'/controlled polymerization of styrene. With the modifiability of lanthanum hydroxide nanowires, the solubility increased, which affords a new way to functionalize nanowires

  18. Calcium and lanthanum solid base catalysts for transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.

    2015-07-28

    In one aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium hydroxide and lanthanum hydroxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises a calcium compound and a lanthanum compound, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g, and a total basicity of about 13.6 mmol/g. In further another aspect, a heterogeneous catalyst comprises calcium oxide and lanthanum oxide, wherein the catalyst has a specific surface area of more than about 10 m.sup.2/g. In still another aspect, a process for preparing a catalyst comprises introducing a base precipitant, a neutral precipitant, and an acid precipitant to a solution comprising a first metal ion and a second metal ion to form a precipitate. The process further comprises calcining the precipitate to provide the catalyst.

  19. Multidimensional dynamic piezoresponse measurements. Unraveling local relaxation behavior in relaxor-ferroelectrics via big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, Rama K.; Zhang, Shujun; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Bassiri-Gharb, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Compositional and charge disorder in ferroelectric relaxors lies at the heart of the unusual properties of these systems, such as aging and non-ergodicity, polarization rotations, and a host of temperature and field-driven phase transitions. However, much information about the field-dynamics of the polarization in the prototypical ferroelectric relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3-x PbTiO 3 (PMN-xPT) remains unprobed at the mesoscopic level. We use a piezoresponse force microscopy-based dynamic multimodal relaxation spectroscopy technique, enabling the study of ferroelectric switching and polarization relaxation at mesoscopic length scales, and carry out measurements on a PMN-0.28PT sample with minimal polishing. Results indicate that beyond a threshold DC bias the average relaxation increases as the system attempts to relax to the previous state. Phenomenological fitting reveals the presence of mesoscale heterogeneity in relaxation amplitudes and clearly suggests the presence of two distinct amplitudes. Independent component analysis reveals the presence of a disorder component of the relaxation, which is found to be strongly anti-correlated with the maximum piezoresponse at that location, suggesting smaller disorder effects where the polarization reversal is large and vice versa. The disorder in the relaxation amplitudes is postulated to arise from rhombohedral and field-induced tetragonal phase in the crystal, with each phase associated with its own relaxation amplitude. As a result, these studies highlight the crucial importance of the mixture of ferroelectric phases in the compositions in proximity of the morphotropic phase boundary in governing the local response and further highlight the ability of PFM voltage and time spectroscopies, in conjunction with big-data multivariate analyses, to locally map disorder and correlate it with parameters governing the dynamic behavior

  20. Improvement of acid and base resistance of nickel phosphate pigment by the addition of lanthanum cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hironori; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal phosphates are used as inorganic pigments, however these materials had a weak point for acid and base resistance. Because lanthanum phosphate is insoluble in acidic and basic solution, the addition of lanthanum cation was tried for the improvement of the acid and base resistance of nickel phosphate pigment. The lanthanum-doped nickel phosphates were prepared from phosphoric acid, nickel nitrate, and lanthanum nitrate solution. The additional effects of lanthanum cation were studied on the chemical composition, particle shape and size distribution, specific surface area, color, acid and base resistance of the precipitations and their thermal products

  1. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum incorporated mesoporous molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesquera, C.; Gonzalez, F.; Blanco, C.; Sanchez, L.

    2004-01-01

    A series of mesoporous materials under reflux conditions have been synthesized with two silicon sources (fumed silica and sodium silicate) and lanthanum added. The following Si/La molar ratio was used in the samples: 100; 75; 50 and 25. The calcined products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption isotherms and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The BET surface area gradually decreases with an increase in the lanthanum content of the LaxMCM-41 samples. Moreover, the average pore size tends to decrease along with the increase in the La content in the samples

  2. SOFT MODE ANOMALIES IN THE PEROVSKITE RELAXOR Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEHRING, P.M.; VAKRUSHEV, S.B.; SHIRANE, G.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the polar TO phonon mode in the cubic relaxor Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 , at room temperature, reveal anomalous behavior similar to that recently observed in Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.92 Ti 0.08 O 3 in which the optic branch appears to drop precipitously into the acoustic branch at a finite value of the momentum transfer q = 0.2 angstrom -1 , measured from the zone center. By contrast, a recent neutron study indicates that PMN exhibits a normal TO phonon dispersion at 800 K. The authors speculate this behavior is common to all relaxor materials, and is the result of the presence of nanometer-scale polarized domains in the crystal that form below a temperature T d , which effectively prevent the propagation of long wavelength (q = 0) phonons

  3. Relaxor-like behavior of BaTiO.sub.3./sub. crystals from acoustic emission study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dul´kin, E.; Petzelt, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav; Mojaev, E.; Roth, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2010), 032903/1-032903/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0616; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * acoustic emission * phase transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2010

  4. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of Ba(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub.: dynamics of relaxors and diffuse ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Savinov, Maxim; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Hlinka, Jiří; Canu, G.; Buscaglia, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 469, č. 1 (2014), s. 14-25 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * diffuse phase transition * dielectric dispersion * polar phonons * local ion hopping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2014

  5. DFT Studies on Interaction between Lanthanum and Hydroxyamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anindita; Kundu, T. K.; Pal, Snehanshu

    2018-03-01

    Extraction and separation of individual rare earth elements has been a challenge as they are chemically very similar. Solvent extraction is the most suitable way for extraction of rare earth elements. Acidic, basic, neutral, chelating are the major classes of extractants for solvent extraction of rare earth elements. The coordination complex of chelating extractants is very selective with positively charged metal ion. Hence they are widely used. Hydroxyamide is capable of forming chelates with metal cations. In this present study interactions of hydroxyamide ligand with lanthanum have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Two different functional such as raB97XD and B3LYP are applied along with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set for carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and SDD basis set for lanthanum. Stability of formed complexes has been evaluated based on calculated interaction energies and solvation energies. Frontier orbital (highest occupied molecular orbital or HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital or LUMO) energies of the molecule have also been calculated. Electronegativity, chemical hardness, chemical softness and chemical potential are also determined for these complexes to get an idea about the reactivity. From the partial charge distribution it is seen that oxygen atoms in hydroxyamide have higher negative charge. The double bonded oxygen atom present in the hydroxyamide structure has higher electron density and so it forms bond with lanthanum but the singly bonded oxygen atom in the hydroxyamide structure is weaker donor atom and so it is less available for interaction with lanthanum.

  6. Phase segregation in cerium-lanthanum solid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belliere, V.; Joorst, G; Stephan, O; de Groot, FMF; Weckhuysen, BM

    2006-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy ( STEM) reveals that the La enrichment at the surface of cerium-lanthanum solid solutions is an averaged effect and that segregation occurs in a mixed oxide phase. This separation occurs within a

  7. Stability constant of the lanthanum complex with humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The work described here is a study on the formation of trivalent lanthanum complex with humic acid. Commercial humic acid was purified and then characterized by various analytical techniques. The stability constant determined by a radiochemical method has a worth of log β La , AHA = 13.6. (Author)

  8. LANTHANUM STAINING OF THE SURFACE COAT OF CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Stephen M.

    1971-01-01

    Among the techniques which have been reported to stain the surface coat of cells, for electron microscopy, is lanthanum staining en bloc. Similarly, the presence of the cationic dye, Alcian blue 8GX, in a primary glutaraldehyde fixative has been reported to improve the preservation of the surface coat of cells of many types; however, the preserved coat is not very electron opaque unless thin sections are counterstained. The present paper shows that for several rat tissues lanthanum staining en bloc is an effective electron stain for the cell surface, giving excellent contrast, if combined sequentially with prefixation in an aldehyde fixative containing Alcian blue. The cationic substance cetylpyridinium chloride was found to have a similar effect to that of Alcian blue in enhancing the lanthanum staining of the surface coat material of the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. The patterns of lanthanum staining obtained for the tissues studied strikingly resemble those reported in the literature where tissues are stained by several standard methods for demonstrating mucosubstances at the ultrastructural level. This fact and the reproduction of the effect of Alcian blue by cetylpyridinium chloride constitute a persuasive empirical argument that the material visualized is a mucopolysaccharide or mucopolysaccharide-protein complex. PMID:4108476

  9. Investigation of paramagnetic saturation in lanthanum manganese nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Meijer, H.C.; Bots, G.J.C.; Verheij, W.A.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1973-01-01

    Paramagnetic saturation of lanthanum manganese nitrate, La2Mn3(NO3)12·24H2O, has been investigated at liquid He temperatures in a static as well as a dynamical way. With the aid of the molecular-field theory the Casimir and Du Pré dispersion and absorption curves are adapted explicitly to the

  10. Photoluminescence properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles as a function of lanthanum content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, R.C.; Cortés, J.A.; Ramirez, M.A.; Ponce, M.A.; Andres, J.; Rocha, L.S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • Rietveld refinement reveals a cubic structure. • KOH mineralizer agent exhibit weak agglomeration at low temperature and shorter time. - Abstract: The structural and photoluminescent properties at room temperature of CeO 2 and La-doped CeO 2 particles were undertaken. The obtained particles were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method (MAH) under different lanthanum contents. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman), Ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out. XRD revealed that the powders are free of secondary phases and crystallize in the cubic structure. Raman data show that increasing La doping content increase oxygen vacancies due to lattice expansion. The UV/vis absorption spectroscopy suggested the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap of structurally ordered powders. Lanthanum addition creates oxygen vacancies and shifts the photoluminescence in the low energy range leading to intense PL emission

  11. Photoluminescence properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles as a function of lanthanum content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, R.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Unesp —Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Bairro Pedregulho, P.O. Box 355, 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil, (Brazil); Cortés, J.A., E-mail: leandrosrr89@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Unesp —Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Bairro Pedregulho, P.O. Box 355, 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil, (Brazil); Ramirez, M.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Unesp —Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Bairro Pedregulho, P.O. Box 355, 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil, (Brazil); Ponce, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (INTEMA) (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata), Juan B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Andres, J. [Laboratório Interdisciplinar em Cerâmica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, L.S.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Unesp —Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, Bairro Pedregulho, P.O. Box 355, 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil, (Brazil); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • Rietveld refinement reveals a cubic structure. • KOH mineralizer agent exhibit weak agglomeration at low temperature and shorter time. - Abstract: The structural and photoluminescent properties at room temperature of CeO{sub 2} and La-doped CeO{sub 2} particles were undertaken. The obtained particles were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method (MAH) under different lanthanum contents. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman), Ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out. XRD revealed that the powders are free of secondary phases and crystallize in the cubic structure. Raman data show that increasing La doping content increase oxygen vacancies due to lattice expansion. The UV/vis absorption spectroscopy suggested the presence of intermediate energy levels in the band gap of structurally ordered powders. Lanthanum addition creates oxygen vacancies and shifts the photoluminescence in the low energy range leading to intense PL emission.

  12. Cationic copolymerization of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin with an spirobislactone with lanthanum triflate as initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Xavier; Ramis, Xavier; Salla, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    3,4-Epoxycyclohexylmethyl 3,4-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (ECH) was cured with different proportions of 1,6-dioxaspiro[4,4]nonane-2,7-dione (s(γ-BL)) using lanthanum triflate as a catalyst. DSC was used to obtain kinetic data associated to the curing process by means of series of non-isothermal experiments. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FT-IR/ATR) was used to study the evolution of the epoxide group in order to compare experimental isothermal data with simulated isothermal data. The complexity of the process itself enabled us to compare different procedures for obtaining isoconversional data and to determine the kinetic model that best describes the curing process. An increase in the proportion of s(γ-BL) increases the speed of the curing process. By means of applying isoconversional methods to dynamic experimental data, we observed that an increase in the proportion of s(γ-BL) leads to an overall decrease in the activation energy for the different formulations. Kinetic parameters that were determined using both differential and integral isoconversional procedures were compared. This allowed us to analyze and to discuss the usefulness of different methods in order to obtain a suitable kinetic triplet at each step of the curing of the ECH/s(γ-BL) system using lanthanum triflate as a catalyst

  13. Minimization of pyroelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals for piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanxue; Shen, Zongyang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    To minimize pyroelectric effects while keeping high piezoelectric effects in relaxor-PbTiO 3 single crystals, the crystallographic orientation dependence of the pyroelectric and piezoelectric coefficients were investigated for binary (1 − x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –xPbTiO 3 (PMN–PT), ternary (1 − x − y)Pb(In 1/2 Nb 1/2 )O 3 –yPb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –xPbTiO 3 (PIN–PMN–PT) and Mn-doped PIN–PMN–PT single crystals with the “4R” multidomain state. The secondary pyroelectric coefficients were calculated from the thermodynamic inter-relationship between the piezoelectric, elastic, and thermal expansion coefficients, being on the order of (1.16–1.23) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for binary crystals and (0.97–2.03) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for ternary ones. The primary pyroelectric coefficients were –(6.73–6.84) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 and −(5.44–6.43) × 10 −4  C m −2  K −1 for binary and ternary crystals, respectively. The pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by matrix rotation, but at the cost of decreasing longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients d 33 . Of particular interest is that the maximum piezoelectric coefficients d 24 ∗ at θ = ±55 o and d 34 ∗ at θ = ±35 o by a counterclockwise rotation of θ about the X axis (θ is the rotation angle about the coordinate axes), or d 15 ∗ at θ = ±55 o , and d 35 ∗ at θ = ±35 o by a counterclockwise rotation the Y axis, were found on the order of 3000 pC N −1 . The corresponding pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by ∼20%. The reduced pyroelectric coefficients that can contribute to decrease undesirable output signals, together with the high piezoelectric coefficients, enable relaxor-PT crystals as favorable candidates for high-sensitivity piezoelectric sensors. - Highlights: • Primary/secondary pyroelectric coefficients were determined for relaxor-PT crystals. • Pyroelectric coefficients could be reduced by

  14. Transport kinetics of hydrogen permeable lanthanum tungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Andreas

    2017-01-24

    The electrical conductivity relaxation technique is a widely used method to determine the oxygen transport parameters of mixed ionic-electronic conductors. In recent years, it has been modified to investigate the hydration behavior of proton conducting mixed conductors, giving access to up to four transport parameters in a single relaxation experiment, the diffusion coefficients and surface reaction rates of hydrogen and oxygen. In this work, the transport properties of the fluorite type protonic conductor lanthanum tungstate have been investigated by means of electrical conductivity relaxation. The experiments were performed in a temperature range from 650 C to 950 C, in a pO{sub 2} range from 3 mbar to 100 mbar and in a pH{sub 2}O range from 10 mbar to 100 mbar and in dry atmosphere. At high temperatures, the conductivity relaxation curve follows the expected two-fold non-monotonic behavior upon hydration. At low temperatures, however, the contribution of the fast hydrogen kinetic decreases and by a further decrease of the temperature, the relaxation shows two-fold monotonic behavior. The power factors - the contribution of each single fold relaxation curve to the resulting two-fold relaxation curve, which is a superposition - have been derived to explain the behavior mentioned above. The activation energy of the oxygen incorporation is rather low. Hence, oxidation experiments were performed in dry atmospheres in order to investigate if the origin of the oxygen species is relevant. The results revealed higher activation energies, which was expected, but also higher absolute values of the surface reaction rate and the diffusion coefficient. Oxidation experiments with increasing humidity revealed that the increased diffusivity cannot be attributed to the total concentrations of electron holes and proton interstitials. First experiments using spectroscopic relaxation, which is dependent on the concentration of hydroxy-anions only, were performed. Absorption bands

  15. Three-mode coupling interference patterns in the dynamic structure factor of a relaxor ferroelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Sahul, R.; Stonaha, P. J.; Budai, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    A longstanding controversy for relaxor ferroelectrics has been the origin of the "waterfall" effect in the phonon dispersion curves, in which low-energy transverse phonons cascade into vertical columns. Originally interpreted as phonons interacting with polar nanoregions (PNRs), it was later explained as an interference effect of coupling damped optic and acoustic phonons. In light of a recently discovered PNR vibrational mode near the "waterfall" wave vector [M. E. Manley, J. W. Lynn, D. L. Abernathy, E. D. Specht, O. Delaire, A. R. Bishop, R. Sahul, and J. D. Budai, Nat. Commun. 5, 3683 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4683], we have reexamined this feature using neutron scattering on [100]-poled PMN-30%PT [0.6 Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3-0.3 PbTi O3] . We find that the PNR mode couples to both optic and acoustic phonons and that this results in complex patterns in the dynamic structure factor, including intensity pockets and peaks localized in momentum-energy space. These features are fully explained by extending the mode-coupling model to include three coupled damped harmonic oscillators representing the transverse optic, acoustic, and PNR modes.

  16. Characterizing new compositions of [001]C relaxor ferroelectric single crystals using a work-energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2016-04-01

    The desired operating range of ferroelectric materials with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary is limited by field induced phase transformations. In [001]C cut and poled relaxor ferroelectric single crystals the mechanically driven ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation is hindered by antagonistic electrical loading. Instability around the phase transformation makes the current experimental technique for characterization of the large field behavior very time consuming. Characterization requires specialized equipment and involves an extensive set of measurements under combined electrical, mechanical, and thermal loads. In this work a mechanism-based model is combined with a more limited set of experiments to obtain the same results. The model utilizes a work-energy criterion that calculates the mechanical work required to induce the transformation and the required electrical work that is removed to reverse the transformation. This is done by defining energy barriers to the transformation. The results of the combined experiment and modeling approach are compared to the fully experimental approach and error is discussed. The model shows excellent predictive capability and is used to substantially reduce the total number of experiments required for characterization. This decreases the time and resources required for characterization of new compositions.

  17. Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Bernardo, P. Di; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

  18. Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr3 for Nuclear Radiation and Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guise, Ron; Yuan, Ding

    2010-01-01

    Scintillator materials are used to detect, and in some cases identify, gamma rays. Higher performance scintillators are expensive, hard to manufacture, fragile, and sometimes require liquid nitrogen or cooling engines. But whereas lower-quality scintillators are cheap, easy to manufacture, and more rugged, their performance is lower. At issue: can the desirable qualities of high-and low-performance scintillators be combined to achieve better performance at lower cost? Preliminary experiments show that a LaF 3 :Ce oleic acid-based nanocomposite exhibits a photopeak when exposed to 137 Cs source gamma-radiation. The chemical synthesis of the cerium-doped lanthanum halide nanoparticles are scalable and large quantities of material can be produced at a time, unlike typical crystal growth processes such as the Bridgeman process. Using a polymer composite (Figure 1), produced by LANL, initial measurements of the unloaded and 8% LaF 3 :Ce-loaded sample have been made using 137 Cs sources. Figure 2 shows an energy spectrum acquired for CeF 3 . The lighter plot is the measured polymer-only spectrum and the black plot is the spectrum from the nanocomposite scintillator. As the development of this material continues, the energy resolution is expected to improve and the photopeak-to-Compton ratio will become greater at higher loadings. These measurements show the expected Compton edge in the polymer-only sample, and the Compton edge and photo-peak expected in the nanophosphor composites that LANL has produced. Using a porous VYCORR with CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, Letant has demonstrated that he has obtained signatures of the 241Am photopeak with energy resolution as good at NaI (Figure 3). We begin with the fact that CeBr 3 crystals do not have a self-activity component as strong as the lanthanum halides. The radioactive 0.090% 138 La component of lanthanum leads to significant self-activity, which will be a problem for very large detector volumes. Yet a significant

  19. Nanoscale assembly of lanthanum silica with dense and porous interfacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Benjamin; Motuzas, Julius; Miller, Christopher R; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C

    2015-02-03

    This work reports on the nanoscale assembly of hybrid lanthanum oxide and silica structures, which form patterns of interfacial dense and porous networks. It was found that increasing the molar ratio of lanthanum nitrate to tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in an acid catalysed sol-gel process alters the expected microporous metal oxide silica structure to a predominantly mesoporous structure above a critical lanthanum concentration. This change manifests itself by the formation of a lanthanum silicate phase, which results from the reaction of lanthanum oxide nanoparticles with the silica matrix. This process converts the microporous silica into the denser silicate phase. Above a lanthanum to silica ratio of 0.15, the combination of growth and microporous silica consumption results in the formation of nanoscale hybrid lanthanum oxides, with the inter-nano-domain spacing forming mesoporous volume. As the size of these nano-domains increases with concentration, so does the mesoporous volume. The absence of lanthanum hydroxide (La(OH)3) suggests the formation of La2O3 surrounded by lanthanum silicate.

  20. Distribution of lanthanum and neodymium in Di(2-ethlhexyl) phosphoric acid and tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Suparith, N.; Pruantonsai, P.

    1994-01-01

    Lanthanum and neodymium are among the high quantity elements in mixed rare earth from monazite processing. The popular rare earth separation process is liquid-liquid extraction. This research was carried out to study lanthanum and neodymium distribution in two extractants, di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid and tributylphosphate. The experimental results show that neodymium distributes in both extractants better than lanthanum. The distribution of both elements are higher at low acidity than at high acidity. Quick and rough investigation by calculating the ratio of distribution coefficient of neodymium to lanthanum in each extractant indicated that La-nd separation efficiency of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid is higher than that of tributylphosphate

  1. Nanoscale photoelectron ionisation detector based on lanthanum hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, C.M.; Kunze, U.; Schubert, J.; Hamann, S.; Doll, T.

    2011-01-01

    A nanoscale ioniser is presented exceeding the limitation of conventional photoionisation detectors. It employs accelerated photoelectrons that allow obtaining molecule specificity by the tuning of ionisation energies. The material lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) is used as air stable photo cathode. Thin films of that material deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) show quantum efficiency (QE) in the range of 10 -5 which is comparable to laser photo stimulation results. A careful treatment of the material yields reasonable low work functions even after surface reoxidation which opens up the possibility of using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in replacement of discharge lamps. Schematic diagram of a photoelectron ionisation detector (PeID) operating by an electron emitter based on the photoelectric effect of lanthanum hexaboride. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Preparation of lanthanum ferrite powder at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoulsi, R.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Ferid, M., E-mail: karima_horchani@yahoo.com [Physical Chemistry Laboratory of Mineral Materials and their Applications, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-01-15

    Single lanthanum ferrite phase was successfully prepared at low processing temperature using the polymerizable complex method. To implement this work, several techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and BET surface area measurements were used. Throw the obtained results, it was shown that steps of preparing the powder precursor and temperature of its calcination are critical parameters for avoiding phase segregation and obtaining pure lanthanum ferrite compound. Thus, a single perovskite phase was obtained at 600 deg C. At this temperature, the powder was found to be fine and homogeneous with an average crystallite size of 13 nm and a specific surface area of 12.5 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}. (author)

  3. AB initio energetics of lanthanum substitution in ferroelectric bismuth titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory based electronic structure calculations play a vital role in understanding, controlling and optimizing physical properties of materials at microscopic level. In present study system of interest is bismuth titanate (Bi/sub 4/Ti/sub 3/O/sub 12/)/(BIT) which has wide range of applications such as a high temperature piezoelectric and one of the best material for memory devices. However, it also suffers from serious issues such as oxygen vacancies which degrade its performance as a memory element and piezoelectric material. In this context, the bulk and defect properties of orthorhombic bismuth titanate (Bi/sub 4/Ti/sub 3/O/sub 12/) and bismuth lanthanum titanate (Bi/sub 3.25/La/sub 0.75/Ti/sub 3/O/sub 12/)/(BLT, x=0.75) were investigated by using first principles calculations and atomistic thermodynamics. Heats of formation, valid chemical conditions for synthesis, lanthanum substitution energies and oxygen and bismuth vacancy formation energies were computed. The study improves understanding of how native point defects and substitutional impurities influence the ferroelectric properties of these layered perovskite materials. It was found that lanthanum incorporation could occur on either of the two distinct bismuth sites in the structure and that the effect of substitution is to increase the formation energy of nearby native oxygen vacancies. The results provide direct atomistic evidence over a range of chemical conditions for the suggestion that lanthanum incorporation reduces the oxygen vacancy concentration. Oxygen vacancies contribute to ferroelectric fatigue by interacting strongly with domain walls and therefore a decrease in their concentration is beneficial. (orig./A.B.)

  4. Electrical behaviour of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Jacobsen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    The contact resistance of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) contact pairs is investigated by polarisation analysis at different temperatures and atmospheres. The ceramic contacts have a high contact resistance, and strongly nonlinear current–voltage behaviour is observed at low temperatur....... The nonlinear behaviour is ascribed to the presence of energy barriers at the contact interface. Generally, point contacts showed a more linear behaviour than plane contact interfaces....

  5. Effect of pressure on the magnetic properties of lanthanum manganite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar', L. E.; Leskova, Yu. V.; Nikiforov, A. E.; Kozlenko, D. P.

    2010-01-01

    The crystalline structure of pure lanthanum manganite under external hydrostatic pressure has been studied. The behavior of magnetic properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra under these conditions is theoretically predicted. It is shown that an increase in the Neel temperature with pressure is not only caused by the general contraction of the crystal, but is also related to certain peculiarities in the baric behavior of the orbital structure.

  6. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Diego; Finsterle, Karin; Marziali, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales. The availa......This paper reviews the scientific knowledge on the use of a lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) to manage eutrophication in surface water. The LMB has been applied in around 200 environments worldwide and it has undergone extensive testing at laboratory, mesocosm, and whole lake scales....... The available data underline a high efficiency for phosphorus binding. This efficiency can be limited by the presence of humic substances and competing oxyanions. Lanthanum concentrations detected during a LMB application are generally below acute toxicological threshold of different organisms, except in low...... alkalinity waters. To date there are no indications for long-term negative effects on LMB treated ecosystems, but issues related to La accumulation, increase of suspended solids and drastic resources depletion still need to be explored, in particular for sediment dwelling organisms. Application of LMB...

  7. Physiological responses in barley to applications of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chinese research and glasshouse investigations carried out in Victoria by the authors have shown that several plant species, when treated with Rare Earth Elements (REEs), retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. The physiological adaptation of the plant to retain moisture in response to REE treatment however, has not been investigated. A glasshouse trial is currently in progress to study the physiological and agronomic responses of barley (cv. Schooner) grown in pots to application of lanthanum (0, 5 and 10 kg/ha), at a concentration of 0.05%, under well-watered (field capacity) and water-deficit (25 - 30% field capacity) conditions. Lanthanum was applied both directly to the soil and as a foliar spray. The physiological measurements include, photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Measured agronomic parameters include plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, total grain weight, total biomass, root and shoot ratio and harvest index. Analysis of plant tissue for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and La to study the relationship between application of REE and nutrient uptake is also being carried out. The paper discusses physiological and agronomic changes in barley plants in response to treatment with lanthanum, under conditions of water stress

  8. Effects of the wet air on the properties of the lanthanum oxide and lanthanum aluminate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Jin Hyung; Choi, Doo Jin

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum oxide and lanthanum aluminate thin films were deposited on Si substrates. The as-grown films were stored in wet ambient and dry ambient for days and annealed after storage and also the structural and the electrical properties of the films were investigated. As the storage time increased, the La 2 O 3 films stored in wet ambient showed rapid reaction with moisture and the properties degraded. In case of the LAO films, although the thickness of the film also increased during hydration, the properties of the film did not so much changed due to the role of the incorporated aluminum. The LAO films showed better hydration resistance characteristics and so more suitable for conventional wet cleaning process in semiconductor fabrication

  9. Direct thermal to electrical energy conversion using 9.5/65/35 PLZT ceramics in the ergodic relaxor phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Thomas K; Lee, Felix Y; McKinley, Ian M; Goljahi, Sam; Lynch, Christopher S; Pilon, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on direct thermal to electrical energy conversion by performing the Olsen cycle on 9.5/65/35 lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). The Olsen cycle consists of two isothermal and two isoelectric field processes in the electric displacement versus electric field diagram. It was performed by alternatively dipping the material in hot and cold dielectric fluid baths under specified electric fields. The effects of applied electric field, sample thickness, electrode material, operating temperature, and cycle frequency on the energy and power densities were investigated. A maximum energy density of 637 ± 20 J/L/cycle was achieved at 0.054 Hz with a 250-μm-thick sample featuring Pt electrodes and coated with a silicone conformal coating. The operating temperatures varied between 3°C and 140°C and the electric field was cycled between 0.2 and 6.0 MV/m. A maximum power density of 55 ± 8 W/L was obtained at 0.125 Hz under the same operating temperatures and electric fields. The dielectric strength of the material, and therefore the energy and power densities generated, increased when the sample thickness decreased from 500 to 250 μm. Furthermore, the electrode material was found to have no significant effect on the energy and power densities for samples subject to the same operating temperatures and electric fields. However, samples with electrode material possessing thermal expansion coefficients similar to that of PLZT were capable of withstanding larger temperature swings. Finally, a fatigue test showed that the power generation gradually degraded when the sample was subject to repeated thermoelectrical loading.

  10. Effect of additions of cerium, lanthanum, and zirconium on the state of plantinum and the activity of aluminoplatinum catalysts for the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, V.A.; Davydov, A.A.; Popovskii, V.V.; Tsyrul'nikov, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown from an analysis of the diffuse reflectance spectra that additions of cerium, lanthanum or zirconium to aluminoplatinum catalyst stabilize the platinum in an oxidized state. This leads to a change in the specific catalytic activity (SCA) towards the total oxidation of methane and butane. The SCA of modified, reduced samples is greater than the SCA of samples that were calcined in air. This is because of the greater activity of metallic platinum compared to the ionic form

  11. Strengthening and elongation mechanism of Lanthanum-doped Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping, E-mail: huping1985@126.com [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Hu, Bo-liang; Wang, Kuai-she; Song, Rui; Yang, Fan [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Yu, Zhi-tao [Ruifulai Tungsten & Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 721914 (China); Tan, Jiang-fei [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Cao, Wei-cheng; Liu, Dong-xin; An, Geng [Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Guo, Lei [Ruifulai Tungsten & Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 721914 (China); Yu, Hai-liang [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructural contributes to understand the strengthening and elongation mechanism in Lanthanum-doped Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy. Lanthanum oxide particles not only act as heterogeneous nucleation core, but also act as the second phase to hinder the grain growth during sintering crystallization. The molybdenum substrate formed sub-grain under the effect of second phase when the alloy rolled to plate.

  12. Studies on the promotion of nickel—alumina coprecipitated catalysts: II. Lanthanum oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink Rotgerink, H.G.J.; Paalman, R.P.A.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two series of lanthanum promoted nickel—alumina catalysts have been prepared by coprecipitation of the metal nitrates, using potassium carbonate. The molar ratio between nickel and the sum of aluminium and lanthanum was kept constant at 2.5 or 9.0 within each series. The calcination and reduction of

  13. A high-temperature-capacitor dielectric based on K.sub.0.5./sub.Na.sub.0.5./sub.NbO.sub.3./sub.–modified Bi.sub.1/2./sub.Na.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub.–Bi.sub.1/2./sub.K.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittmer, R.; Anton, E.-M.; Jo, W.; Simons, H.; Daniels, J.E.; Hoffman, M.; Pokorný, Jan; Reaney, I. M.; Rödel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 11 (2012), s. 3519-3524 ISSN 0002-7820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : lead-zirconate-titanate * relaxor ferroelectric ceramics * raman-spectroscopy * thin-films * electronics * lanthanum * resistance * bias Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2012

  14. Structural evolution in three and four-layer Aurivillius solid solutions: A comparative study versus relaxor properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Jenny; Boullay, Philippe; Ben Jennet, Dorra; Mercurio, Daniele

    2008-02-01

    Two solid solutions of three-layer Ba xBi 4- xNb xTi 3- xO 12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.2) and four-layer Aurivillius compounds (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 1- xBa xBi 4Ti 4O 15 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), which both present a ferroelectric to relaxor-like transition with increasing x, were synthesized by solid state reaction. The evolution of their crystal structures, as a function of x, was performed using Rietveld refinements from X-ray powder diffraction data. As x increases, the average crystal structures become less distorted with respect to the archetypal high temperature tetragonal one and the coordination number of Bi 3+ in M 2O 2 layers continuously changes from {4 + 2} to {4}. The relaxor behaviour which appears in samples for a tolerance factor t > 0.96 is associated with a general static disorder in A and M sites together with the presence of some Ba 2+ cations in M 2O 2 layers (less than 10%).

  15. Analyzing relation between the radioactivity in lanthanum products and the origins of RE chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rongsheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relation between the radioactivity in Lanthanum products and the origins of RE Chlorides. Methods: Using JY-38 plus sequential ICP spectrometer to examine the content of the uranium in the RE Chlorides. Using FJ-2603 low background alpha, beta measurement apparatus to measure total alpha and total beta activities of Lanthanum products. Results: The content of the uranium in the RE Chlorides is much lower in Baotou's than Hunan's. The radioactivity in Lanthanum products are made from the RE Chlorides of Baotou is much lower than that in Hunan's too. The radioactivity in Lanthanum products depends on the origins of RE Chlorides. Conclusion: The basic data were provided for radioactivity in Lanthanum products which are made from RE Chlorides of different places of China. The mathematical model was founded for the reasonable use of resource RE Chlorides

  16. Relaxor behaviour of (Ba0⋅5Sr0⋅5)(Ti0⋅6Zr0⋅4)O3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    The dielectric study revealed diffuse phase transition of second order. A broad dielectric anomaly coupled with the shift ... racterized by diffuse phase transition, has been studied extensively both theoretically as well as ..... relaxor behaviours in the systems are analogous to that of a dipolar glass with polarization fluctuations ...

  17. Thermal expansion of doped lanthanum gallates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Since the components are in intimate mechanical contact, any stress generated due to their thermal expansion mis- match during thermal cycling could lead to catastrophic failure of the cell. The functional materials must have similar thermal expansions to avoid mechanical stresses. Hence it is useful to study the thermal ...

  18. Fabrication of Sr- and Co-doped lanthanum chromite interconnectors for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, L.F.G. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - DEMa/UFSCar (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN (Brazil); Santacruz, I. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Colomer, M.T., E-mail: tcolomer@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, ICV (CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN (Brazil); Moreno, R. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, ICV (CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: FESEM micrographs of the fresh fracture surfaces for the La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} sintered specimens cast from optimised suspensions with 13.5, 15 and 17.5 vol.% solids loading. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 {sup o}C for 4 h. Highlights: {yields} Optimum casting slips were achieved with 3 wt.% of ammonium polyacrylate and 1 wt.% of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. -- Abstract: Many studies have been performed dealing with the processing conditions of electrodes and electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the processing of the interconnector material has received less attention. Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is probably the most studied material as SOFCs interconnector. This paper deals with the rheology and casting behaviour of lanthanum chromite based materials to produce interconnectors for SOFCs. A powder with the composition La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} was obtained by combustion synthesis. Aqueous suspensions were prepared to solids loading ranging from 8 to 17.5 vol.%, using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. The influence of the additives concentrations and suspension ball milling time were studied. Suspensions prepared with 24 h ball milling, with 3 wt.% and 1 wt.% of PAA and TMAH, respectively, yielded the best conditions for successful slip casting. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 {sup o}C for 4 h leading to relatively dense materials.

  19. Bio-accumulation of lanthanum from lanthanum modified bentonite treatments in lake restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waajen, G; van Oosterhout, F; Lürling, M

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite (LMB) is one of the available mitigating agents used for the reduction of the phosphorus (P) recycling in eutrophic lakes. The potential toxicity of the La from LMB to aquatic organisms is a matter of concern. In this study the accumulation of La was investigated in the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, in chironomid larvae and in several fish species during periods up to five years following in situ LMB applications. The application of LMB increased the La concentration of exposed plants and animals. During the first growing season following LMB applications, the La content of E. nuttallii increased 78 fold (3.98-310.68 μg La g -1 DW) to 127 fold (2.46-311.44 μg La g -1 ). During the second growing season following application, the La content decreased but was still raised compared to plants that had not been exposed. The La content of chironomids was doubled in the two years following LMB application, although the increase was not significant. Raised La concentrations in fish liver, bone, muscle and skin were observed two and five years following to LMB application. Liver tissues showed the highest La increase, ranging from 6 fold (0.046-0.285 μg La g -1 DW) to ∼20 fold (0.080-1.886 μg La g -1 , and 0.122-2.109 μg La g -1 ) two years following application and from 6 fold (0.046-0.262 μg La g -1 ) to 13 fold (0.013-0.167 μg La g -1 ) after five years in pelagic and littoral fish. The La content of the liver from Anguilla anguilla (eel) had increased 94 fold (0.034-3.176 μg La g -1 ) two years and 133 fold (0.034-4.538 μg La g -1 ) five years following LMB application. No acute and chronic effects of La accumulation were observed and human health risks are considered negligible. We advocate the long-term study of effects of La accumulation following future LMB applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorbtion of oxygen and cesium on lanthanum hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Tskhakaya, V.K.; Shchudlo, Yu.G.; Yarygin, V.I.; Yas'ko, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen and cesium adsorption on lanthanum hexaboride was investigated. Especial attention was paid to structural investigations of the LaB 6 (100)-O system. Diffraction pictures and curves of changes in work function in the process of oxygen disorption have been obtained. At oxygen adsorption on a crystal heated up to different temperatures in the range of 900-1400 K the same diffraction pictures as at corresponding annealing temperatures observed were. It is noted that adsorption heat changes slightly in the LaB 6 -O-Cs system

  1. Lanthanum (samarium) nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    Using the isothermal method of cross-sections at 50 deg C systems lanthanum nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (1), samarium nitrate-4-aminoantipyrine nitrate-water (2), are studied. Isotherms of system 1 consist of two crystallization branches of initial salt components. In system 2 formation of congruently soluble compounds of the composition Sm(No) 3 ) 3 xC 11 H 13 ON 3 xHNO 3 is established. Analytical, X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analysis of the isolated binary salt are carried out

  2. Cerium-activated lanthanum beryllate as a gamma detector material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.; Berrondo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have tested a single crystal of Ce-activated lanthanum beryllate BEL(Ce) as a potential gamma detector material. The density (6.1 g.cm -3 ) and decay time (50 ns) are competitive with other recently developed materials. The scintillation efficiency is 57 to 95% that of BGO. For an excitation wavelength of 340 nm, the emission spectra is a broad peak centered at 450 mn. The H 2 annealed sample is transparent for wavelengths greater than 400 mn. They are continuing a program to improve the scintillation efficiency by varying the crystal growth conditions

  3. Catalytic activity of lanthanum oxide for the reduction of cyclohexanone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugunan, S.; Sherly, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    Lanthanum oxides, La 2 O 3 has been found to be an effective catalyst for the liquid phase reduction of cyclohexanone. The catalytic activities of La 2 O 3 activated at 300, 500 and 800 degC and its mixed oxides with alumina for the reduction of cylcohexanone with 2-propanol have been determined and the data parallel that of the electron donating properties of the catalysts. The electron donating properties of the catalysts have been determined from the adsorption of electron acceptors of different electron affinities on the surface of these oxides. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Estudio de la adición de K+ y LiNbO3 en las propiedades finales del Relaxor PMN procesado por mezcla de polvos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J. F.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PMN ceramic relaxor has been investigated by several researchers and many aspects of this material, like powder morphology, phase decomposition, weight loss during sintering process, densification, between others, still are investigated. PMN powder preparation has been shown more efficient when synthesized by columbite route, however lead addition stage for the PMN powder synthesis remains problematical. Therefore, this work proposes a new association of methodologies, using columbite route and the hydroxide precipitation method. Through use of the powder mixture technique, which permitted to obtain good green and sintered densities, was possible to observe K+ y Li+ dopants reduce weight loss in sintering process and change significantly the dielectric properties. Addition of LiNbO3 seeds in conformation stage, which react in a distinct way as a function of the particle size, promotes the formation of differenced grains in the ceramic bulk. Consequently, very different dielectrics properties from conventional PMN ceramic were obtained.El relaxor cerámico PMN ha sido investigado por un gran número de investigadores en el transcurso del tiempo y muchos aspectos de este material, como la morfología de los polvos, descomposición de fases, pérdida de peso en el proceso de sinterización, densificación, entre otras, siguen siendo objetos de investigación. La preparación de polvos de PMN se ha mostrado más efectiva cuando son sintetizados por la ruta de la columbita, pero la etapa de adición de plomo para la síntesis de polvos de PMN todavía sigue problemática. Por lo tanto, este trabajo propone una nueva asociación de metodologías, utilizando la ruta de la columbita y el método de precipitación por hidróxidos. Mediante la utilización de una técnica de mezcla de polvos, la cual permitió lograr buenas densidades en verde y sinterizadas, fue posible observar que los dopantes K+ y Li+ reducen las pérdidas de peso en el proceso de

  5. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations and composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    and binding forms, P adsorption capacity of discrete sediment layers, and pore water P concentrations. Lanthanum phosphate mineral phases were confirmed by solid state (31)P MAS NMR and LIII EXAFS spectroscopy. Rhabdophane (LaPO4 · nH2O) was the major phase although indications of monazite (LaPO4) formation...... conditions of P retention (with the exception of two lakes) by sediments, indicating effective control of sediment P release, i.e. between two and nine years after treatment....

  6. Management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle P Persy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Veerle P Persy, Geert J Behets, Marc E De Broe, Patrick C D’HaeseLaboratory of Pathophysiology, University of Antwerp, BelgiumAbstract: Elevated serum phosphate levels as a consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in dialysis patients. Protein restriction and dialysis fail to adequately prevent hyperphosphatemia, and in general treatment with oral phosphate binding agents is necessary in patients with advanced CKD. Phosphate plays a pivotal role in the development of vascular calcification, one of the factors contributing to increased cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia with standard calcium-based phosphate binders and vitamin D compounds can induce hypercalcemic episodes, increase the Ca × PO4 product and thus add to the risk of ectopic mineralization. In this review, recent clinical as well as experimental data on lanthanum carbonate, a novel, non-calcium, non-resin phosphate binding agent are summarized. Although lanthanum is a metal cation no aluminium-like toxicity is observed since the bioavailability of lanthanum is extremely low and its metabolism differs from that of aluminium. Clinical studies now document the absence of toxic effects of lanthanum for up to 6 years of follow-up. The effects of lanthanum on bone, vasculature and brain are discussed and put in perspective with lanthanum pharmacokinetics.Keywords: lanthanum carbonate, phosphate binding, chronic kidney disease

  7. Separation of lanthanum from nuclear fuel solutions by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, G. C.; Petre, M.; Androne, G.; Benga, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the separation of uranium, praseodymium and lanthanum from nuclear fuel solutions by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aim of this study is to establish a minimum concentration of lanthanum which can be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, and also to study the effect of uranium concentration on the separation of praseodymium and lanthanum. Optimum gradient mode was established for mixture standard stoc solutions with uranium in a concentration of 1 mg/ml, praseodymium and lanthanum in a concentration range of 1-5 μg/ml from each element. These conditions were applied for the separation of lanthanum from a nuclear fuel solution in which praseodymium and lanthanum were added in a concentration of 3 μg/ml from each element. The elution behavior of lanthanum as a function of the pH and the concentration of the mobile phase, using a mixture of 1-octanesulfonic acid sodium salt with a-hidroxyisobutiric acid is presented. (authors)

  8. The evolution mechanism of the dislocation loops in irradiated lanthanum doped cerium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Yinbin; Aidhy, Dilpuneet; Chen, Wei-Ying; Mo, Kun; Oaks, Aaron; Wolf, Dieter; Stubbins, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium dioxide, a non-radioactive surrogate of uranium dioxide, is useful for simulating the radiation responses of uranium dioxide and mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Controlled additions of lanthanum can also be used to form various levels of lattice oxide or anion vacancies. In previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experimental studies, the growth rate of dislocation loops in irradiated lanthanum doped ceria was reported to vary with lanthanum concentration. This work reports findings of the evolution mechanisms of the dislocation loops in cerium oxide with and without lanthanum dopants based on a combination of molecular statics and molecular dynamics simulations. These dislocation loops are found to be b=1/3〈111〉 interstitial type Frank loops. Calculations of the defect energy profiles of the dislocation loops with different structural configurations and radii reveal the basis for preference of nucleation as well as the driving force of growth. Frenkel pair evolution simulations and displacement cascade overlaps simulations were conducted for a variety of lanthanum doping conditions. The nucleation and growth processes of the Frank loop were found to be controlled by the mobility of cation interstitials, which is significantly influenced by the lanthanum doping concentration. Competition mechanisms coupled with the mobility of cation point defects were discovered, and can be used to explain the lanthanum effects observed in experiments

  9. Evolution of the local environment of lanthanum during simplified SON68 glass leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jollivet, P.; Delaye, J.M.; Den Auwer, C.; Simoni, E.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the short- and medium-range local environment of lanthanum was determined by L-III-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during leaching of simplified SON68-type glasses. In glass without phosphorus, lanthanum is found in a silicate environment, and its first coordination sphere comprises eight oxygen atoms at a mean distance of 2.51 angstrom. When this glass was leached at a high renewal rate, the lanthanum local environment was significantly modified: it was present at hydroxy-carbonate and silicate sites with a mean La-O distance of 2.56 angstrom, and the second neighbors consisted of La atoms instead of Si for the glass. Conversely, in the gel formed at low renewal rates, lanthanum was found in a silicate environment similar to that of the glass. In phosphorus-doped glass, lanthanum is found in a phosphate environment, although the Si/P atomic ratio is 20:1. Lanthanum is surrounded by seven oxygen atoms at a mean distance of 2.37 angstrom. When phosphorus-doped glass is leached, regardless of the leaching solution flow rate, the short- and medium-range lanthanum local environment remains almost constant; the most significant change is a 0.05 angstrom increase in the La-O distance. (authors)

  10. Lanthanum halide scintillators: Properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iltis, Alain; Mayhugh, M.R.; Menge, P.; Rozsa, C.M.; Selles, O.; Solovyev, V.

    2006-01-01

    BrilLanCe[reg]-350 and BrilLanCe[reg]-380, Saint-Gobain Crystals' trade-names for LaCl 3 :Ce and LaBr 3 :Ce are being brought to market under exclusive license to Delft and Bern Universities. We are reporting the properties of crystals produced with commercially viable processes and find they match others' observations. These scintillators are bright (60,000 photons/MeV for LaBr 3 :Ce) and have very linear response, a combination that leads to very good energy resolution ( 3 :Ce). The materials also have fast scintillation decay times ( 3 :Ce). These excellent properties are retained at high temperature with only moderate light loss ( 138 and Ac 227 , the latter having been substantially reduced in recent processing. BrilLanCe[reg]-350 is now available in detectors up to 51 mm diameter while 38 mm diameter is available for BrilLanCe[reg]-380. Larger sizes are expected

  11. Study of behaviour of lanthanum- and yttrium electrodes in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkol'nikov, S.I.; Tolypin, E.S.; Yur'ev, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on the lanthanum- and yttrium behaviour in a mixture of molten potassium- and sodium chlorides at various temperatures. It is shown that the lanthanum- and yttrium behaviour in KCl-NaCl melt is similar to the behaviour of other metals. Their corrosion rate is much higher as compared to other metals and it grows rapidly with increasing melt temperature. The temperature growth by 200 deg C results in an increase in the corrosion rate almost by an order. The potentials of lanthanum- and yttrium electrodes at the instant they are immersed in the melt have more negative values than the potentials of alkali metals under similar conditions

  12. Lanthanum benzoyl acetonates: an IR and mass spectrometric study of the composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Tereshko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to study the structure of lanthanum chelates of benzoyl acetone (1-phenyl-1,3-butadione, HBA) of the following compositions: La(BA) 3 · EtOH, La(BA) 2 , La(BA) 2 · CH 3 CN, and La(BA) 2 · HDA, where EtOH = ethanol, HDA = nonadecanoic acid. It is demonstrated that a quasi-aromatic metalloring is formed in lanthanum chelates studied. Stable metal-containing fragments of the molecular ions of lanthanum bis- and tris-benzoylacetonate were identified [ru

  13. Ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and impedance spectroscopy of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Thakur, O P; Bhattacharya, D K [Electroceramics Group, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi-110054 (India); Sreenivas, K, E-mail: omprakasht@hotmail.co [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi- 110007 (India)

    2009-03-21

    Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium zirconate titanate ceramics, Ba{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x}(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3}, have been prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method. The ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and dielectric properties have been investigated in detail. By XRD analysis, it is suggested that up to x = 0.04, Bi{sup 3+} substitutes A-site ion, and thereafter with higher Bi{sup 3+} content, it enters the B-site sub lattice. Substitution of Bi{sup 3+} ions induces ferroelectric relaxor behaviour and the degree of relaxation behaviour increases with bismuth concentration. The remanent polarization and strain behaviour show a slight increase with the substitution level. The degree of hysteresis (strain versus electric field) also reduces from 21.4% to 4.6% with bismuth substitution. Impedance measurements were made on the prepared sample over a wide range of temperatures (300-723 K) and frequencies (40 Hz-1 MHz), which show the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities determined from impedance study indicate the Arrhenius-type thermally activated process. Impedance spectroscopy is shown to be an efficient method capable of detecting the contributions of the resistances of grains and grain boundaries to the complex impedance of a ceramic system, accurately estimating its electrical conductivity as well as its corresponding activation energies and drawing conclusions on its structural properties.

  14. Leaching behavior of lanthanum, nickel and iron from spent catalyst using inorganic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, W.; Prilitasari, N. M.; Iskandar, Y.; Bratakusuma, D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Highly technological applications of rare earth metals (REs) and scarcity of supply have become an incentive torecover the REs from various resources, which include high grade and low grade ores, as well as recycledwaste materials. Spent hydrocracking catalyst contain lanthanum and a variety of valuable metals such as nickel and iron. This study investigated the recovery of lanthanum, nickel and iron from spent hydrocracking catalyst by leaching using various inorganic acid (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid). The effect of acid concentration, type of acid and leaching temperature was conducted to study the leaching behavior of each valuable metal from spent-catalyst. It has been shown that it is possible to recover more than 90% of lanthanum, however the leaching efficiency of nickel and iron in this process was very low. It can be concluded that the leaching process is selective for lanthanum recovery from hydrocracking spent-catalyst.

  15. Plasma spheroidization and high temperature stability of lanthanum phosphate and its compatibility with molten uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: pvananth@barc.gov.in; Sreekumar, K.P.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Satpute, R.U. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Krishnan, K.; Kulkarni, N.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kutty, T.R.G. [Radiometallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-01-15

    Lanthanum phosphate has excellent thermal stability and corrosion resistance against many molten metals and other chemically corrosive environments. Lanthanum phosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) was synthesized from lanthanum oxalate by thermal dissociation of the oxalate to the oxide, followed by conversion to hydrated lanthanum phosphate (LaPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O). Thermal treatment of LaPO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O above 773 K resulted in the irreversible transformation of the hydrated phase to the stable monazite phase. Thermal and chemical stability of monazite was studied by plasma spheroidization experiments using a DC thermal plasma reactor set up. Compatibility of monazite with molten uranium was studied by thermal analysis. Results showed that monazite is thermally stable up to its melting point and also is resistant towards attack by molten uranium. Adherent coatings of LaPO{sub 4} could be deposited onto various substrates by atmospheric plasma spray technique.

  16. Studies on the lanthanum arsenate ion-exchanger: preparation, physicochemical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.K.; Mandal, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The cation-exchange behaviour of lanthanum arsenate has been studied. This paper reports the preparation and physicochemical properties of the exchanger. Its analytical utility is compared with that of other arsenate exchangers. Some practical analytical applications are described. (author)

  17. Synthesis characterization and sintering of cobalt-doped lanthanum chromite powders for use in SOFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Chieko; Mello-Castanho, Sonia R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Doped lanthanum chromite is a promising as interconnect material because of its good conductivity at high temperatures and its stability in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Perovskite oxide powders of Co-doped lanthanum chromite were synthesized by dispersing precursor metal salt solutions in a polymer matrix followed by a thermal treatment. XRD patterns showed that a highly crystalline cobalt-doped lanthanum chromite was obtained. Fine perovskite powder with a surface area of 6.15 m 2 g -1 calcined at 700 deg C for 1 h, were obtained. After the sample sintered at 1450 deg C for 3h, the powder reached high densities exceeding 97% of the theoretical density. The proposed here has proved to be a very promising technique for the synthesis of lanthanum chromite powders. (author)

  18. Plasma spheroidization and high temperature stability of lanthanum phosphate and its compatibility with molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Sreekumar, K.P.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Satpute, R.U.; Krishnan, K.; Kulkarni, N.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum phosphate has excellent thermal stability and corrosion resistance against many molten metals and other chemically corrosive environments. Lanthanum phosphate (LaPO 4 ) was synthesized from lanthanum oxalate by thermal dissociation of the oxalate to the oxide, followed by conversion to hydrated lanthanum phosphate (LaPO 4 .0.5H 2 O). Thermal treatment of LaPO 4 .0.5H 2 O above 773 K resulted in the irreversible transformation of the hydrated phase to the stable monazite phase. Thermal and chemical stability of monazite was studied by plasma spheroidization experiments using a DC thermal plasma reactor set up. Compatibility of monazite with molten uranium was studied by thermal analysis. Results showed that monazite is thermally stable up to its melting point and also is resistant towards attack by molten uranium. Adherent coatings of LaPO 4 could be deposited onto various substrates by atmospheric plasma spray technique

  19. Hydrophilic block copolymer-directed growth of lanthanum hydroxide nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyer, F.; Sanson, N.; Gerardin, C. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR 5618 CNRS-ENSCM-UM1, FR 1878, Institut Gerhardt, 34 - Montpellier (France); Destarac, M. [Centre de Recherches Rhodia Aubervilliers, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    2006-03-15

    Stable hairy lanthanum hydroxide nano-particles were synthesized in water by performing hydrolysis and condensation reactions of lanthanum cations in the presence of double hydrophilic poly-acrylic acid-b-polyacrylamide block copolymers (PAA-b-PAM). In the first step, the addition of asymmetric PAA-b-PAM copolymers (M{sub w,PAA} {<=} M{sub w,PAM}) to lanthanum salt solutions, both at pH = 5.5, induces the formation of monodispersed micellar aggregates, which are predominantly isotropic. The core of the hybrid aggregates is constituted of a lanthanum polyacrylate complex whose formation is due to bidentate coordination bonding between La{sup 3+} and acrylate groups, as shown by ATR-FTIR experiments and pH measurements. The size of the micellar aggregates depends on the molecular weight of the copolymer but is independent of the copolymer to metal ratio in solution. In the second step, the hydrolysis of lanthanum ions is induced by addition of a strong base such as sodium hydroxide. Either flocculated suspensions or stable anisotropic or spherical nano-particles of lanthanum hydrolysis products were obtained depending on the metal complexation ratio [acrylate]/[La]. The variation of that parameter also enables the control of the size of the core-corona nano-particles obtained by lanthanum hydroxylation. The asymmetry degree of the copolymer was shown to influence both the size and the shape of the particles. Elongated particles with a high aspect ratio, up to 10, were obtained with very asymmetric copolymers (M{sub w,PAM}/M{sub w,PAA}{>=}10) while shorter rice grain-like particles were obtained with a less asymmetric copolymer. The asymmetry degree also influences the value of the critical metal complexation degree required to obtain stable colloidal suspensions of polymer-stabilized lanthanum hydroxide. (authors)

  20. Sintering and electrical properties of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrago, Diego Pereira; Sousa, Vania Caldas de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LABIOMAT/PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Biomateriais], Email: dptarrago@gmail.com; Moreno Buriel, Berta; Chinarro Martini, Eva; Jurado Egea, Jose Ramon [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICV/CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao

    2010-07-01

    Lanthanum strontium manganites (LSM) are potential materials for cathode applications in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their good catalytic activity, chemical stability and compatibility with electrolyte materials in high temperatures. The sinterability of single phase La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Mn{sub O3} (x=0.18) perovskite powders and the electrical properties of the resulting samples are analyzed in this study. Using a heating microscope, the powders were pressed and sintered at different pressures and temperatures, resulting in an open porosity of 33.36% when compacted at 125 MPa and sintered at 1200 degree C. Top and cross-section s canning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed interconnected pores in the sintered body and, hence, a suitable microstructure for the application. The activation energy for conductance was 0.04 eV and the tested LSM bulk started to exhibit adequate electrical properties at about 500 degree C. (author)

  1. Temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in lanthanum manganite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubkin, M.K.; Zalesskii, A.V.; Perekalina, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetoresistivity in the La0.9Na0.1Mn0.9(V,Co)0.1O3 and LaMnO3+δ ceramics was studied. The temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in these specimens was found to differ qualitatively from that in the La0.9Na0.1MnO3 single crystal (the magnetoresistance value remains rather high throughout the measurement range below the Curie temperature), with the maximum values being about the same (20-40% in the field of 20 kOe). Previously published data on magnetization, high frequency magnetic susceptibility, and local fields at the 139La nuclei of the specimens with similar properties attest to their magnetic inhomogeneity. The computation of the conductivity of the nonuniformly ordered lanthanum manganite was performed according to the mean field theory. The calculation results allow one to interpret qualitatively various types of experimental temperature dependences of magnetoresistance

  2. Phosphate binding therapy in dialysis patients: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ismail A Mohammed, Alastair J HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKAbstract: Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Recent observational data has associated hyperphosphatemia with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis prescription practices are not enough to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium-containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well established and proven toxicity. Calcium based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride is associated with fewer adverse effects, but a large pill burden and high cost are limiting factors to its wider use. In addition, the efficacy of sevelamer as a monotherapy in lowering phosphate to target levels in severe hyperphosphatemia remains debatable. Lanthanum carbonate is a promising new non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binder. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a good safety profile, and it appears well tolerated and effective in reducing phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Its identified adverse events are apparently mild to moderate in severity and mostly GI related. It appears to be effective as a monotherapy, with a reduced pill burden, but like sevelamer, it is significantly more expensive than calcium-based binders. Data on its safety profile over 6 years of treatment are now available.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum

  3. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing; Processamento coloidal de cromito de lantanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan

    2009-07-01

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO{sub 3} (La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3}) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: p H (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline p H and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 deg C/4h presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  4. Synthesis of calcium doped lanthanum manganite by mechanosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolarin, A.M.; Sanchez, F.; Palomares, S.; Aguilar, J.A.; Torres-Villasenor, G.

    2007-01-01

    Lanthanum manganite doped with calcium, Ca 1/3 La 2/3 MnO 3-δ , was prepared by a high-energy ball milling. The precursors used were Mn 2 O 3 , La 2 O 3 and CaO, mixed in the stoichiometric ratio to obtain this manganite. The mechano-chemical process was performed at room temperature in a SPEX 8000D mixer/mill, using hardened steel balls and stainless steel vials, in air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction was used to elucidate the phase transformation as a function of the milling time. The Rietveld refinement was used in order to characterize structurally the manganites. The morphology and particle size of powder compound obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscope. The particle size of this powder material was measured with zeta size analyzer, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) from TEM was used to elucidate the crystalline structure of this powder compound. The results showed that it is possible to obtain calcium doped lanthanum manganite by mechano-synthesis, using a weight ratio of ball to powder of 12:1, after 3 h of milling. The evolution of the phase transformation during the milling time is reported. Increases in milling time produce exponential decrease in the particle size, up to 680 nm after 1 h of milling. After the milling process it is obtained a powder compound with an orthorhombic structure (S.G. Pbnm). A prolonged milling time (>9 h) produce an important reduction in the particle size but this is accompanied with a high iron contamination caused by metallic residues originated from vial and balls and also, after 9 h of milling time, it was found an important distortion in orthorhombic structure, obtaining two types of parameters

  5. Tailoring the piezoelectric and relaxor properties of (Bi1/2 Na1/2) TiO3- BaTiO3 via zirconium doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaum, Julia; Simons, Hugh; Acosta, Matias

    2013-01-01

    This article details the influence of zirconium doping on the piezoelectric properties and relaxor characteristics of 94(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (BNT-6BZT) bulk ceramics. Neutron diffraction measurements of BNT-6BZT doped with 0%-15% Zr revealed an electric-field-induced transition...

  6. Broadband dielectric response of Ba(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub. ceramics: From incipient via relaxor and diffuse up to classical ferroelectric behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Hlinka, Jiří; Buscaglia, V.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Nanni, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2012), "014106-1"-"014106-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric spectroscopy * soft mode * central mode * diffuse ferroelectric transition * relaxor ferroelectric transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  7. Spectrophotometric study of the complexation equilibria of lanthanum(III) with 1,4-bis(4'-methylanilino)anthraquinone and the determination of lanthanum(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, K.A.-R; El-Shahawy, A.S.; Sedaira, H.; Harfoush, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The complexation equilibria of lanthanum(III) with 1,4-bis(4'-methylanilino)anthraquinone (Quinizarin Green) were studied spectrophotometrically in 40% V/V dimethylformamide using graphical analysis of the absorbance curves. The reaction mechanism of lanthanum with the bisarylaminoanthraquinone dye within the pH range 6 to 9.25 was demonstrated. The thermodynamic stabilities and the molar absorptivities of the complexes formed were determined. The optimum conditions for the spectrophotometric determination of La(III) with this reagent were found. (author)

  8. Electric Field-Induced Large Strain in Ni/Sb-co Doped (Bi0.5Na0.5) TiO3-Based Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Hao, Jigong; Xu, Zhijun; Li, Wei; Chu, Ruiqing

    2018-02-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.935Ba0.065Ti1- x (Ni0.5Sb0.5) x O3 (BNBT6.5- xNS) have been fabricated using conventional solid sintering technique. The effect of (Ni, Sb) doping on the phase structure and electrical properties of BNBT6.5 ceramics were systematically investigated. Results show that the addition of (Ni, Sb) destroyed the ferroelectric long-range order of BNBT6.5 and shifted the ferroelectric-relaxor transition temperature ( T F-R) down to room temperature. Thus, this process induced an ergodic relaxor phase at zero field in samples with x = 0.005. Under the electric field, the ergodic relaxor phase could reversibly transform to ferroelectric phase, which promotes the strain response with peak value of 0.38% (at 80 kV/cm, corresponding to d 33 * = 479 pm/V) at x = 0.005. Temperature-dependent measurements of both polarization and strain confirmed that the large strain originated from a reversible field-induced ergodic relaxor to ferroelectric phase transformation. The proposed material exhibits potential for nonlinear actuators.

  9. Separation of lanthanum (3) and samarium (3) extraction with tributylphosphate in the solvent presence of solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, I.B.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Bomshtejn, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    Lanthanum (3) and samarium (3) extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributylphosphate in the presence of solid phase has been investigated. An increase in samarium α-nitrate distribution factor in the presence of solid phase with a decrease in its concentration in the initial solution and with lanthanum nitrate concentration increase is detected. The greatest effect of separation is observed in samarium nitrate microregion. The method of quantitative extraction of samarium from lanthanum nitrate solutions with samarium-lanthanum separation factor exceeding 50 has been suggested

  10. Separation of lanthanum (3) and neodymium (3) by tributyl phosphate extraction in the presence of solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, I.B.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Bomshtejn, V.E.; Shikhaleeva, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    Lanthanum (3) and neodymium (3) extraction from nitric acid solutions by tributyl phosphate in the presence of solid phase of the element nitrates is investigated. An increase in distribution of neodymium nitrate in the presence of solid phase with the decrease in its concentration in the initial solution and with the increase in lanthanum nitrate concentration is detected. The highest effect of extractive-crystallizational separation is observed in the range of neodymium nitrate microconcentrations. A method of neodymium quantitative extraction from lanthanum nitrate solutions with neodymium - lanthanum separation coefficient exceeding 25 is suggested

  11. Investigation of thermal transformation of lanthanum and neodymium hydroxides by IK-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, A.A.; Davydov, A.A.; Shchekochikhin, Yu.M.

    1976-01-01

    The spectral polymorphic transformations of lanthanum and neodymium oxides at the thermal decomposition of the hydroxides and carbonates of these elements are studied. The thermal decomposition was observed during 3-5 hours. The i.r. spectra of the decomposition products were measured for temperatures of 100-1000 0 C. The i.r. spectra of C-Nd 2 O 3 , of A-Nd 2 O 3 , of C-La 2 O 3 and of A-La 2 O 3 were obtained in the range of 250-4000cm -1 . The spectral consequences of the C→A-Nd 2 O 3 polymorphic transformation were also studied for the decomposition of the neodymium carbonate. The spectra of the calcination products of the hydroxides (400-700 0 C) are similar to characteristic spectra of cubic rare earth oxides in the spectral range of 250-700cm -1 . An increase of the calcination temperature (800-1000 0 C) leads to changes in the oxide spectrum. New maxima appear at 260, 360 and 450cm -1 . The absorption bands characteristic for cubic oxide lattices disappear. From spectral data it can be concluded that neodymium carbonate begins to decompose at 450 0 C if it is heated in vacuum. The decomposition products are oxycarbonate and oxide. The maximum at 520cm -1 confirms the crystallization of the oxide in the cubic C-form. At 800 0 C the polymorphic transformation C→A-Nd 2 O 3 sets in. In the oxide spectra traces of the carbonate can still be detected up to the polymorphic transformation temperature. From a comparison of X-ray and spectral data it is followed that the i.r. spectra of the decomposition product of the lanthanum hydroxide at 500 0 C are essentially the spectra of C-La 2 O 3 which are characterized by the absorption bands at 320, 340, 380 and 495cm -1 . The absorption band of A-La 2 O 3 , which is present in the sample, is not observed. I.r. spectra of C-La 2 O 3 are very similar to the spectra of the cubic form of rare earth oxides in the range of 250-600cm -1 . Changes in the spectrum at 600 0 C can be explained by the polymorphic transformation

  12. Inhibition mechanism of lanthanum ion on the activity of horseradish peroxidase in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Wang, Lihong; Lu, Aihua; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2010-02-01

    In order to understand the inhibition mechanism of lanthanum ion (La 3+) on the activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the effects of La 3+ on the activity, electron transfer and conformation of HRP in vitro were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was found that La 3+ can combine with the amide groups of the polypeptide chain in HRP molecule, forming the complex of La 3+ and HRP (La-HRP). The formation of the La-HRP complex causes the destruction of the native structure of HRP molecule, leading to the decrease in the non-planarity of the porphyrin ring in the heme group of HRP molecule, and then in the exposure extent of active center, Fe(III) of the porphyrin ring of HRP molecule. Thus, the direct electrochemical and catalytic activities of HRP are decreased. It is a possible inhibition mechanism of La 3+ on the activity of peroxidase.

  13. Suppression of cavitation in melted tungsten by doping with lanthanum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Lu, G.H.; Xu, B.; Fu, B.Q.; Xu, H.Y.; Li, C.; Jia, Y.Z.; Qu, S.L.; Liu, W.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Luo, G.-N.

    2014-01-01

    Melting and boiling behaviour of pure tungsten and 1 wt% lanthanum-oxide-doped tungsten (WL10) are investigated, focusing on the material selection with respect to material loss induced by cavitation. Melting experiments under high heat loads are carried out in the high heat flux facility GLADIS. Pulsed hydrogen neutral beams with heat flux of 10 and 23 MW m −2 are applied onto the adiabatically loaded samples for intense surface melting. Melt layer of the two tungsten grades exhibit different microstructure characteristics. Substantive voids owing to cavitation in the liquid phase are observed in pure W and lead to porous resolidified material. However, little cavitation bubbles can be found in the dense resolidified layer of WL10. In order to find out the gaseous sources, vapour collection is performed and the components are subsequently detected. Based on the observations and analyses, the microstructure evolutions corresponding to melting and vapourization behaviour of the two tungsten grades are tentatively described, and furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of cavitation in pure W and its suppression in WL10 are discussed. (paper)

  14. Electrical conductivity studies of nanocrystalline lanthanum silicate synthesized by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nallamuthu, N.; Prakash, I.; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nanocrystalline La 10 Si 6 O 27 material was synthesized by sol-gel method. → TG/DTA curves predicted the thermal behavior of the material. → FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of SiO 4 and La-O network in the La 10 Si 6 O 27 . → XRD patterns confirmed the formation of pure crystalline La 10 Si 6 O 27 phase. → The grain interior and the grain boundary conductivities are evaluated. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline apatite type structured lanthanum silicate (La 10 Si 6 O 27 ) sample was synthesized by sol-gel process. Thermal behavior of the dried gel of lanthanum silicate sample was studied using TG/DTA. The structural coordination of the dried gel of lanthanum silicate, calcined at various temperatures, was identified from the observed FTIR spectral results. The observed XRD patterns of the calcined dried gel were compared with the ICDD data and confirmed the formation of crystalline lanthanum silicate phase. The average crystalline size of La 10 Si 6 O 27 was calculated using the Scherrer formula and it is found to be ∼80 nm. The observed SEM images of the lanthanum silicate indicate the formation of the spherical particles and the existence of O, Si and La in the lanthanum silicate are confirmed from the SEM-EDX spectrum. The grain and grain boundary conductivities are evaluated by analyzing the measured impedance data, using winfit software, obtained at different temperatures, of La 10 Si 6 O 27 sample. Also, the observed grain and grain boundary conductivity behaviors of the La 10 Si 6 O 27 sample are analysed using brick layer model. The electrical permittivity and electrical modulus were calculated from the measured impedance data and were analyzed by fitting through the Havriliak and Negami function to describe the dielectric relaxation behavior of the nanocrystalline lanthanum silicate.

  15. Lake responses following lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock) application: an analysis of water column lanthanum data from 16 case study lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, B.M.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Yasseri, S.; Castro-Castellon, A.T.; Gibbs, M.; Meis, S.; McDonald, C.; McIntosh, J.; Sleep, D.; Oosterhout, van F.

    2013-01-01

    Phoslock is a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite clay that is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of legacy phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. This study investigates the potential for negative ecological impacts from elevated La

  16. Synthesis of Ni nanoparticles in lanthanum chromite ceramic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinti, Victor Buratto; Florio, Daniel Zanetti de; Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Lanthanum chromite is a well-known interconnector for solid oxide fuel cells. It presents electronic conductivity at high temperatures. Moreover it is very stable in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Due to its high stability this material is a promising matrix to produce and stabilize nanoparticles by exothermal reaction. The objective of the present work is to synthesize and stabilize nickel nanoparticles in a stable ceramic matrix. Compounds of (La 1-x Sr x ) a (Cr 1-y Ni y )O 3 (x and y = 0, 0.1, and 0.2; a = 1, and 0.8) were synthesized by Pechini method. The powders were heat treated in air at 1300 °C and 1600°C in attempt to solubilise NiO in the matrix. Then the samples were exposed to a reducing treatment in H 2(g) flux at 900°C per 8 hours. XRD measurements were made using a D8 Focus, Bruker AXS. The data was acquired in a range of 2θ from 20° to 90°, with a step of 0,02° per second. Magnetic properties were investigated utilizing a SQUIDVSM from Quantum Design. Magnetic moment at constant magnetic field (100 Oe and 1000 Oe) was measured in a range of 2K to 300K. Analyses with variable magnetic field were performed at 2K, 196K and 390K in a rage from -5 up to 5 T. Samples were observed using TEM technique. The XRD results showed that the stoichiometric samples achieved desiderate phase. Compounds without Sr and non-stoichiometric lanthanum site showed an incomplete nickel solid solution. The addition of 10% of Sr decreases the Neel temperature from 289 K to 285K. Ni doping created a stronger effect, lowering the temperature down to 267 K , in the sample with 10% of dopant. After reduction is possible to observe peaks of Ni in the XRD, indicating that nickel was exoluted form the matrix. Images of TEM confirm the presence of nanoparticles with an approximate diameter of 3 nm. The reducing treatment increased the magnetic response. (author)

  17. Potentiometric measurement of polymer-membrane electrodes based on lanthanum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saefurohman, Asep, E-mail: saefurohman.asep78@Gmail.com; Buchari,, E-mail: saefurohman.asep78@Gmail.com; Noviandri, Indra, E-mail: saefurohman.asep78@Gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia); Syoni [Department of Metallurgy Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantitative analysis of rare earth elements which are considered as the standard method that has a high accuracy, and detection limits achieved by the order of ppm is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). But these tools are expensive and valuable analysis of the high cost of implementation. In this study be made and characterized selective electrode for the determination of rare earth ions is potentiometric. Membrane manufacturing techniques studied is based on immersion (liquid impregnated membrane) in PTFE 0.5 pore size. As ionophores to be used tri butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2-etylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate. There is no report previously that TBP used as ionophore in polymeric membrane based lanthanum. Some parameters that affect the performance of membrane electrode such as membrane composition, membrane thickness, and types of membrane materials studied in this research. Manufacturing of Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Lanthanum (La) by means of impregnation La membrane in TBP in kerosene solution has been done and showed performance for ISE-La. FTIR spectrum results for PTFE 0.5 pore size which impregnated in TBP and PTFE blank showed difference of spectra in the top 1257 cm{sup −1}, 1031 cm{sup −1} and 794.7 cm{sup −1} for P=O stretching and stretching POC from group −OP =O. The result showed shift wave number for P =O stretching of the cluster (−OP=O) in PTFE-TBP mixture that is at the peak of 1230 cm{sup −1} indicated that no interaction bond between hydroxyl group of molecules with molecular clusters fosforil of TBP or R{sub 3}P = O. The membrane had stable responses in pH range between 1 and 9. Good responses were obtained using 10{sup −3} M La(III) internal solution, which produced relatively high potential. ISE-La showed relatively good performances. The electrode had a response time of 29±4.5 second and could be use for 50 days. The linear range was between 10{sup −5} and 10{sup −1} M.

  18. Lanthanum lead boro-tellurite glasses doped with samarium trioxide for luminescent devices application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, A.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    Boro-tellurite based glasses (10La2O3-(20-x) TeO2-30PbO-40B2O3-xSm2O3) (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol %) doped with different concentrations of Sm3+ ions has been investigated. The optical properties have been studied through spectroscopic measurements such as absorption and luminescence. Absorption spectra reveals nine peaks due to 6H5/2→6P3/2, 4I3/2+4F5/2+4I11/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2, and 6H13/2 transitions. Luminescence spectra under the excitation of 403 nm display four emission bands due to 4G5/2→6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions of Sm3+ ions. Among them 6H7/2 bright orange -red is more intense which proves that the present glasses are potential candidates for luminescent device applications in visible range as well as optical fibre communication since its refractive index is 1.65 high compared to other glasses.

  19. Formulation and Assessment of a Wash-Primer Containing Lanthanum "Tannate" for Steel Temporary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Oriana; Selmi, Gonzalo J.; Deyá, Cecilia; Di Sarli, Alejandro; Romagnoli, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    Tannins are polyphenols synthesized by plants and useful for the coating industry as corrosion inhibitors. In addition, lanthanum salts have a great inhibitory effect on steel corrosion. The aim of this study was to obtain lanthanum "tannate" with adequate solubility to be incorporated as the corrosion inhibitor in a wash-primer. The "tannate" was obtained from commercial "Quebracho" tannin and 0.1 M La(NO3)3. The soluble tannin was determined by the Folin-Denis reagent, while the concentration of Lanthanum was obtained by a gravimetric procedure. The protective action of "tannate" on SAE 1010 steel was evaluated by linear polarization curves and corrosion potential measurements. Lanthanum "tannate" was incorporated in a wash-primer formulation and tested by corrosion potential and ionic resistance measurements. The corrosion rate was also determined by the polarization resistance technique. Besides, the primer was incorporated in an alkyd paint system and its anticorrosion performance assessed in the salt spray cabinet and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that lanthanum "tannate" primer inhibits the development of deleterious iron oxyhydroxides on the steel substrate and incorporated into a paint system had a similar behavior to the primer formulated with zinc tetroxychromate.

  20. Bifunctional lanthanum phosphate substrates as novel adsorbents and biocatalyst supports for perchlorate removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Sasidharan [Materials Science and Technology Division (India); Prajeesh, Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil; Anupama, Vijaya Nadaraja [Process Engineering and Environmental Technology Division, CSIR – National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Industrial Estate P.O., Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Krishnakumar, Bhaskaran [Process Engineering and Environmental Technology Division, CSIR – National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Industrial Estate P.O., Thiruvananthapuram 695019 (India); Academy of Scientific and Industrial Research (AcSIR) (India); Hareesh, Padinhattayil [Materials Science and Technology Division (India); Nair, Balagopal N. [R and D Centre, Noritake Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Warrier, Krishna Gopakumar [Materials Science and Technology Division (India); Academy of Scientific and Industrial Research (AcSIR) (India); Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair Saraswathy, E-mail: hareesh@niist.res.in [Materials Science and Technology Division (India); Academy of Scientific and Industrial Research (AcSIR) (India)

    2014-06-30

    Graphical abstract: Porous lanthanum phosphate substrates, obtained by an environmentally benign thermal gelation process, performed the role of dual functional sorbent facilitating perchlorate adsorption and bioremediation through the growth of perchlorate reducing microbial colonies. - Highlights: • Lanthanum phosphate monoliths as efficient perchlorate adsorbents. • And also as substrates for biofilm (perchlorate reducing bacteria) growth. • Environmentally benign thermal gelation process for substrate fabrication. • 98% adsorption efficiency for perchlorate concentrations up to 100 μg/L. • The regenerated monoliths show nearly 100% reusability. - Abstract: Porous lanthanum phosphate substrates, obtained by an environmentally benign colloidal forming process employing methyl cellulose, are reported here as excellent adsorbents of perchlorate with >98% efficiency and with 100% reusability. Additionally, the effectiveness of such substrates as biocatalyst supports that facilitate biofilm formation of perchlorate reducing microbes (Serratia marcescens NIIST 5) is also demonstrated for the first time. The adsorption of perchlorate ions is attributed to the pore structure of lanthanum phosphate substrate and the microbial attachment is primarily ascribed to its intrinsic hydrophobic property. Lanthanum phosphate thus emerges as a dual functional material that possesses an integrated adsorption/bioremediation property for the effective removal of ClO{sub 4}{sup −} which is an increasingly important environmental contaminant.

  1. Bifunctional lanthanum phosphate substrates as novel adsorbents and biocatalyst supports for perchlorate removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Prajeesh, Gangadharan Puthiya Veetil; Anupama, Vijaya Nadaraja; Krishnakumar, Bhaskaran; Hareesh, Padinhattayil; Nair, Balagopal N.; Warrier, Krishna Gopakumar; Hareesh, Unnikrishnan Nair Saraswathy

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Porous lanthanum phosphate substrates, obtained by an environmentally benign thermal gelation process, performed the role of dual functional sorbent facilitating perchlorate adsorption and bioremediation through the growth of perchlorate reducing microbial colonies. - Highlights: • Lanthanum phosphate monoliths as efficient perchlorate adsorbents. • And also as substrates for biofilm (perchlorate reducing bacteria) growth. • Environmentally benign thermal gelation process for substrate fabrication. • 98% adsorption efficiency for perchlorate concentrations up to 100 μg/L. • The regenerated monoliths show nearly 100% reusability. - Abstract: Porous lanthanum phosphate substrates, obtained by an environmentally benign colloidal forming process employing methyl cellulose, are reported here as excellent adsorbents of perchlorate with >98% efficiency and with 100% reusability. Additionally, the effectiveness of such substrates as biocatalyst supports that facilitate biofilm formation of perchlorate reducing microbes (Serratia marcescens NIIST 5) is also demonstrated for the first time. The adsorption of perchlorate ions is attributed to the pore structure of lanthanum phosphate substrate and the microbial attachment is primarily ascribed to its intrinsic hydrophobic property. Lanthanum phosphate thus emerges as a dual functional material that possesses an integrated adsorption/bioremediation property for the effective removal of ClO 4 − which is an increasingly important environmental contaminant

  2. Types of defect ordering in undoped and lanthanum-doped Bi2201 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovitsky, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    Undoped and lanthanum-doped Bi2201 single crystals having a perfect average structure have been comparatively studied by x-ray diffraction. The undoped Bi2201 single crystals exhibit very narrow satellite reflections; their half-width is five to six times smaller than that of Bi2212 single crystals grown by the same technique. This narrowness indicates three-dimensional defect ordering in the former crystals. The lanthanumdoped Bi2201 single crystals with x = 0.7 and T c = 8-10 K exhibit very broad satellite reflections consisting of two systems (modulations) misoriented with respect to each other. The modulation-vector components of these two modulations are found to be q 1 = 0.237b* + 0.277c* and q 2 = 0.238b* + 0.037c*. The single crystals having a perfect average structure and a homogeneous average distribution of doping lanthanum consist of 70-to 80-A-thick layers that alternate along the c axis and have two different types of modulated superlattice. The crystals having a less perfect average structure also consist of alternating layers, but they have different lanthanum concentrations. The low value of T c in the undoped Bi2201 single crystals (9.5 K) correlates with three-dimensional defect ordering in them, and an increase in T c to 33 K upon lanthanum doping can be related to a thin-layer structure of these crystals and to partial substitution of lanthanum for the bismuth positions

  3. Removal of Lanthanum (III) From Aqueous Solution Using Non-Living Water Hyacinth Roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.; Amer, H.A.; Shawky, S.; Shawky, S.; Kandil, A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of lanthanum (III) from aqueous solution using dried roots of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been investigated. The roots have been characterized by determining the ash percentage, the ph of the slurry, the elemental composition, the thermal gravimetric analysis, the surface area, the pore size, the zeta potential and ph of zero point charge. A surface area of 128 m 2 /g has been found and the micropore structure of the roots has been confirmed. Zeta potential and ph of zero point charge of the roots surfaces showed that they are positively charged within the ph range from 2 to 7.5. Sorption is rapid and depends on ph, weight of roots, concentration of lanthanum (III) and ionic strength. The sorption of lanthanum (III) was confirmed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the release of Ca +2 , Mg +2 and K +1 after sorption of lanthanum (III) have been indicated an ion exchange mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated surface complexation mechanism, and sorption isotherms and kinetics were discussed. The roots were tested for removal of radioactive lanthanum ( 140 La) from simulated radioactive waste. Accepted June 2013.

  4. Silica doped with lanthanum sol–gel thin films for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuín, M.; Serrano, A.; Llopis, J.; García, M.A.; Carmona, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present here anticorrosive silica coatings doped with lanthanum ions for the protection of metallic surfaces as an alternative to chromate (VI)-based conversion coatings. The coatings were synthesized by the sol–gel method starting from silicon alkoxides and two different lanthanum precursors: La (III) acetate hydrate and La (III) isopropoxide. Artificial corrosion tests in acid and alkaline media showed their effectiveness for the corrosion protection of AA2024 aluminum alloy sheets for coating prepared with both precursors. The X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure analysis of the coatings confirmed the key role of lanthanum in the structural properties of the coating determining its anticorrosive properties. - Highlights: ► Silica sol–gel films doped with lanthanum ions were synthesized. ► Films from lanthanum-acetate and La-alkoxide were prepared for comparison purposes. ► La-acetate is an affordable chemical reactive preferred for the industry. ► Films properties were explored by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray absorption spectroscopy. ► An alternative to anticorrosive pre-treatments for metallic surfaces is suggested.

  5. Silica doped with lanthanum sol-gel thin films for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, M. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Llopis, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanoscience, Fco. Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Carmona, N., E-mail: n.carmona@fis.ucm.es [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    We present here anticorrosive silica coatings doped with lanthanum ions for the protection of metallic surfaces as an alternative to chromate (VI)-based conversion coatings. The coatings were synthesized by the sol-gel method starting from silicon alkoxides and two different lanthanum precursors: La (III) acetate hydrate and La (III) isopropoxide. Artificial corrosion tests in acid and alkaline media showed their effectiveness for the corrosion protection of AA2024 aluminum alloy sheets for coating prepared with both precursors. The X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure analysis of the coatings confirmed the key role of lanthanum in the structural properties of the coating determining its anticorrosive properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica sol-gel films doped with lanthanum ions were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films from lanthanum-acetate and La-alkoxide were prepared for comparison purposes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La-acetate is an affordable chemical reactive preferred for the industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films properties were explored by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray absorption spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative to anticorrosive pre-treatments for metallic surfaces is suggested.

  6. Giant electrocaloric response in the prototypical Pb(Mg,Nb)O3 relaxor ferroelectric from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhijun; Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Prosandeev, S.; Wang, D.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Bellaiche, L.

    2018-03-01

    An atomistic effective Hamiltonian is used to investigate electrocaloric (EC) effects of Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3) O3 relaxor ferroelectrics in its ergodic regime, and subject to electric fields applied along the pseudocubic [111] direction. Such a Hamiltonian qualitatively reproduces (i) the electric field-versus-temperature phase diagram, including the existence of a critical point where first-order and second-order transitions meet each other; and (ii) a giant EC response near such a critical point. It also reveals that such giant response around this critical point is microscopically induced by field-induced percolation of polar nanoregions. Moreover, it is also found that, for any temperature above the critical point, the EC coefficient-versus-electric-field curve adopts a maximum (and thus larger electrocaloric response too), that can be well described by the general Landau-like model proposed by Jiang et al., [Phys. Rev. B 96, 014114 (2017)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.014114, and that is further correlated with specific microscopic features related to dipoles lying along different rhombohedral directions. Furthermore, for temperatures being at least 40 K higher than the critical temperature, the (electric field, temperature) line associated with this maximal EC coefficient is below both the Widom line and the line representing percolation of polar nanoregions.

  7. Memory phenomenon in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ye; Huang, Wei Min; Zhao, Yong; Ding, Zhen; Li, Yan; Tor, Shu Beng; Liu, Erjia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate two memory phenomena in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass (BMG). While the temperature memory effect (TME) is not found by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) test, shape recovery is observed in samples indented at both low and high temperatures. In terms of shape memory related characteristics, this BMG shares some features of shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to its metal nature, and some other features of shape memory polymers (SMPs) owing to its glassy–rubbery transition. The formation of protrusion in the polished sample after heating to super-cooled liquid region (SCLR) indicates that surface tension is not a necessarily positive contributor for shape recovery. Release of internal elastic stress is concluded as the major player. Although the amorphous nature of BMGs enables for storing appreciable amount of internal elastic stress upon deformation, without the presence of cross-linker as in typical SMPs, the shape recovery in BMGs is rather limited. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of shape recovery in BMG. • Surface tension is not the major reason for shape recovery in BMG. • Release of internal stress is the major contributor for shape recovery. • Comparison of shape memory features of BMG with other shape memory materials.

  8. Polarization study on doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte using impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.

    2004-06-01

    Alternating current complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/La1-x Sr x Ga1-y Mg y O3 (LSGM) electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes. Cathode materials include La1-x Sr x MnO3 (LSM), La1-x Sr x Co y Fe1-y O3 (LSCF), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM and doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + Ce0.85Gd0.15O2 composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolytes.

  9. Electronic Conductivity of Doped-Lanthanum Gallate Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Katsuhiko; Xiong, Yue Ping; Kishimoto, Haruo; Horita, Teruhisa; Sakai, Natsuko; Brito, Manuel E.; Yokokawa, Harumi

    Electronic conductivity of doped lanthanum gallate electrolytes were determined by using a Hebb-Wagner type polarization cell. Electronic conductivity of cobalt-doped, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.15Co0.5O3-δ (LSGMC), and non cobalt-doped, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.8 (LSGM8282), were measured as a function of oxygen partial pressures. The electronic conductivity of LSGM8282 showed a linear dependence on p(O2)1/4 in the higher p(O2) region, which is attributed to the electronic hole conductivity. The electronic conductivity of LSGMC showed a linear dependence on p(O2)1/6 in the higher p(O2) region. LSGMC has higher electronic conductivity than LSGM, and the conductivity was not clearly changed with temperatures between 600 and 800 °C. In lower p(O2) region, the electronic conductivity data have poor reproducibility and did not show any dependence on p(O2) because of the degradation of the electrolytes in severe reducing atmospheres.

  10. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianze Wang

    Full Text Available The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO4(2-, NO3(- and Cl(-; however, CO3(2- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  11. Europium-Doped Lanthanum Hafnate Nanoparticles: Structure, Photoluminescence, and Radioluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Kareem; Pokhrel, Madhab; Mao, Yuanbing

    Due to their novel physical properties, nanostructured phosphors are of interest for radiation-based imaging and therapeutics. Herein, the structural and luminescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum hafnate (La2Hf2O7:xmol%Eu3+, x = 0 - 35) nanoparticles are investigated for use as scintillators. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy confirm samples prepared through a combined co-precipitation and low-temperature molten salt synthetic process homogenously form spherical nanocrystals of 36 nm in the ordered pyrochlore phase. Ultraviolet and X-ray excitation of these samples induce strong red emissions in the 580 - 590 and 612 - 630 nm range corresponding to the 5D0->7 F1 magnetic dipole and 5D0->7 F2 electric dipole transitions of Eu3+. Optical response and quantum yield are optimized at 5% Eu3+; a proposed trade-off between quenching mechanisms (defect-states/cross-relaxation) and dopant concentration is discussed. Owing to their high density, large effective atomic number, and bright luminescence, these La2Hf2O7:xmol%Eu3+ nanoparticles warrant further investigation for scintillator applications. The authors thank the support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense (award #HDTRA1- 10-1-0114).

  12. Rare Earth Doped Lanthanum Calcium Borate Polycrystalline Red Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phased Sm3+ doped lanthanum calcium borate (SmxLa2−xCaB10O19, SLCB, x=0.06 polycrystalline red phosphor was prepared by solid-state reaction method. The phosphor has two main excitation peaks located at 398.5 nm and 469.0 nm, which are nicely in accordance with the emitting wavelengths of commercial near-UV and blue light emitting diode chips. Under the excitation of 398.0 nm, the dominant red emission of Sm3+ in SLCB phosphor is centered at 598.0 nm corresponding to the transition of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2. The Eu3+ fluorescence in the red spectral region is applied as a spectroscopic probe to reveal the local site symmetry in the host lattice and, hence, Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωt  (t=2, 4 of Eu3+ in the phosphor matrix are derived to be 3.62×10-20 and 1.97×10-20 cm2, indicating a high asymmetrical and strong covalent environment around rare earth luminescence centers. Herein, the red phosphors are promising good candidates employed in white light emitting diodes (LEDs illumination.

  13. Tm3+ activated lanthanum phosphate: a blue PDP phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma display panels (PDPs) are gaining attention due to their high performance and scalability as a medium for large format TVs. The performance and life of a PDP strongly depends upon the nature of phosphors. Currently, Eu 2+ activated barium magnesium aluminate (BAM) is being used as a blue component. Because of its low life, efforts are being made to explore new blue emitting phosphors. One of the alternatives to BAM is Tm 3+ activated lanthanum phosphate (LPTM) phosphor. LPTM phosphor samples are prepared by a solid-state as well as sol-gel process in presence of flux. The phosphor of the present investigation, having uniform and spherical shape particles in the range of 0.1-2 μm, is appropriate for thin phosphor screens required for PDP applications. It exhibits a narrow band emission in the blue region, peaking at 452 nm and also a number of narrow bands in the UV region when excited by 147 and 173 nm radiation from a xenon gas mixture. Various possible transitions responsible for UV and visible emission from Tm 3+ ion are presented. These phosphors also exhibit good color saturation and better stability when excited with VUV radiation. To achieve higher brightness, they are blended with other UV excited blue emitting phosphors such as BAM. Results related to morphology, excitation, after glow decay, emission and degradation of these phosphors in the powder form as well as in plasma display panels are presented and discussed

  14. Memory phenomenon in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ye [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Wei Min, E-mail: mwmhuang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Zhao, Yong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ding, Zhen [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tor, Shu Beng; Liu, Erjia [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate two memory phenomena in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass (BMG). While the temperature memory effect (TME) is not found by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) test, shape recovery is observed in samples indented at both low and high temperatures. In terms of shape memory related characteristics, this BMG shares some features of shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to its metal nature, and some other features of shape memory polymers (SMPs) owing to its glassy–rubbery transition. The formation of protrusion in the polished sample after heating to super-cooled liquid region (SCLR) indicates that surface tension is not a necessarily positive contributor for shape recovery. Release of internal elastic stress is concluded as the major player. Although the amorphous nature of BMGs enables for storing appreciable amount of internal elastic stress upon deformation, without the presence of cross-linker as in typical SMPs, the shape recovery in BMGs is rather limited. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of shape recovery in BMG. • Surface tension is not the major reason for shape recovery in BMG. • Release of internal stress is the major contributor for shape recovery. • Comparison of shape memory features of BMG with other shape memory materials.

  15. Synthesis of lanthanum tungstate interconnecting nanoparticles by high voltage electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keereeta, Yanee, E-mail: ynkeereeta@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} as one of semiconducting materials. • H.V. electrospinning was used to synthesize La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} interconnecting nanoparticles. • A promising material for photoemission. - Abstract: Lanthanum tungstate (La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}) interconnecting nanoparticles in the shape of fibers were successfully synthesized by electrospinning in combination with high temperature calcination. In this research, calcination temperature for the synthesis of the fibers evidently influenced the diameter, morphology and crystalline degree. The crystalline monoclinic La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} fibers with 200–700 nm in diameter, two main Raman peaks at 945 and 927 cm{sup −1}, FTIR stretching modes at 936 and 847 cm{sup −1}, 2.02 eV energy gap and 415–430 nm blue emission were synthesized by calcination of inorganic/organic hybrid fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface of the composite fibers before calcination was very smooth. Upon calcination the composite fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, they were transformed into nanoparticles join together in the shape of fibers with rough surface.

  16. Specific heat studies of lanthanum and yttrium sesquicarbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, B.; Stewart, G.R.; Giorgi, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The specific heats of the sesquicarbides LaC/sub 1.35/ and La/sub 0.9/Th/sub 0.1/C/sub 1.6/ (prepared by arc melting) and YC/sub 1.35/ (prepared by a high-pressure technique) have been measured for the first time. No bulk specific heat anomaly appears in either lanthanum compounds, even though (1) inductively measured superconducting transition temperatures are respectively high (11.0 K for LaC/sub 1.35/ and 12.7 K for La/sub 0.9/Th/sub 0.1/C/sub 1.6/) and (2) YC/sub 1.35/ is a bulk superconductor with a T/sub c/ = 10.5 K and Y/sub 0.7/Th/sub 0.3/C/sub 1.58/ (also prepared by high pressure) was previously reported to be a bulk superconductor with a T/sub c/ = 17.1 K. The apparent correlation with preparation technique is discussed

  17. Polarization of lanthanum nucleus by dynamic polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshikazu; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Kimio

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been carried out concerning the application of a dynamic polarization method to polarizing lanthanum fluoride single crystal to be employed as target in experiments with time reversal invariance. The present report briefly outlines the dynamic polarization method and describes some preliminary studies carried out so far. Dynamic polarization is of particular importance because no techniques are currently available that can produce highly polarized static nucleus. Spin interaction between electrons and protons (nuclei) plays a major role in the dynamic polarization method. In a thermal equilibrium state, electrons are polarized almost completely while most protons are not polarized. Positively polarized proton spin is produced by applying microwave to this system. The most hopeful candidate target material is single crystal of LaF 3 containing neodymium because the crystal is chemically stable and easy to handle. The spin direction is of great importance in experiments with time reversal invariance. The spin of neutrons in the target can be cancelled by adjusting the external magnetic field applied to a frozen polarized target. In a frozen spin state, the polarity decreases slowly with a relaxation time that depends on the external magnetic field and temperature. (N.K.)

  18. Effect of noble metal doping on the structural properties of lanthanum cobaltite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmadhikari, Dipti V.; Athawal, Anjali A.

    2016-01-01

    Pristine and Noble metal (Ag and Pd) doped lanthanum cobaltite samples have been synthesised by Hydrothermal method. Lanthanum in the A-Site and Co at B-site of Lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO 3 ) perovskites were partially doped by silver and palladium (4%). Crystal structure analysis revealed that the hydrothermal synthesis led to the formation of pure nanocrystalline perovskite structure. Morphological analysis of the samples shows that the noble metal doping affects the morphology of the samples. Pristine sample shows spherical to oval shaped particles while the doping results in the formation of irregular shaped, spherical and rod shaped particles. Silver doping results in the agglomeration of particles. The particles were observed to be fused with each other to form rod shaped structures in case of palladium doped samples. (author)

  19. PMR investigation into complexes of lanthanum and lutetium with ethylenediaminediacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostromina, N.A.; Novikova, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    Proton resonance spectra of ethylendiaminediacetic acid (EDDA) and EDDA mixtures with La and Lu as function of pH of solution was studied. Sequence of EDDA (A 2- ) protonation was established; cations H 3 A + and H 4 A 2+ were found; dissociation constants of above mentioned cations were determined. Formation of H 2 LnA 3+ , HLnA 2+ and LnA + complexes in EDDA-Ln (1:1) system was found. Difference in the bonds mobility of lanthanum and lutetium complexes was determined: lanthanum forms complexes with labile, lutetium with non-labile bonds. Information on complexes structure is collected. Acid dissociation constants of protonated complexes of lanthanum with EDDA were determined

  20. Exchange, x-ray and IR spectral behaviour of lanthanum and praseodymium exchanged zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.; Upreti, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Exchange behaviour of lanthanum and praseodymium ions in zeolite X involves three steps: preferential exchange, intrazeolitic exchange and irreversible exchange. At room temperature , higher exchange has been observed with La(III) than with Pr(III) which is attributed to the smaller hydrosphere of lanthanum than praseodymium. IR spectra of these zeolites in KBr pellets show a shift in the major Si-O stretching vibration of 972 cm -1 to higher frequencies. Their x-ray diffraction patterns remain unchanged except a large decrease of the line intensities caused by the absorption of x-rays by heavy La(III) and Pr(III) ions. The present study reports the preparation and physicochemical properties of lanthanum and praseodymium exchanged zeolite X. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. On dependence of stability of lanthanum complexes with aminopolycarboxylic acids on the complex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluehktov, N.S.; Meshkova, S.B.; Danilkovich, M.M.; Topilova, Z.M.

    1985-01-01

    Regularities in changes of stability constants of lanthanum complexes with aminopolycarboxylic acids (APA) versus their structure are studied, The stability of lathanum-APA complexes depends mainly on the number of carboxyl groups in a ligand molecule. At that, the highest stability constant is characteristic of a complex with a ligand, containing 3 nitrogen atoms and 5 carboxyl groups, in the presenoe of which the lanthanum ion coordination sphere gets satupated. The oxyethy group introduction into a ligand molecule also improves the lanthanum complex stability but to a lesser degree than during the introduction of a carboxyl group. The number of nitrogen atoms in a ligand polecule affects insignificantly the complex stability constant value, and the elongation of a chain of CH 2 groups, separating nitrogen atoms, reduces the constant to a -0.6 power

  2. The influence of lake water alkalinity and humic substances on particle dispersion and lanthanum desorption from a lanthanum modified bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Kasper; Balslev, Kristiane Astrid; Jensen, Henning S

    2017-11-15

    A 12 days laboratory study on potential desorption of Lanthanum (La) from a commercial La modified clay (Phoslock) was conducted using lake water from 17 Danish lakes with alkalinities between 0.02 and 3.7 meq L -1 and varying concentrations of DOC and humic acids (HA's). A similar study was conducted in artificial lake water with alkalinities from 0 to 2.5 meq L -1 in order to exclude interference from dissolved HA's. To test if La in solution (FLa) was associated with fine particles, the water samples were filtered sequentially through three filter sizes (1.2 μm, 0.45 μm and 0.2 μm), and finally, ultracentrifugation was used in an attempt to separate colloidal La from dissolved La. The study showed that higher FLa (up to 2.5 mg L -1 or 14% of the total La in the Phoslock) concentrations were found in soft water lakes compared to hard water lakes, probably due to dispersion of the clay at low alkalinities. In addition, this study showed that HA's seem to increase the FLa concentrations in soft water lakes, most likely through complexation of La retained in the Phoslock matrix. In summary, we conclude that elevated La concentrations in lake water after a Phoslock treatment should only be expected in soft water lakes rich in DOC and HA's. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of lake water alkalinity and humic substances on particle dispersion and lanthanum desorption from a lanthanum modified bentonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, Kasper; Balslev, Kristiane Astrid; Jensen, Henning S

    2017-01-01

    A 12 days laboratory study on potential desorption of Lanthanum (La) from a commercial La modified clay (Phoslock) was conducted using lake water from 17 Danish lakes with alkalinities between 0.02 and 3.7 meq L-1and varying concentrations of DOC and humic acids (HA's). A similar study...... was conducted in artificial lake water with alkalinities from 0 to 2.5 meq L-1in order to exclude interference from dissolved HA's. To test if La in solution (FLa) was associated with fine particles, the water samples were filtered sequentially through three filter sizes (1.2 μm, 0.45 μm and 0.2 μm...... at low alkalinities. In addition, this study showed that HA's seem to increase the FLa concentrations in soft water lakes, most likely through complexation of La retained in the Phoslock matrix. In summary, we conclude that elevated La concentrations in lake water after a Phoslock treatment should only...

  4. Separation of lanthanum from samarium on solid aluminum electrode in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Bin Ji; Mi-Lin Zhang; Xing Li; Xiao-Yan Jing; Wei Han; Yong-De Yan; Yun Xue; Zhi-Jian Zhang; Harbin Engineering University, Harbin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the separation of lanthanum from samarium on aluminum electrode at 773 K. The results from different electrochemical methods showed that Sm(III) and La(III) formed Al-Sm and Al-La intermetallic compounds on an aluminum electrode at electrode potential around -1.67 and -1.46 V, respectively. The electrochemical separation of lanthanum was carried out in LiCl-KCl-LaCl 3 -SmCl 3 melts on solid aluminum electrodes at 773 K by potentiostatic electrolysis at -1.45 V for 40 h and the separation efficiency was 99.1 %. (author)

  5. Lanthanum Deposition in the Stomach in the Absence of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-15

    In this case report, we describe two patients who showed a diffusely whitish mucosa in the posterior wall and the lesser curvature of the gastric body. The patients were serologically- and histopathologically-negative for Helicobacter pylori. Random biopsy specimens from the stomach revealed no regenerative changes, intestinal metaplasia, and/or foveolar hyperplasia in either of the patients. Although lanthanum deposition in the gastric mucosa has been reported to occur in close association with H. pylori-associated gastritis, our patients tested negative for H. pylori. These cases suggest that lanthanum deposition presents as whitish lesions in the gastric body in H. pylori-negative patients.

  6. Conductometric study of lanthanum chloride interaction with potash soaps of higher fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Sazonova, V.F.; Kornelli, M.Eh.; Shumilina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Interaction of lanthanum chloride with potassium salts of higher aliphatic acids, containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms, at room temperature in weakly acid media (pH=5.5) gives rise to neutral soaps of the La[CHsub(3)(CHsub(2))sub(n)COO]sub(3) composition, while in alkaline media (pH=8.0) base soaps of the LaOH[CHsub(3)(CHsub(2))sub(n)COO]sub(2) composition are formed. In acid solutions (pH=2.0) no interaction of lanthanum chloride with potassium soaps of the above carboxylic acids is observed

  7. Order parameters in lanthanum gallate lightly doped with manganese and paramagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Potapov, A. P.; Artyomov, M. Yu.; Guseva, V. B.

    2010-09-01

    The Cr3+ centers have been revealed, transitions at room temperature have been identified, and spin Hamiltonian parameters have been determined for the Cr3+ and Fe3+ triclinic centers in lanthanum gallate lightly doped with manganese. The principal axes of the fourth-rank fine-structure tensor for the Fe3+ triclinic centers have been established and used to determine the order parameters, i.e., the angles of rotation of oxygen octahedra of lanthanum gallate with respect to the perovskite structure. The order parameter in the rhombohedral phase has been estimated.

  8. Effects of adding lanthanum to Ni/ZrO2 catalysts on ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profeti, Luciene Paula Roberto; Habitzheuter, Filipe; Assaf, Elisabete Moreira

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic performance of Ni/ZrO 2 catalysts loaded with different lanthanum content for steam reforming of ethanol was investigated. Catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, temperature programmed reduction, and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. Results showed that lanthanum addition led to an increase in the degree of reduction of both NiO and nickel surface species interacting with the support, due to the higher dispersion effect. The best catalytic performance at 450 deg C was found for the Ni/12LZ catalyst, which exhibited an effluent gaseous mixture with the highest H 2 yield. (author)

  9. Lanthanum manganate based cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhl Joergensen, M.

    2001-07-01

    Composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aim was to study the oxygen reduction process in the electrode in order to minimise the voltage drop in the cathode. The electrodes contained a composite layer made from lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM) and yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and a layer of pure LSM aimed for current collection. The performance of the composite electrodes was sensitive to microstructure and thickness. Further, the interface between the composite and the current collecting layer proved to affect the performance. In a durability study severe deg-radation of the composite electrodes was found when passing current through the electrode for 2000 hours at 1000 deg. C. This was ascribed to pore formation along the composite interfaces and densification of the composite and current collector microstructure. An evaluation of the measurement approach indicated that impedance spectroscopy is a very sensitive method. This affects the reproducibility, as small undesirable variations in for instance the microstructure from electrode to electrode may change the impedance. At least five processes were found to affect the impedance of LSM/YSZ composite electrodes. Two high frequency processes were ascribed to transport of oxide ions/oxygen intermediates across LSM/YSZ interfaces and through YSZ in the composite. Several competitive elementary reaction steps, which appear as one medium frequency process in the impedance spectra, were observed. A low frequency arc related to gas diffusion limitation in a stagnant gas layer above the composite structure was detected. Finally, an inductive process, assumed to be connected to an activation process involving segregates at the triple phase boundary between electrode, electrolyte and gas phase, was found. (au)

  10. Back bombardment for dispenser and lanthanum hexaboride cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bakr

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The back bombardment (BB effect limits wide usage of thermionic rf guns. The BB effect induces not only ramping-up of a cathode’s temperature and beam current, but also degradation of cavity voltage and beam energy during a macropulse. This paper presents a comparison of the BB effect for the case of dispenser tungsten-base (DC and lanthanum hexaboride (LaB_{6} thermionic rf gun cathodes. For each, particle simulation codes are used to simulate the BB effect and electron beam dynamics in a thermionic rf gun cathode. A semiempirical equation is also used to investigate the stopping range and deposited heat power of BB electrons in the cathode material. A numerical simulation method is used to calculate the change of the cathode temperature and current density during a single macropulse. This is done by solving two differential equations for the rf gun cavity equivalent circuit and one-dimensional thermal diffusion equation. High electron emission and small beam size are required for generation of a high-brightness electron beam, and so in this work the emission properties of the cathode are taken into account. Simulations of the BB effect show that, for a pulse of 6  μs duration, the DC cathode experiences a large change in the temperature compared with LaB_{6}, and a change in current density 6 times higher. Validation of the simulation results is performed using experimental data for beam current beyond the gun exit. The experimental data is well reproduced using the simulation method.

  11. Effect of lanthanum on rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Ling-Ling; Guan, Zhen-Jun; Wei, Ya-Hui

    2012-06-01

    In present study, the effect of lanthanum (La) on the rooting of regenerated shoots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir was analyzed. Rooting occurred from regenerated shoots inoculated on a medium supplemented with La, the plant rooting hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), or both La and IAA together. The highest rooting efficiency (96%), root number/shoot (8.5), and root length (63 mm) were recorded in shoots cultured on medium containing 2.5 μM IAA combined with 100 μM La(3+). In order to elucidate the mechanism of rooting enhancement by La, we examined dynamic changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in plant tissue over time in culture. We found that the activities of peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly higher in plant tissue cultured in IAA plus La than in La or IAA alone. At the same time, the highest H(2)O(2) content was detected in plant tissue in the presence of 2.5 μM IAA plus 100 μM La(3+). In light of these data and previous results, we speculate that La enhanced IAA-induced rooting by acting as a mild abiotic stress to stimulate POX and SOD activities in plant cells. Then, IAA reacted with oxygen and POX to form the ternary complex enzyme-IAA-O(2) that dissociated into IAA radicals and O(2)(-). Subsequently, IAA-induced O(2)(-) readily converted to hydroxyl radical (HO·) via SOD-catalyzed dismutation. Finally, cell wall loosening and cell elongation occurred as a consequence of HO-dependent scission of wall components, leading to root growth. The treatment of IAA combined with La resulted in the highest plantlet survival (80%) compared to single treatments with IAA or La alone. These data suggest that rare earth elements enhance root morphogenesis and the growth of S. involucrata.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum complex (5-choloro-8-hydroxy quinoline) bis (2-2'bipyridine) lanthanum La(Bpy)2(5-Clq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Soam, Ankur; Bhargava, Parag

    2017-05-01

    Lanthanum complex, (5-choloro 8-hydroxy quinoline) bis (2-2'bipyridine) has been synthesized and characterized by different techniques. Lanthanum complex, La(Bpy)2(5-Clq) was characterized for structural, thermal and photoluminescence analysis. Structural analysis of this material was done by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy. Thermal analysis of this material was done by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and material shows the thermal stability up to 400°C. Absorption and emission spectra of the material was measured by UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Solution of this material La(Bpy)2(5-Clq) in ethanol showed absorption peak at 332 nm, which may be attributed due to (π - π*) transitions. The photoluminescence spectra of La(Bpy)2(5-Clq) in ethanol solution showed intense peak at 505 nm.

  13. Effects of lanthanum and acid rain stress on the bio-sequestration of lanthanum in phytoliths in germinated rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yong; Wang, Lihong; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-01-01

    REEs in the environment can be absorbed by plants and sequestered by plant phytoliths. Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions. Currently, the effects of REEs and acid rain on phytolith-REEs complex in plants are not yet fully understood. In this study, a high-silicon accumulation crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.), was selected as a representative of plants, and orthogonal experiments were conducted under various levels of lanthanum [La(III)] and pH. The results showed that various La(III) concentrations could significantly improve the efficiency and sequestration of phytolith La(III) in germinated rice seeds. A pH of 4.5 promoted phytolith La(III) sequestration, while a pH of 3.5 inhibited sequestration. Compared with the single treatment with La(III), the combination of La(III) and acid rain inhibited the efficiency and sequestration of phytolith La(III). Correlation analysis showed that the efficiency of phytolith La(III) sequestration had no correlation with the production of phytolith but was closely correlated with the sequestration of phytolith La(III) and the physiological changes of germinated rice seeds. Phytolith morphology was an important factor affecting phytolith La(III) sequestration in germinated rice seeds, and the effect of tubes on sequestration was more significant than that of dumbbells. This study demonstrated that the formation of the phytolith and La(III) complex could be affected by exogenous La(III) and acid rain in germinated rice seeds. PMID:29763463

  14. Structural characterization and properties of lanthanum film as chromate replacement for tinplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingqiao; Li Ning

    2007-01-01

    Sulfide-stain resistance of La-passivated, unpassivated and Cr-passivated tinplate was measured using a cysteine tarnish test. Corrosion behavior of these tinplates was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. The morphology, composition and thickness of lanthanum film were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), respectively. La-passivation treatment remarkably enhances sulfide-stain resistance of tinplate, and sulfide-stain resistance of La-passivated tinplate is slightly higher than that of Cr-passivated tinplate. La-passivation treatment also significantly improves corrosion protection property of tinplate. In contact with 3.5% NaCl solution, corrosion resistance of La-passivated tinplate is close to that of Cr-passivated tinplate, and in contact with 0.1 M citric-citrate buffer solution, corrosion resistance of La-passivated tinplate is higher than that of Cr-passivated tinplate. Lanthanum film is composed of spherical particles about 50-1000 nm in diameter, while most part of tinplate's surface is covered with the small particles about 50-200 nm. The film mainly consists of lanthanum and oxygen, which mainly exist as La 2 O 3 and its hydrates such as La(OH) 3 and LaOOH. The amount of lanthanum in the film is about 0.0409 g/m 2

  15. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  16. Effects of combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, G.; Pauwels, M.; Lürling, M.

    2017-01-01

    A low dose flocculant (FeCl3), combined with lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) as phosphate-binding agent, has been applied for eutrophication management in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands). After the treatment, the state of the lake shifted from hypertrophic to mesotrophic. Although

  17. Synthesis and investigation of saturated vapor pressure of lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium tris-isopropylcyclopentadienyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatykh, G.G.; Chernyaev, N.P.; Zverev, Yu.B.; Gavrishchuk, E.M.; Runovskaya, I.V.; Krupnova, Eh.F.; Chesnokova, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium tris-isopropylcyclopentadienyls are synthesized with corresponding unhydrous chlorides in tetrahydrofuran solution. Saturated vapour pressure of substances obtained is studied in the 150-262 deg C range by the statistic method using a compensation zero-manometer. Vapour pressure of the compounds in question is shown to increase with the growth of the rare earth element number [ru

  18. Interfacial layers in tape cast anode-supported doped lanthanum gallate SOFC elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, N.; De Silveira, G. [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, 405 Rochester Street, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) K1A OG3

    2003-04-01

    Lanthanum gallate doped with strontium and magnesium (LSGM) is a promising electrolyte system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reported formation of interfacial layers in monolithic type SOFCs based on lanthanum gallate is of concern because of its impact on the performance of the fuel cell. Planar anode-supported SOFC elements (without the cathode) were prepared by the tape casting technique in order to determine the nature of the anode/electrolyte interface after sintering. Two anode systems were studied, one a NiO-CeO{sub 2} cermet, and the other, a modified lanthanum gallate anode containing manganese. Sintering studies were conducted at 1250, 1300, 1350, 1400 and 1450 C to determine the effect of temperature on the interfacial characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a significant diffusion of Ni from the NiO-CeO{sub 2} anode resulting in the formation of an interfacial layer regardless of sintering temperature. Significant La diffusion from the electrolyte into the anode was also observed. In the case of the modified lanthanum gallate anode containing manganese, there was no interfacial layer formation, but a significant diffusion of Mn into the electrolyte was observed.

  19. The air oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zirconium at 500 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, D Q; Chen, X W; Zhou, Q G

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of lanthanum ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zirconium at 500 deg. C has been studied. Zirconium specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions using a MEVVA source at energy of 40 keV with a fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at maximum temperature of 130 deg. C, The weight gain curves were measured after being oxidized in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min, which showed that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of zirconium ion implanted with lanthanum compared with that of the as-received zirconium. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; and then the depth distributions of the elements in the surface of the samples were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3 deg. incident angles was employed to examine the modification of its phase transformation because of the lanthanum ion implantation in the oxide films. It was obviously fou...

  20. Scanning Auger microscopy study of lanthanum partitioning in sphene-based glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, W.H.; Hayward, P.J.; Watson, D.G.; Allen, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glass-ceramics are being investigated as possible hosts for the radioactive wastes that would result from recycling irradiated nuclear fuels. The partitioning of lanthanum in sphene-based glass-ceramics has been studied by scanning Auger electron microscopy for lanthanum concentrations from 0.2 to 2.0 mol.%. Sphene crystals (CaTiSiO 5 ) were located in the silica-rich glass matrix by recording digital Auger images of the calcium and titanium distributions. The sphene crystals were typically 0.5 to 5 μm in size and occupied approximately 40% of the total specimen volume. Auger spot analyses revealed that lanthanum was strongly partitioned into the sphene phase of phosphorus-free glass-ceramics; however, when a small amount of phosphorus was included in the glass-ceramic composition as a crystal nucleating agent, the lanthanum was concentrated in a third minor phase which also contained calcium, phosphorus and oxygen. Chemical shift effects in the Auger spectra of silicon, titanium and phosphorus showed evidence for electron-stimulated desorption of oxygen. (author)

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Lanthanum Complexes with Amino Acid Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀英; 张有娟; 杨林

    2001-01-01

    Six new complexes of lanthanum with amino acid Schiff base ligands, A-F, were prepared in methanol-aqueous solution. The composition and properties of the title complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis.

  2. Effect of lanthanum substitution on dielectric relaxation, impedance response, conducting and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Basharat, E-mail: bawant@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; Bhat, Bilal Hamid; Ahmad, Bhat Zahoor

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • The substitution of La affects the dielectric and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite. • The electric behaviour of the compound follows the Koop’s phenomenological theory. • The impedance study shows the role of grain boundaries to the electric properties of the compound. • The substitution of La to strontium hexaferrite reduces the resistive nature of grain boundaries. - Abstract: Lanthanum strontium hexaferrite Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x = 0, 0.08, 0.13 , 0.18) has been successfully synthesized by using citrate-precursor method and characterized by different techniques. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the sample is crystalline in nature and is of single phase with the space group P63/mmc. The dielectric, conducting and impedance related studies have been carried out as a function of frequency and concentration of lanthanum in the frequency ranges of 20 Hz–3 MHz. Impedance studies were performed in the frequency domain to distinguish between bulk and grain boundary contributions of the material to the overall dielectric response. The electric response of the material was also modeled by an equivalent circuit and different circuit parameters were calculated. Magnetic characterization of the material was also performed and the effect of lanthanum concentration was studied. The hysteresis loop obtained from the magnetometer showed that with the increase of lanthanum concentration, the saturation magnetisation decreases while as coercivity increases.

  3. Hydrocarbon conversion with cracking catalyst having co-combustion promoters lanthanum and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csicsery, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A composition useful in hydrocarbon conversion processes such as catalytic cracking comprises 0.05 to 10 weight percent lanthanum associated with a refractory support. The composition may also include 0.02 to 10 weight percent iron. The refractory support is a zeolitic crystalline aluminosilicate

  4. In situ XANES cell used for the study of lanthanum strontium cuprate deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke

    2011-01-01

    , maintaining charge neutrality, with the concentration of oxygen vacancies likely increasing at substitution ratios larger than Sr/La>0.08. During heating in air, the valence of copper ions in the structure increased. Upon exposure to NO at 500 °C the valence of copper ions in a lanthanum strontium cuprate...

  5. Thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlgren, E.O.; Poulsen, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of pure and 5, 10 and 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite are determined as function of temperature in air and of P-O2 at 1000 degrees C. At high temperatures the thermoelectric power is negative. Both thermoelectric power and conductivity...

  6. Energetically benign synthesis of lanthanum silicate through “silica garden” route and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    Lanthanum silicate synthesis through “silica garden” route has been reported as an alternative to energy intensive milling procedure. Under optimum conditions lanthanum chloride crystals react with water glass (sodium silicate) to produce self generating hollow lanthanum silicate precipitation tube(s) (LaSPT). The micro tubes are irregular, thick, white coloured and amorphous but are hierarchically built from smaller tubules of 10–20 nm diameters. They retain their amorphous nature on being heated up to 600 °C beyond which crystallization starts. The major phase in the LaSPT heated at 900 °C is La_2Si_2O_7. “As synthesized” LaSPT is heterogeneous and comprises non stoichiometric phases. The exterior and interior surfaces of these tubes are remarkably different in their morphology and chemical composition. LaSPT sintered at 1200 and 1300 °C show fair amount of ionic conductivity. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanum silicate precipitation tube (LaSPT) produced through ‘silica garden’ route offers a green alternative to energy intensive milling procedure. - Highlights: • La-silicate precipitation tube (LaSPT) synthesized via silica garden route. • The microtubes are irregular, thick, white coloured and amorphous. • They are hierarchically built from smaller tubules of 10–20 nm diameters. • The major phase in the LaSPT heated at 900 °C is La_2Si_2O_7. • LaSPT sintered at 1200 °C is fairly conducting.

  7. The oxidation of carbon monoxide over transition metal doped lanthanum manganates nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fal Desai, M.S.; Salker, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum manganates perovskites (ABO 3 ) has been widely studied and applied. Many perovskites with A and B sites doped with different metals show good catalytic activity in many oxidation reactions than the individual perovskite. In present study, an attempt has been made to show comparative account of CO oxidation by doping the B site with different cations using sol-gel method

  8. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  9. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Polar modes in relaxor PbMg.sub.1/3./sub.Nb.sub.2/3./sub.O.sub.3./sub. by hyper-Raman scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hehlen, B.; Simon, G.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 5 (2007), 052104/1-052104/3 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor * hyper -Raman scattering * lattice vibration * phonon spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  11. Superspin glass phase and hierarchy of interactions in multiferroic PbFe.sub.1/2./sub.Sb.sub.1/2./sub.O.sub.3./sub.: an analog of ferroelectric relaxors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, Valentyn; Stephanovich, V. A.; Savinov, Maxim; Maryško, Miroslav; Kuzian, R. O.; Kondakova, I.V.; Olekhnovich, N.M.; Pushkarev, A.V.; Radyush, Yu.V.; Raevski, I. P.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Prosandeev, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, Nov (2014), "113041-1"-"113041-19" ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11473S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multiferroics * spin glass * superantiferromagnetism * ferroelectrics * relaxors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.558, year: 2014

  12. Infrared and dielectric spectroscopy of the relaxor ferroelectric Sr.sub.0.61./sub.Ba.sub.0.39./sub.Nb.sub.2./sub.O.sub.6./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Savinov, Maxim; Kempa, Martin; Veljko, Sergiy; Kamba, Stanislav; Petzelt, Jan; Pankrath, R.; Kapphan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2005), s. 653-666 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * dielectric relaxation * phonons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2005

  13. Textile Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution using Modified Graphite Waste/Lanthanum/Chitosan Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, E.; Wicaksono, B.; Yulizar, Y.; Prasetyanto, EA; Gunawan, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated various pre-treatment processes of graphite waste using thermal, mechanical and chemical methods. The aim of this work is to study the performance of modified graphite waste/lanthanum/chitosan composite (MG) as adsorbent for textile dye removal from aqueous solution. Effect of graphite waste resources, adsorbent size and lanthanum concentration on the dye removal were studied in batch experiments. Selectivity of MG was also investigated. Pre-heated graphite waste (NMG) was conducted at 80°C for 1 h, followed by mechanical crushing of the resultant graphite to 75 μm particle size, giving adsorption performance of ˜58%, ˜67%, ˜93% and ˜98% of the model dye rhodamine B (concentration determined by UV-vis spectroscopy at 554 nm), methyl orange (464 nm), methylene blue (664 nm) and methyl violet (580 nm), respectively from aqueous solution. For this process, the system required less than ˜5 min for adsorbent material to be completely saturated with the adsorbate. Further chemical modification of the pre-treated graphite waste (MG) with lanthanum (0.01 – V 0.03 M) and chitosan (0.5% w/w) did not improve the performance of dye adsorption. Under comparable experimental conditions, as those of the ‘thermal-mechanical-pre-treated-only’ (NMG), modification of graphite waste (MG) with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan resulted in ˜14%, ˜47%, ˜72% and ˜85% adsorption of rhodamine B, methyl orange, methylene blue and methyl violet, respectively. Selective adsorption of methylene blue at most to ˜79%, followed by methyl orange, methyl violet and rhodamine B with adsorption efficiency ˜67, ˜38, and ˜9% sequentially using MG with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan.

  14. Effects of lanthanum exposure on elemental distribution in rat brains measured by synchrotron radiation XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liuxing; Xiao Haiqing; He Xiao; Liu Nianqing; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Zhang Zhiyong

    2005-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a coherent series of 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium and possessing very similar chemical properties. In recent decades, with the rapid increase of the exploitation of REE resources and their applications to modern industry and daily life, particularly to agriculture as fertilizer additives in China, more and more REEs are coming into environmental system as well as food chain through various ways. It has become increasingly important to obtain more information on the physiological function of REEs and their long-term biological effects on body of living beings. Epidemiological investigations found that the intelligence quotients (IQ) of children from the REE-high background regions are obviously different from that of the normal region. This indicated that REEs probably affect the function of brain. However, the mechanism is totally unknown. The contents and distributions of major and trace elements are sometimes good indicators of the physiological and pathological conditions of human and animal brains In this study, the effects of subchronic lanthanum exposure on the elemental distribution in the rat brains were studied. Wistar rats were exposed to lanthanum chloride through oral administration at O, 0.1, 2, and 40-mg/kg doses for 6 months. The elements such as Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in brain slices were identified by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis. Differences in two-dimensional maps of elemental distribution were noticed. Cl, Ca, and Zn were primarily concentrated in hippocampus of the controls. With the increase of the lanthanum dosage, the Ca and Zn levels were significantly decreased, while the Cu levels were significantly elevated in cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Our results suggest that subchronic lanthanum exposure in rats appears to change elemental distribution in brain. The impact of lanthanides on brain function is not negligible.

  15. Effect of preparation technique of hydrated zirconium(4) dioxide on sorption of microimpurities of nonferrous metals, iron(3) and thorium(4) from lanthanum(3) nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekrenev, A.V.; Pyartman, A.K.; Belousov, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of peculiarities of hydrated zirconium(4) dioxide (HZD) synthesis on reproducibility of its sorption properties. It is shown that change of zirconium(4) concentration in basic solution within the limits of 0-1.0 mol/dm 3 its HCl acidity from 0 up to 1.0 mol/dm 3 concentration of NaOH solution used for HZD precipitation within the limits of 1.0-10.0 mol/dm 3 the final pH value of HZD gel from 10 up to 14 affects slightly the impurity element sorption from lanthanum nitrate solution. Freezing of HZD leads to increase of capacity and decrease of selectivity of sorbent samples with respect to impurity ions (Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Bi 3+ , Fe 3+ , Th 4+ ); increase of the time of gel ripening leads to decrease of capacity and growth of selectivity

  16. High-temperature, Knudsen cell-mass spectroscopic studies on lanthanum oxide/uranium dioxide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; McEachern, R.; LeBlanc, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Knudsen cell-mass spectroscopic experiments were carried out with lanthanum oxide/uranium oxide solid solutions (1%, 2% and 5% (metal at.% basis)) to assess the volatilization characteristics of rare earths present in irradiated nuclear fuel. The oxidation state of each sample used was conditioned to the 'uranium dioxide stage' by heating in the Knudsen cell under an atmosphere of 10% CO 2 in CO. The mass spectra were analyzed to obtain the vapour pressures of the lanthanum and uranium species. It was found that the vapour pressure of lanthanum oxide follows Henry's law, i.e., its value is directly proportional to its concentration in the solid phase. Also, the vapour pressure of lanthanum oxide over the solid solution, after correction for its concentration in the solid phase, is similar to that of uranium dioxide. (authors)

  17. The study of interaction of lanthanum-, cerium- and neodymium chlorides with sodium borohydride in pyridine- and tetrahydrofuran medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Rotenberg, T.G.; Dymova, T.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bis-tetrahydrofurans of lanthanum and neodymium borohydrides and bis-pyridinates of lanthanum, cerium and neodymium borohydrides were obtained by interacting sodium borohydride with lanthanum-, cerium and neodymium chlorides in pyridine and tetrahydrofuran media. All operations involving reagent combination, sampling and phase separation are performed in inert atmosphere using argonvacuum equipment. The reaction in pyridine was virtually instantaneous and accompanied by flocculanet precipitation. The interaction of lanthanum chloride and neodymium chloride with sodium borohydride in tetrahydrofuran (THF) was a slow (23-30 hr) heterophase process. The interaction rate was affected by size reduction of the intial substances, temperature, reagent proportion and mixing rate. The reaction time was twice reduced with boiling tetrahydrofuran

  18. Lanthanum and yttrium oxysulfides activated by europium: (Ln1-x Eux)2 O2 S - Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The synthesis of lanthanum and yttrium oxysulfides activated by europium were obtained by thermal decomposition of lanthanum and yttrium oxalates doped with europium, under an argon and sulphur atmosphere. The thermal decomposition of these compounds is studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The characterization of these oxysulfides were made by chemical analyses, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and emission spectroscopy. (M.V.M.)

  19. An Ultrathin Single Crystalline Relaxor Ferroelectric Integrated on a High Mobility Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, Reza M. [Department; Xiao, Zhiyong [Department; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar [Department; Grimley, Everett D. [Department; Bowden, Mark [Environmental; amp, Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ong, Phuong-Vu [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Chambers, Scott A. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Lebeau, James M. [Department; Hong, Xia [Department; Sushko, Peter V. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ngai, Joseph H. [Department

    2017-09-13

    The epitaxial growth of multifunctional oxides on semiconductors has opened a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor device technologies. In particular, ferroelectric materials integrated on semiconductors could lead to low-power field-effect devices that can be used for logic or memory. Essential to realizing such field-effect devices is the development of ferroelectric metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, in which the polarization of a ferroelectric gate is coupled to the surface potential of a semiconducting channel. Here we demonstrate that ferroelectric MOS capacitors can be realized using single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 (x= 0.7) that has been epitaxially grown on Ge. We find that the ferroelectric properties of SrZrxTi1-xO3 are exceptionally robust, as gate layers as thin as 5 nm give rise to hysteretic capacitance-voltage characteristics that are 2 V in width. The development of ferroelectric MOS capacitors with gate thicknesses that are technologically relevant opens a pathway to realize scalable ferroelectric field-effect devices.

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of lanthanum conversion coating on Mg-Li alloy and its corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dalei; Jing Xiaoyan; Wang Jun; Lu Shanshan; Yang Piaoping; Wang Yanli; Zhang Milin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → The method of microwave is used to synthesize lanthanum conversion coating. → Lanthanum conversion coating on Mg-Li alloy was studied. → Different conditions between room temperature and microwave were compared. → The corrosion behavior of lanthanum conversion coatings was studied. → The corrosion mechanism of lanthanum conversion coatings was studied. - Abstract: Lanthanum-based conversion coating on Mg-Li alloy has been prepared by a microwave-assisted method. X-ray diffractions (XRD) indicate that the intermetallic compounds of lanthanum are formed on Mg-Li alloy surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the coating has different morphologies and special structures. The corrosion resistance was assessed by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The results indicate that this coating significantly reduces the corrosion rate of Mg-Li alloy in NaCl solution. A comparing experiment indicates that the coating prepared by microwave-assisted process has superior corrosion resistance to the coating obtained at room temperature.

  1. XPS characterisation of in situ treated lanthanum oxide and hydroxide using tailored charge referencing and peak fitting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunding, M.F.; Hadidi, K.; Diplas, S.; Lovvik, O.M.; Norby, T.E.; Gunnaes, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gold particles deposited in vacuum as energy reference for insulating samples in XPS. → Separation of La 3d and MNN peaks in XP spectra acquired with Al Kα radiation. → We describe the spectral differences between lanthanum oxide and lanthanum hydroxide. → A doublet in O 1s of La 2 O 3 is ascribed to two distinct oxygen sites in the crystal. - Abstract: A technique is described for deposition of gold nanoparticles under vacuum, enabling consistent energy referencing of X-ray photoelectron spectra obtained from lanthanum hydroxide La(OH) 3 and in situ treated lanthanum oxide La 2 O 3 powders. A method is also presented for the separation of the overlapping lanthanum 3d and MNN peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectra acquired with Al Kα radiation. The lower satellite intensity in La(OH) 3 compared to La 2 O 3 is related to the higher ionicity of the La-O bond in the former compared to the latter compound. The presence of an additional peak in the valence band spectrum of the hydroxide compared to the oxide is attributed to the O-H bond as indicated by density functional theory based calculations. A doublet in the O 1s peak of lanthanum oxide is associated to the presence of two distinct oxygen sites in the crystal structure of this compound.

  2. XPS characterisation of in situ treated lanthanum oxide and hydroxide using tailored charge referencing and peak fitting procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunding, M.F., E-mail: m.f.sunding@fys.uio.no [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Hadidi, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Diplas, S. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Material Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Lovvik, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Norby, T.E. [Department of Chemistry and Centre for Material Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Gunnaes, A.E. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Gold particles deposited in vacuum as energy reference for insulating samples in XPS. {yields} Separation of La 3d and MNN peaks in XP spectra acquired with Al K{alpha} radiation. {yields} We describe the spectral differences between lanthanum oxide and lanthanum hydroxide. {yields} A doublet in O 1s of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is ascribed to two distinct oxygen sites in the crystal. - Abstract: A technique is described for deposition of gold nanoparticles under vacuum, enabling consistent energy referencing of X-ray photoelectron spectra obtained from lanthanum hydroxide La(OH){sub 3} and in situ treated lanthanum oxide La{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. A method is also presented for the separation of the overlapping lanthanum 3d and MNN peaks in X-ray photoelectron spectra acquired with Al K{alpha} radiation. The lower satellite intensity in La(OH){sub 3} compared to La{sub 2}O{sub 3} is related to the higher ionicity of the La-O bond in the former compared to the latter compound. The presence of an additional peak in the valence band spectrum of the hydroxide compared to the oxide is attributed to the O-H bond as indicated by density functional theory based calculations. A doublet in the O 1s peak of lanthanum oxide is associated to the presence of two distinct oxygen sites in the crystal structure of this compound.

  3. Order-disorder phenomenon in lead scandium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.C.; Schulze, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lead scandium tatalate (PST) is a ferroelectric relaxor with the perovskite structure of A(B'B double-prime)O 3 . By suitable heat treatment, the B-site cations can be brought from a structurally disordered state into various degree of ordering. The degree of ordering is strongly affected by the amount of vacancies present in the materials. To suppress PbO loss during the sintering or annealing process, a PbO-rich atmosphere is supplied by materials having high PbO vapor pressure, such as PbZrO 3 . For PST ceramics with nearly zero weight loss, very long annealing times and higher annealing temperatures are required for ordering. The higher PbO-loss materials are found to be easily ordered. The introduction of a reducing atmosphere during annealing enhances the ordering process. The ordering process is characterized quantitatively by X-ray diffraction and qualitatively by Raman spectroscopy

  4. Fabrication of large-volume, low-cost ceramic lanthanum halide scintillators for gamma ray detection : final report for DHS/DNDO/TRDD project TA-01-SL01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Yang, Pin; Chen, Ching-Fong; Sanchez, Margaret R.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2008-10-01

    This project uses advanced ceramic processes to fabricate large, optical-quality, polycrystalline lanthanum halide scintillators to replace small single crystals produced by the conventional Bridgman growth method. The new approach not only removes the size constraint imposed by the growth method, but also offers the potential advantages of both reducing manufacturing cost and increasing production rate. The project goal is to fabricate dense lanthanum halide ceramics with a preferred crystal orientation by applying texture engineering and solid-state conversion to reduce the thermal mechanical stress in the ceramic and minimize scintillation light scattering at grain boundaries. Ultimately, this method could deliver the sought-after high sensitivity and <3% energy resolution at 662 keV of lanthanum halide scintillators and unleash their full potential for advanced gamma ray detection, enabling rapid identification of radioactive materials in a variety of practical applications. This report documents processing details from powder synthesis, seed particle growth, to final densification and texture development of cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3}) ceramics. This investigation demonstrated that: (1) A rapid, flexible, cost efficient synthesis method of anhydrous lanthanum halides and their solid solutions was developed. Several batches of ultrafine LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3} powder, free of oxyhalide, were produced by a rigorously controlled process. (2) Micron size ({approx} 5 {micro}m), platelet shape LaBr{sub 3} seed particles of high purity can be synthesized by a vapor phase transport process. (3) High aspect-ratio seed particles can be effectively aligned in the shear direction in the ceramic matrix, using a rotational shear-forming process. (4) Small size, highly translucent LaBr{sub 3} (0.25-inch diameter, 0.08-inch thick) samples were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular consolidation process. (5) Large size, high density

  5. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  6. The effect of samarium doping on structure and enhanced thermionic emission properties of lanthanum hexaboride fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenlin; Hu, Qianglin [College of Mathematics and Physics, Jinggangshan University, Jian (China); Zhang, Jiuxing; Liu, Danmin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Huang, Qingzhen [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, MD (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Single-phase polycrystalline solid solutions (La{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x})B{sub 6} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1) are fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). This study demonstrates a systematic investigation of structure-property relationships in Sm-doped LaB{sub 6} ternary rare-earth hexaborides. The microstructure, crystallographic orientation, electrical resistivity, and thermionic emission performance of these compounds are investigated. Analysis of the results indicates that samarium (Sm) doping has a noticeable effect on the structure and performance of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}). The analytical investigation of the electron backscatter diffraction confirms that (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} exhibits a clear (001) texture that results in a low work function. Work functions are determined by pulsed thermionic diode measurements at 1500-1873 K. The (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} possesses improved thermionic emission properties compared to LaB{sub 6}. The current density of (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} is 42.4 A cm{sup -2} at 1873 K, which is 17.5% larger than that of LaB{sub 6}. The values of Φ{sub R} for (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} and LaB{sub 6} are 1.98 ± 0.03 and 1.67 ± 0.03 eV, respectively. Furthermore, the Sm substitution of lanthanum (La) effectively increases the electrical resistivity. These results reveal that Sm doping lead to significantly enhanced thermionic emission properties of LaB{sub 6}. The compound (La{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4})B{sub 6} appears most promising as a future emitter material. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Selective isotope determination of lanthanum by diode-laser-initiated resonance-ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    A diode-laser step has been incorporated into a resonance-ionization mass spectrometry optical excitation process to enhance the isotopic selectivity of the technique. Lanthanum isotope ratio enhancements as high as 10 3 were achieved by use of a single-frequency cw diode laser tuned to excite the first step of a three-step excitation--ionization optical process; the subsequent steps were excited by use of a pulsed dye laser. Applying the same optical technique, we measured atomic hyperfine constants for the high-lying even-parity 4 D 5/2 state of lanthanum at 30 354 cm --1 . The general utility of this spectral approach is discussed

  8. Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmińska, Dorota; Wawer, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sequence of volumes and compressibilities of Ln 3+ ions in DMSO is: La 3+ > Gd 3+ 3+ . ► Sequence of the partial molar volumes do not change with temperature. ► These results are the consequence of nature of the ion–solvent bonding. - Abstract: Temperature dependencies of the densities of dimethylsulfoxide solutions of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates have been determined over a wide range of concentrations. The apparent molar volumes and partial molar volumes of the salts at infinite dilution, as well as the expansibilities of the salts, have been calculated from density data. Additionally, the apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of lanthanum, gadolinium and lutetium trifluoromethanesulfonates have been calculated from sound velocity data at 298.15 K. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of ion−solvent interactions.

  9. Paramagnetic resonance of Mn4+ and Mn2+ centers in lanthanum gallate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Potapov, A. P.; Guseva, V. B.; Artyomov, M. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    An increase in the manganese concentration in lanthanum gallate in the range 0.5-5.0% has been found to result in a complete replacement of individual Mn4+ ions by Mn2+ ions. The relative concentrations and binding energies of individual Mn4+, Mn3+, and Mn2+ ions have been determined. The spin Hamiltonians of the Mn2+ and Mn4+ centers in the rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases, respectively, have been constructed and the orientation of the principal axes of the fine-structure tensor of Mn4+ at room temperature has been found. The possibility of using electron paramagnetic resonance for determining the rotation angles of oxygen octahedra of lanthanum gallate with respect to the perovskite structure has been discussed.

  10. Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites—A potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-03-03

    Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300 K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} was observed near 300 K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300 K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300 K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62 K at 280 K.

  11. The rare earth element (REE) lanthanum (La) induces hormesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Calabrese, Edward J

    2018-07-01

    Lanthanum is a rare earth element (REE) which has been extensively studied due to its wide application in numerous fields with a potential accumulation in the environment. It has long been known for its potential to stimulate plant growth within a hormetic-biphasic dose response framework. This article provides evidence from a series of high resolution studies published within the last two decades demonstrating a substantial and significant occurrence of lanthanum-induced hormesis in plants. These findings suggest that hormetic responses should be built into the study design of hazard assessment study protocols and included in the risk assessment process. Hormesis also offers the opportunity to substantially improve cost benefit estimates for environmental contaminants, which have the potential to induce beneficial/desirable effects at low doses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Aluminum in Dialysis Concentrates by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Coprecipitation with Lanthanum Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Emine Kılıçkaya; Şahin, Uğur; Şahan, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    This method was developed for the determination of trace amounts of aluminum(III) in dialysis concentrates using atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with lanthanum phosphate. The analytical parameters that influenced the quantitative coprecipitation of analyte including amount of lanthanum, amount of phosfate, pH and duration time were optimized. The % recoveries of the analyte ion were in the range of 95-105 % with limit of detection (3s) of 0.5 µg l -1 . Preconcentration factor was found as 1000 and Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) % value obtained from model solutions was 2.5% for 0.02 mg L -1 . The accuracy of the method was evaluated with standard reference material (CWW-TMD Waste Water). The method was also applied to most concentrated acidic and basic dialysis concentrates with satisfactory results.

  13. Molecular absorption spectra of beryllium, cerium, lanthanum, iron, and platinum salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro

    1980-01-01

    The absorption spectra of some salts of beryllium, cerium, lanthanum, iron and platinum in air-acetylene flame were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm. A Hitachi 207 type atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used. A deuterium lamp, a home-made continuous radiation lamp and some hollow cathode lamps were used as light sources. The new molecular absorption spectra of cerium, lanthanum and platinum and the absorption spectra due to Be(OH) 2 , LaO, PtH, FeO and FeCl in 200-400 nm region were obtained. Emission spectra of CeO, LaO and FeOH were also obtained. These molecular absorption bands were estimated as absorption errors of maximum 15 times to the sensitivity of each elements in atomic absorption spectrometry. In addition, spectral line interferences of iron were observed in atomic absorption spectrometry of Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Cr. (author)

  14. Oriented growing and anisotropy of emission properties of lanthanum hexaboride single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, V.I.; Lotsko, D.V.; Platonov, V.F.; Kovalev, A.V.; Galasun, A.P.; Matvienko, A.A.; Klinkov, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride with preset crystallographic orientation are grown by the method of crucible-free zone melting. It is shown that oriented growing of single crystals of the given compound is possible only when using seed crystals of the required orientation because no predominant orientation of the LaB 6 growth is found in case of spontaneous crystallization. Orientation of spontaneously growing LaB 6 crystals does not depend on their growth rate, degree of the melt diffusion annealing, purity of the inital powder. Anisotropy of the electronic work function for single crystal lanthanum hexaboride is confirmed. Its value grows as (100)<(110)<(111). Conditions of the preliminary thermovacuum purification of the surface are shown to affect the measured work function

  15. Evaluation and comparison of two complexometric titration methods for determining of lanthanum in cloridric solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, M.F.; Santos, R.L.C. dos; Goes, M.A.C. de

    1994-01-01

    The fast determination of total rare earth concentration in aqueous solutions is based on titrimetric methods using EDTA as complexing agent. This paper evaluates two among several others titrimetric methods used in the determination of lanthanum in hydrochloric acid solutions, using xylenol orange and a mixture of methyl orange and xylenol orange as indicators. The applied statistical evaluation allowed the determination of the stability, accuracy and adequacy of these methods on a given technical specification. (author). 12 refs., 03 tabs., 01 fig

  16. Room temperature synthesis of high temperature stable lanthanum phosphate–yttria nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Sasidharan; Raj, Athira N.; Jyothi, C.K.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile aqueous sol–gel route involving precipitation–peptization mechanism followed by electrostatic stabilization is used for synthesizing nanocrystalline composite containing lanthanum phosphate and yttria. Highlights: ► A novel lanthanum phosphate–Y 2 O 3 nano composite is synthesized for the first time using a modified facile sol gel process. ► The composite becomes crystalline at 600 °C and X-ray diffraction pattern is indexed for monoclinic LaPO 4 and cubic yttria. ► The composite synthesized was tested up to 1300 °C and no reaction between the phases of the constituents is observed with the morphologies of the phases being retained. -- Abstract: A facile aqueous sol–gel route involving precipitation–peptization mechanism followed by electrostatic stabilization is used for synthesizing nanocrystalline composite containing lanthanum phosphate and yttria. Lanthanum phosphate (80 wt%)–yttria (20 wt%) nano composite (LaPO 4 –20%Y 2 O 3 ), has an average particle size of ∼70 nm after heat treatment of precursor at 600 °C. TG–DTA analysis reveals that stable phase of the composite is formed on heating the precursor at 600 °C. The TEM images of the composite show rod shape morphology of LaPO 4 in which yttria is acquiring near spherical shape. Phase identification of the composite as well as the phase stability up to 1300 °C was carried out using X-ray diffraction technique. With the phases being stable at higher temperatures, the composite synthesized should be a potential material for high temperature applications like thermal barrier coatings and metal melting applications.

  17. Preparation, characterization and optical properties of Lanthanum-(nanometer MCM-41) composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Q. Z.; Wang, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nanometer MCM-41 molecular sieve was prepared under a base condition by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template and tetraethyl orthosilicate as silica source by means of hydrothermal method. Lanthanum(III) was incorporated into the nanometer MCM-41 by a liquid phase grafting method. The prepared nano composite materials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique, solid diffuse reflectance absorption spectra and luminescence. The powder X-ray diffraction studies show that the nanometer MCM-41 molecular sieve is successfully prepared. The highly ordered meso porous two-dimensional hexagonal channel structure and framework of the support MCM-41 is retained intact in the prepared composite material La-(nanometer MCM-41). The spectrophotometric analysis indicates that lanthanum exists in the prepared nano composite materials. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicate that the framework of the MCM-41 molecular sieve still remains in the prepared nano composite materials and some framework vibration peaks show blue shifts relative to those of the MCM-41 molecular sieve. The low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption indicates that the guest locales in the channel of the molecular sieve. Compared with bulk lanthanum oxide, the guest in the channel of the molecular sieve has smaller particle size and shows a significant blue shift of optical absorption band in solid diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. The observed blue shift in the solid state diffuse reflectance absorption spectra of the lanthanum-(nanometer MCM-41) sample show the obvious stereoscopic confinement effect of the channel of the host on the guest, which further indicates the successful encapsulation of the guest in the host. The La-(nanometer MCM-41) sample shows luminescence

  18. Energetically benign synthesis of lanthanum silicate through “silica garden” route and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kavita [Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi (India); Bhattacharjee, Santanu, E-mail: santanu@nmlindia.org [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2017-06-15

    Lanthanum silicate synthesis through “silica garden” route has been reported as an alternative to energy intensive milling procedure. Under optimum conditions lanthanum chloride crystals react with water glass (sodium silicate) to produce self generating hollow lanthanum silicate precipitation tube(s) (LaSPT). The micro tubes are irregular, thick, white coloured and amorphous but are hierarchically built from smaller tubules of 10–20 nm diameters. They retain their amorphous nature on being heated up to 600 °C beyond which crystallization starts. The major phase in the LaSPT heated at 900 °C is La{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. “As synthesized” LaSPT is heterogeneous and comprises non stoichiometric phases. The exterior and interior surfaces of these tubes are remarkably different in their morphology and chemical composition. LaSPT sintered at 1200 and 1300 °C show fair amount of ionic conductivity. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanum silicate precipitation tube (LaSPT) produced through ‘silica garden’ route offers a green alternative to energy intensive milling procedure. - Highlights: • La-silicate precipitation tube (LaSPT) synthesized via silica garden route. • The microtubes are irregular, thick, white coloured and amorphous. • They are hierarchically built from smaller tubules of 10–20 nm diameters. • The major phase in the LaSPT heated at 900 °C is La{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. • LaSPT sintered at 1200 °C is fairly conducting.

  19. Impact of Annealing Temperature on the Physical Properties of the Lanthanum Deficiency Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skini Ridha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The lanthanum deficiency manganites La0.8-x□xCa0.2MnO3 (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2, where □ is a lanthanum vacancy, were prepared using the classic ceramic methods with different thermal treatments (1373 K and 973 K. The structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of these compounds were studied as a function of annealing temperature. It was noted that the annealing temperature did not affect the crystal structure of our samples (orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Nevertheless, a change in the variation of the unit cell volume V, the average bond length dMn–O, and the average bond angles θMn–O–Mn were observed. Magnetization versus temperature study has shown that all samples exhibited a magnetic transition from ferromagnetic (FM to paramagnetic (PM phase with increasing temperature. However, it can be clearly seen that the annealing at 973 K induced an increase of the magnetization. In addition, the magnetocaloric effect (MCE as well as the relative cooling power (RCP were estimated. As an important result, the values of MCE and RCP in our Lanthanum-deficiency manganites are reported to be near to those found in gadolinium, considered as magnetocaloric reference material.

  20. Yttrium and lanthanum recovery from low cerium carbonate, yttrium carbonate and yttrium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Mari Estela de

    2006-01-01

    In this work, separation, enrichment and purification of lanthanum and yttrium were performed using as raw material a commercial low cerium rare earth concentrate named LCC (low cerium carbonate), an yttrium concentrate named 'yttrium carbonate', and a third concentrated known as 'yttrium earths oxide. The first two were industrially produced by the late NUCLEMON - NUCLEBRAS de Monazita e Associados Ltda, using Brazilian monazite. The 'yttrium earths oxide' come from a process for preparation of lanthanum during the course of the experimental work for the present thesis. The following techniques were used: fractional precipitation with urea; fractional leaching of the LCC using ammonium carbonate; precipitation of rare earth peroxycarbonates starting from the rare earth complex carbonates. Once prepared the enriched rare earth fractions the same were refined using the ion exchange chromatography with strong cationic resin without the use of retention ion and elution using the ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. With the association of the above mentioned techniques were obtained pure oxides of yttrium (>97,7%), lanthanum (99,9%), gadolinium (96,6%) and samarium (99,9%). The process here developed has technical and economic viability for the installation of a large scale unity. (author)

  1. Development of a 1 kW Class SOFC Stack using Doped Lanthanum Gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akikusa, J.; Adachi, K.; Yamada, T.; Akbay, T.; Murakami, N.; Chitose, N.; Hoshino, K.; Hosoi, K.; Yoshida, H.; Sasaki, T.; Inagaki, T.; Ishihara, T.; Takita, Y.

    2002-06-01

    The performance of lanthanum gallate based SOFC has been investigated as a high-energy conversion device. A planar type SOFC which could operate at temperatures below 800 {sup o}C has been jointly developed. As an electrolyte material, lanthanum gallate (LaGaO{sub 3}) with substitutions of Sr for the La site and Mg and Co for the Ga site (LSGMC) was used. The synthesis technique for large-sized cell production has been established, and the performance of a self- supported diameter 154 mm cell with 200 {mu}m electrolyte thickness is investigated. The output power of 50 W has been obtained with a conversion efficiency [LHV] of 45 % for a single cell. In addition, a metallic separator made of stainless steel was chosen and tested successfully for a seal-less stack. The output power of 1 kW by means of the stack of 18 cells has been achieved for the first time utilizing lanthanum gallate. Moreover, NiO-SDC composite powders were prepared by the spray pyrolysis method and used for the anode on 100 {mu}m thickness LSGMC electrolyte with a combination of samarium cobaltite for the cathode. The power density of as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V terminal voltage was achieved at 800{sup o}C. (author)

  2. Deposition barium titanate (BaTiO3) doped lanthanum with chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriani, Y.; Nurhadi, N.; Jamaludin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of Barium Titanate (BaTiO 3 ) thin films used Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) method and prepared with spin coater. BaTiO 3 is doped with lanthanum, 1%, 2%, and 3%. The thermal process use annealing temperature 900°C and holding time for 3 hours. The result of characterization with x-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment show that the addition of La 3+ doped on Barium Titanate caused the change of angle diffraction.The result of refine with GSAS software shows that lanthanum have been included in the structure of BaTiO 3 . Increasing mol dopant La 3+ cause lattice parameter and crystal volume become smaller. Characterization result using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipment show that grain size (grain size) become smaller with increasing mole dopant (x) La 3+ . The result of characterization using Sawyer Tower methods show that all the samples (Barium Titanante and Barium Titanate doped lanthanum) are ferroelectric material. Increasing of mole dopant La 3+ cause smaller coercive field and remanent polarization increases. (paper)

  3. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On magnetic ordering in heavily sodium substituted hole doped lanthanum manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethulakshmi, N. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Unnimaya, A.N. [Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (CMET), Thrissur 680581, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I.A.; Al-Harthi, Salim [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Sagar, S. [Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram 695014, Kerala (India); Thomas, Senoy [Materials Science and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695019, Kerala (India); Srinivasan, G. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester (United States); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-01

    Mixed valence manganite system with monovalent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites form the basis of the present work. Lanthanum manganites belonging to the series La{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}MnO{sub 3} with x=0.5–0.9 were synthesized using modified citrate gel method. Variation of lattice parameters and unit cell volume with Na concentration were analyzed and the magnetization measurements indicated ferromagnetic ordering in all samples at room temperature. Low temperature magnetization behavior indicated that all samples exhibit antiferromagnetism along with ferromagnetism and it has also been observed that antiferromagnetic ordering dominates ferromagnetic ordering as concentration is increased. Evidence for such a magnetic inhomogeneity in these samples has been confirmed from the variation in Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ion ratio from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and from the absorption peak studies using Ferromagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Higher substitution of more than 50 percent of monovalent ion, sodium for La sites in lanthanum manganites scarce in literature. • Structural studies using XRD and further structure refinement by Rietveld refinement confirmed orthorhombic pbnm spacegroup. • Ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with saturation magnetization decreasing with increase in sodium concentration. • M vs T measurements using FC ZFC proved coexisting FM/AFM behavior arising from exchange interactions between different valence states of Mn ions. • Disparity in ratio of Mn valence ions indicated presence of vacancies providing the role of vacancies and oxygen stoichiometry in deciding magnetic inhomogeneity.

  5. Effects of intravenously injected lanthanum chloride on the femur of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Makoto; Daimon, Tateo

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) is widely used in industry and medicine. Because of lanthanum's physicochemical resemblance to calcium, the possible effects of it on bone have to be considered. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of La on bone toxicity. Rats were intravenously administrated with lanthanum chloride at 5 mg La/kg per week for five weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of femurs were performed using micro-CT scan. Compared with normal controls, the total bone area of the femur did not show any change in La-administrated rats, whereas the trabecular area slightly decreased. The trabecular bone mineral density in the experimented rats was higher than that in the normal controls, although the mineral density of the cortical bone and cancerou one was unchanged after the administration of La. La did not alter mechanical barometers of the femur such as mean cross-sectional moment of inertia, minimum cross-sectional moment of inertia and polar moment of inertia. Additionally, light microscopic analysis of the femurs revealed that histological features of osteoid, calcification front and bone matrix were normal after the administration of La. La was detected in the macrophages in the bone marrow, but not in the bone matrix by histological stain for La and X-ray fluorescence microanalysis. Thus, these micro-CT imaging and microscopy of the femurs did not reveal toxic changes due to La. (author)

  6. Microstructured fibers with high lanthanum oxide glass core for nonlinear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Litzkendorf, D.; Schwuchow, A.; Kirchhof, J.; Bartelt, H.; Tombelaine, V.; Leproux, P.; Couderc, V.; Labruyere, A.

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate a low loss microstructured fiber (MOF) with a high nonlinear glass core and silica holey cladding. The substitution of mostly used silica as core material of microstructured fibers by lanthanum oxide glass promises a high nonlinear conversion efficiency for supercontinuum (SC) generation. The glass composition is optimized in terms of thermochemical and optical requirements. The glass for the MOF core has a high lanthanum oxide concentration (10 mol% La2O3) and a good compatibility with the silica cladding. This is performed by adding a suitable alumina concentration up to 20 mol%. The lanthanum oxide glass preform rods were manufactured by melting technique. Besides purity issues the material homogeneity plays an important role to achieve low optical loss. The addition of fluorides allows the better homogenization of the glass composition in the preform volume by refining. The minimum attenuation of an unstructured fiber drawn from this glass is about 0.6 dB/m. It is mostly caused by decreasing of scattering effects. The microstructured silica cladding allows the considerable shifting of dispersive behavior of the MOF for an optimal pump light conversion. The MOF shows zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDW) of 1140 nm (LP01 mode) and 970 nm (LP11 mode). The supercontinuum generation was investigated with a 1064 nm pump laser (650 ps). It shows a broad band emission between 500 nm and 2200 nm.

  7. Electrochemical corrosion of lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite in coal slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, D.D.; Bates, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Lanthanum chromites have long been considered as electrodes for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator channels. These chromites, when doped with divalent ions such as Ca, Mg or Sr, have adequate electronic and electrical conductivity (2), and melting points greater than 2500/sup 0/K. However, above approx. 1850/sup 0/K, selective vapor loss of chromium results in the formation of a La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase. The La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is hydroscopic at room temperature, resulting in a large volume change and loss of mechanical integrity when exposed to H/sub 2/O. The analogous yttrium chromites have thermal and electrical properties similar to that for the lanthanum chromites. Although vapor loss of Cr results in the formation of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, this oxide does not hydrate. Corrosion studies of yttrium chromite compositions show that doped YCrO/sub 3/ may be a viable MHD electrode. An electrochemical corrosion study of both magnesium-doped lanthanum and yttrium chromites in synthetic coal slag electrolytes is described. Possible chemical and electrochemical degradation phenomena, as well as the relative rates of corrosion are emphasized.

  8. Lake responses following lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock®) application: an analysis of water column lanthanum data from 16 case study lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Bryan M; Lürling, Miquel; Yasseri, Said; Castro-Castellon, Ana T; Gibbs, Max; Meis, Sebastian; McDonald, Claire; McIntosh, John; Sleep, Darren; Van Oosterhout, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Phoslock(®) is a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite clay that is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of legacy phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. This study investigates the potential for negative ecological impacts from elevated La concentrations associated with the use of Phoslock(®) across 16 case study lakes. Impact-recovery trajectories associated with total lanthanum (TLa) and filterable La (FLa) concentrations in surface and bottom waters were quantified over a period of up to 60 months following Phoslock(®) application. Both surface and bottom water TLa and FLa concentrations were 0.8 mEq L(-1)), but higher (up to 0.12 mg L(-1)) in lakes characterised by very low alkalinity. The effects of elevated La(3+) concentrations following Phoslock(®) applications in lakes of very low alkalinity requires further evaluation. The implications for the use of Phoslock(®) in eutrophication management are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells based on doped lanthanum-gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenquan

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify a materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Towards this goal, alternating current complex impedance spectroscopy was employed as a tool to study electrode polarization effects in symmetrical cells employing strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte. Several cathode materials were investigated including strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM), Strontium and iron doped lanthanum cobaltate (LSCF), LSM-LSGM, and LSCF-LSGM composites. Investigated Anode materials included nickel-gadolinium or lanthanum doped cerium oxide (Ni-GDC, or Ni-LDC) composites. The ohmic and the polarization resistances of the symmetrical cells were obtained as a function of temperature, time, thickness, and the composition of the electrodes. Based on these studies, the single phase LSM electrode had the highest polarization resistance among the cathode materials. The mixed-conducting LSCF electrode had polarization resistance orders of magnitude lower than that of the LSM-LSGM composite electrodes. Although incorporating LSGM in the LSCF electrode did not reduce the cell polarization resistance significantly, it could reduce the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the LSCF electrodes and LSGM electrolyte. Moreover, the polarization resistance of the LSCF electrode decreased asymptotically as the electrode thickness was increased thus suggesting that the electrode thickness needed not be thicker than this asymptotic limit. On the anode side of the IT-SOFC, Ni reacted with LSGM electrolyte, and lanthanum diffusion occurred from the LSGM electrolyte to the GDC barrier layer, which was between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-composite anode. However, LDC served as an effective barrier layer. Ni-LDC (70 v% Ni) anode had the largest polarization resistance, while all other anode materials, i.e. Ni-LDC (50 v% Ni), Ni-GDC (70 v% NO, and Ni-GDC (50 v% Ni), had similar polarization

  10. Effect of voltage on the characteristics of magnesium-lanthanum deposits synthesized by an electrodeposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahli, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Energétique, Université de Constantine 1 (Algeria); Chetehouna, K.; Gascoin, N. [INSA-CVL, Univ. Orléans, PRISME, EA 4229, F-18020, Bourges (France); Bellel, N. [Laboratoire de Physique Energétique, Université de Constantine 1 (Algeria); Tadini, P., E-mail: tadini.pietro@gmail.com [INSA-CVL, Univ. Orléans, PRISME, EA 4229, F-18020, Bourges (France)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with the characterization of magnesium-lanthanum powders deposits produced with an electrodeposition technique using an aqueous solution based on magnesium chloride and lanthanum(III) nitrate. In recent years, the interest for magnesium-based alloys is growing due to their potential use as solid state systems for hydrogen storage. This work is a preliminary study on the synthesis of magnesium-lanthanum powders oriented to their later evaluation in systems for hydrogen storage. Magnesium and Lanthanum are deposited on a copper plate used as a cathode. Chemical composition, structure and morphology are investigated by EDS, XRD, FTIR and SEM. The effect of voltage on powders characteristics is studied considering three values (3, 3.5 and 4 V). EDS analysis shows the presence of three major elements (Mg, La and O) with a little amount of Cl. The weight percentages of Mg and O increase whereas the one of La decreases with the growth of voltage. Morphological characterization reveals that heterogeneous chemical structures are formed on the surface of the electrode and the size of aggregates decreases with the increase of voltage. From the results of X-ray analysis the deposits reveal the significant presence of two phases: Mg(OH){sub 2} and La(OH){sub 3}. The peaks originating from the Mg(OH){sub 2} phase has a non-monotonic behavior and those of La(OH){sub 3} phase increase with the increase of voltage. FTIR analysis confirms the presence of the two phases identified in XRD diffractograms and exhibits that their corresponding transmittance values increase for higher voltage values. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnesium-lanthanum deposits by an electrodeposition process. • Voltage effect is investigated using different physicochemical analysis techniques (EDS, XRD, FTIR and SEM). • The EDS analysis shows the presence of three major elements (Mg, La and O) and a little amount of Cl. • Two phases, namely Mg(OH){sub 2} and La(OH){sub 3} are

  11. Electrocaloric effect and freezing temperature in (Pb0.8Ba0.2[(Zn1∕3Nb2∕30.7Ti0.3]O3 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peláiz-Barranco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric effect (ECE is studied in (Pb0.8Ba0.2[(Zn1∕3Nb2∕30.7Ti0.3]O3 relaxor ferroelectric ceramic by using an “indirect method”. The electric dependence for the polarization (hysteresis loops has been obtained for several temperatures showing typical relaxor characteristics. The temperature change ΔT, which is associated with the ECE, is calculated by using the temperature dependence for the polarization. A maximum value for ΔT is observed for temperatures close above the freezing temperature, showing an indirect evidence of that critical temperature. The results are discussed considering the contribution of the polar nanoregions to the polarization.

  12. Far-infrared and dielectric spectroscopy of relaxor ferroelectric (Pb.sub.1-x./sub.La.sub.x./sub.)(Zr.sub.0,4./sub.Ti.sub.0,6./sub.)O.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Veljko, Sergiy; Kamba, Stanislav; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan; Kosec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 7 (2007), 074106/1-074106/8 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100701; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403; GA ČR GA202/04/0993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : relaxor ferroelectrics * phase transitions * soft mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2007

  13. Lanthanum Nitrate As Electrolyte Additive To Stabilize the Surface Morphology of Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the instability of the metallic lithium anode during lithium electrochemical dissolution/deposition is still a major barrier for the practical application of Li-S battery. In this work, lanthanum nitrate, as electrolyte additive, is introduced into Li-S battery to stabilize the surface of lithium anode. By introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte, a composite passivation film of lanthanum/lithium sulfides can be formed on metallic lithium anode, which is beneficial to decrease the reducibility of metallic lithium and slow down the electrochemical dissolution/deposition reaction on lithium anode for stabilizing the surface morphology of metallic Li anode in lithium-sulfur battery. Meanwhile, the cycle stability of the fabricated Li-S cell is improved by introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte. Apparently, lanthanum nitrate is an effective additive for the protection of lithium anode and the cycling stability of Li-S battery.

  14. Method of producing a solution of radioactive lanthanum-140 from radioactive barium-140 in an isotope generator and installation to carry out the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, K.; Jacobs, G.; Sauerwein, K.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating radioactive lanthanum-140 from radioactive Ba-140 is proposed. The lanthanum-140 will be washed out of a sulphate precipitate and separated from Ba-140-sulphate by a granular filter mass of CaSO 4 and BaSO 4 . Details of the process are given. (UWI) [de

  15. A study on structural stability of bismuth titanate with lanthanum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-13

    May 13, 2017 ... such as high leakage current and domain pinning, which leads to small remanent ... (La(NO3)3 · 6H2O) were dissolved in distilled water for 2 h with constant ... a thermocouple (K-type, maximum detection at 1200. ◦. C). The.

  16. Phenomenological theory of the dielectric response of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the random field effects originating from charges chemical defects and non-domain textures of the formation and dynamics of polar clusters is analyzed. The spatial distribution of the local fields is not totally random but contains some correlations in direction and strength. Polar clusters are classified to be dynamic or frozen according to their dynamic characteristics in the random fields. The relaxation formula of a dipolar moment in an anisotropic double-well potential is deduced. Two percolation models are introduced, one to account for frustration effects associated with multiple orientations of polar clusters, which results in a broad diffuse dielectric response and the second to account for the case whereby there may be a phase transition to a ferroelectric state. The dielectric permittivity and dissipation factor of the typical relaxors lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate are predicted as a function of both temperature and frequency, which results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. 30 refs., 9 figs

  17. A case of lanthanum carbonate ingestion thought to be phlebosclerotic colitis on CT imaging and abdominal radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.; Balcam, S.

    2017-01-01

    A male admitted in the early hours of the morning, complained of a four week, right sided, non-radiating, dull and intermittent abdominal pain. Imaging suggested a diagnosis of phlebosclerotic colitis which was later discounted when the patients' history of lanthanum carbonate ingestion was examined. Phlebosclerotic colitis mostly affects the Asian population, and its cause is still not known, but can be associated with specific radiographic features. Collections of lanthanum may confuse a diagnosis of phlebosclerotic colitis as well as other factors such as voxel errors, photon starvation and movement. - Highlights: • PC can be non-specific, its cause unknown, diagnosis is often delayed. • PC depends on specific radiographic features. • Lanthanum Carbonate can collect within the lumen and confuses diagnosis. • Voxel errors, photon starvation and patient movement can displace densities.

  18. Structural consideration with respect to the thermal stability of a new platinum supported lanthanum-alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, F.; Bordes, E.; Courtine, P.; Maxant, G.; Lambert, C.; Guerlet, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO 3 , on the thermal stability of both alumina and platinum supported alumina catalysts is investigated. In the case of alumina, the stabilization is interpreted in terms of structural coherence between δ-Al 2 O 3 and a three-fold superstructure of LaAlO 3 . The addition of LaAlO 3 , is shown to increase both the dispersion and the resistance to sintering of the platinum supported alumina catalyst. Moreover, lanthanum hexa-aluminate (La-β-Al 2 O 3 ) is present in the platinum catalyst fired at 1150 0 C. These observations are assumed to result for the epitaxial relations between platinum and the lanthanum-alumina support. 23 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Application of the Rietveld method in powders of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite calcined in different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, R.; Vargas, R.A.; Martinez, L.G.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) is a ceramic material used as cathode in device called High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. In this work, the LSM was synthesized by the citrate technique with the objective to get powders without the formation of secondary phases, such as lanthanum oxide and the lanthanum hydroxide, harmful for the functional performance of the device. The definitive calcination temperatures had been 700, 900 and 1100 deg C, due the decomposition of the polymeric precursors to present stabilization from 480 deg C. The analysis by X-ray diffraction of the calcined powders in different temperatures shows the formation only of phase LSM of hexagonal crystalline structure, type pseudo-perovskite. Using the refinement of Rietveld was determined the parameters and volumes of unity cells, atomic positions and occupations. These results confirm that the chemical compositions obtained are similar to the nominal. (author)

  20. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water in homes containing pipes that were connected with lead solder . Although new building codes require ... lead in their bodies when they put lead objects in their mouths, especially if they swallow those ...

  1. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  2. Research Update: Enhanced energy storage density and energy efficiency of epitaxial Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 relaxor-ferroelectric thin-films deposited on silicon by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pb0.9La0.1(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT relaxor-ferroelectric thin films were grown on SrRuO3/SrTiO3/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. A large recoverable storage density (Ureco of 13.7 J/cm3 together with a high energy efficiency (η of 88.2% under an applied electric field of 1000 kV/cm and at 1 kHz frequency was obtained in 300-nm-thick epitaxial PLZT thin films. These high values are due to the slim and asymmetric hysteresis loop when compared to the values in the reference undoped epitaxial lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 ferroelectric thin films (Ureco = 9.2 J/cm3 and η = 56.4% which have a high remanent polarization and a small shift in the hysteresis loop, under the same electric field.

  3. Growth and physico chemical characterization of lanthanum neodymium oxalate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, K.S.; John, Varughese; Ittyachen, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystals of lanthanum neodymium oxalate (LNO) are grown in sodium meta silicate gels, by the diffusion of a mixture of aqueous solutions of lanthanum nitrate and neodymium nitrate into the test tube having the set gel containing oxalic acid. The bluish pink coloured tabular crystals of LNO having well defined hexagonal basal planes appear either as foggy or clear, the latter at the greater depths inside the gel. The coloration of LNO visually observed is evidenced in UV-visible spectrum, by the revelation of well pronounced characteristic peaks in the visible region (500-900 nm). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of powdered LNO is ordered, meaning crystalline in nature, besides its isostructurality with similarly grown lanthanum samarium oxalate crystals. The single crystallinity of LNO is established by its oscillation XRD pattern. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) support that LNO loses water of crystallization around 120 degC and CO and CO 2 around 350-450 degC, while the infrared absorption (IR) spectrum of LNO establishes the presence of oxalate (C 2 O 4 ) 2- ions. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) confirms the presence of La and Nd in the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies of LNO establish the presence of La and Nd in their respective oxide states. An empirical structure for LNO has been proposed on the basis of these findings. The smokiness in the foggy LNO crystal has been attributed due to the gel inclusion during the growth process. (author)

  4. Uranyl(VI) and lanthanum(III) complexes with functionalized macrocyclic and macroacyclic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiari, A.; Brianese, N.; Tamburini, S.; Vigato, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Acyclic Schiff bases have been prepared by [2 + 1] condensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-chlorophenol and H 2 NCH 2 [CH 2 XCH 2 ] n CH 2 NH 2 (n =3D 0 H 2 -I; X =3D NH, S, O n =3D 1 H 2 -II...H 2 -IV; X =3D 0 n =3D 2 H 2 -V; X =3D 0 n =3D 3 H 2 -VI). The related uranlyl(VI) and lanthanum (III) complexes have bee synthesized by reaction by reaction of the preformed ligands with the appropriate salt or by the template procedure, in the presence of base. No base was employed in the preparation of lanthanum (III) complexes, La(H 2 -II)(NO 3 ) 3 , La(H 2 -IV)(NO 3 ) 3 where the Schiff bases coordinate as neutral chelate ligands. These acyclic complexes have been used for further condensation, and symmetric and asymmetric cyclic complexes have been obtained by their reaction with the polyamines H 2 NCH 2 [CH 2 XCH 2 ]nCH 2 NH 2 or with 4,4'-diaminodibenzo -18-crown-6. By reaction with 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 or 2-amino-methyl-15-crown-5, the same acyclic complexes give rise to functionalized complexes bearing crown-ether moieties. Analogously, the acyclic ligand H 3 -IXX, prepared by condensation of 2,6 diformyl-4-chlorophenol and tris(aminoethyl)amine, forms mono and homodinuclear lanthanum (III) complexes, which may undergo further condensation when reacted with primary functionalized amines. (authors). 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 schemes, 1 tab

  5. Self-assembly in lanthanum(III) and calcium(II) complexes of salicylaldimines derived from putrescine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospieszna-Markiewicz, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Malgorzata T.; Kubicki, Maciej; Radecka-Paryzek, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    The one-step template reaction of salicylaldehyde with putrescine, a biogenic diamine, in the presence of lanthanum(III) or calcium(II) ions produces salicylaldimine complexes containing the N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,4-butanediamine ligand L as a result of the [2 + 1] Schiff base condensation. The X-ray diffraction studies of the lanthanum complex reveals an infinite [La 2 L 4 (NO 3 ) 6 ] ∞ polymeric structure based on networks of 10-coordinated La(III) nodes linked by bridging unionized ligands that use exclusively the oxygens as donor atoms with the nitrogen atoms not being involved in coordination

  6. Influence of Fe{sup 3+} substitution on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of Lead Indium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, A.S.; Kumar, V., E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Prepared phase-pure Fe{sup 3+}-substituted Lead Indium Niobate, Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method. • Spontaneous Relaxor (R) → Ferroelectric (FE) transition observed for the composition with x = 0.20. • Local structural rearrangement responsible for R → FE transition has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: Lead Indium Niobate, Pb(In{sub 0.50}Nb{sub 0.50})O{sub 3} (PIN) is a complex perovskite that exhibits Relaxor (R) characteristics. In this study, we report the synthesis of phase-pure compositions in the system Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method and discuss the influence of isovalent substitution of Indium by Iron on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics. Spontaneous transition to the Ferroelectric (FE) phase has been observed for the composition having x = 0.20. Local structural rearrangements responsible for R → FE transition have also been studied by Raman spectroscopy and are discussed in detail.

  7. Analysis of the elements sputtered during the lanthanum implantation in stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ager, F.J.; Respaldiza, M.A.; Silva, M.F. da; Redondo, L.M.; Soares, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence of the modification of the surface structure of the AISI-304 stainless steel during the implantation of lanthanum makes the analysis of the sputtered elements very interesting. Those sputtered elements are deposited on a carbon sheet placed in front of the steel being implanted, and studied by means of RBS and PIXE, together with the implanted specimens. Besides, the protective effect of the implanted ions during the high temperature oxidation is also studied by those techniques together with XRD and thermogravimetric methods. (orig.)

  8. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  9. Performance of planar single cell lanthanum gallate based solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, N.; Kuriakose, A.K. [Materials Technology Labs., CANMET, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    A novel synthesis of high purity, single phase strontium-magnesium doped lanthanum gallate through a nitrate route is described. The prepared powder is formed into planar monolithic elements by uniaxial pressing followed by isostatic pressing and sintering. XRD analysis of the sintered elements reveal no detectable secondary phases. The performance of the electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with three different anode/cathode combinations tested at 700 C with respect to the J-V and power density is reported. The data show that the characteristics of this SOFC are strongly dependent on the particular anode/cathode system chosen. (orig.)

  10. Paramagnetic centers in two phases of manganese-doped lanthanum gallate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Potapov, A. P.; Guseva, V. B.; Artyomov, M. Yu.

    2009-05-01

    An EPR study of two phases of manganese-doped lanthanum gallate (with a first-order structural transition occurring at 430 K) has revealed Gd3+, Fe3+, and Mn4+ centers at room temperature and 438 K. The parameters of spin Hamiltonians are determined for the Gd3+, Fe3+, and Mn4+ rhombohedral centers in the high-temperature phase (with no other centers found here) and for the monoclinic center Gd3+ in the low-temperature phase. Both in the orthorhombic and in the rhombohedral phase, crystallographic twins (or ferroelastic domains) are observed.

  11. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, R.L.; Giess, E.A.; Gallagher, W.J.; Segmueller, A.; Cooper, E.I.; Chisholm, M.F.; Gupta, A.; Shinde, S.; Laibowitz, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    We demonstrate that lanthanum gallate (LaGaO 3 ) has considerable potential as an electronic substrate material for high-temperature superconducting films. It provides a good lattice and thermal expansion match to YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/, can be grown in large crystal sizes, is compatible with high-temperature film processing, and has a reasonably low dielectric constant (ε≅25) and low dielectric losses. Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/ films grown on LaGaO 3 single-crystal substrates by three techniques have zero resistance between 87 and 91 K

  12. Performance of planar single cell lanthanum gallate based solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, N.; Kuriakose, A. K.

    A novel synthesis of high purity, single phase strontium-magnesium doped lanthanum gallate through a nitrate route is described. The prepared powder is formed into planar monolithic elements by uniaxial pressing followed by isostatic pressing and sintering. XRD analysis of the sintered elements reveal no detectable secondary phases. The performance of the electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with three different anode/cathode combinations tested at 700°C with respect to the J- V and power density is reported. The data show that the characteristics of this SOFC are strongly dependent on the particular anode/cathode system chosen.

  13. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-temperature superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, R. L.; Giess, E. A.; Gallagher, W. J.; Segmuller, A.; Cooper, E. I.

    1988-11-01

    It is demonstrated that lanthanum gallate (LaGaO3) has considerable potential as an electronic substrate material for high-temperature superconducting films. It provides a good lattice and thermal expansion match to YBa2Cu3O(7-x), can be grown in large crystal sizes, is compatible with high-temperature film processing, and has a reasonably low dielectric constant and low dielectric losses. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films grown on LaGaO3 single-crystal substrates by three techniques have zero resistance between 87 and 91 K.

  14. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Iron using Lanthanum Silicate ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiarostami, V.; Husain, W.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is gaining wide use as an effective and speedy technique which reduces solvent usage, disposal costs and extraction time. The analyte is adsorbed from solution onto a solid adsorbent, which is followed by elution of the analyte with a solvent appropriate for instrumental analysis. However, there is an increasing need for new selective adsorbents to expand the area of this technique. Lanthanum silicate ion exchanger, which shows unusual selectivity elements and in this study, it was employed to develop a SPE method for iron ion. Special experiments such as determination of distribution coefficient for iron ion in different solvent systems have been determined

  15. Cerium-modified Aurivillius-type sodium lanthanum bismuth titanate with enhanced piezoactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunming; Zhao Liang; Wang Jinfeng; Zheng Limei; Du Juan; Zhao Minglei; Wang Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    The electrical, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of cerium-modified Aurivillius-type sodium lanthanum bismuth titanate (Na 0.5 La 0.5 Bi 4 Ti 4 O 15 , NLBT) ceramics were investigated. It was found the piezoelectric activities of NLBT ceramics were significantly improved by cerium modification. The piezoelectric coefficient d 33 and Curie temperature T c for the 0.50 wt.% cerium-modified NLBT were found to be 29 pC/N and 573 deg. C, respectively. The reasons for piezoelectric activities improvement by cerium modification were given. A small dielectric abnormity was observed in NLBT ceramics, which can be suppressed by cerium modification.

  16. On isomorphous substitution of calcium by sodium and lanthanum in synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Get'man, E.I.; Kanyuka, Yu.V.; Loboda, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    Isomorphous substitution of calcium by sodium and lanthanum in synthetic hydroxyapatite Ca 5-2x La x (PO 4 ) 3 OH by x=0-2.5 within the temperature range 1100-800 deg C is studied through the roentgenophase analysis and IR-spectroscopy methods. It is established that singlephase solid solutions are formed in the area of x≥0.4 by a≤0.4 there exist phases with LaPO 4 , LaNa 6 (PO 4 ) 3 structures and unknown phase along with solid solution of the apatite structure

  17. Simultaneous determination of dopamine, uric acid and nitrite using carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Jiang, Jibo; Han, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified glassy carbon electrode (GO-COOLa/GCE) was successfully utilized for the simultaneous detection and quantification of DA, UA and NO 2 − . • Combining the benefits of carboxylated graphene oxide and lanthanum, the modified sensor displayed large peak separations, long linear ranges and low detection limits for simultaneously detecting DA, UA and NO 2 − . • The GO-COOLa/GCE electrode showed well stability, good repeatability, rapid response, and high catalytic performance toward the oxidations of DA, UA and NO 2 − . - Abstract: A bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was reformed by carboxylated graphene oxide/lanthanum, and the modified electrode, called GO-COOLa/GCE, was fabricated for simultaneously detecting dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA) and nitrite (NO 2 − ) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and amperometry. Several factors which affected the electrocatalytic activity of the GO-COOLa/GCE electrode, such as the effect of pH, scan rate and concentration were studied. Due to the combination of carboxylated graphene oxide and lanthanum ions, the GO-COOLa/GCE sensor showed rapid response, excellent selectivity and high catalytic performance toward the electrooxidation of DA, UA and NO 2 − . In optimized conditions, two linear response ranges for determining DA were obtained over ranges of 0.01-1.96×10 2 μM and 1.96×10 2 -1.23×10 3 μM with detection limit of 0.018 μM (S/N = 3). And the responses of the GO-COOLa/GCE electrode for UA and NO 2 − were linear in the region of 1-1.53×10 3 μM and 1-2.75×10 3 μM with detection limits of 0.058 μM and 0.070 μM, respectively. Furthermore, this reformed electrode was successfully used to the detection of DA, UA and NO 2 − in real urine and serum samples, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  18. Relaxation features of the Young's modulus and internal friction of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodryakov, V.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    E Young module and Q -1 inner friction of polycrystalline lanthanum specimens are studied comprehensively within 4.2-420 K temperature range using bend autovibrations of a specimen represented by a thin rod within ∼ 1-2 kHz frequency range. Three maximums of relaxation nature innner friction are detected under ∼ 380-410, 250-270 and 90-120 K temperatures with 0.29, 0.21 and 0.02 eV activation energies, respectively, on Q -1 (T) curves. Maximums of inner friction are accompanied by peculiarities of E(T) Young module behaviour. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Size effects of polycrystalline lanthanum modified Bi4Ti3O12 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Riccardi, C.S.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Gonzalez, A.H.M.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The film thickness dependence on the ferroelectric properties of lanthanum modified bismuth titanate Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 was investigated. Films with thicknesses ranging from 230 to 404 nm were grown on platinum-coated silicon substrates by the polymeric precursor method. The internal strain is strongly influenced by the film thickness. The morphology of the film changes as the number of layers increases indicating a thickness dependent grain size. The leakage current, remanent polarization and drive voltage were also affected by the film thickness

  20. Evaluating of electronic structure of Lanthanum chromite under doping of divalent ion using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saievar, E.; Gharleghi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Doping Calcium in Lanthanum site of LaCrO 3 compound increasing the density of states in valance band and decreasing the band gap width because of increases of S electrons in valance band and variety of interaction energies from Cr +3 -Cr +4 couple in valance band. We have used Wien2k software for evaluating this mechanisms. Using of 0.25 percent of dopant and a kind of the space group of cell, let us to use one cell in calculations. We have used GGA approximation in this calculations.

  1. Lanthanum triflate triggered synthesis of tetrahydroquinazolinone derivatives of N-allyl quinolone and their biological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardosh Hardik H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 24 derivatives of tetrahydroquinazolinone has been synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation reaction of N-allyl quinolones, cyclic β-diketones and (thiourea/N-phenylthiourea in presence of lanthanum triflate catalyst. This methodology allowed us to achieve the products in excellent yield by stirring at room temperature. All the synthesized compounds were investigated against a representative panel of pathogenic strains using broth microdilution MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration method for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Amongst these sets of heterocyclic compounds 5h, 6b, 6h, 5f, 5l, 5n and 6g found to have admirable activity.

  2. Study of binding properties of lanthanum to wheat roots by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Li, F.L.; Xiao, H.Q.; Chai, Z.F.; Xu, L.; Liu, N.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical behavior of lanthanum in root tips excized from wheat seedlings growing at both promotional and inhibitory levels of LaCl 3 in culture solutions was investigated by a sequential leaching procedure combined with instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results indicate that most of La exists in non-exchangeable species and the binding of La 3+ to the root tips is extremely stable. The root tips during growing at the inhibitory level of LaCl 3 absorb much more La than those at the promotional level. However, the La proportion in each fraction is similar for both groups. (author)

  3. Structural properties of Fe-doped lanthanum gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Shibata, Koji; Iwase, Kenji; Harjo, Stefanus; Hoshikawa, Akinori; Itoh, Keiji; Kamiyama, Takashi; Ishigaki, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Structural characteristics of Fe-doped LaGaO 3-δ were studied by differential scanning calorimeter, neutron and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction measurements. It was found that a phase transition temperature increases in proportion to an amount of Fe. The crystal structure could be described as a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (Pnma) and a high-temperature rhombohedral one (R3-bar c), respectively. Lattice parameters and bond lengths between M (=Ga/Fe) and O are monotonically expand with increasing Fe-content on both orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases. This means that a substitution of Ga 3+ with Fe 3+ leads to an electronic configuration of t 2g 3 e g 2 (high-spin state, HS)

  4. The lanthanum gallate-based mixed conducting perovskite ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Aleksandrovskii, V. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Avetisov, A. K.; Sung, J. S.; Choo, K. Y.; Kim, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, dielectric, and transport properties of the anion deficient perovskite solid solutions (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg,M)O3- with M=Fe, Ni have been studied. Substitution of iron and nickel for gallium up to about 20 and 40 at.% respectively, leads to the perovskite lattice contraction due to the cation substitutions by the transition elements. The transition from pure ionic to mixed ionic-electronic conductivity was observed for both the systems studied. Both the enhancement of total conductivity and increasing in the thermal expansion coefficient values has been proved to correlate with the increasing amount of weakly bounded oxygen species in the Fe or Ni-doped ceramics. The oxygen ionic conductivity has been estimated from the kinetic experiments using the dc-conductivity and dilatometry methods under the condition of the stepwise change of the atmosphere from nitrogen to oxygen.

  5. Structural properties of Fe-doped lanthanum gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kazuhiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)]. E-mail: kmori@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukunaga, Toshiharu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Shibata, Koji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Iwase, Kenji [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Harjo, Stefanus [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hoshikawa, Akinori [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Itoh, Keiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kamiyama, Takashi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ishigaki, Toru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Muroran Institute for Technology, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan)

    2004-10-30

    Structural characteristics of Fe-doped LaGaO{sub 3-{delta}} were studied by differential scanning calorimeter, neutron and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction measurements. It was found that a phase transition temperature increases in proportion to an amount of Fe. The crystal structure could be described as a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (Pnma) and a high-temperature rhombohedral one (R3-bar c), respectively. Lattice parameters and bond lengths between M (=Ga/Fe) and O are monotonically expand with increasing Fe-content on both orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases. This means that a substitution of Ga{sup 3+} with Fe{sup 3+} leads to an electronic configuration of t{sub 2g}{sup 3}e{sub g}{sup 2} (high-spin state, HS)

  6. Structural properties of Fe-doped lanthanum gallate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Shibata, Koji; Iwase, Kenji; Harjo, Stefanus; Hoshikawa, Akinori; Itoh, Keiji; Kamiyama, Takashi; Ishigaki, Toru

    2004-10-01

    Structural characteristics of Fe-doped LaGaO3-δ were studied by differential scanning calorimeter, neutron and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction measurements. It was found that a phase transition temperature increases in proportion to an amount of Fe. The crystal structure could be described as a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (Pnma) and a high-temperature rhombohedral one (R 3 bar c), respectively. Lattice parameters and bond lengths between M (=Ga/Fe) and O are monotonically expand with increasing Fe-content on both orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases. This means that a substitution of Ga3+ with Fe3+ leads to an electronic configuration of t2g3eg2 (high-spin state, HS).

  7. The structural change of lanthanum diiodide upon hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, M.; Simon, A.; Mattausch, Hj.; Kremer, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Slowly heating LaI 2 under 1 atm hydrogen to 650 deg. C leads to LaI 2 H, analyzed as LaI 2 H 0.95(3) , accompanied by a structural change from tetragonal to hexagonal. Sharp reflections in the XRD pattern can be indexed in P6 3 /mmc with a=4.2158(7) A and c=15.508(3) A, however, diffuse reflections indicate a polytypic intergrowth of MoS 2 and NbS 2 type structures. The earlier determined miscibility gap between LaI 2 and LaI 2 H x (x∼0.5) is closely related to the change of the structure. The Pauli paramagnetism for LaI 2 , χ P = 43(2)x10 -6 cm 3 /mol, derived from measurements on LaI 2 and LaI 2 H is in good agreement with the value estimated from band structure calculations

  8. Structural, Optical, and Dielectric Investigations of the Relaxor PLZT 9,75/65/35 Ceramics Irradiated by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Efimov, V V; Kalmikov, A V; Klevtsova, E A; Minashkin, V F; Novikova, N N; Sikolenko, V V; Skripnik, A V; Sternberg, A; Tiutiunnikov, S I; Yakovlev, V A

    2002-01-01

    First time comprehensive study of high-current pulsed electron irradiation effects on the structural, optical and dielectric properties of relaxor (Pb_{(1-x)}La^{x}(Zr_{0.65}Ti_{0.35})_{1-x/4}O_{3} ceramics with x=9.75% has been provided. The electron beam had the following parameters: energy E_{e}=250 keV, current density J_{e}=1000 A/cm^{2}, pulse duration tau = 300 ns, density 10^{15} electrons/cm^{2} per pulse. Infrared reflectivity spectra in the region of 100-2000 cm^{-1} were obtained in virgin, irradiated by 1500 pulses and annealed up to t=500^{circ}C ceramics. The reconstruction of perovskite ABO_{3} structure in irradiated samples has been studied by complex use of X-ray and neutron scattering and IR spectroscopy techniques revealing the changes in transverse and longitudinal phonon modes, oscillators strength and damping of modes. Radiation effects on temperature behaviour of dielectric permittivity in the region of phase transition were studied. The possible mechanisms of pulsed electron irradiat...

  9. Single crystal magnetic, dielectric and thermal studies of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Fe2/3W1/3)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Z.G.; Sato, M.; Kita, E.; Bursill, L.A.; Schmid, H.

    1998-01-01

    The magnetic, dielectric and thermal properties of the complex perovskite Pb(Fe 2/3 W 1/3 )O 3 [PFW] have been studied on single crystals by means of a SQUID magnetometer, dielectric measurements and thermal analysis. Anomalies in the temperature dependence of the magnetization have revealed magnetic phase transitions at T N1 =350 K and T N2 =20 K. These two steps of antiferromagnetic ordering are attributed to the microstructural feature of the complex perovskite, characterized by ordered and disordered arrangements on the B-site, giving rise to a strong superexchange interaction of - Fe 3 + - O - Fe 3+ - type with a higher ordering temperature, and to a weak superexchange interaction of the B-site ordered elpasolite type - Fe 3+ + - O - W - O - Fe 3+ - with a lower Neel temperature. The low temperature antiferromagnetic phase exhibits a weak ferromagnetism. The dielectric properties of PFW show a relaxor ferroelectric behaviour with a dispersive maximum of permittivity at Tm (170 -190 K). The magnetic phase transition at T N2 =20 K results in anomalies both of the real part of permittivity and the dissipation factor, suggesting a magneto-electric coupling via magneto-structural interactions

  10. Thermoluminescent kinetic parameters of the perovskite, KMgF3, activated with lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda M, F.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.; Furetta, C.; Sanipoli, C.

    2004-01-01

    The thermoluminescent curves induced by the beta radiation in the perovskite KMgF 3 were investigated activated with lanthanum. The classic methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters (the kinetic order b, the activation energy E and the frequency of escape intent s) associated with the peaks of the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) in the KMgF 3 activated with lanthanum after the irradiation with beta rays. The method is based on the position of the thermoluminescent peaks, obtained of the temperature change of the peak in the maximum emission caused by the change in the heating rapidity to which the samples were measured. In this work, the samples in form of pellets were re cooked previously at 400 C during one hour before irradiating them with beta particles. The Tl measures were made with a Tl reader system using three different heating rapidities and storing the glow curves. To calculate the depth of the E traps and the frequency factor s, the parameters of the glow curve were determined experimentally of the shame of the glow curve by means of the mensuration of the shame of the maximum temperature of the peak, T M like a function of the heating rapidity. The results indicate that the values of the kinetic parameters are very near among if when they are obtained indistinctly of anyone of the different methods. (Author)

  11. Investigation of lanthanum- and neodymium ion interaction with potassium polyphosphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhova, Zh.A.; Tananaev, I.V.; Koval', E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the interaction in the LaCl 3 -KPO 3 -H 2 O and NdCl 3 -KPO 3 -H 2 O systems at 0 deg C by methods of solubility of residual concentrations and measurement of the pH value. The formation of binary KLa 2 (PO 3 ) 7 x10H 2 O and KLa(PO 3 ) 4 X5H 2 O lanthanum- and potassium polyphosphates, as well as KNd 2 (PO 3 ) 7 X10H 2 O and KNd(PO 3 ) 4 X5H 2 O neodymium- apd potassiUm polyphasphates was established. Chemical, paper-chromatographic, infrared spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses of the prepared compoUnds were conducted. Anhydrous binary lanthanum- and neodymium polyphosphates with potassium-=Kla(PO 3 ) 4 , KNd(PO 3 ) 4 , KLa 2 (PO 3 ) 7 and KNd 2 x(PO 3 ) 7 - eere prepared

  12. The origin of current blocking in interfacial conduction in Sr-doped lanthanum gallates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jung

    2018-02-01

    The grain boundary transport of lanthanum gallate has been studied with various doping concentrations, and the origins of blocking on the grain boundary are compared. La1-xSrxGaO3 samples (x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) have been prepared and their bulk (grain) and grain boundary resistances been experimentally measured as a function of temperature (T: 200-550 °C) and oxygen partial pressure (Po2) using ac-impedance measurements. In addition, Hebb-Wagner polarization measurements have been conducted to investigate the electrical conductivity of minor charge carriers in the lanthanum gallates. The grain boundary resistance in the low-doped materials (x = 0.005 and 0.01) increases with increasing Po2 while in the highly-doped materials (x = 0.05, 0.1) it hardly depended on Po2. At lower concentrations conduction is mixed and at higher concentrations is found to be predominantly ionic conductivity. The space charge model successfully describes the mixed conduction at the grain boundary at low-doping, but does not explain the predominant ionic conductivity at high-doping. The origin of blocking at high-doping is explained by the crystallographic asymmetry of the grain boundary with respect to the bulk and/or Sr-segregation.

  13. Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, Mazher Ahmed; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, Hanadi G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    High purity W and W-0.9La 2 O 3 (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 o C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (W-O-La) in the sintered metals.

  14. Lanthanum chloride impairs spatial memory through ERK/MSK1 signaling pathway of hippocampus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Yang, Jinghua; Liu, Qiufang; Jin, Cuihong; Wu, Shengwen; Lu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Linlin; Xi, Qi; Cai, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in many fields for their diverse physical and chemical properties. Surveys have shown that REEs can impair learning and memory in children and cause neurobehavioral defects in animals. However, the mechanism underlying these impairments has not yet been completely elucidated. Lanthanum (La) is often selected to study the effects of REEs. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial memory impairments induced by lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and the probable underlying mechanism. Wistar rats were exposed to LaCl3 in drinking water at 0 % (control, 0 mM), 0.25 % (18 mM), 0.50 % (36 mM), and 1.00 % (72 mM) from birth to 2 months after weaning. LaCl3 considerably impaired the spatial learning and memory of rats in the Morris water maze test, damaged the synaptic ultrastructure and downregulated the expression of p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-MSK1, p-CREB, c-FOS and BDNF in the hippocampus. These results indicate that LaCl3 exposure impairs the spatial learning and memory of rats, which may be attributed to disruption of the synaptic ultrastructure and inhibition of the ERK/MSK1 signaling pathway in the hippocampus.

  15. Structures, stabilities, and electronic properties for rare-earth lanthanum doped gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ya-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The structures, stabilities, and electronic properties of rare-earth lanthanum doped gold La 2 Au n (n = 1-9) and pure gold Au n (n ≤ 11) clusters have been investigated by using density functional theory. The optimized geometries show that the lowest energy structures of La 2 Au n clusters favour the 3D structure at n ≥ 3. The lanthanum atoms can strongly enhance the stabilities of gold clusters and tend to occupy the most highly coordinated position. By analysing the gap, vertical ionization potential, and chemical hardness, it is found that the La 2 Au 6 isomer possesses higher stability for small-sized La 2 Au n clusters (n = 1-9). The charges in the La 2 Au n clusters transfer from La atoms to the Au n host. In addition, Wiberg bond indices analysis reveals that the intensity of different bonds of La 2 Au n clusters exhibits a sequence of La-La bond > La-Au bond > Au-Au bond.

  16. STRUCTURE AND THERMAL STABILITY OF THE BENZO-15-CROWN-5 WITH LANTHANUM (III BROMIDE COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idiris Saleh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of benzo-15-crown-5 (C14H20O5 ligand with La(NO33.7H2O in the presence of HBr has resulted in the production of an exotic sandwich complex, [LaC28H36Br4O10][3Br]. The crystal system is triclinic with space group P1, a = 12.5834(14 Å, b = 13.5816(16 Å, c = 13.8403(16 Å, a = 70.751(2°, b = 66.773(2° and g = 67.631(2°. The cation comprises of the lanthanum atom coordinated to two crowns via three oxygen atoms from each crown in a η3-sandwich fashion. The two phenyl groups of the crown are brominated. The La-OLigand bond lengths are between 2.857(7 and 2.949(7 Å. The trianion [3Br]3- is linear with Br-Br bond lengths of 2.518(2 and 2.560(2 Å respectively. The molecule is stabilized by intermolecular interactions of the type C-H...Br to form dimers and are arranged parallel to bc face.  Keywords: lanthanum, benzo-15-crown-5, hydrogen bonding, bromination, x-ray structure

  17. Preferable adsorption of phosphate using lanthanum-incorporated porous zeolite: Characteristics and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yinhai; Lin, Hai; Dong, Yingbo; Wang, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The adsorbent, where lanthanum oxide was incorporated onto porous zeolite (La-Z), of preferable adsorption towards phosphate was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Based on pH effect results, La-Z would effectively sequestrate phosphate over wider pH range of 3.0-7.0, alkaline conditions were unfavorable for phosphate. The adsorption of phosphate was not significantly influenced by ionic strength and by coexisting anions of chloride, nitrate and sulfate but bicarbonate showed slightly greater negative effects, indicating La-Z possessed highly selectivity to phosphate. Adsorption of phosphate could be well fitted by pseudo-second-order model and the process was mainly controlled by intra-particle diffusion. Equilibrium adsorption demonstrated that Langmuir model was more suitable than Freundlich model for description phosphate adsorption and the adsorption capacity was 17.2 mg P g-1, which exhibited 95% utilization of incorporated La. Over 95% phosphate was eliminated in real effluent treatment when the dose was 2 g L-1. The underlying mechanism for phosphate capture was probed with Zeta potential and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope analysis, and the formation of La-P inner-sphere complexation was testified to be the dominant pathway. All the results suggested that the porous zeolite-supported lanthanum oxide can serve as a promising adsorbent for phosphate removal in realistic application.

  18. Lanthanum-modified bentonite: potential for efficient removal of phosphates from fishpond effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, Eyal; Raizner, Yasmin; Cohen, Oded; Rubinstein, Guy; Bar Shalom, Oded

    2017-06-01

    Adsorption has been suggested as an effective method for removing phosphates from agricultural wastewater effluents that contain relatively high phosphate concentrations. The present study focused on the use of a bentonite-lanthanum clay (Phoslock ® ) for reducing the dissolved phosphate concentration in fishpond effluents. Batch experiments with synthetic phosphate-spiked solutions and with fishpond effluents were performed in order to determine adsorption equilibrium isotherms and kinetics as well as to determine the efficiency of Phoslock ® in removing phosphate from these solutions. In the synthetic phosphate-spiked solution, the mean maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was 92 mg Phoslock ® /mg phosphate removal. A ratio of 50, 100, and 200 mg Phoslock ® /mg phosphate removal was found for complete phosphate removal from the fishpond effluents, where higher doses of Phoslock ® led to a faster removal rate (94% removal within the first 150 min). These results show that bentonite-lanthanum clay can be employed for designing a treatment process for efficient phosphate removal from fishpond effluents.

  19. Thermal stability and microstructure of catalytic alumina composite support with lanthanum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Nishio, Yoshitoyo

    2016-09-01

    Lanthanum (La) modified γ-alumina composite was examined for application toward thermostable catalytic support at elevated temperature. La added alumina was prepared through an aqueous process using lanthanum (III) nitrate and then characterized by surface area measurement, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and surface desorption of CO2. It was found that the properties depended on the La content and heat treatment temperatures. The characterization of the surface, structural and chemical properties of La-Al2O3 showed the existence of a strong interaction between the La species and alumina via formation of new phase and modified surface in Al2O3 samples. LaAlO3 nanoparticle formed among alumina particles by the solid phase reaction of Al2O3 and La2O3. The increase of the surface basicity of La modified alumina was demonstrated using CO2 temperature programmed desorption experiments. The controlled surface interaction between La oxide and alumina provide the unique surface and structural properties of the resulting mixed oxides as catalysts and catalytic supports.

  20. Bordoni relaxation and magnetic transformation in cerium and cerium-lanthanum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postnikov, V S; Polner, G L; Sharshakov, I M

    1975-11-01

    The internal friction in pure cerium and cerium-base alloys with 2.5 and 12 weight percent of lanthanum added at temperature ranging from 4.2 deg up to 77/sup 0/K is described. Amplitude-independent internal friction has been measured with an inverse torsion pendulum with a specimen oscillation frequency of 1-30 hz in vacuum not less than 1.10/sup -5/ torr. A temperature of the specimen has been determined with a capacitance-type sensor and a gas gage. A curve showing the dependence of internal friction upon a temperature of pure cerium has two distinct peaks; the first at 12.5/sup 0/K, the second at 45/sup 0/K. The 12.5/sup 0/K peak is accounted for by a transition of antiferromagnetic ..beta..-Ce into a paramagnetic state. The 45/sup 0/K peak is a Bordoni maximum. The paper describes an influence of additions, specimen oscillation frequency variations, deformation and annealing upon the peak behavor. Added lanthanum reduces not only a peak temperature but a height as well. Studies of the 45/sup 0/K peak have shown that its temperature location depends upon the specimen oscillation frequency. As the frequency increases the peak tends to a range of high temperatures which confirms its relaxation nature.

  1. Improved adaptation of test with lanthanum nitrate for the colorimetric estimation of acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, T [Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    A colorimetric method for the determination of acetate based on the production of the blue complex between iodine and lanthanum alkaline acetate has been developed. Optimum concentrations of reagents (acetate, lanthanum nitrate, iodine and ammonia) as well as the volume of acetate were selected to achieve best colour intensity. Coloured complex was stabilized by dilution of reagent mixture with water to the final volume convenient for determinaton. Absorbance of the complex can be measured immediately after dilution and any changes can be observed during at least 15 minutes. Elevation of temperature over 60/sup 0/decreases absorbance. The method fulfills the Beer's law in the range 1,5-3,5 ..mu..moles of acetate, precision of the method 2/sup +/ = 3,7%. Apart from acetate - propionate and fluoroacetate complex is 620 nm, propionate complex - at 590 nm. Propionate complex displayed any relationship between concentration and absorbance. Potassium, sodium, lithium and barium acetates give the identical results as acetic acid, whereas zinc and cupric acetates failed to react. Other derivatives tested, e.g. chloroacetate, trichloroacetate, iodoacetate, chloroporpionate and butyrate are unable to form the coloured complexes. Many compounds interfere with the formation of acetate complex, therefore, in material containing impurities acetate can be determined after purificaton by means of described in literature methods.

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance of V4+ in the lanthanum and cerium orthophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.C. de.

    1983-11-01

    The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrum of V 4+ was investigated in polycrystalline samples of lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO 4 ) and cerium orthophosphate (CePO 4 ) doped with 0.2 wt % vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ). Measurements were performed at room temperature and 9.5 GHz. In LaPO 4 , two non-equivalent axial sites were inferred from the EPR spectra. The most stable of these two sites is probably substitutional. In CePO 4 , a single axial spectrum was observed. It was attributed to V 4+ in substitutional sites. A central, wide line was also seen; it was attributed to ferromagnetic clusters of vanadium ions. Photoacoustic absorption spectra were also recorded for the two compounds. The EPR and photoacoustic absorption data, when analyzed using the molecular orbital theory, show that for both lanthanum orthophosphate and cerium orthophosphate the ground orbital (d sub(x) 2 sub(-y) 2) of the unpainred electron is purely ionic, while the excited orbitals d sub(xy) and d sub(xz,yz) are partly covalent. The degree of covalency is higher for the d sub(xy) orbital. Finally, it should be pointed out that part of the theory used for the interpretation of the EPR and photoacoustic absorption spectra (study of the ligand field splitting of a d orbital in a site of distorted capped antiprism structure) was developed by the author in the present work and is therefore an original contribution. (Author) [pt

  3. Lanthanum germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Diaz-Carrasco, P.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Germanate apatites with composition La{sub 10-x}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75-3x/2} have been evaluated for the first time as possible electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Different electrode materials have been considered in this study, i.e. manganite, ferrite, nickelates and cobaltite as cathode materials; and NiO-CGO composite and chromium-manganite as anodes. The chemical compatibility and electrochemical performance of these electrodes with La{sub 9.8}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.45} have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRPD analysis did not reveal appreciable bulk reactivity with the formation of reaction products between the germanate electrolyte and these electrodes up to 1,200 C. However, a significant cation interdiffusion was observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which leads to a significant decrease of the performance of these electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The lanthanum gallate-based mixed conducting perovskite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politova, E.D.; Stefanovich, S.Yu.; Aleksandrovskii, V.V.; Kaleva, G.M.; Mosunov, A.V.; Avetisov, A.K.; Sung, J.S.; Choo, K.Y.; Kim, T.H.

    2005-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, dielectric, and transport properties of the anion deficient perovskite solid solutions (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg,M)O 3-δ with M=Fe, Ni have been studied. Substitution of iron and nickel for gallium up to about 20 and 40 at.% respectively, leads to the perovskite lattice contraction due to the cation substitutions by the transition elements. The transition from pure ionic to mixed ionic-electronic conductivity was observed for both the systems studied. Both the enhancement of total conductivity and increasing in the thermal expansion coefficient values has been proved to correlate with the increasing amount of weakly bounded oxygen species in the Fe or Ni-doped ceramics. The oxygen ionic conductivity has been estimated from the kinetic experiments using the dc-conductivity and dilatometry methods under the condition of the stepwise change of the atmosphere from nitrogen to oxygen. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. The lanthanum gallate-based mixed conducting perovskite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politova, E.D.; Stefanovich, S.Yu.; Aleksandrovskii, V.V.; Kaleva, G.M.; Mosunov, A.V.; Avetisov, A.K. [L.Ya. Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Vorontsovo pole 10, 105064 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sung, J.S.; Choo, K.Y.; Kim, T.H. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong Yooseong, Daejeon (Korea)

    2005-01-01

    The structure, microstructure, dielectric, and transport properties of the anion deficient perovskite solid solutions (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg,M)O{sub 3-{delta}} with M=Fe, Ni have been studied. Substitution of iron and nickel for gallium up to about 20 and 40 at.% respectively, leads to the perovskite lattice contraction due to the cation substitutions by the transition elements. The transition from pure ionic to mixed ionic-electronic conductivity was observed for both the systems studied. Both the enhancement of total conductivity and increasing in the thermal expansion coefficient values has been proved to correlate with the increasing amount of weakly bounded oxygen species in the Fe or Ni-doped ceramics. The oxygen ionic conductivity has been estimated from the kinetic experiments using the dc-conductivity and dilatometry methods under the condition of the stepwise change of the atmosphere from nitrogen to oxygen. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Understanding surface structure and chemistry of single crystal lanthanum aluminate

    KAUST Repository

    Pramana, Stevin S.

    2017-03-02

    The surface crystallography and chemistry of a LaAlO3 single crystal, a material mainly used as a substrate to deposit technologically important thin films (e.g. for superconducting and magnetic devices), was analysed using surface X-ray diffraction and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The surface was determined to be terminated by Al-O species, and was significantly different from the idealised bulk structure. Termination reversal was not observed at higher temperature (600 °C) and chamber pressure of 10−10 Torr, but rather an increased Al-O occupancy occurred, which was accompanied by a larger outwards relaxation of Al from the bulk positions. Changing the oxygen pressure to 10−6 Torr enriched the Al site occupancy fraction at the outermost surface from 0.245(10) to 0.325(9). In contrast the LaO, which is located at the next sub-surface atomic layer, showed no chemical enrichment and the structural relaxation was lower than for the top AlO2 layer. Knowledge of the surface structure will aid the understanding of how and which type of interface will be formed when LaAlO3 is used as a substrate as a function of temperature and pressure, and so lead to improved design of device structures.

  7. Lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijers, J A

    1952-01-01

    Three cases of acute lead poisoning of cattle herds via ingestion are reported, and reference is made to several other incidents of lead in both humans and animals. The quantity of lead which was found in the livers of the dead cows varied from 6.5 to 19 mg/kg, while 1160 mg/kg of lead in the liver was found for a young cow which was poisoned experimentally with 5 gms of lead acetate per day; hence, there appears to be great variability in the amounts deposited that can lead to intoxication and death. No evidence was found for a lead seam around the teeth, prophyrinuria, or basophil granules in the erythrocytes during acute or chronic lead poisoning of cattle or horses examined. Reference is made to attempts of finding the boundary line between increased lead absorption and lead intoxication in humans, and an examination of 60 laborers in an offset-printing office containing a great deal of inhalable lead (0.16 to 1.9 mg/cu m air) is reviewed. Physical deviation, basophylic granulation of erythrocytes, increased lead content of the urine, and porphyrinuria only indicate an increased absorption of lead; the use of the term intoxication is justified if, in addition, there are complaints of lack of appetite, constipation, fatigue, abdominal pain, and emaciation.

  8. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    remain at a very high level, reaching a maximum figure of merit ZT around 1.2. In addition to the thermoelectric properties the mechanical properties of lanthanum doped lead telluride were studied for the first time within this work. Lanthanum significantly increases the hardness of PbTe. SEM analysis of sintered samples reveals vast amounts of lanthanum rich precipitates within the matrix. This is partly attributed to the chosen route for material synthesis. Furthermore, the doped material's thermoelectric properties are highly unstable. The reason for this still has to be investigated. Based on the process and material developments described in this work a prototype of a tubular thermoelectric generator was constructed. In the course of this construction a process for sintering rings and tubes of lead telluride was developed and successfully implemented.

  9. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (PHOSLOCK®)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, B.M.; Mackay, E.; Yasseri, S.; Gunn, I.D.M.; Waters, K.E.; Andrews, C.; Cole, S.; Ville, de M.; Kelly, M.; Meis, S.; Moore, A.L.; Nurnberg, G.K.; Oosterhout, van Frank; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    Lanthanum (La) modified bentonite is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters. However, little is known about its effectiveness in controlling P across a wide range of lake conditions or of its potential

  10. Characterization of phosphate sequestration by a lanthanum modified bentonite clay: A solid-state NMR, EXAFS and PXRD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Line; Lipton, Andrew S; Reitzel, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) sequestration by a lanthanum (La) exchanged clay mineral (La-Bentonite), which is extensively used in chemical lake restoration, was investigated on the molecular level using a combination of 31P and 139La solid state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR), extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy...

  11. effect of post-precipitation treatment on the pore-structure stability of sol-gel derived lanthanum zirconate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, Jalajakumari; Kumar, K.N.P.; Nair, P.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, Julian R.H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie J.; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1998-01-01

    The importance of post-precipitation treatments (pore-fluid exchange and its removal) on the evolution of the texture of coprecipitated lanthanum zirconate has been investigated. The nature of the pore fluid and the type of fluid-removal (drying) process have shown a profound effect on the aggregate

  12. The Catalytic Activity of Modified Zeolite Lanthanum on the Catalytic Cracking of Al-Duara Atmospheric Distillation Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Khalifa Esgair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric residue fluid catalytic cracking was selected as a probe reaction to test the catalytic performance of modified NaY zeolites and prepared NaY zeolites. Modified NaY zeolites have been synthesized by simple ion exchange methods. Three samples of modified zeolite Y have been obtained by replacing the sodium ions in the original sample with lanthanum and the weight percent added are 0.28, 0.53, and 1.02 respectively. The effects of addition of lanthanum to zeolite Y in different weight percent on the cracking catalysts were investigated using an experimental laboratory plant scale of fluidized bed reactor. The experiments have been performed with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV range of 6 to 24 h-1, and the range of temperature from 450 to 510 oC. The activity of the catalyst with 1.02 wt% lanthanum has been shown to be much greater than that of the sample parent NaY. Also it was observed that the addition of the lanthanum causes an increase in the thermal stability of the zeolite.

  13. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o Do not use glazed ceramics, home remedies, cosmetics, or leaded-crystal glassware unless you know that they are lead safe. o If you live near an industry, mine, or waste site that may have contaminated ...

  14. Effect of long-term intake of lanthanum chloride on the concentrations of some macro- and trace elements in rat brains using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tong; Li Yaming; Ren Yan; Wang Enbo; Xu Hongying; Wang Wenzhong

    2005-01-01

    Effects of long-term intake of lanthanum in drinking water on the concentrations of twelve kinds of macro- and trace elements in rat brains were primarily studied by neutron activation analysis. The results show that, along with the elevation of the dose of lanthanum, more and more elements were affected in the rat brain tissues. Compared with control group, the concentrations of five elements were changed in the 1000 mg/L group. These elements have close relations with brain function. Accordingly, intake of lanthanum may have negative effects on brain function. (authors)

  15. Fabrication of Polycrystalline Lanthanum Manganite (La0.99 Mn0.01 O3) Powder and Fibres by Electrospinning Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yin Win; That Htar Lwin; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Lanthanum manganite (La0.99 Mn0.01 O3) powder have been prepared by using pyrolysis methods. Lanthanum manganite fibres were successfully fabricated by electro-spinning utilizing precursors. Polycrystalline perovskite structure lanthanum manganite powder and fibres showed that the grain size and crystal grain increased significantly with the increase in calcination temperature. A variety of techniques (SEM, FT-IR and TG-DTA) were employed to study the morphology and fibre quality, crystal structure, and thermal analysis of La0.99 Mn0.01 O3 specimen respectively.

  16. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  17. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do renovation and repair projects using lead-safe work practices to avoid creating more lead dust or ... in a dangerous area? Yes. If you are working in a potentially harmful environment with exposure to lead dust or fumes: Wash ...

  18. Studies on the thermal decomposition of lanthanum(III) valerate and lanthanum(III) caproate in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivel, J.-C., E-mail: jean@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK - 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Zhao, Y.; Suarez Guevara, M.J. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK - 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Watenphul, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 48, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • The thermal decomposition of Lathanum valerate and caproate has been studied in Ar. • The compounds melt prior to decomposition. • Gas release in the molten state results in irregular mass loss. • CO{sub 2} and symmetrical ketones are the main evolving gas species. - Abstract: The decomposition of La-valerate (La(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O (x ≈ 0.45)) and La-caproate (La(C{sub 5}H{sub 11}CO{sub 2}){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O (x ≈ 0.30)) was studied upon heating at 5 °C/min in a flow of argon. Using a variety of techniques including simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, X-ray diffraction with both laboratory Cu Kα and synchrotron sources as well as hot-stage microscopy, it was found that both compounds melt prior to decomposition and that the main decomposition stage from the molten, anhydrous state leads to the formation of La-dioxycarbonate (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) via an unstable intermediate product and release of symmetrical ketones. Final decomposition to La{sub 2}O{sub 3} takes place with release of CO{sub 2}.

  19. Dielectric response of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 in the nonergodic state after a DC electric field is turned off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakova, N. N.; Czarnecki, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PMN) relaxor system is used as an example to analyze the temperature dependences of the low-frequency dielectric permitivity (ε'(T)) measured during zero-field heating (ZFH) from T = 10 K to T = 300 K after using different field cooling (FC) conditions. No changes in the temperature dependences of the permittivity have been detected during the transition from a nonergodic relaxor state (NERS) into an ergodic relaxor state (ERS) (at T f ∼ 216 K). However, the difference Δε'(T) between the curves corresponding to different field cooling conditions in the same electric field has different shapes and different values below and above T → (T f + 9 K) - (for E dc = 1.52 kV/cm). The reduced permittivities ε' r (T, f) recorded under different cooling conditions are shown to change their behavior when passing through T = T f + 9 K. In NERS, these curves diverge: the stronger the field (0 ≤ E dc ≤ 3 kV/cm), the larger the divergence. In ERS, however, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide under different cooling conditions irrespective of the field. The character of the changes in Δε'(T) and ε' r (T, f) during the NERS-ERS transition is frequency-independent. The difference in the behavior of the dielectric response during ZFH after cooling in different (ZFC, FC) modes (even in a weak field), for both transition through T f and cooling down to T = 10 K, indicates different NERSs forming under these conditions. The contribution to ε'(T) from slowly relaxing regions (ω ∼ 0.1 mHz), whose polarization is reoriented after the field is turned off, is responsible for the fact that, during the NERS-ERS transition, the ε' r (T, f) curves coincide at a temperature that is higher than T = T f

  20. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. Methods: In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4 h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). Results: In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m 3 for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m 3 and 9.6 ng/m 3 , and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m 3 and 5.9 ng/m 3 for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m 3 for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m 3 for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m 3 for La with highest median levels in discotheques. Conclusions: The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. - Highlights: ► We quantified cer, lanthanum and cadmium concentrations in indoor air. ► Cer and lanthanum concentrations were high in tobacco smoke enriched locations. ► Both elements can be considered as good markers for indoor air quality.

  1. Cerium doped lanthanum halides: fast scintillators for medical imaging; Halogenures de lanthane dopes cerium des scintillateurs rapides pour l'imagerie medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selles, O

    2006-12-15

    This work is dedicated to two recently discovered scintillating crystals: cerium doped lanthanum halides (LaCl{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}).These scintillators exhibit interesting properties for gamma detection, more particularly in the field of medical imaging: a short decay time, a high light yield and an excellent energy resolution. The strong hygroscopicity of these materials requires adapting the usual experimental methods for determining physico-chemical properties. Once determined, these can be used for the development of the industrial manufacturing process of the crystals. A proper comprehension of the scintillation mechanism and of the effect of defects within the material lead to new possible ways for optimizing the scintillator performance. Therefore, different techniques are used (EPR, radioluminescence, laser excitation, thermally stimulated luminescence). Alongside Ce{sup 3+} ions, self-trapped excitons are involved in the scintillation mechanism. Their nature and their role are detailed. The knowledge of the different processes involved in the scintillation mechanism leads to the prediction of the effect of temperature and doping level on the performance of the scintillator. A mechanism is proposed to explain the thermally stimulated luminescence processes that cause slow components in the light emission and a loss of light yield. Eventually the study of afterglow reveals a charge transfer to deep traps involved in the high temperature thermally stimulated luminescence. (author)

  2. Atom states and interatomic interactions in complex perovskite-like oxides. Communication XX. Origin of electron-ionic conductivity in lanthanum gallates doped with strontium and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chezhina, N.V.; Zolotukhina, N.V.; Pijr, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibilities and electric conductivities of solid solutions based on lanthanum gallate containing chromium and strontium atoms in the ratio of 10 : 2 were studied. It was shown that no partial oxidation of chromium to Cr(IV) occurs when lanthanum gallate is doped with chromium and strontium simultaneously, whereas the ionic conductivity is associated with the appearance of vacancies stabilized by chromium atoms in the oxygen sublattice [ru

  3. Leading Democratically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  4. Phytotoxic Effects of Lanthanum Oxide Nanoparticles on Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinglin; Xu, Lina; Dai, Yanhui

    2018-02-01

    The use of lanthanum oxide nanoparticles (La2O3 NPs) in life products have increased dramatically in the past decades, which are inevitable released into natural environment. In this study, we determined the phytotoxicity of La2O3 NPs to maize (Zea mays L.) grown in one-fourth strength Hoagland solution. After being exposed for two weeks, the biomass, roots length and the relative chlorophyll content were measured. La2O3 NPs had phytotoxicity to maize at 5 mg/L. La2O3 NPs decreased shoot biomass (≥10 mg/L), the root biomass and length (≥5 mg/L). Moreover, La2O3 NPs had adverse effects on the chlorophyll content (≥10 mg/L). The decreased chlorophyll content may reduce net photosynthetic rate. This research offers vital information about the phytotoxicity of La2O3 NPs.

  5. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD.

  6. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-12-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD.

  7. The lanthanum(III molybdate(VI La4Mo7O27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Becker

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of the orthorhombic phase La4Mo7O27 (lanthanum molybdenum oxide were obtained from a non-stoichiometric melt in the pseudo-ternary system La2O3–MoO3–B2O3. In the crystal structure, distorted square-antiprismatic [LaO8] and monocapped square-antiprismatic [LaO9] polyhedra are connected via common edges and faces into chains along [010]. These chains are arranged in layers that alternate with layers of [MoO4] and [MoO5] polyhedra parallel to (001. In the molybdate layers, a distorted [MoO5] trigonal bipyramid is axially connected to two [MoO4] tetrahedra, forming a [Mo3O11] unit.

  8. The systems lanthanum (cerium, samarium) nitrate-tetramethyl-ammonium nitrate-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Semenova, Eh.B.

    1984-01-01

    The method of cross sections at 25 and 50 deg C has been applied to study solubility in the systems lanthanum nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (1), cesium (3) nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (2) and samarium nitrate-tetramethyl ammonium nitrate-water (3). Crystallization fields of congruently dissolving compounds with 1:3 ratio of salt components (in system 1) and 1:2 ratio (in systems 2 and 3) are found in the systems. New solid phases are separated preparatively and subjected to chemical, differential thermal and IR spectroscopic analyses. Compositions of formed compounds are compared with the compositions known for nitrates of other representatives of light lanthanides

  9. Red, green, and blue lanthanum phosphate phosphors obtained via surfactant-controlled hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Serra, Osvaldo A.

    2009-01-01

    A new solution route for the obtainment of highly pure luminescent rare-earth orthophosphates in hydrothermal conditions was developed. By starting from soluble precursors (lanthanide tripolyphosphato complexes, i.e. with P 3 O 10 5- as a complexing agent and as an orthophosphate source) and by applying surfactants in a water/toluene medium, the precipitations are confined to reverse micelle structures, thus yielding nanosized and homogeneous orthophosphates. The method was employed to obtain lanthanide-activated lanthanum phosphates, which can be applied as red (LaPO 4 :Eu 3+ ), green (LaPO 4 :Ce 3+ ,Tb 3+ ) and blue (LaPO 4 :Tm 3+ ) phosphors. The produced materials were analyzed by powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and luminescence spectroscopy (emission, excitation, lifetimes and chromaticity coordinates).

  10. Growth and characterization of magnesium chloride and lanthanum chloride doped strontium tartrate crystals - gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiarasi, S.; Jaikumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of single crystals of doped strontium tartrate by controlled diffusion of strontium chloride into the silica gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature is narrated. In this study, we synthesized magnesium chloride (5% and 10%) doped strontium tartrate crystals and Lanthanum chloride (5%, 10% and 15%) doped strontium tartrate crystals are grown. The crystal structure of the compound crystals was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analyzed. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum analysis reveals that the optical study of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique with Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm. (author)

  11. Structural phase transition in lanthanum gallate as studied by Raman and X-ray diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhak, P.; Pramanik, P. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, Anushree [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Lanthanum gallate (LaGaO{sub 3}) is known to undergo orthorhombic to rhombohedral first order phase transition at 150 C. In this article we have shown that by introducing 2% La deficiency in the system, coexistence of above two phases can be obtained at lower temperature and a complete phase transition occurs at 200 C. The evolution of structural parameters of the system with temperature is reported from X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis of the diffraction patterns. The change in local octahedral distortion due to 2% La deficiency is revealed through the shift in the phonon modes of GaO{sub 6} octahedra, in both orthorhombic and rhombohedral phase. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Promising Ni-Fe-LSGMC anode compatible with lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shizhong [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)], E-mail: shizwang@sohu.com; He, Qiong [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)], E-mail: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu

    2009-06-01

    A number of composite materials in the Ni-Fe-LSGMC family have been studied as potential anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on strontium, magnesium, and cobalt doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte (LSGMC). The results show that Ni reacts with LSGMC especially under reducing conditions at high temperatures, resulting in high contact resistance, large electrode polarization, and poor performance. The reaction between Ni and LSGMC depends strongly on the composition and pre-sintering temperature of LSGMC, the concentration of iron in the electrode, and the processing and operating temperatures. Under proper conditions, Ni-Fe-LSGMC5 could be a promising high-performance anode with good compatibility with LSGMC5 electrolyte.

  13. Promising Ni-Fe-LSGMC anode compatible with lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shizhong; He, Qiong; Liu Meilin

    2009-01-01

    A number of composite materials in the Ni-Fe-LSGMC family have been studied as potential anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on strontium, magnesium, and cobalt doped lanthanum gallate electrolyte (LSGMC). The results show that Ni reacts with LSGMC especially under reducing conditions at high temperatures, resulting in high contact resistance, large electrode polarization, and poor performance. The reaction between Ni and LSGMC depends strongly on the composition and pre-sintering temperature of LSGMC, the concentration of iron in the electrode, and the processing and operating temperatures. Under proper conditions, Ni-Fe-LSGMC5 could be a promising high-performance anode with good compatibility with LSGMC5 electrolyte.

  14. Rare earth impurities in high purity lanthanum oxide determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Desai, H.B.; Parthasarathy, R.; Gangadharan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Individual rare earth impurities in high purity La 2 O 3 (≥99.9%) have been determined by NAA after pre-separation of the matrix (La). The separation is carried out on an anion exchanger (Dowex 1x8) using different mixtures of methanol/nitric acid as eluants. The rare earth elements from Dy to Lu are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 1M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture, while the light rare earths from Ce to Gd are eluted quantitatively using a 10% 0.05M HNO 3 - 90% methanol mixture. La, which is retained on the column, is eluted using 0.1M HNO 3 . The recoveries of the various rare earth elements have been checked using radiotracers and also by spiking the sample with known amount of elements, and the recoveries are found to be quantitative. Results obtained on a typical high purity lanthanum oxide are reported here. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  15. Volatile mixed-ligand lanthanum (3) complex with acetylacetone and 1,10-phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Chuparov, N.V.; Pisarevskij, A.P.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1997-01-01

    La(Acac) 3 Phen complex is synthetized, its X-tray structure analysis is carried out. Crystals are monoclinic ones, sp.gr. P2 1 /n, a=17.11 (12), b=18.16 (3), c=17.86 (2) A, β=91.32 (2) deg, V=5548 (13) A 3 , Z=8. Structure contains two crystallographically non-equivalent types of molecules differing in interatomic distances and valent angles, as well as, in angles between ligand planes. Behaviour of La(Acac) 3 Phen at heating in vacuum (0.1-0.01 mm Hg) is studied. It is shown that under those conditions processes of Phen splitting, of sublimation and polymerization of La(Acac) 3 lanthanum acetylacetonate formed following Phen splitting and that under 220 deg C during 30 min quantitative transition of La(Acac) 3 Phen into gas phase is reached. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Doping and temperature dependence of incommensurate antiferromagnetism in underdoped lanthanum cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Feng Shiping; Su Zhaobin; Yu Lu

    2001-08-01

    The doping, temperature and energy dependence of the dynamical spin structure factors of the underdoped lanthanum cuprates in the normal state is studied within the t-J model using the fermion-spin transformation technique. Incommensurate peaks are found at [(1±δ)π, π], [π, (1±δ)π] at relatively low temperatures with δ linearly increasing with doping at the beginning and then saturating at higher dopings. These peaks broaden and weaken in amplitude with temperature and energy, in good agreement with experiments. The theory also predicts a rotation of these peaks by π/4 at even higher temperatures, being shifted to [(1±δ/√2)π, (1±δ/√2)π]. (author)

  17. Formation of Lanthanum Hydroxide nano structures: Effect of NaOH and KOH solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloumi, M.; Zanganeh, S.; Kajbafvala, A.; Shayegh, M. R.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Lanthanum hydroxide (La(OH) 3 ) nano structures, including elliptical nanoparticles, octahedral rods and irregular nanoparticles were prepared chemically in NaOH and KOH solutions with 10 M concentration. The obtained powders were characterized with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. Crystallinities, morphologies and thermal behavior of the obtained nano structure powders were investigated under the influence of above mentioned solvents. The effect of chemical's temperature was also determined in one of the solvents (i.e. NaOH). The formation of growth in nano structure mechanism under the influence of alkali solutions (i.e., KOH and NaOH) have been discussed considerably in this paper

  18. A multi-scale study of the adsorption of lanthanum on the (110) surface of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samin, Adib J.; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we utilize a multi-scale approach to studying lanthanum adsorption on the (110) plane of tungsten. The energy of the system is described from density functional theory calculations within the framework of the cluster expansion method. It is found that including two-body figures up to the sixth nearest neighbor yielded a reasonable agreement with density functional theory calculations as evidenced by the reported cross validation score. The results indicate that the interaction between the adsorbate atoms in the adlayer is important and cannot be ignored. The parameterized cluster expansion expression is used in a lattice gas Monte Carlo simulation in the grand canonical ensemble at 773 K and the adsorption isotherm is recorded. Implications of the obtained results for the pyroprocessing application are discussed.

  19. A multi-scale study of the adsorption of lanthanum on the (110) surface of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib J.; Zhang, Jinsuo [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    In this study, we utilize a multi-scale approach to studying lanthanum adsorption on the (110) plane of tungsten. The energy of the system is described from density functional theory calculations within the framework of the cluster expansion method. It is found that including two-body figures up to the sixth nearest neighbor yielded a reasonable agreement with density functional theory calculations as evidenced by the reported cross validation score. The results indicate that the interaction between the adsorbate atoms in the adlayer is important and cannot be ignored. The parameterized cluster expansion expression is used in a lattice gas Monte Carlo simulation in the grand canonical ensemble at 773 K and the adsorption isotherm is recorded. Implications of the obtained results for the pyroprocessing application are discussed.

  20. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W.; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-01-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD. PMID:26693513

  1. Accomplishment of highly porous-lithium lanthanum titanate through microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, D.; Nalini, B., E-mail: jyothsnalalin99@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (India); Abhilash, K. P.; Selvin, P. Christopher [Department of Physics, NGM college for arts and science, Pollachi, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Perovskite structured (ABO{sub 3}) lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) is a successful electrolyte reported by several scientists in the recent past. It is believed that intercalation and de-intercalation of Li ions inside solid electrolyte can be improved by increasing the porosity of the material. Hence in this research work, an attempt is made to increase the porosity of the LLTO electrolyte by rapid-microwave synthesis route. The microwave prepared LLTO is compared with the sol-gel synthesized LLTO. The prepared samples are analyzed with XRD, SEM, PL and cyclic Voltammetry studies. Morphological analysis proves that microwave synthesized LLTO contains much pores compared to the Sol-gel LLTO. A remarkable difference in its electrochemical property is also demonstrated and analysed with cyclic voltammetric studies and the results are presented.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of neodymium in mixture with lanthanum by eosin and 2,2'-dipyridyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchar, L.A.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using rare earth complexes with eosin (EO) and 2.2-dipyridyl (DP) for spectrophotometric determination of some rare earths in the presence of the others. It has been out that the complexes are not extracted by organic solvents. The PH region of complex existence (approximately 6) and the relation of components in them (rare earths:DP:EO=1:2:3) are determined. The possibility has been shown of determining all the rare earts from praseodymium to lutetium and yttrium in a binary mixture with lanthanum based on different stability of the studied complexes. The method has been tested on the example of determining Nd 2 O 3 in a mixture with La 2 O 3 . The low limit of determined contents is 1-2%. The relative standard deviation is 0.035-0.17 [ru

  3. Ethanol Electrooxidation on Pt with Lanthanum Oxide as Cocatalyst in a DAFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. B. Santoro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation of Pt particles in PtLa/C catalysts with different Pt : La ratios has been studied with different electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques, and the results were compared to those of Pt/C catalyst. Significant enhancement in the electrocatalytic activity has been achieved by depositing the Pt particles with lanthanum oxides/hydroxides using an alcohol reduction method. Compared to Pt/C catalyst, PtLa/C materials exhibit a lower onset potential and a higher electron-transfer rate constant for the investigated reaction. These studies illustrate the possibility of utilizing Pt/C with La oxides/hidroxides as electrocatalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs.

  4. Effect of the melting conditions on the properties of radiation color centers in lanthanum phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, G.O.; Rusan, V.V.; Yashchurzhinskaya, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the spatial effects of ionizing radiation on the radiation processes in phosphate glasses to make a comparative estimate of the radiation yield from the radiation color centers (RCC) of different types. A study is made of their behavior under thermal decoloration. The results of a comparison of the integrated intensities of the ESR signal from trapping centers are given. The ESR spectrum of the glasses are presented--one differs slightly from the others. On the basis of the result of processing the ESR and optical spectra of gamma-irradiated lanthanum phosphate glasses synthesized under various conditions, the radiation yield of the RCC and the behavior of the intensity of their absorption under thermodecoloration are significantly affected by the conditions of synthesis of the glass.

  5. Thermoluminescent dosimetric characterization of the perovskite, KMgF3, activated with lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda M, F.

    2003-01-01

    The new ICRP regulation about the Radiological Protection allows to the different groups to study new thermoluminescent materials highly sensitive for dosimetric applications (personal and environmental). This work reports the relative experimental results to the thermoluminescent characteristic of a new preparation of the fluorine perovskite activated with lanthanum absorbed in polytetrafluoroethylene (KMgF 3 : LaF 3 + Ptfe). The main thermoluminescent properties investigated were: the TL response like a function of the absorbed dose, the attainable accuracy in the dose measurement, the reproducibility of the TL readings and the threshold dose. The obtained results were compared with the requirements of the ANSI protocol for the environmental dosimetry, resulting in a very good agreement with the required yields. (Author)

  6. Thermal stability and microstructure of catalytic alumina composite support with lanthanum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Masakuni, E-mail: ozawa@numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Nishio, Yoshitoyo

    2016-09-01

    Highlights: • Thermal stability of La-modified γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with nanometer-scaled structure. • LaAlO{sub 3} particles are dispersed in the aggregated particles of alumina. • Increase of the surface basicity of La modified alumina using CO{sub 2}-TPD. - Abstract: Lanthanum (La) modified γ-alumina composite was examined for application toward thermostable catalytic support at elevated temperature. La added alumina was prepared through an aqueous process using lanthanum (III) nitrate and then characterized by surface area measurement, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and surface desorption of CO{sub 2}. It was found that the properties depended on the La content and heat treatment temperatures. The characterization of the surface, structural and chemical properties of La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed the existence of a strong interaction between the La species and alumina via formation of new phase and modified surface in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples. LaAlO{sub 3} nanoparticle formed among alumina particles by the solid phase reaction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The increase of the surface basicity of La modified alumina was demonstrated using CO{sub 2} temperature programmed desorption experiments. The controlled surface interaction between La oxide and alumina provide the unique surface and structural properties of the resulting mixed oxides as catalysts and catalytic supports.

  7. Vaporization and diffusion studies on the stability of doped lanthanum gallates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, M.; Singheiser, L.; Hilpert, K. [Research Center Juelich, Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, IWV-2, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Peck, D.H.; Woo, S.K. [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-Dong, Yuseong, 305-343 Daejeon (Korea); Schulz, O.; Martin, M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Landoltweg 2, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Vaporization and diffusion determine the stability of doped lanthanum gallates under SOFC operating conditions. Systematic vaporization studies of Ga and other elements were carried out using the vapor transpiration method. It was shown that the Ga vaporization is controlled by diffusion from the bulk to the surface. Diffusion coefficients D{sub Ga} and vaporization coefficients {alpha}{sub Ga} were determined by fitting the measured vaporization data to a vaporization model. Secondary phases formed as a result of the vaporization were detected. The influence of different doping levels of Sr, Mg and Fe on the Ga vaporization was elucidated. Moreover, cation self-diffusion of {sup 139}La, {sup 84}Sr and {sup 25}Mg as well as cation impurity diffusion of {sup 144}Nd, {sup 89}Y and {sup 56}Fe in polycrystalline samples of doped lanthanum gallate were directly determined for the composition La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}O{sub 2.9} as an example, from diffusion profiles determined by SIMS. It was found that diffusion occurs by means of bulk and grain boundaries. The bulk diffusion coefficients are similar for all cations with activation energies which are strongly dependent on temperature. The results are explained by a frozen-in defect structure at low temperatures in the ABO{sub 3} perovskite lattice and by proposing a defect cluster containing cation vacancies in the A and B sublattices, as well as oxygen vacancies. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. The combination of lanthanum chloride and the calcimimetic calindol delays the progression of vascular smooth muscle cells calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceri, Paola; Volpi, Elisa; Brenna, Irene; Elli, Francesca [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Borghi, Elisa [Dipartimento di Salute Pubblica, Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Brancaccio, Diego [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cozzolino, Mario, E-mail: mario.cozzolino@unimi.it [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium receptor agonists and the calcimimetic calindol reduce calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol cooperate on reducing calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol may interact with the same receptor. -- Abstract: Phosphate (Pi)-binders are commonly used in dialysis patients to control high Pi levels, that associated with vascular calcification (VC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) on the progression of high Pi-induced VC, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Pi-induced Ca deposition was inhibited by LaCl{sub 3}, with a maximal effect at 100 {mu}M (59.0 {+-} 2.5% inhibition). Furthermore, we studied the effects on VC of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists. Gadolinium chloride, neomycin, spermine, and the calcimimetic calindol significantly inhibited Pi-induced VC (55.9 {+-} 2.2%, 37.3 {+-} 4.7%, 30.2 {+-} 5.7%, and 63.8 {+-} 5.7%, respectively). To investigate the hypothesis that LaCl{sub 3} reduces the progression of VC by interacting with the CaSR, we performed a concentration-response curve of LaCl{sub 3} in presence of a sub-effective concentration of calindol (10 nM). Interestingly, this curve was shifted to the left (IC{sub 50} 9.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}M), compared to the curve in the presence of LaCl{sub 3} alone (IC{sub 50} 19.0 {+-} 4.8 {mu}M). In conclusion, we demonstrated that lanthanum chloride effectively reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In addition, LaCl{sub 3} cooperates with the calcimimetic calindol in decreasing Ca deposition in this in vitro model. These results suggest the potential role of lanthanum in the treatment of VC induced by high Pi.

  9. Lanthanum dimagnesium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belgacem, B.; Yahyaoui, S.; Demchenko, P.Yu.; Bodak, O.I.; Dušek, Michal; Ban Hassan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2005), i155-i157 ISSN 1600-5368 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : structure determination * X-rays diffraction * Jana2000 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.581, year: 2005

  10. Leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In response to feedback from nursing, midwifery and other care staff who wanted to understand better how the Leading Change, Adding Value framework applies to them, NHS England has updated its webpage to include practice examples.

  11. Controlling dielectric and relaxor-ferroelectric properties for energy storage by tuning Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emery; Ma, Chunrui; Acharya, Jagaran; Ma, Beihai; Wu, Judy; Li, Jun

    2014-12-24

    The energy storage properties of Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT) films grown via pulsed laser deposition were evaluated at variable film thickness of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 nm. These films show high dielectric permittivity up to ∼1200. Cyclic I-V measurements were used to evaluate the dielectric properties of these thin films, which not only provide the total electric displacement, but also separate contributions from each of the relevant components including electric conductivity (D1), dielectric capacitance (D2), and relaxor-ferroelectric domain switching polarization (P). The results show that, as the film thickness increases, the material transits from a linear dielectric to nonlinear relaxor-ferroelectric. While the energy storage per volume increases with the film thickness, the energy storage efficiency drops from ∼80% to ∼30%. The PLZT films can be optimized for different energy storage applications by tuning the film thickness to optimize between the linear and nonlinear dielectric properties and energy storage efficiency.

  12. Induced assembly and photoluminescence of lanthanum (Tb, Eu, Dy) complexes/ZnO/polyethylene glycol hybrid phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Bing [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn; Chen Xi [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu Jianhua [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2007-08-31

    Some novel kinds of hybrid phosphors were assembled with lanthanum (Tb, Eu, Dy) complexes (with four kinds of terbium complexes is 2,4-dihydroxybenzonic acid (DHBA), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), acetylacetone (AA) and nicotinic acid (Nic), respectively) doped ZnO/PEG particles by co-precipitation approach derived from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} (Zn(AC){sub 2}), NaOH, PEG as precursors at room temperature. The characteristic luminescence spectra for f-f transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} were observed. It is worthy to point out that ZnO is the excellent host for lanthanum ions by the assembly of PEG matrices.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of the Paracetamol drug using Lanthanum doped ZnO nanoparticles and their in-vitro cytotoxicity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, Mohammad; Faraz, Mohd; Sherwani, Mohd Asif; Al-Resayes, Saud I.

    2016-01-01

    The doping of semiconductor by rare earth metals nanoparticles is an effective way for increasing photocatalytic activity. Zinc oxide and Lanthanum doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by modifying the gel-combustion method. It was found that La can greatly enhance the cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles towards various cell lines and Paracetamol drug. These nanoparticles were characterized by various spectroscopic and other techniques which clearly revealed the presence of lanthanum ions. The absorption edge shifts towards the visible region after doping with La ions. This shift shows that the doping of La ions is favorable for absorbing the visible light. The comparative photocatalytic and cytotoxicity activity revealed that La doped ZnO nanoparticles remarkably enhanced activities as compared to the ZnO nanoparticles. The outcome of these studies offers valuable for planning La doped ZnO nanoparticles having cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activities helpful for the formulation of anticancer product and waste water remediation.

  14. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium oxides for rare earths impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, L.C.P.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method is described for the determination of Sm, Eu, La, Gd, Dy, Pr, Ho, Nd, Tb and Y in purified oxides of lanthanum, samarium and gadolinium. The method enables a simple, precise and readily available determination. Dissolution of the samples is achieved with diluted hydrochloric acid (1:1). The solutions are diluted to volume for a concentration of 1mg/ml. The lowest determination limit is 0,01% for most elements and 0,05 or 0,1% for a few rare earths in samarium and gadolinium matrices. Lanthanum, Samarium and Gadolinium concentrates with purity grade of 99,9%, 99,6% and 99,8%, respectively, can be analysed by this procedure. (author)

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of the Paracetamol drug using Lanthanum doped ZnO nanoparticles and their in-vitro cytotoxicity assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakir, Mohammad, E-mail: shakir078@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Faraz, Mohd [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Sherwani, Mohd Asif [Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Al-Resayes, Saud I. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    The doping of semiconductor by rare earth metals nanoparticles is an effective way for increasing photocatalytic activity. Zinc oxide and Lanthanum doped Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by modifying the gel-combustion method. It was found that La can greatly enhance the cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles towards various cell lines and Paracetamol drug. These nanoparticles were characterized by various spectroscopic and other techniques which clearly revealed the presence of lanthanum ions. The absorption edge shifts towards the visible region after doping with La ions. This shift shows that the doping of La ions is favorable for absorbing the visible light. The comparative photocatalytic and cytotoxicity activity revealed that La doped ZnO nanoparticles remarkably enhanced activities as compared to the ZnO nanoparticles. The outcome of these studies offers valuable for planning La doped ZnO nanoparticles having cytotoxicity and photocatalytic activities helpful for the formulation of anticancer product and waste water remediation.

  16. Solid state interaction studies on binary nitrate mixtures of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalekar, Bhupesh; Raje, Naina, E-mail: nraje@barc.gov.in; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2017-02-15

    Interaction behavior of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate (LaNH) have been investigated on the mixtures in different molar ratios of the two precursors and monitoring the reactions at elevated temperatures with thermoanalytical and X-ray diffraction measurement techniques. During the decomposition of equimolar mixture of LaNH and UNH, formation of lanthanum uranate (U{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})O{sub 2}, was seen by the temperature of 500 °C along with lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}). By the temperature of 700 °C, the formation of uranium sesquioxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) was observed along with (U{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})O{sub 2} as end products in uranium rich mixtures. Lanthanum rich compositions decomposed by the temperature of 700 °C to give (U{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})O{sub 2} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as end products. - Highlights: • UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O interact through their intermediates. • Formation of (U{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})O{sub 2} by 500 °C. • La deficient mixtures decompose to give U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and (U{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})O{sub 2} as end products. • La rich mixtures decompose to give La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (U{sub 0.5}La{sub 0.5})O{sub 2} as end product.

  17. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  18. catena-Poly[[tetrakis(hexamethylphosphoramide-κObis(nitrato-κ2O,O′lanthanum(III] [silver(I-di-μ2-sulfido-tungstate(VI-di-μ2-sulfido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lude Lu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexamethylphosphoramide (hmp, tetrathiotungstate(VI, silver sulfide and lanthanum(III nitrate are self-assembled to form discrete cations one-dimensional poylmeric anionic chains [AgWS4]nn− in the title compound, {[La(NO32(C6H18N3OP4][AgWS4]}n. The central La atom in the cation is coordinated by eight O atoms from two nitrate and four hmp ligands. Together with the two nitrate ligands, the cation is monovalent, which leads to the anionic chain having a monovalent repeat unit. The polymeric anionic chain with W...Ag...W and Ag...W...Ag angles of 165.94 (3 and 155.894 (14° presents a distorted linear configuration. Five N atoms, 18 C atoms and their attached H atoms are disordered equally over two positions.

  19. On the stability of the ternary phases in the La-Co-O system and the nonstoichiometry of lanthanum cobaltate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, Matti

    1979-01-01

    The crystal structure of La 4 Co 3 O 10 , which is a new ternary phase identified in the present study, was determined by means of X-ray diffraction. It has an orthorhombic symmetry and its space group is most likely Fsub(mmm) (face-centered). On the basis of the thermodynamical studies of the La-Co-O system, the stable ternary phases are LaCoO 3 , La 4 Co 3 O 10 and La 2 CoO 4 . The stability limits of these phases were determined as a function of oxygen activity and temperature, and their molar Gibbs standard formation functions were calculated. Electrons, e', and electron holes, hsup(.), are majority defects in lanthanum cobaltate and their concentrations are exceptionally high and nearly constant in the temperature range 1178 - 1295 K. Under thermodynamically well defined conditions the nonstoichiometry of lanthanum cobaltate was determined as a function of oxygen activity and temperature by coulometric titration. In the oxygen partial pressure and temperature range of the present study the oxygen vacancies were ionic minority defects dependent on the activity of oxygen. Due to the high concentration of electronic defects the oxygen vancancy concentration increases high at low oxygen pressures. Oxygen vacancies behave ideally in lanthanum cobaltate i.e. obey Henry's law when their concentrations are <=0.01. (author)

  20. Ionic conductivity and fuel cell properties of apatite-type lanthanum silicates doped with Mg and containing excess oxide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hideki [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology, 3-1-12 Yukihira-cho, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0037 (Japan); Nojiri, Yoshihiro [Kyushu University, Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0935 (Japan); Tanase, Shigeo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2008-11-30

    Enhancement of the ionic conductivity of lanthanum silicate-based apatites is examined with emphasis on optimizing the La composition and the Mg doping level at the same time. La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 26.8} and La{sub 9.8}Si{sub 5.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O{sub 26.4} show the highest level of the ionic conductivities among apatite silicates, 8.8 and 7.4 x 10{sup -} {sup 2} S cm{sup -} {sup 1} at 800 C, respectively, with a very low level of activation energy (0.42-0.43 eV). Their conductivities are higher than yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) below 900 C and even comparable to Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) below 550 C. A solid oxide fuel cell using La{sub 9.8}Si{sub 5.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O{sub 26.4} as an electrolyte with Ni-ceria cermet anode and Sr doped lanthanum cobaltite cathode exhibits a remarkable improvement in power generation compared to previous data using Pt electrodes. Structural investigation by the Rietveld analysis on the powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows significant enlargement of the bottleneck triangle sizes of the conduction channel with the Mg doping. (author)

  1. Effects of Dredging and Lanthanum-Modified Clay on Water Quality Variables in an Enclosure Study in a Hypertrophic Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Lürling Guido Waajen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An enclosure experiment was conducted between July and September 2009 to compare the effectiveness of a phosphate fixative, the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay Phoslock® (LMB, dredging, and their combination in controlling eutrophication in a hypertrophic urban pond in Heesch, The Netherlands. In total, 25 water quality variables were monitored. Multivariate analysis revealed that the combination LMB-treated and dredged enclosures deviated most from the pond (reference and the controls, and showed the strongest eutrophication reduction. Overall, dredging significantly increased transparency, lowered turbidity, and improved the oxygen conditions in the enclosures compared to non-dredged ones. Nonetheless, one dredged enclosure deviated dramatically from the others, which might reflect methodological issues with dredging. The LMB treatment appeared to be less effective at mitigating eutrophication than dredging, and phosphate concentrations even increased during the experiment in the LMB-treated enclosures. Chemical equilibrium modeling suggested that humic substances could have formed complexes with lanthanum (La from the LMB, rendering it unavailable for intercepting P over the course of the enclosure experiment. Residual lanthanum concentrations in combination dredging and LMB treatments exceeded the Dutch standard 10-fold. Total zooplankton abundance, and particularly Cladocera, increased in all enclosures over the course of the experiment. The limited effect of LMB in the enclosure experiment and the violation of the Dutch La standard when combined with dredging disqualify LMB as an intervention agent in the restoration of the pond.

  2. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also disting...

  3. Reliability improvement of PMZNT relaxor ferroelectrics through surface modification by MnO2 doping against electroplating-induced degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiangli; Li Longtu; Gui Zhilun

    2003-01-01

    Electroplating treatment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were conducted to investigate the reliability improvement of lead magnesium niobate-based ceramics (PMZNT) through MnO 2 vaporous doping against hydrogen reduction during electroplating. The results showed that manganese dopant was reduced to be +3 oxidation state during the sintering and Mn 3+ was incorporated into the perovskite lattice; however, only the outermost ceramics surface was doped while 50 μm beneath kept unchanged. This technique proved to enhance the reliability of PMZNT against electroplating significantly without changing the dielectric properties of ceramics body. Based on the above results, the modification mechanism of MnO 2 vaporous doping was analyzed from the viewpoint of defect chemistry

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite thin film using metal organic chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun-Sik [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Beom, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    By employing strontium as a dopant of lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO{sub 3}), strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite (La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3−δ}, LSC) thin film was fabricated using a metal organic chemical solution deposition (MOCSD) method. Lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate [La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}6H{sub 2}O], strontium acetate [Sr(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}], and cobalt acetate tetrahydrate [Co(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}4H{sub 2}O] were used as precursors. The coating process was performed through a spin coating method on a substrate, which were then heat treated under various temperature conditions. Electrical properties, microstructures, and crystalline structures with respect to sintering temperature were analyzed. According to these analyses, the change in surface morphology, phase shift, and conductive properties were closely related, which could explain their respective behaviors. Furthermore, sintered strontium-doped lanthanum perovskite oxides showed various conductivities according to the amount of dopant. With the molar ratio of strontium that is stoichiometrically equivalent to lanthanum (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ}) thin film showed the best conductivity in the sintering temperature range of 650–700 °C, with perovskite phases formed at this temperature condition. As the electrically conductive properties of the thin film are a function of thickness, the films were coated several times to a thickness of approximately 300 nm, with the lowest resistivity (approximately 9.06 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm) observed at the optimized sintering temperature and solution composition. - Highlights: • LSC thin film was fabricated by metal organic chemical solution deposition (MOCSD). • The film shows good agreement on the electrical conductivity of LSC by conventional methods. • The properties of LSC film are influenced by the surface morphology and crystalline phase. • Optimal molar ratio of strontium for the highest conductivity was investigated.

  5. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Paven, C., E-mail: claire.lepaven@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Lu, Y. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Nguyen, H.V. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); CEA LETI, Minatec Campus, 38054 Grenoble (France); Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR, UMR-CNRS 6164), Equipe Matériaux Fonctionnels, IUT Saint Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22000 Saint Brieuc (France); Rioual, S. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Brest (EA CNRS 4522), Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29000 Brest (France); Benzegoutta, D. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris (INSP, UMR CNRS 7588), Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (ISCR, UMR-CNRS 6226), Equipe Verres et Céramiques, Université de Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes (France); and others

    2014-02-28

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti{sup 4+} ions, with no trace of Ti{sup 3+}, and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2{sub 1} space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing.

  6. Lanthanum titanium perovskite compound: Thin film deposition and high frequency dielectric characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Paven, C.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.; Benzerga, R.; Le Gendre, L.; Rioual, S.; Benzegoutta, D.; Tessier, F.; Cheviré, F.

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite lanthanum titanium oxide thin films were deposited on (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO 3 and Pt(111)/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /(001)Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, using a La 2 Ti 2 O 7 homemade target sputtered under oxygen reactive plasma. The films deposited at 800 °C display a crystalline growth different than those reported on monoclinic ferroelectric La 2 Ti 2 O 7 films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the presence of titanium as Ti 4+ ions, with no trace of Ti 3+ , and provides a La/Ti ratio of 1.02. The depositions being performed from a La 2 Ti 2 O 7 target under oxygen rich plasma, the same composition (La 2 Ti 2 O 7 ) is proposed for the deposited films, with an unusual orthorhombic cell and Cmc2 1 space group. The films have a textured growth on MgO and Pt/Si substrates, and are epitaxially grown on LaAlO 3 substrate. The dielectric characterization displays stable values of the dielectric constant and of the losses in the frequency range [0.1–20] GHz. No variation of the dielectric constant has been observed when a DC electric field up to 250 kV/cm was applied, which does not match a classical ferroelectric behavior at high frequencies and room temperature for the proposed La 2 Ti 2 O 7 orthorhombic phase. At 10 GHz and room temperature, the dielectric constant of the obtained La 2 Ti 2 O 7 films is ε ∼ 60 and the losses are low (tanδ < 0.02). - Highlights: • Lanthanum titanium oxide films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. • A La 2 Ti 2 O 7 chemical composition is proposed, with an unusual orthorhombic cell. • At 10 GHz, the dielectric losses are lower than 0.02. • No variation of the dielectric constant is observed under DC electric biasing

  7. Lanthanum hexaboride as advanced structural refiner/getter in TiAl-based refractory intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartavykh, A.V., E-mail: karta@korolev-net.ru [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (TISNCM), 7a Centralnaya str., 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Asnis, E.A.; Piskun, N.V.; Statkevich, I.I. [The E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, 11 Bozhenko str., 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gorshenkov, M.V.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Fist application of LaB{sub 6} additive in TiAl-based intermetallics casting. • Pilot synthesis/casting and study of selected TiAl(Nb,Cr,Zr)B,La alloys set. • Dual effect observed: phase structure refinement and oxygen impurity removal. • Co-precipitation of TiB and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} in melt: 2LaB{sub 6} + 12Ti + 3O → 12TiB↓ + La{sub 2}O{sub 3}↓. • Features of structure refinement and oxygen gettering mechanisms reported. -- Abstract: The work is aimed at the study of the formation and refinement of microstructure appearing in the solidifying refractory TiAl-based intermetallics being inoculated with precise boron addition. The novelty of research consists in test application of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) ligature within semi-continuous electron beam casting process of selected alloys. Two ingots with nominal compositions Ti–44Al–5Nb–2Cr–1.5Zr–0.4B–0.07La and Ti–44Al–5Nb–1Cr–1.5Zr–1B–0.17La (at.%) have been synthesized and cast along with the reference alloy Ti–44Al–5Nb–3Cr–1.5Zr. Their comparative examination suggests (i) essential microstructural phase refinement effect coupled with (ii) threefold/fourfold decrease of background content of undesirable residual oxygen impurity in both alloys containing LaB{sub 6}. This advanced dual activity (i–ii) of LaB{sub 6} is explained by its complete dissolution, dissociation and following re-precipitation of effective Ti-based monoboride nucleants of orthorhombic B27 structure, those being accompanied by strong internal gettering of dissolved oxygen from the melt and from boride-inoculated solid α{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al phase with liberated elemental lanthanum. The phase composition and structure of cast alloys; state and characterization of newly precipitated TiB boride; features of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro/nano-dimensional precipitation and oxygen gettering mechanism are reported and discussed.

  8. Energy transfer driven tunable emission of Tb/Eu co-doped lanthanum molybdate nanophosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kukku; Alexander, Dinu; Sisira, S.; Gopi, Subash; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Joseph, Cyriac

    2018-06-01

    Tb3+/Eu3+ co-doped lanthanum molybdate nanophosphors were synthesized by conventional co-precipitation method. The Powder X-ray diffractogram revealed the formation of highly crystalline tetragonal nanocrystals with space group I41/a and the detailed analysis of the small variation of lattice parameters with Tb/Eu co-doping on the host lattice were carried out based on the ionic radii of the dopants. The FTIR spectra is employed to identify the fundamental vibrational modes in La2-x-y (MoO4)3:xTb, yEu nanocrystals. The formation of nanocrystals by oriented attachment was recognized from the HR TEM images and the d-spacing calculated was in accordance with that corresponding to highest intensity diffraction peak in the XRD patterns. The constituent elements present in the samples were identified with the aid of EDAX and elemental mapping analysis. The broad Mo6+- O2- CTB and the sharp excitation peaks of Tb and Eu identified from the UV-Vis absorption spectra facilitates the suitability of exciting the phosphors effectively over NUV and visible region of the spectra. The possibility of energy transfer from host to Tb3+/Eu3+ ions and from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions were confirmed from the PL excitation spectra monitoring 5D0→7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions around 615 nm. The correlated analysis of PL emission spectra, life time measurements and CIE diagram, upon different excitation channels elucidate the excellent luminescent properties of La2-x-y (MoO4)3:xTb, yEu nanophosphors with tunable emission colours in a wide range varying from yellow green region to reddish orange region and the efficient energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions in lanthanum molybdate host lattice. The Tb→Eu energy transfer efficiency and probability were calculated from the decay measurements and the values were found to be satisfactory for exploiting the prepared nanophosphors for the development of multifunctional luminescent nanophosphors.

  9. Structural stability of the smectite-doped lanthanum under high pressures and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Vicente Fiorini

    2012-01-01

    Smectites are phyllosilicates that have a tetrahedron: octahedron structure ratio of 2:1, with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the interlayers. For these and other features, smectites have been used in many parts of the world as secondary barriers with the goal of containing a possible leak of radioactive elements in final disposal facilities for radioactive waste through cation exchange. Our aim in this work is to reach the cation exchange in calcium montmorillonite (smectite dioctahedral) by lanthanum to simulate trivalent radionuclides and to study the stability of this structure under high pressure and high temperature. To achieve high pressure it was used two different technique: DAC (Diamond Anvil Cell), achieving pressures up to 12GPa at room temperature and hydraulic press with a toroidal chamber profile to achieve pressures up to 7,7GPa and temperatures up to 900 degree C. The heating is achieved simultaneously by an electric system coupled in the hydraulic press. The outcomes show that the smectite structure doped with lanthanum remains stable under 12GPa at room temperature and 2.5GPa at 200 degree C. However, above 300 degree C at 2.5GPa the structure becomes a new phase of muscovite-like, rich of La, where it loses its interlayer water and turns out to be irreversible. Furthermore, it is important to point out that the higher temperature the better ordered is the structure and it is still stable under 7.7GPa and 900 degree C. Moreover, after all experiments the structure continues being dioctahedral. The new phase of muscovite-like, rich of La, in contact with a calcium solution remains partially unchanged, whereas the other part returns to the original structure (montmorillonite-Ca). The following analyses were performed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) for evaluating the spatial structure; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for getting information about the vibrational modes; scanning electron microscopy with dispersive Xray spectroscopy

  10. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  11. Lanthanum carbonate versus placebo for management of hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis: a subgroup analysis of a phase 2 randomized controlled study of dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchison Alastair J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This short-term study assessed the efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients; here, we report a prespecified subgroup analysis of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Methods Men and women (n = 39 who had received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for chronic kidney disease for 6 months or more were enrolled in eight renal medicine departments in the United Kingdom. A 2-week washout period was followed by a 4-week dose-titration phase during which patients received lanthanum carbonate titrated up to 2250 mg/day. This was followed by a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase during which patients continued to receive either lanthanum carbonate at the titrated dose, or a matched dose of placebo. The main outcome measure was control of serum phosphate levels (1.3-1.8 mmol/l at the end of the parallel-group phase. Results Serum phosphate was controlled in 3/39 (8% patients at the beginning of the dose-titration phase (after washout and in 18/31 (58% patients treated with lanthanum carbonate at its end. After the parallel-group phase, 60% of lanthanum carbonate-treated patients and 10% of those receiving placebo had controlled serum phosphate. There was no difference in mean (95% confidence interval serum phosphate levels between groups at randomization: lanthanum carbonate, 1.57 (1.34-1.81 mmol/l; placebo, 1.58 (1.40-1.76 mmol/l (p = 0.96. However, a difference was seen at the end of the parallel-group phase: lanthanum carbonate, 1.56 (1.33-1.79 mmol/l; placebo, 2.25 (1.81-2.68 mmol/l (p = 0.0015. There were no clinically important changes in nutritional parameters and no serious treatment-related adverse events were recorded. Conclusions At doses up to 2250 mg/day, lanthanum carbonate is well tolerated and controls hyperphosphatemia effectively. Treatment with higher doses of lanthanum carbonate may allow patients undergoing

  12. Electric-field-induced local structural phenomena in relaxor ferroelectric PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 near the intermediate temperature T* studied by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steilmann, T; Maier, B J; Bismayer, U; Mihailova, B; Gospodinov, M

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy at different temperatures and under an external electric field E was applied to PbSc 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 single crystals in order to gain further insights into the mesoscopic-scale coupling processes in perovskite-type (ABO 3 ) relaxor ferroelectrics. Parallel and cross-polarized Raman spectra were collected between 800–80 K with E applied along the cubic [1 0 0], [1 1 0] or [1 1 1] crystallographic directions. The analysis was focused on the field-induced changes in the temperature evolution of three low-energy phonon modes: the Pb-localized mode near 50 cm −1 , the Pb-BO 3 translation mode near 150 cm −1 , and the B-cation-localized mode near 250 cm −1 . The results show that competitive ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) coupling exists within the system of off-centred Pb 2+ cations, within the system of off-centred B-site cations as well as between off-centred Pb 2+ and B-site cations. The strong AFE-type coupling between Pb 2+ cations along the cubic body diagonal significantly influences the coupling between the B-site cations via the Pb-BO 3 mode and results in AFE-type behaviour of the ‘microscopic’ T* determined from the B-cation-localized mode near 250 cm −1 , which explains the previously reported non-trivial field dependence of the ‘macroscopic’ characteristic temperatures: the temperature of the dielectric-permittivity maximum T m , T*, and the Burns temperature T B . The comparative analysis between PbSc 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 and PbSc 0.5 Ta 0.5 O 3 indicates that two major displacive order parameters couple to form a relaxor state in B-site complex perovskites: the FE order associated with polar shifts of B-site cations and the AFE order associated with polar shifts of A-site cations. The latter penetrates through both polar and non-polar regions, but it is highly frustrated due to the high density of translation-symmetry faults in the chemical NaCl-type B-site order. The frustrated AFE order

  13. Synthesis and luminescence studies of novel rare earth activated lanthanum pentaborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpure, P.A.; Bajaj, N.S.; Omanwar, S.K.; Sonekar, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    The lanthanum pentaborate (LaB 5 O 9 ) is a novel material which exhibits excellent luminescence when doped with rare earth ions. It was prepared by a novel technique which is a slight variation of solution combustion synthesis. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (urea) and oxidizer (ammonium nitrate). The structure of the prepared material was confirmed by powder XRD technique. The photoluminescence of rare earth ions (Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ ) and sensitized luminescence of Gd 3+ (Pr 3+ -Gd 3+ and Bi 3+ -Gd 3+ ) in LaB 5 O 9 have been studied. LaB 5 O 9 :Ce 3+ shows broad band UV emission at 317 nm and LaB 5 O 9 :Eu 3+ shows orange red emission. LaB 5 O 9 : Pr 3+ -Gd 3+ and LaB 5 O 9 : Bi 3+ -Gd 3+ exhibit efficient luminescence of Gd 3+ in narrow UVB region at 310 nm. The material (La 0.5 Pr 0.4 )B 5 O 9 :Gd 0.1 exhibits intense narrow band UVB emission at 310 nm and could be a potential candidate for UVB phosphors used in phototherapy lamps. (author)

  14. Magnetocaloric effect in potassium doped lanthanum manganite perovskites prepared by a pyrophoric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soma; Dey, T. K.

    2006-08-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in fine grained perovskite manganites of the type La1-xKxMnO3 (0value of 3.00 J kg-1 K-1 at 310 K amongst the compounds investigated. Moreover, the maximum magnetic entropy change exhibits a linear dependence with applied magnetic field. The estimated adiabatic temperature change at TC and at 1 T field also increases with K doping, being a maximum of 2.1 K for the La0.85K0.15MnO3 compound. The relative cooling power (RCP) of La1-xKxMnO3 compounds is estimated to be about one-third of that of the prototype magnetic refrigerant material (pure Gd). However, La1-xKxMnO3 compounds possess an MCE around room temperature, which is comparable to that of Gd. Further, tailoring of their TC, higher chemical stability, lower eddy current heating and lower cost of synthesis are some of the attractive features of K doped lanthanum manganites that are advantageous for a magnetic refrigerant. The temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) measured under various magnetic fields is explained fairly well using the Landau theory of phase transitions. Contributions of magnetoelastic and electron interaction are found to have a strong influence in the magnetocaloric effect of manganites.

  15. Local structure and oxide-ion conduction mechanism in apatite-type lanthanum silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Olivier; Berghout, Abid; Béchade, Emilie; Jouin, Jenny; Thomas, Philippe; Asaka, Toru; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    The local structure of apatite-type lanthanum silicates of general formula La 9.33+x (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2+3x/2 has been investigated by combining the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method, conventional X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT was used to build structure models with stable positions of excess oxide ions within the conduction channel. Two stable interstitial positions were obtained in accordance with literature, the first one located at the very periphery of the conduction channel, neighbouring the SiO 4 tetrahedral units, and the second one closer to the channel axis. The corresponding PDFs and average structures were then calculated and tested against experimental PDFs obtained by X-ray total scattering and NPD Rietveld refinements results gathered from literature. It was shown that of the two stable interstitial positions obtained with DFT only the second one located within the channel is consistent with experimental data. This result consolidates one of the two main conduction mechanisms along the c-axis reported in the literature, namely the one involving cooperative movement of O4 and Oi ions.

  16. Wave and transport studies utilizing dense plasma filaments generated with a lanthanum hexaboride cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Compernolle, B.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.; Cooper, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    A portable lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) cathode has been developed for use in the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The LaB 6 cathode can be used as a tool for many different studies in experimental plasma physics. To date, the cathode has been used as a source of a plasma with a hot dense core for transport studies and diagnostics development, as a source of gradient driven modes, as a source of shear Alfven waves, and as a source of interacting current channels in reconnection experiments. The LaB 6 cathode is capable of higher discharge current densities than the main barium oxide coated LAPD cathode and is therefore able to produce plasmas of higher densities and higher electron temperatures. The 8.25 cm diameter cathode can be introduced into the LAPD at different axial locations without the need to break vacuum. The cathode can be scaled up or down for use as a portable secondary plasma source in other machines.

  17. Gelcasting of strontium doped lanthanum manganite for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Haleem, B.; Bhuvana, R.; Udayakumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are devices that offer high efficiency power output with negligible emissions. Cathode supported tubular SOFCs consist of porous cathode tubes made up of strontium doped lanthanum manganite, La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 (LSM) that work as functional component as well as structural support for the rest of the cell components. Gelcasting is one of the most suitable methods for the fabrication of porous ceramics. This paper describes the fabrication of porous LSM cathode by gelcasting process. Gelcasting parameters such as monomer concentration, powder volume fraction, pH of the slurry, etc were optimized. Slow drying of green specimens minimized warpage and cracking. Sintered specimens with controlled porosity were obtained by the use of suitable pore-forming agents. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of sintered specimens was measured, which was found matching with the CTE values of cell components reported in the literature. These results have shown the suitability of the gelcast generated LSM cathodes for SOFC applications. (author)

  18. Influence of Lanthanum Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of Hematite Nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, J. Sharmila; Dharma Roy, S. Dawn; Raj, A. Moses Ezhil

    2016-10-01

    Rare-earth elements are an attractive class of dopant elements, as they give easily trivalent cations that possibly altering the structure and other properties of the parent nanoparticles and creating multifunctional materials because of their f-electronic configurations. Herein, experimental evidence has been given for a better understanding of the factors that dictate the interactions of La doping on the structure and optical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. For that, lanthanum doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared by a facile solution method using iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) as starting precursor and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as reducing agent without templates at low temperature. As-prepared powders were subsequently calcined in air for 3 hr at 800 °C. Xray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to study the nanocrystal formation of α-Fe2O3 and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectral information identified the chemical bond structure of the nanoparticles. Morphology study of the nanoparticles was identified using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the incorporated La content was recognized from the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The optical absorption spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range of 200-2000 nm and the optical parameters such as absorption coefficient and optical band gap energy of pure and doped Fe2O3 nanoparticles were determined. Obtained results are interpreted by considering the impregnation of trivalent La cations that replaced Fe cations of the host structure.

  19. Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, N.S.; Gad, H.M.H.; Ahmad, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, ph, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium were quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg/g for La(III) and 250 mg/g for Er(III) . The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/ mol while 14.6 kJ/ mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La (III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application

  20. RM1 Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry: Parameters for Trivalent Lanthanum, Cerium and Praseodymium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diogo L Dutra

    Full Text Available The RM1 model for the lanthanides is parameterized for complexes of the trications of lanthanum, cerium, and praseodymium. The semiempirical quantum chemical model core stands for the [Xe]4fn electronic configuration, with n =0,1,2 for La(III, Ce(III, and Pr(III, respectively. In addition, the valence shell is described by three electrons in a set of 5d, 6s, and 6p orbitals. Results indicate that the present model is more accurate than the previous sparkle models, although these are still very good methods provided the ligands only possess oxygen or nitrogen atoms directly coordinated to the lanthanide ion. For all other different types of coordination, the present RM1 model for the lanthanides is much superior and must definitely be used. Overall, the accuracy of the model is of the order of 0.07Å for La(III and Pr(III, and 0.08Å for Ce(III for lanthanide-ligand atom distances which lie mostly around the 2.3Å to 2.6Å interval, implying an error around 3% only.

  1. Lanthanum gallate and ceria composite as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuai; Li Zhicheng; Bergman, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The composite of doped lanthanum gallate (La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 2.85 , LSGM) and doped ceria (Ce 0.8 Sm 0.2 O 1.9 , CSO) was investigated as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The LSGM-CSO composite was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sintered LSGM-CSO composite contains mainly fluorite CeO 2 phase and a minority impurity phase, Sm 3 Ga 5 O 12 . The LSGM-CSO composite electrolyte shows a small grain boundary response in the impedance spectroscopy as compared to LSGM and CSO pellets. The composite electrolyte exhibits the highest conductivity in the temperature range of 250-600 o C, compared to LSGM and CSO. The LSGM-CSO composite can be expected to be an attractive intermediate temperature electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  2. Synthesis of Sr- and Mg- doped lanthanum gallate by carbonate co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunitha, Y.; Narasimham, K.V.N.S.V.P.L.; Raju, V.S.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2010-01-01

    Sr- and Mg- doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) are promising electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in view of their high ionic conductivity and stability over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures. LSGM powders are usually prepared by solid-state reactions. However high sintering temperature (∼ 1500 deg C) required for densification and the formation of secondary phases are the major drawbacks of the method. Wet-chemical method is a suitable alternative to solid-state synthesis with the prospect of the realisation of phase pure material with good sinterability at comparatively lower temperatures. In this paper we present the results of our investigation on the synthesis of LaGaO 3 and LSGM by a wet-chemical method through carbonate co-precipitation using ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate as precipitants. Phase and microstructural evolution of the material have been studied by XRD and SEM respectively, while compositional analysis has been performed by ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. In addition we have also investigated the incorporation of Sr and Mg in the lattice of LaGaO 3 by (a) solid-state reaction route and (b) wet-chemical approach

  3. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Kanou, Jirou; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hosoi, Kei; Miyazawa, Takashi; Yamada, Masaharu; Komada, Norikazu

    2006-01-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 o C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O 3-δ , Ni-(CeO 2 ) 1-x (SmO 1.5 ) x cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO 3-δ cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 o C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC

  4. Impedance analysis of a disk-type SOFC using doped lanthanum gallate under power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tohru; Nozaki, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Monma, Akihiko; Kaga, Yasuo; Nagata, Susumu; Takano, Kiyonami; Inagaki, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hosoi, Kei; Hoshino, Koji; Akbay, Taner; Akikusa, Jun

    Impedance measurements were carried out under practical power generation conditions in a disk-type SOFC, which may be utilized as a small-scale power generator. The tested cell was composed of doped lanthanum gallate (La 0.8Sr 0.2Ga 0.8Mg 0.15Co 0.05O 3- δ) as the electrolyte, Sm 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3 as the cathode electrode and Ni/Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 2 cermet as the anode electrode. The cell impedance was measured between 10 mHz and 10 kHz by varying the fuel utilization and gas flow rate and plotted in complex impedance diagrams. The observed impedance shows a large semi-circular pattern on the low frequency side. The semi-circular impedance, having a noticeably low characteristic frequency between 0.13 and 0.4 Hz, comes from the change in gas composition, originally caused by the cell reaction. The change in impedance with the fuel utilization (load current) and the gas flow rate agreed qualitatively well with the theoretical predictions from a simulation. This impedance was dominant under high fuel-utilization power-generation conditions. The impedance, which described the activation polarizations in the electrode reactions, was comparatively small and scarcely changed with the change in fuel utilization (load current) and gas flow rate.

  5. Lanthanum gallate and ceria composite as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shuai, E-mail: shuail@kth.s [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Li Zhicheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha, Hunan (China); Bergman, Bill [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, SE 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-03-04

    The composite of doped lanthanum gallate (La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 2.85}, LSGM) and doped ceria (Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}, CSO) was investigated as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The LSGM-CSO composite was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the sintered LSGM-CSO composite contains mainly fluorite CeO{sub 2} phase and a minority impurity phase, Sm{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}. The LSGM-CSO composite electrolyte shows a small grain boundary response in the impedance spectroscopy as compared to LSGM and CSO pellets. The composite electrolyte exhibits the highest conductivity in the temperature range of 250-600 {sup o}C, compared to LSGM and CSO. The LSGM-CSO composite can be expected to be an attractive intermediate temperature electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. Influence of milling and calcination steps on phase assemblage of strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, S.L.; Muccillo, E.N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sr- and Mg- doped lanthanum gallate (La_1_-_xSr_xGa_1_-_yMg_yO_3_δ) is one of the most promising solid electrolyte and electrode components for solid oxide fuel cells operating at low-temperature, due to its high electric conductivity and stability over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures. In this work, La_0_,_9Sr_0_,_1Ga_0_,_8Mg_0_,_2O_2_,_85 was prepared by different solid state reaction routes. The main purpose is to determine a suitable processing route that enables high sintering density along with free or negligible secondary phase contents. Phase analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction and the sintered density was obtained from the water immersion method. Results on X-ray diffraction showed negligible secondary phases formed even for sintering at relatively high temperatures. The apparent density obtained was higher than 95% of the theoretical value for all routes. The main difference observed among the studied routes is the final contents of secondary phases. (author)

  7. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-choume, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Corporate Technology and Development Division, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system. (author)

  8. Demonstration of high efficiency intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Toru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan)]. E-mail: inagaki@rdd.kepco.co.jp; Nishiwaki, Futoshi [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Kanou, Jirou [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Yamasaki, Satoru [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Energy Use R and D Center, 11-20 Nakoji 3-chome, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0974 (Japan); Hosoi, Kei [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Miyazawa, Takashi [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Yamada, Masaharu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan); Komada, Norikazu [Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, Central Research Institute, 1002-14 Mukohyama, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been jointly developing intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The operation temperatures between 600 and 800 {sup o}C were set as the target, which enable SOFC to use less expensive metallic separators for cell-stacking and to carry out internal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The electrolyte-supported planar-type cells were fabricated using highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based electrolyte, La(Sr)Ga(Mg,Co)O{sub 3-{delta}}, Ni-(CeO{sub 2}){sub 1-x}(SmO{sub 1.5}) {sub x} cermet anode, and Sm(Sr)CoO{sub 3-{delta}} cathode. The 1 kW-class power generation modules were fabricated using a seal-less stack of the cells and metallic separators. The 1 kW-class prototype power generation system with the module was developed with the high performance cell, which showed the thermally self-sustainability. The system included an SOFC module, a dc-ac inverter, a desulfurizer, and a heat recovery unit. It provided stable ac power output of 1 kW with the electrical efficiency of 45% LHV based on ac output by using city gas as a fuel, which was considered to be excellent for such a small power generation system. And the hot water of 90 {sup o}C was obtained using high temperature off-gas from SOFC.

  9. Preparation and luminescence properties of terbium-doped lanthanum oxide nanofibers by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lixin; Du Pingfan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology (Zhejiang Sci-Tech University), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xiong Jie, E-mail: jxiong@zstu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology (Zhejiang Sci-Tech University), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fan Xiaona; Jiao Yuxue [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology (Zhejiang Sci-Tech University), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Terbium-doped lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by calcination at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence (PL) were used to characterize the obtained fibers. The results reveal that the nanofibers have an average diameter of ca. 95{+-}25 nm and are composed of pure La{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Under the excitation of 274 nm light, the La{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanofibers exhibit the characteristic emission resulting from the {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=3, 4, 5, 6) transitions of Tb{sup 3+} ions. And the PL emission intensity is stronger than that of their nanoparticle counterparts. - Highlights: > Tb{sup 3+}-doped La{sub 2}O{sub 3} (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+}) fluorescent nanofibers were prepared via a simple electrospinning technique. > Luminescent properties and other characteristics of the nanofibers were investigated in details. > Potential applications of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} nanofibers and electrospinning technique described in this paper are suggested.

  10. Vaporization study on lanthanum-neodymium alloys by mass-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Y.; Matsui, T.

    1999-01-01

    Partial vapor pressure of Nd(g) over La x Nd 1-x alloys (x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80 and 0.90) was measured with a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer equipped with a tungsten Knudsen cell over the temperature range of 1474-1767 K. Thermodynamic activity of neodymium in the liquid alloys was determined by comparing the partial vapor pressure of Nd(g) over the alloys with that over the pure metal. The thermodynamic activity of lanthanum in the alloys was calculated from that of neodymium obtained experimentally in this study by graphic integration using the Gibbs-Duhem equation. Both activities for each element, thus obtained, showed positive deviations from Raoult's law over the entire compositional range. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy of formation, excess enthalpy etc. were also calculated from the thermodynamic activities. (orig.)

  11. L-cysteine capped lanthanum hydroxide nanostructures for non-invasive detection of oral cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sachchidanand; Gupta, Pramod K; Bagbi, Yana; Sarkar, Tamal; Solanki, Pratima R

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, we present the result of studies related to the in situ synthesis of amino acid (L-Cysteine) capped lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles [Cys-La(OH) 3 NPs] towards the fabrication of efficient immunosensor for non-invasive detection of oral cancer. The characterization of Cys-La(OH) 3 NPs was carried out by different techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. These Cys-La(OH) 3 NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto an indium-tin-oxide glass substrate and used for immobilization of anti-cytokeratin fragment-21-1 (anti-Cyfra-21-1) for the electrochemical detection of Cyfra-21-1. This immunosensor shows a broad detection range of 0.001-10.2ngmL -1 , the low detection limit of 0.001ngmL -1 , and high sensitivity of 12.044µA (ng per mL cm -2 ) -1 with a response time of 5min. This immunosensor was found to be more advanced in terms of high sensitivity and low detection limit as compared to previously reported biosensors and commercially available ELISA kit (Kinesis DX). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative effects, nutrients and metabolic changes in aquatic macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii, following exposure to lanthanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Tingting; Lu, Qianqian; Cai, Sanjuan; Chu, Weiyue; Qiu, Han; Xu, Ting; Li, Feifei; Xu, Qinsong

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the phytoremediation potential of Elodea nuttallii to remove rare earth metals from contaminated water. The laboratory experiments were designed to assess the responses induced by lanthanum (5-20mgL(-1)) in E. nuttallii over a period of 7 days. The results showed that most La (approximately 85%) was associated with the cell wall. The addition of La to the culture medium reduced the concentration of K, Ca, Cu, Mg, and Mn. However, O2(·-) levels increased with a concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as the La concentration increased, which indicated that the cells were under oxidative stress. Significant reductions in the levels of chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, and carotenoids (Car) were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total non-protein thiols (TNP-SH) and phytochelatins (PCs) increased for all La concentrations. The results suggested that La was toxic to E. nuttallii because it induced oxidative stress and disturbed mineral uptake. However, E. nuttallii was able to combat La induced damage via an immobilization mechanism, which involved the cell wall and the activation of non-enzymatic antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic properties of Sm{sup 3+}-doped lanthanum borogermanate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaramakrishna, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Knorr, Brian; Dierolf, Volkmar [Department of Physics, Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Anavekar, R.V., E-mail: anavekar_271@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Ultraviolet–visible–near infrared (UV–vis–NIR) absorption and photoluminescence of (25−x) La{sub 2}O{sub 3}–25B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–50GeO{sub 2} glass series have been studied with different concentrations (x=0.1–1.0 wt%) of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an optically active dopant. The values of Judd–Ofelt (JO) parameters (Ω{sub t}) follow the trend Ω{sub 2}>Ω{sub 4}>Ω{sub 6}. Visible emission and decay times from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level and its relative quantum efficiencies are measured. Intense reddish-orange emission corresponding to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition has been observed in these glasses under 488 nm excitation. A decrease in the quantum yield is observed with increasing Sm{sup 3+} ion concentration beyond 1% doping level. - Highlights: • Lanthanum boro-germanate glasses doped with samarium ions are good laser host matrix. • These glasses show large emission cross-sections (σ{sub P}) values. • These glasses show large gain bandwidth and optical gain parameters. • These glasses are suitable candidate for reddish-orange laser applications.

  14. Microstructural characterization of composite cobaltite and lanthanum-based ceria for use as fuel cell cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, E.R.T.; Nascimento, R.M.; Miranda, A.C. de; Lima, A.M. de; Macedo, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are devices that convert chemical energy into electricity via redox reactions. In this work, the lanthanum cobaltite doped with strontium and iron (La_0_,_6Sr_0_,_4Co_0_,_2Fe_0_,_8O_3 - LSCF) a traditional cathodes material of the fuel cell was mixed with an electrolyte material (composite) to the base ceria doped with gadolinia and a eutectic mixture of lithium carbonates and sodium (CGO-NLC). The powders of LSCF and CGO-NLC were obtained by the citrate method and mixed to obtain a composite cathode. Samples obtained by uniaxial pressure between 5 and 10 MPa were sintered at 1100°C and investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and micro hardness test. A symmetric cell cathode / electrolyte / cathode, obtained by co-pressing and co-sintering was investigated by electron microscopy. The results indicated that the composite is chemically stable up to the sintering temperature used. The hardness ranged between 51 and 227 HV. (author)

  15. Osteoblast adhesion on novel machinable calcium phosphate/lanthanum phosphate composites for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Celaletdin; Liu, Huinan; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaPO(4), LP) was combined with either hydroxyapatite (HA) or tricalcium phosphate (TCP) to form novel composites for orthopedic applications. In this study, these composites were prepared by wet chemistry synthesis and subsequent powder mixing. These HA/LP and TCP/LP composites were characterized in terms of phase stability and microstructure evolution during sintering using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their machinability was evaluated using a direct drilling test. For HA/LP composites, LP reacted with HA during sintering and formed a new phase, Ca(8)La(2)(PO(4))(6)O(2), as a reaction by-product. However, TCP/LP composites showed phase stability and the formation of a weak interface between TCP and LP machinability when sintered at 1100 degrees C, which is crucial for achieving desirable properties. Thus, these novel TCP/LP composites fulfilled the requirements for machinability, a key consideration for manufacturing orthopedic implants. Moreover, the biocompatibility of these novel LP composites was studied, for the first time, in this paper. In vitro cell culture tests demonstrated that the LP and its composites supported osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion similar to natural bioceramics (such as HA and TCP). In conclusion, these novel LP composites should be further studied and developed for more effectively treating bone related diseases or injuries. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lanthanum-silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite: Mechanochemical synthesis and prospects for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaikina, M. V., E-mail: chaikinam@solid.nsc.ru; Bulina, N. V., E-mail: bulina@solid.nsc.ru; Prosanov, I. Yu., E-mail: prosanov@mail.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, Kutateladze Street 18, Novosibirsk, 630128 (Russian Federation); Komarova, E. G., E-mail: katerina@ispms.tsc.ru; Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Academicheskii Pr. 2/4, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The paper presents the results of mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with simultaneous substitutions of lanthanum (La{sup 3+}) for calcium ions and silicate ((SiO{sub 4}){sup 4−}-group) for the phosphate group with the substituent concentrations in the range 0.2–2.0 mol per HAP mol. The use of Si-substituted HAP as a coating material promotes accelerated osteosynthesis and osteointegration of implants into the bone tissue. The replacement of calcium ions by La{sup 3+} in the HAP structure plays an antimicrobial role preventing inflammatory processes. Annealing-induced variations in the lattice parameters of synthesized samples indicate the substituent incorporation into the HAP structure. It is known that complex compounds with lanthanides are used for cancer chemotherapy. In particular, La plays a key role in the course of treatment of injured defects of bone tissue. In addition, La-substituted HAP can be used for filling bone defects and coating implants in postoperational areas affected by bone cancer.

  17. Role of cerium, lanthanum, and strontium additions in an Al-Si-Mg (A356) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabawy, Ahmed M.; Samuel, Agnes M.; Samuel, Fawzy H. [Universite du Quebec, Chicoutimi (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Alkahtani, Saleh A.; Abuhasel, Khaled A. [Salman Bin Abdulaziz Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2016-05-15

    The effects of individual and combined additions of cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La), and strontium (Sr) on the eutectic modification and solidification characteristics of an Al-Si-Mg (A356) aluminum alloy were investigated using optical microscopy and thermal analysis techniques. Addition of Ce, La, and Sr resulted in different depression levels of the eutectic nucleation temperature and eutectic growth undercooling, generating modified eutectic structures exhibiting different levels of modification. Microstructural results showed that the best modification levels using individual additions were achieved by Sr which produced a fine fibrous eutectic structure, followed by La, which produced a refined lamellar structure, with Ce providing the lowest level of modification. On the other hand, a combined addition of Ce and Sr provided the highest modification level, with the production of a very fine fibrous eutectic silicon structure. In general, the addition of Sr helped to further increase the refinement obtained in the alloys containing La or Ce + La additions. In the latter alloy, the main intermetallic phases observed were La(Al,Si){sub 2} and Al{sub 20}(La,Ce)Ti{sub 2}Si. The improved modification levels were found to be proportional to the depression in the eutectic nucleation temperature and the eutectic growth undercooling. A high cooling rate also improved the modification level by at least one level.

  18. Effect of sputtered lanthanum hexaboride film thickness on field emission from metallic knife edge cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirley, M. P.; Novakovic, B.; Sule, N.; Weber, M. J.; Knezevic, I.; Booske, J. H.

    2012-03-01

    We report experiments and analysis of field emission from metallic knife-edge cathodes, which are sputter-coated with thin films of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6), a low-work function material. The emission current is found to depend sensitively on the thickness of the LaB6 layer. We find that films thinner than 10 nm greatly enhance the emitted current. However, cathodes coated with a thicker layer of LaB6 are observed to emit less current than the uncoated metallic cathode. This result is unexpected due to the higher work function of the bare metal cathode. We show, based on numerical calculation of the electrostatic potential throughout the structure, that the external (LaB6/vacuum) barrier is reduced with respect to uncoated samples for both thin and thick coatings. However, this behavior is not exhibited at the internal (metal/LaB6) barrier. In thinly coated samples, electrons tunnel efficiently through both the internal and external barrier, resulting in current enhancement with respect to the uncoated case. In contrast, the thick internal barrier in thickly coated samples suppresses current below the value for uncoated samples in spite of the lowered external barrier. We argue that this coating thickness variation stems from a relatively low (no higher than 1018 cm-3) free carrier density in the sputtered polycrystalline LaB6.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new lanthanum(III coordination polymer with fumaric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayet Anana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[diaquatris(μ4-but-2-enedioato(μ2-but-2-enedioic aciddilanthanum(III], [La2(C4H2O43(C4H4O4(H2O2]n, was synthesized by the reaction of lanthanum chloride pentahydrate with fumaric acid under hydrothermal conditions. The asymmetric unit comprises an LaIII cation, one and a half fumarate dianions (L2−, one a half-molecule of fumaric acid (H2L and one coordinated water molecule. Each LaIII cation has the same nine-coordinate environment and is surrounded by eight O atoms from seven distinct fumarate moieties, including one protonated fumarate unit and one water molecule in a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic environment. The LaO8(H2O polyhedra centres are edge-shared through three carboxylate bridges of the fumarate ligand, forming chains in three dimensions to construct the MOF. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H...O hydrogen-bond interactions between the coordinated water molecule and the carboxylate O atoms, and also between oxygen atoms of fumaric acid

  20. Electronic structure of lanthanum calcium oxoborate LaCa4O(BO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Buuren, T. van; Willey, Trevor M.; Bostedt, C.; Adams, J.J.; Schaffers, K.I.; Terminello, Lou; Callcott, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lanthanum calcium oxoborate (LaCOB) is a nonlinear optical (NLO) material that belongs to the calcium-rare-earth (R) oxoborate family, with general composition Ca 4 RO(BO 3 ) 3 (R 3+ =La, Sm, Gd, Lu, Y). X-ray photoemission, photoabsorption, and resonant fluorescence were applied to study the electronic structure of this material. High resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band (VB) electronic structure and La 3d and 4d, Ca 2p, B 1s, and O 1s core lines were used to evaluate the surface and near surface chemistry. Element specific density of unoccupied electronic states in LaCOB were probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the La 3d (M 4,5 -edge), B 1s, and O 1s (K-edges) absorption edges. Soft X-ray fluorescence was used to further examine valence band states associated with spectral differences noted in the absorption measurements. These results provide the first measurements of the electronic structure and surface chemistry of this rare-earth oxoborate

  1. Study of lanthanum aluminum silicate glasses for passive and active optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, K.; Litzkendorf, D.; Grimm, S.; Kobelke, J.; Schwuchow, A.; Ludwig, A.; Leich, M.; Jetschke, S.; Dellith, J.; Auguste, J.-L.; Leparmentier, S.; Humbert, G.; Werner, G.

    2013-03-01

    We report on SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 glasses - with and without Yb2O3 - suitable for nonlinear and fiber laser applications. We also present successful supercontinuum generation and fiber laser operation around 1060 nm in step-index fibers. We have optimized the glass compositions in terms of thermal and optical requirements for both a high La2O3 (24 mol%) and Yb2O3(6 mol%) concentration. The aluminum concentration was adjusted to about 21 mol% Al2O3 to increase the solubility of lanthanum and ytterbium in the glass beyond possible MCVD based techniques. The glasses have been characterized by dilatometrical methods to find transition temperatures from 860 to 880°C and thermal expansion coefficients between 4.1 and 7.0 × 10-6 K-1. Structured step index fibers with a SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 core and silica cladding have been realized showing a fiber loss minimum of about 500 dB/km at 1200 nm wavelength. The chromatic dispersion could be adjusted to shift the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) close to the pump wavelength of 1550 nm in a supercontinuum generation setup. First fiber laser experiments show an efficiency of about 41 % with a remarkably reduced photodarkening compared to MCVD based fibers.

  2. Application of graphene oxide/lanthanum-modified carbon paste electrode for the selective determination of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Fengying; Feng, Chenqi; Fu, Ning; Wu, Huihui; Jiang, Jibo, E-mail: jibojiang0506@163.com; Han, Sheng, E-mail: hansheng654321@sina.com

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The effective surface area of the modified CPE has been expanded after self-assembly. • The GO–La composite exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward DA. • The GO–La/CPE presented high selectivity, sensitivity, excellent stability and repeatability. - Abstract: A home-made carbon paste electrode (CPE) was reformed by graphene oxide (GO)/lanthanum (La) complexes, and a modified electrode, called GO–La/CPE, was fabricated for the selective determination of dopamine (DA) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several factors affecting the electrocatalytic performance of the modified sensor were investigated. Owning to the combination of GO and La ions, the GO–La/CPE sensor exhibited large surface area, well selectivity, good repeatability and stability in the oxidation reaction of DA. At optimal conditions, the response of the GO–La/CPE electrode for determining DA was linear in the region of 0.01–0.1 μM and 0.1–400.0 μM. The limit of detection was down to 0.32 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, this modified electrode was successfully applied to the detection of DA in real urine and serum samples by using standard adding method, showing its promising application in the electroanalysis of real samples.

  3. Comprehensive Study of Lanthanum Aluminate High-Dielectric-Constant Gate Oxides for Advanced CMOS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Suzuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of the electrical and physical characteristics of Lanthanum Aluminate (LaAlO3 high-dielectric-constant gate oxides for advanced CMOS devices was performed. The most distinctive feature of LaAlO3 as compared with Hf-based high-k materials is the thermal stability at the interface with Si, which suppresses the formation of a low-permittivity Si oxide interfacial layer. Careful selection of the film deposition conditions has enabled successful deposition of an LaAlO3 gate dielectric film with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT of 0.31 nm. Direct contact with Si has been revealed to cause significant tensile strain to the Si in the interface region. The high stability of the effective work function with respect to the annealing conditions has been demonstrated through comparison with Hf-based dielectrics. It has also been shown that the effective work function can be tuned over a wide range by controlling the La/(La + Al atomic ratio. In addition, gate-first n-MOSFETs with ultrathin EOT that use sulfur-implanted Schottky source/drain technology have been fabricated using a low-temperature process.

  4. Removal of phosphate from water by activated carbon fiber loaded with lanthanum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Wan Lihua; Chang Ning; Liu Jianyong; Duan Chao; Zhou Qi; Li Xiangling; Wang Xinze

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate removal from wastewater is very important for the prevention of eutrophication. Adsorption of phosphate from water was investigated using activated carbon fiber loaded with lanthanum oxide (ACF-La) as a novel adsorbent. The effects of variables (La/ACF mass ratio, impregnation time, activation time, and activation temperature) have been studied by the single-factor method. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD), was employed to assess the individual and collective effects of the main independent parameters on the phosphate removal. The optimal conditions within the range studied for preparing ACF-La were found as follows: La/ACF mass ratio of 11.78%, activation time of 2.5 h and activation temperature at 650 ° C , respectively. The phosphate removal using the ACF-La prepared under the optimal conditions was up to 97.6% even when the phosphate concentration in water was 30 mg P/L, indicating that ACF-La may be an effective adsorbent. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and change of pH values associated with the adsorption process revealed that the probable mechanism of phosphate ions onto ACF-La was not only ion exchange and coulomb interaction, but also a result of Lewis acid-base interaction due to La-O coordination bonding.

  5. Influence of lanthanum on the optomagnetic properties of zinc ferrite prepared by combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholkappiyan, R.; Vishista, K.

    2014-01-01

    Pure and lanthanum doped zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a combustion method using glycine as fuel. The mechanism of formation of these nanoferrites is discussed briefly. The prepared nanoparticles characterized using powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed the formation of cubic spinel phase with high crystallinity. Average crystallite size, X-ray density and bulk density were found to decrease with an increase in La 3+ concentration. The chemical elements and states on the surface of these ferrites were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The detailed core level spectra of the photoelectron peaks of Zn 2p, Fe 2p, La 3d and O 1s were analyzed. The magnetic behavior of these nanoparticles was studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and corresponding changes in the saturation magnetization (Ms), coercivity (Hc) and remanent magnetization (Mr) were analyzed. The optical behavior of these ferrite nanoparticles was characterized by UV–Diffuse reflectance studies (UV–DRS). From the UV–DRS studies, the optical band gap was found to be in the range of 1.87–1.97 eV. The combustion method significantly produces large amount of products within a short time. Therefore, this method is potentially suitable for manufacturing industries for preparing the magnetic nanoparticles

  6. Signal intensity of lanthanum carbonate on magnetic resonance images: phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichi; Awai, Kazuo; Komi, Masanori; Morita, Kosuke; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yanaga, Yumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Date, Shuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2011-06-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is used to treat hyperphosphatemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the signal intensity (SI) of LC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of phantoms. LC tablets were thoroughly ground and mixed with distilled water or edible agar (0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/ml) in plastic bottles. Four intact tablets were placed in plastic bottles that did or did not contain distilled water or agar. Two radiologists consensually evaluated T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs) obtained with 1.5- and 3.0-T MRI systems for the SI of unground and ground tablets. On T1- and T2WI, the SIs of the LC suspensions and the solvents alone were similar; the SIs of unground tablets alone and of the air were also similar. Unground tablets in phantoms filled with solvent exhibited lower SI than the solvent. Ground tablets in suspension were not visualized on MRI or computed tomography. These results remained unchanged regardless of differences in magnetic field strength or the solvent used. Ground LC had no contrast enhancement effect on T1WI; on T2WI it did not affect the SI of the solvent. Unground LC tablets may be visualized as a "filling defect" on MRI.

  7. Signal intensity of lanthanum carbonate on magnetic resonance images. Phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shinichi; Awai, Kazuo; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yanaga, Yumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Date, Shuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Komi, Masanori; Morita, Kosuke

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is used to treat hyperphosphatemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the signal intensity (SI) of LC on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of phantoms. LC tablets were thoroughly ground and mixed with distilled water or edible agar (0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/ml) in plastic bottles. Four intact tablets were placed in plastic bottles that did or did not contain distilled water or agar. Two radiologists consensually evaluated T1- and T2-weighted images (WIs) obtained with 1.5- and 3.0-T MRI systems for the SI of unground and ground tablets. On T1- and T2WI, the SIs of the LC suspensions and the solvents alone were similar; the SIs of unground tablets alone and of the air were also similar. Unground tablets in phantoms filled with solvent exhibited lower SI than the solvent. Ground tablets in suspension were not visualized on MRI or computed tomography. These results remained unchanged regardless of differences in magnetic field strength or the solvent used. Ground LC had no contrast enhancement effect on T1WI; on T2WI it did not affect the SI of the solvent. Unground LC tablets may be visualized as a 'filling defect' on MRI. (author)

  8. Influence of Lanthanum on Solidification, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Al-Si Piston Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Asmael, M. B. A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Lanthanum (La) concentration on the solidification parameters of the α-Al, Al-Si, and Al-Cu phases and on the microstructure, tensile, and hardness properties of eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy were systematically investigated. The solidification parameters were examined using computer-aided cooling curve thermal analysis (CA-CCTA). The cooling curve and microstructure analysis showed that La altered the Si structure. The nucleation and growth temperatures of eutectic Si decreased when 0.3 wt.% La was added, and a high depression temperature was obtained with 1.0 wt.% La. High amounts of La considerably modified the Si structure and decreased the area and aspect ratio by 69.9 and 51%, respectively. The thermal analysis result recorded a faster freezing time with the La addition and a 36% alteration in the secondary dendrite arm spacing. Two secondary or ternary La-rich intermetallic phases were formed with needle- and plate-like structures. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were investigated by hardness and tensile tests with different La concentrations. The addition of small amounts of La (0.1 wt.%) significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength and quality index of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. In addition, the hardness value of Al-11Si-Cu increased by 7-8% with the increasing amount of La added.

  9. 海藻酸镧颗粒除氟研究:吸附剂物性和吸附机理%Fluoride Removal by Lanthanum Alginate Bead:Adsorbent Characterization and Adsorption Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍亚坤; 丁文明; 黄霞; 徐静年; 赵梦华

    2011-01-01

    Lanthanum alginate bead is a new, highly active adsorbent. In the present study, we investigated its adsorption performance and its adsorption mechanism. The adsorption isotherm for fluoride onto lanthanum alginate bead fits the Langmuir model well, and the maximum adsorption capacity is 197.2 mg·g-1. X-ray diffraction shows the amorphous nature of lanthanum alginate bead, which allows for better accessibility to fluoride and thus better activity. Infrared spectra of lanthanum alginate bead before and after adsorption confirm its stable skeletal structure.Scanning electron microscopy shows that the dense surface structure of the adsorbent appear cracks after adsorption.The adsorption mechanism of lanthanum alginate bead is considered as an ion exchange between F- and Cl- or OH-,as verified from the adsorbent and the solution by pH effect, energy dispersive X-ray, and ion chromatography.

  10. Evolution of phase structure and giant strain at low driving fields in Bi-based lead-free incipient piezoelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, Ali; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Rahman, Jamil Ur; Zaman, Arif; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nb-doped BNBT–SZ ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state method. • A giant normalized strain of 825 pm/V at 4 kV/mm was achieved. • A large strain of 0.20% triggered at a relatively low field of 3 kV/mm. • Highest strain obtained in BNT-based ceramics at such a low driving field. • Ferroelectric to ergodic-relaxor phase transition occurred with Nb-doping. - Abstract: Lead-free 0.99[(Bi 0.5 Na 0.5 ) 0.935 Ba 0.065 Ti (1–x) Nb x O 3 ]–0.01SrZrO 3 (BNBTNb100x–SZ, with Nb100x = 0–1) ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide route. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering was utilized for the structural evolution of Nb-modified BNBT–SZ ceramics at average and short-scale localized structure. Temperature dependent dielectric properties showed ferroelectric–ergodic relaxor (FE–ER) transition in Nb-modified BNBT–SZ ceramics by producing a significant disruption of the long-range FE order. A giant normalized strain of 825 pm/V at 4 kV/mm was achieved at Nb1.0. Interestingly, at a relatively low applied field of 3 kV/mm, the Nb0.75 sample displayed a large electric field-induced strain (EFIS) response of 0.20%, which is highest value obtained in non-textured lead-free BNT-based ceramics at such low driving field. The structural distortion induced by doping and electric poling is correlated with the dielectric, ferroelectric and EFIS response, and the evolution of giant strain was ascribed to reversible field induced phase transition from ER–FE phase

  11. Homogenized electromechanical properties of crystalline and ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 0.42PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. P.; Guedes, J. M.; Rodrigues, H. C.

    2007-10-01

    A modelling framework that incorporates the peculiarities of microstructural features, such as the spatial correlation of crystallographic orientations and morphological texture in piezoelectrics, is established. The mathematical homogenization theory of a piezoelectric medium is implemented using the finite element method by solving the coupled equilibrium electrical and mechanical fields. The dependence of the domain orientation on the macroscopic electromechanical properties of crystalline as well as polycrystalline ceramic relaxor ferroelectric 0.58Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.42PbTiO3 (PMN-42% PT) is studied based on this model. The material shows large anisotropy in the piezoelectric coefficient ejK in its crystalline form. The homogenized electromechanical moduli of polycrystalline ceramic also exhibit significantly anisotropic behaviours. An optimum texture at which the piezoceramic exhibits its maximum longitudinal piezoelectric response is identified.

  12. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S., E-mail: suhaimihas@uthm.edu.my; Yusof, M. S., E-mail: mdsalleh@uthm.edu.my; Maksud, M. I., E-mail: midris1973@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Embong, Z., E-mail: zaidi@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La(OH){sub 3}. The information of oxygen species, O{sup 2-} component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O{sup 2−}), two chemisorb component (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and La(OH){sub 3} and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  13. Effect of Lanthanum as a Promoter on Fe-Co/SiO2 Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron-Cobalt catalyst is well known from both operational and economical aspects for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Effort to increase the efficiency of this kind of catalyst is an important research topic. In this work, the effect of lanthanum on characteristic behavior, conversion and selectivity of a Fe-Co/SiO2 Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was studied. The Fe-Co-La/SiO2 Catalysts were prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation method. These catalysts were then characterized by XRF-EDAX, BET and TPR techniques, and their performance were evaluated in a lab-scale reactor at 250ºC, H2/CO = 1.8 of molar ratio, 16 barg pressure and GHSV=600 h-1. TPR analysis showed that the addition of La lowered the reduction temperature of Fe-Co catalyst, and due to a lower temperature, the sintering of the catalyst can be mitigated. Furthermore, from the micro reactor tests (about 4 days, it was found that lanthanum promoted catalyst had higher selectivity toward hydrocarbons, and lower selectivity toward CO2.Received: 8th July 2013; Revised: 18th November 2013; Accepted: 1st December 2013[How to Cite: Abbasi, A., Ghasemi, M., Sadighi, S. (2014. Effect of Lanthanum as a Promoter on Fe-Co/SiO2 Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 23-27. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5142.23-27][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5142.23-27

  14. Angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) analysis of lanthanum oxide for micro-flexography printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.; Yusof, M. S.; Embong, Z.; Maksud, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-flexography printing was developed in patterning technique from micron to nano scale range to be used for graphic, electronic and bio-medical device on variable substrates. In this work, lanthanum oxide (La2O3) has been used as a rare earth metal candidate as depositing agent. This metal deposit was embedded on Carbon (C) and Silica (Si) wafer substrate using Magnetron Sputtering technique. The choose of Lanthanum as a target is due to its wide application in producing electronic devices such as thin film battery and printed circuit board. The La2O3 deposited on the surface of Si wafer substrate was then analyzed using Angle Resolve X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). The position for each synthetic component in the narrow scan of Lanthanum (La) 3d and O 1s are referred to the electron binding energy (eV). The La 3d narrow scan revealed that the oxide species of this particular metal is mainly contributed by La2O3 and La(OH)3. The information of oxygen species, O2- component from O 1s narrow scan indicated that there are four types of species which are contributed from the bulk (O2-), two chemisorb component (La2O3) and La(OH)3 and physisorp component (OH). Here, it is proposed that from the adhesive and surface chemical properties of La, it is suitable as an alternative medium for micro-flexography printing technique in printing multiple fine solid lines at nano scale. Hence, this paper will describe the capability of this particular metal as rare earth metal for use in of micro-flexography printing practice. The review of other parameters contributing to print fine lines will also be described later.

  15. Relaxation effects in oxygen-conducting oxides on base of lanthanum gallate (La, Sr)(Ga, Me)O3, Me = Mg, Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskikh, T.Yu.; Venskovskij, N.U.; Kaleva, G.M.; Mosunov, A.V.; Politova, E.D.; Stefanovich, S.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The dielectric and electric conducting properties of the heterosubstituted perovskite-like solid solutions (La, Sr)(Ga, Me)O 3 , Me Mg, Fe are studied. The increase in the ceramics electric conductivity, conditioned by increase in the ion constituent at strengthening the nonstoichiometry by oxygen and electron constituent by the additional introduction of iron is observed by replacing the part of the lanthanum and gallium cations by strontium, magnesium and iron in the solid solutions on the basis of the lanthanum gallate. The ceramics relaxation behavior is identified; the applicability of the model of the vacational electron transfer for the dipole relaxation is established [ru

  16. Internal-standard method for the determination of uranium, thorium, lanthanum and europium in carbonaceous shale and monazite by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuenn-Gang; Tsai, Hui-Tuh; Wu, Shaw-Chii [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan, Republic of China)

    1981-10-03

    An internal-standard method was applied for the determination of uranium, thorium, lanthanum and europium is carbonaceous shale samples and monazite sand by epithermal neutron activation analysis using gold as an internal standard element. The samples were irradiated in a zero-power reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and measured with a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. The detection limit is 0.1 ppm for uranium and europium, 1 ppm for thorium, 5 ppm for lanthanum, and the realative error of all elements is within +-2.6%.

  17. Equidensitometry: a method for characterising the structure of plasmas. Qualitative characterisation of the lanthanum d.c. arc by equidensitometry of monochromatic arc photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, K.; Niebergall, K.; Roessler, H.

    1976-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the experimental characterization of d.c. arc plasmas. The method consists of the combination of the spectral photography of d.c. arc plasmas with a slitless, stigmatic plane-grating spectrograph and the characterization of the photographs with the aid of photographic equidensitometry. The principles of the method are described. The method is used for the investigation of a lanthanum d.c. arc plasma. The qualitative results of the measurements of the axial distributions of the light emission and lanthanum and calcium particle concentrations in the arc are discussed. The limitations and shortcomings of the method are pointed out. (author)

  18. Structural, microstructural and transport properties study of lanthanum lithium titanium perovskite thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, O.; Sauvage, F.; Laffont, L.; Martinez-Sarrion, M.L.; Mestres, L.; Baudrin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Lanthanum lithium titanate thin films were grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition. La 0.57 Li 0.29 TiO 3 dense films with smooth surfaces were obtained after optimization of the growth parameters. Such films deposited at 700 deg. C under 15 Pa are nano-crystalline with domains corresponding to the cubic and tetragonal modifications of this phase. In relation to the measured conductivities/activation energy and to previous works, we clearly underlined that the films of practical interest, prepared at relatively low temperature, are predominantly formed from the tetragonal ordered phase

  19. Conductivity and hydration trends in disordered fluorite and pyrochlore oxides: A study on lanthanum cerate–zirconate based compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besikiotis, Vasileios; Ricote, Sandrine; Jensen, Molly Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution we discuss the influence of order/disorder on the concentration and mobility of ionic charge carriers in undoped and acceptor (calcium) doped fluorite and pyrochlore structured lanthanum cerate–zirconate solid solutions: (La1−yCay)2(Ce1−xZrx)2O7−δ (y=0, 0.02, 0.10; x=0...... enthalpy becomes more exothermic with higher cerium content, i.e. with more disordered materials. The proton conductivity decreases upon acceptor substitution of La3+ with Ca2+ which is attributed to trapping of the charge carriers by the effectively negative acceptor....

  20. Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes with bidentate and tetradentate Schiff base ligands containing indole ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Anita; Sengupta, Soumitra Kumar; Pandey, Om Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Complexes of lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) with Schiff bases, prepared from isatin with aniline, 4-chloroaniline, 2- bromoaniline, 2-nitroaniline (Hl), ethylenediamine, o- phenylenediamine and 4-methyl-o-phenylenediamine (H 2 L') have been synthesised and their physico-chemical properties investigated using elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral (visible, infrared and 1 H NMR) data. The Schiff bases HL bind in a bidentate manner while schiff bases H 2 L' bind in a tetradentate manner. The probable structures of the complexes are proposed. (author)

  1. Kinetics and thermodynamic for sorption of arsenate by Lanthanum-exchanged zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Jelas Haron; Saiful Adli Masdan; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Zulkarnain Zainal; Anuar Kassim

    2007-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate containing exchangeable alkaline and alkaline earth cations in their structural frameworks. Since zeolites have permanent negative charges on their surfaces, they have no affinity for anions. However recent studies have shown that modification of zeolites with certain surfactants or metal cations yield sorbents with a strong affinity for many anions. In this paper, modification of zeolites (zeolite A, X and ZSM5) were performed by exchange of naturally occurring cations with lanthanum ion that forms low solubility arsenate salt. The exchanged zeolites were used to sorb arsenate from aqueous solution. Among parameters investigated were effect of pH, arsenate initial concentrations, contact time and temperature. The maximum exchanged capacity of La (III) ion was obtained when using solution with initial pH of 4. Zeolite X gives the highest La (III) exchanged capacity compared to other zeolites. The results showed that As (V) sorption by La-zeolites occurred at about pH 6.5 and increased as pH increased and reaching maximum at equilibrium pH about 7.8. On the other hand, almost no arsenate sorption occurred on un exchanged zeolites. This indicates that La (III) ion on the exchanged zeolites is taking part on the As(V) sorption via surface precipitation. The results also showed that the sorption capacities increased with increasing initial As (V) concentrations. The sorption followed Langmuir model with maximum sorption capacities of 0.41, 0.21 and 0.19 mmol/g at 25 degree Celsius for La exchanged zeolite X (La-ZX), La exchanged zeolite ZSM5 (La-ZSM) and La exchanged zeolite A (La-ZA), respectively. The amounts of sorption of As (V) by La exchanged zeolite increased as temperature increased from 25 to 70 degree Celsius indicating that the process is endothermic. The free energy changes ( ΔG degree) for the sorption at 25 degree Celsius were -10.25, -9.65 and -8.49 kJ/ mol for La-ZX, La-ZSM and La-ZA, respectively. The

  2. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally derived ultrafine Ca doped lanthanum chromite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanum chromite nano-particles, with a composition of La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 and La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, were produced by 1 h of hydrothermal reaction at 400 and 425°C respectively. The sintering of the powders was conducted using a spark plasma apparatus over the temperature range 1300-1550ºC for 1 min with a constant loading pressure of 45 MPa. Additional sintering experiments using conventional firing were carried out for comparison. Fully densified (98 % r.d. lanthanum chromite pellets with fine equiaxial grains 2.3 μm in size were obtained using the SPS (spark plasma sintering method. In contrast, a maximum relative density of 97 % was produced using La0.8Ca0.2CrO3 sintered conventionally at 1400ºC for 300 min, and the average grain size of the resulting sintered sample was 6 μm.

    Partículas ultrafinas de cromita de lantano, con una composición de La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 y La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, se obtuvieron después de 1 hora de síntesis hidrotermal a las temperaturas de 400 y 425°C respectivamente. Los compuestos obtenidos, con un tamaño de partícula de ~ 200 nm, se caracterizaron utilizando las técnicas de DRX, MEB y MET. La sinterización de estos polvos se efectuó en un equipo de chispa de plasma en el rango de temperatura de 1300-1500°C durante 1 min, y a una presión de compactación de 45 MPa. Ambos polvos también se sinterizaron siguiendo un tratamiento térmico convencional, en aire, con el propósito de comparar ambos métodos de sinterización. Las muestras de cromita de lantano sinterizadas por plasma presentaban una densidad relativa del 98 % (/t; y una microestructura monofásica con granos equaxiales con un tamaño medio de grano menor de 2.3 μm. En contraste, la composición La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, sinterizada a 1400°C/300 min, por métodos convencionales alcanzó una densidad relativa máxima del 97 % y su microestructura estaba formada por una sola fase con un tamaño medio de grano de 6 μm.

  3. Physical properties of lanthanum monosulfide thin films grown on (100) silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahay, M.; Garre, K.; Wu, X.; Poitras, D.; Lockwood, D. J.; Fairchild, S.

    2006-06-01

    Thin films of lanthanum monosulfide (LaS) have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films are golden yellow in appearance with a mirrorlike surface morphology and a sheet resistance around 0.1 Ω/□, as measured using a four-probe measurement technique. The thin films are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The root-mean-square variation of (1 μm thick) film surface roughness measured over a 1 μm2 area by AFM was found to be 1.74 nm. XRD analysis of fairly thick films (micrometer size) reveals the growth of the cubic rocksalt structure with a lattice constant of 5.863(7) A˚, which is close to the bulk LaS value. HRTEM images reveal that the films are comprised of nanocrystals separated by regions of amorphous material. Two beam bright field TEM images show that there is a strain contrast in the Si substrate right under the interface with the LaS film and penetrating into the Si substrate. This suggests that there is an initial epitaxial-like growth of the LaS film on the Si substrate that introduces a strain as a result of the 8% lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. Ellipsometry measurements of the LaS films are well characterized by a Drude-Lorentz model from which an electron concentration of about 2.52×1022 cm-3 and a mobility around 8.5 cm2/V s are derived. Typical crystalline LaS features were evident in Raman spectra of the films, but the spectra also revealed their disordered (polycrystalline) nature.

  4. HIGH-RESOLUTION FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY OF LANTHANUM IN Ar DISCHARGE IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güzelçimen, F.; Başar, Gö. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Istanbul University, Tr-34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Tamanis, M.; Kruzins, A.; Ferber, R. [Laser Centre, The University of Latvia, Rainis Boulevard 19, LV-1586 Riga (Latvia); Windholz, L. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Technische Universität Graz, A-8010 Graz, Petersgasse 16 (Austria); Kröger, S., E-mail: gbasar@istanbul.edu.tr, E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de [Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Wilhelminenhofstr. 75A, D-12459 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    A high-resolution spectrum of lanthanum has been recorded by a Fourier Transform spectrometer in the wavelength range from 833 nm to 1666 nm (6000 cm{sup –1} to 12,000 cm{sup –1}) using as light source a hollow cathode lamp operated with argon as the discharge carrier gas. In total, 2386 spectral lines were detected in this region, of which 555 lines could be classified as La I transitions and 10 lines as La II transitions. All La II transitions and 534 of these La I transitions were classified for the first time, and 6 of the La II transitions and 433 of the classified La I transitions appear to be new lines, which could not be found in the literature. The corresponding energy level data of classified lines are given. Additionally, 430 lines are assigned as Ar I lines and 394 as Ar II lines, of which 179 and 77, respectively, were classified for the first time. All 77 classified Ar II transitions as well as 159 of the classified Ar I transitions are new lines. Furthermore, the wavenumbers of 997 unclassified spectral lines were determined, 235 of which could be assigned as La lines, because of their hyperfine pattern. The remaining 762 lines may be either unclassified Ar lines or unresolved and unclassified La lines with only one symmetrical peak with an FWHM in the same order of magnitude as the Ar lines. The accuracy of the wavenumber for the classified lines with signal-to-noise-ratio higher than four is better than 0.006 cm{sup –1} which corresponds to an accuracy of 0.0004 nm at 830 nm and 0.0017 nm at 1660 nm, respectively.

  5. Magnetic structural effect (MSE in epitaxial films of cerium oxide and lanthanum zirconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kh. Chibirova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the critical current density in the second generation high-temperature superconducting wires (2G HTS is the major challenge for researchers and manufacturers of 2G HTS wires all over the world. We proposed a new approach to increase the number of percolation paths for supercurrent, i.e. increasing the number of low angle grain boundaries (<5° in the epitaxial superconducting YBCO layer by magnetic structural processing (MSP of buffer layers. New experimental results have been presented on the application of MSP for improving the structure and increasing the texture sharpness of buffer in electrical conducting element of 2G HTS wire. The influence of MCO on the structural and textural properties has been investigated in a buffer consisting of epitaxial films of cerium oxide CeO2 and lanthanum zirconate La2Zr2O7 in the CeO2/4La2Zr2O7 architecture. The influence of the magnetic processing of the epitaxial La2Zr2O7 buffer film on the shape of grains has been found. An atomic force microscopical study has shown that after magnetic processing the shape of grains improved significantly. A multilayer CeO2/4La2Zr2O7 buffer each layer of which was processed in a magnetic field has a high degree of orientation: only one diffraction peak with (200 indexes is observed in the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray settings of the (200 diffraction peak indicate a well developed epitaxial structure of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 layers. The texture of the buffer is by more than 2° sharper than that of the Ni–5 at% W substrate.

  6. Determination of the stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, europium, erbium and lutetium complexes with chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez R, E.

    2008-01-01

    The stability constants of La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Eu 3+ , Er 3+ and Lu 3+ chloride complexes were determined in perchloric acid media using a liquid-liquid extraction method. The dinonyl napthalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanide (Ln) concentrations were measured by a radiochemical (Eu and Lu) and a spectrophotometric (La, Pr, and Er) methods. In the last method, xylenol orange was used for the determinations at ph 6. The stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, erbium and lutetium chloride complexes were determined in 2, 3 and 4 M ionic strength and europium in 1, 2 and 3 M, at 303 K. The fitting of experimental data to the equations for the calculation of the stability constants, was carry out considering both one chemical species (LnCl 2+ ) or two chemical species (LnCl 2+ and LnCl 2 + ). The Specific Ion Interaction Theory was applied to the values of log β I Ln , Cl and the first stability constants at zero ionic strength were calculated by extrapolation. The same theory could not be applied to the log β I Ln , 2Cl , due to its low abundance and the values determined for the stability constants were similar. The distribution diagrams of the chemical species were obtained using the program MEDUSA and considering log β I Ln , CI , log β I Ln , 2CI values obtained in this work and the hydrolysis constants taken from the literature. The lanthanide chloride complexes are present in solution at specific conditions of ionic strength, concentration and in the absence of hydrolysis. The log β I Ln , Cl data were related to the charge density and the corresponding equations were obtained. These equations could be used to determine the stability constants along the lanthanide series. (Author)

  7. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell based on lanthanum gallate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toru; Nishiwaki, Futoshi; Yamasaki, Satoru; Akbay, Taner; Hosoi, Kei

    The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc. (KEPCO) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) have been developing intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) which are operable at a temperature range between 600 and 800 °C. There are some significant features in IT-SOFC of KEPCO-MMC: (1) highly conductive lanthanum gallate-based oxide is adopted as an electrolyte to realize high-performance disk-type electrolyte-supported cells; (2) the cell-stacks with seal-less structure using metallic separators allow residual fuel to burn around the stack and the combustion heat is utilized for thermally self-sustainable operation; (3) the separators have flexible arms by which separate compressive forces can be applied for manifold parts and interconnection parts. We are currently participating in the project by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to develop 10 kW-class combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In FY2006, a 10 kW-class module was developed, with which the electrical efficiency of 50%HHV was obtained based on DC 12.6 kW. In the first quarter of FY2007, the 10 kW-class CHP system using the module gave the electrical efficiency of 41%HHV on AC 10 kW and the overall efficiency of 82%HHV when exhaust heat was recovered as 60 °C hot water. Currently, the operation has been accumulated for about 2500 h to evaluate the long-term stability of the system.

  8. Mixed ionic-electronic conduction in Ni doped lanthanum gallate perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.J.; Tuller, H.L.

    1998-07-01

    Lanthanum gallate is a promising material for monolithic fuel cells or oxygen pumps, i.e., one in which the electrolyte and electrodes are formed from a common phase. The authors have investigated La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}Ni{sub y}O{sub 3} (LSGN{sub x{minus}y}) with x = 0.1 and y = 0.2 and 0.5 as a potential cathode material for such an electrochemical device. The {sigma}(PO{sub 2},T) for LSGN{sub 10--20} points to a p-type electronic conductivity at high PO{sub 2} and predominantly ionic conductivity at low PO{sub 2}. LSGN{sub 10-50} has an electronic conductivity suitable for SOFC applications of approximately 50 S/cm in air at high temperature. AC impedance spectroscopy on an electron blocking cell of the form M/LSG/LSGN/LSG/M was used to isolate the ionic conductivity in the LSGN{sub 10--20} material. The ionic conductivity was found to have a similar magnitude and activation energy to that of undoped LSG material with {sigma}{sub i} = 0.12 S/cm at 800 C and E{sub A} = 1.0 {+-} 0.1 eV. Thermal expansion measurements on the LSGN materials were characterized as a function of temperature and dopant level and were found to match that of the electrolyte under operating conditions.

  9. Application of artificial neural network in 3D imaging with lanthanum bromide calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostojic, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Kiener, J.; Hamadache, C.; Karkour, N.; Linget, D.; Grave, X.; Gibelin, L.; Travers, B.; Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 0.1 up to 100 MeV holds many understudied questions connected with e.g. stellar nucleosynthesis, the active Sun, neutron stars and black holes. To access the physics behind, a significant improvement in detection sensitivity is needed compared to previous missions, e.g. CGRO and INTEGRAL. One of the promising concepts for a future gamma-ray mission is an Advanced Compton Telescope. Under the project of creating a prototype of such instrument, we study the perspectives of using a novel inorganic scintillator as a calorimeter part. Modern inorganic crystal or ceramics scintillators are constantly improving on qualities such as energy resolution and radiation hardness, and this makes them a smart choice for a new space-borne telescope. At CSNSM Orsay, we have assembled a detection module from a 5 × 5cm2 area and 1 cm thick, cerium-doped lanthanum (III) bromide (LaBr3:Ce) inorganic scintillator coupled to a 64 channel multi-anode photomultiplier. The readout of the PMT signals is carried out with the ASIC MAROC, used previously for the luminometer of the ATLAS detector (CERN). Characterization, thorough measurements with various radioactive sources, as well as, single photoelectron detection have been done. Furthermore, we made a comparison of measurements with a detailed GEANT4-based simulation which includes tracking of the optical photons. Finally, we have studied the 3D reconstruction of the first interaction point of incident gamma rays, utilizing a neural network algorithm. This spatial position resolution plays a crucial part in the future implementations and, together with the other measured properties, it makes our detector module very interesting for the next generation of space telescopes operating in the MeV range.

  10. The exploration of Lanthanum based perovskites and their complementary electrolytes for the supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadarajan Arjun

    Full Text Available In this study, four different kinds of perovskite powders (LaMnO3, LaFeO3, LaCrO3, and LaNiO3 were prepared and investigated as anode materials for supercapacitor. The as-prepared powders were blended with active carbon and subsequently coated on the nickel plates as the collector layer of the supercapacitors. Three different types of the aqueous solutions (3 M KCl, 1 M LiOH, and 3 M LiOH were respectively served as the electrolytes for the supercapacitor. The morphology and crystalline phase were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and XRD. The electrical capacity and impedance were measured by the electrochemical capacitance voltage analyzer and impedance spectroscopy. The profiles of specific capacitance of the four different anodic electrodes and three different electrolytes were implemented. The impedance results indicated that four asymmetric pseudocapacitors didn’t show any Warburg-type line and semi-circle line in the low-frequency region. According to the CV profiles, the intrinsic LaNiO3 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 106.58 F/g in 3 M LiOH. Furthermore, the 98% of the initial capacitance of LaNiO3 was retained after 500 charge-discharge life cycles at the maximum current density of 1 A/g. The efficient charge storage of LaNiO3 was attributed by the anion intercalated redox reactions along with the suitability of electrode-electrolyte interactions. Keywords: Perovskite, Lanthanum nickel oxide, Pseudocapacitance, Asymmetric supercapacitor, Oxygen de-intercalation

  11. Measurement and Analysis of Activation Induced in Lanthanum, Erbium and Tantalum by Fusion Peak Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klix, A.; Eichin, R.; Freiesleben, H.; Schomburg, K.; Seidel, K.; Unholzer, S.; Forrest, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The large fluxes of neutrons in the materials of a fusion device during operation produce activation that is relevant to operational safety and decommissioning. Nuclides with a broad range of half-lives have to be included in the corresponding analyses. The activity with decay times ranging from the order of magnitude of minutes to weeks is of interest with respect to heat production and shut-down dose rates, whereas the long-term activity determines the waste management. The activity is mainly produced by two components of the neutron flux spectrum, by thermal neutrons and by the 14-MeV D-T fusion neutrons. Analyses of the material activation rely on calculations with inventory codes and libraries containing activation and decay data. To gain trust in the results of such calculations data and codes have to be validated experimentally. In the present work, the European Activation System (EASY, inventory code FISPACT and data library EAF) was tested in benchmark experiments on Lanthanum, Erbium and Tantalum. They are constituents of fusion reactor structural materials such as EUROFER and insulating coatings for liquid breeder systems. Small samples of the materials were irradiated in a D-T neutron field. The gamma-radioactivity following irradiation was measured several times during decay and nuclide activities were derived. For each of the measured activities the corresponding value was calculated with EASY, and the calculated-to-experimental ratios (C/E) were determined. The nuclear reactions producing the activities were also analysed. The C/E ratios obtained for the individual activities will be used for discussing the activation performance and the contact dose rate of the materials at fusion power plant conditions. (author)

  12. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  13. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peculiarities of electronic, phonon and magnon subsystems of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, V.V., E-mail: vvnovikov@mail.ru; Mitroshenkov, N.V.; Matovnikov, A.V.

    2015-10-15

    Experimental research was carried out to study the temperature dependences of heat capacity C{sub p}(T = 2–300 K), lattice parameters a(T), and ≿(T), (5–300 K) of lanthanum and samarium tetraborides. A comparison with data obtained previously for LuB{sub 4} reveals the peculiar influence of lanthanide contraction and the rare-earths mass on the thermodynamic properties of rare earth tetraborides at low and high temperatures. Sharp anomalies were found in the heat capacity and thermal expansion for SmB{sub 4} at T{sub N} = 25.1 K, conditioned by the phase transition into antiferromagnetic state. The more poorly defined heat capacity anomaly around 7 K is referred to the quadrupole orbital fluctuation of the atomic magnetic moments for Sm{sup 3+} ions. The electronic, lattice, and magnetic contributions to the heat capacity and thermal expansion of samarium tetraboride were defined. Our approach makes it possible to adequately approximate the lattice components of heat capacity and thermal expansion by combining the Debye and Einstein contributions, which are based on the joint analysis of calorimetric and X-ray data. The influence of the frustration of the atomic magnetic moment system for Sm{sup 3+} ions on the thermodynamic characteristics of the samarium tetraboride magnetic phase transition was revealed. - Highlights: • The heat capacity and lattice parameters for LaB{sub 4} and SmB{sub 4} were determined at 2–300 K. • The anomalies of C{sub p}(T), a(T), c(T) for SmB{sub 4} due to the phase transition are revealed. • The lattice contributions to the thermal properties of LaB{sub 4} and SmB{sub 4} are analyzed.

  15. Simulating the physicochemical properties of borosilicate and lanthanum borosilicate glasses using a polarizable force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacaud, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    as result of the nuclear waste vitrification, the knowledge and understanding of the dynamic and structural properties of glasses, including the behavior of radionuclides, is important (in liquid and solid phases). It can influence the glass waste properties, the lifetime of the vitrification process and the amount of radionuclides introduced in the glass matrix. Molecular dynamic simulations have been done to study the influence of the glass matrix composition into the structural and dynamic properties of the glass. a simplified glass, with 3 major oxides of the R7T7 glass such as SiO_2, B_2O_3 and Na_2O, have been used to simulate the R7T7 industrial nuclear glass (a 30 oxides glass). The inclusion of La_2O_3 allows us to simulate the impact of fission products and minor actinides into the properties of the glass matrix. Both systems, the SiO_2-B_2O_3-Na_2O and SiO_2-B_2O_3-Na_2O-La_2O_3, allow us to study the sodium and lanthanum effect on the properties of the glass. During this work, a polarizable force field has been developed to do these simulations. The results obtained at room temperature let us reproduce the experimental results of the structure, the distribution of BIII/BIV and the density. a study has been done on the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the liquid. The distribution BIV/BIII and the influence of the structural changes on the density along with the temperature have also been observed with thermal quenching. The current limits of this approach are also described. (author) [fr

  16. Lanthanum (III) regulates the nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedlings under ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation has seriously affected the growth of plants. Finding the technology/method to alleviate the damage of UV-B radiation has become a frontal topic in the field of environmental science. The pretreatment with rare earth elements (REEs) is an effective method, but the regulation mechanism of REEs is unknown. Here, the regulation effects of lanthanum (La(III)) on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet-B radiation were investigated to elucidate the regulation mechanism of REEs on plants under UV-B radiation. UV-B radiation led to the inhibition in the activities of the key enzymes (nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase) in the nitrogen assimilation, the decrease in the contents of nitrate and soluble proteins, as well as the increase in the content of amino acid in soybean seedlings. The change degree of UV-B radiation at the high level (0.45 W m(-2)) was higher than that of UV-B radiation at the low level (0.15 W m(-2)). The pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) La(III) could alleviate the effects of UV-B radiation on the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, promoting amino acid conversion and protein synthesis in soybean seedlings. The regulation effect of La(III) under UV-B radiation at the low level was better than that of UV-B radiation at the high level. The results indicated that the pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) La(III) could alleviate the inhibition of UV-B radiation on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedlings.

  17. Synthesis, structural, optical and Raman studies of pure and lanthanum doped ZnSe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pushpendra, E-mail: push.nac@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Singh, Jai [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Pandey, Mukesh Kumar [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Jeyanthi, C.E. [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Siddheswaran, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Paulraj, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physical sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Casilla 160, Concepcion (Chile); Hui, K.N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Template-free synthesis of ZnSe and ZnSe:La nanoparticles was developed at low temperature 100 °C. • Cubic ZnSe and ZnSe:La nanoparticles were obtained by chemical route. • As-synthesized ZnSe:La nanoparticles showed higher emission intensity than ZnSe nanoparticles. • Band gap (E{sub g}) of ZnSe nanoparticles was bigger than ZnSe nanoparticles due to nanosized effect. - Abstract: In this work, a simple, effective and reproducible chemical synthetic route for the production of high-quality, pure ZnSe nanoparticles (NPs), and lanthanum-doped ZnSe (ZnSe:La) NPs is presented. The wide bandgap, luminescent pure ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs has been synthesized at a low temperature (100 °C) in a single template-free step. The size and optical bandgap of the NPs was analyzed from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission across the visible spectrum has been demonstrated by a systematic blue-shift in emission due to the formation of small nanoparticles. Here, contribution to emission intensity from surface states of NPs increases with La doping. TEM data revealed that the average size of ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs is 14 and 8 nm, respectively. On the other hand, band gap energy E{sub g} of ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs were found to be 3.59 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively. Results showed that hydrazine hydrate played multiple roles in the formation of ZnSe and ZnSe:La NPs. A possible reaction mechanism for the growth of NPs is also discussed.

  18. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO_3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billah, Masum; Ahmed, A.; Rahman, Md. Miftaur; Mahbub, Rubbayat; Gafur, M. A.; Bashar, M. Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La_2O_3) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO_3) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO_3 with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La_2O_3 under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La_2O_3 nano powder of ~80 nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO_3 nano powder of 100 nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO_3 ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La_2O_3) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La_2O_3 with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La"3"+ concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO_3 ceramics.

  19. Lanthanum and cerium co-modified Ni/SiO2 catalyst for CO methanation from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dandan; Li, Shuangshuang; Guo, Shaoxia; Tang, Honggui; Wang, Hong; Liu, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Sintering of active metal nanoparticles (NPs) and carbon deposition is critical problems for many metal catalysts, such as nickel based catalysts for generating methane from syngas. To improve the resistance to the sintering and carbon deposition, a new scheme was proposed in this work. Lanthanum and cerium co-modified Ni/SiO2 catalysts were synthesized by using perovskite type oxide of La1-xCexNiO3 loaded on SiO2 as the precursor. In a nanocrystallite of La1-xCexNiO3, ions of nickel, lanthanum and cerium are evenly mixed at atomic level and confined in the nanocrystallite, therefore, Ni NPs and the two promoters of La2O3 and CeO2 should be in close contact and highly dispersed on SiO2 after reduction. The catalysts were characterized by using XRD, TEM, BET, H2-TPD, XPS, TG and Raman techniques. Compared with the mono-promoted catalysts, the bi-promoted La0.75Ce0.25NiO3/SiO2 showed much better resistance to carbon deposition, higher resistance to sintering and higher activity for CO methanation, which are attributed to co-eliminating effect of the two promoters for the deposited carbon, confinement of the interacted two promoters for Ni NPs and the higher dispersion of Ni NPs derived from the smaller size of La0.75Ce0.25NiO3.

  20. Study of the Effect on Ionic Conductivity and Structral Morphology of the SR Doped Lanthanum Gallate Solid Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Kapil; Singh, K.; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, lanthanum gallate and Sr-doped lanthanum gallate samples were prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The phase conformation has been performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The elemental composition has been confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Ac conductivity of the samples has been measured in the frequency range 0.1-106 Hz and from 50-800 °C. The impedance plots among real and complex impedances at particular temperature have been discussed. The behavior shows the effect of bulk and grain boundary effects of the doped sample. The impedance plots with frequency have been analyzed. The plots have been well fitted to equivalent circuit model. The conductivity shows the Arrhenius type of behavior. The activation energy has been calculated from the plots and represents that the conductivity through the material is mainly ionic. The structural morphology of the samples has been investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The micrograph shows that the porosity and grain size both decreases with Sr-doping.